Attitudes to Genetic Engineering

Japanese and International Comparisons

Darryl R. J. Macer, Ph.D. Eubios Ethics Institute 1992


Copyright 1992, Darryl R. J. Macer. All commercial rights reserved. This publication may be reproduced for limited educational or academic use, however please enquire with the author.

12. Index


After checking the topic find the appropriate chapters of the book:

Preface vii-viii
1. Bioethics and Biotechnology 1-9
2. Samples and Method 10-18
3. Perceptions of Science and Technology 19-38
4. Genetic Manipulation 39-81
5. Economic Issues 82-93
6. Consumption of Products made from GMOs 94-109
7. Genetic Screening and Gene Therapy 110-124
8. Public, Scientists, and Education 125-150
9. Conclusions and Recommendations 150-158
10. Questionnaire 155-158
11. Bibliography 159-162


Abortion 118, 119
Academic freedom 5
Agency for the Environment 36, 136, 137, 140
Agriculture 54-56, 78, 80, 85
AIDS 54
American Medical Association 113
Amniocentesis 116
Animal Rights 7, 43, 70, 105, 126, 152, 154
Australia 34, 36, 82, 133, 141
Autonomy 4, 6, 111, 113, 154
Ayu 107
Bacillus thuriengensis 80
Beer 96
Beneficence 5
Benefit/risk 6, 34, 72, 150, 152, 154
BIDEC 2
Biobusiness 136
Bioethics , 43, 46, 63, 66, 126, 143-147, 152, 153
Biohazard 67, 68
Biological pest control 24, 27, 30, 34
Biopesticide 81
Biotechnology 9, 126
Awareness 23
Benefits 29, 30, 37, 62, 81
Business 2, 82, 92
Concern 30, 37, 62, 132, 137, 138, 149, 153
Japan 1-3
Regulation 134-141
Research funding 82
Risks 30
Biowarfare 45, 47, 48, 64, 66
Bread 96
Breast cancer 111, 114
Britain 22, 25, 36, 38, 62, 82, 84, 89, 95, 115, 128, 132, 133, 134, 137, 141, 149
BST 96
Burakumin 119
Bureaucracy 125, 136
Calgene 96
Canada 140, 141
Cancer 54, 59
Carcinogens 95
Cell culture 97
China 22, 36, 38, 122, 128
Chorion villi sampling 116
Cloning 45, 47, 64, 66
Communication 126, 147-149
Company 128, 144
Confidentiality 7
Consanguinity 121
Conservation 58, 85
Constitution 4
Costa Rica 85
Curriculum 142-147, 152
Danger 45, 50, 65, 67
Decision-making 3, 8-9, 127
Deformities 47, 48, 65, 66
Democracy 125
Denmark 38
Dentsu 22, 24, 29, 60, 83, 107
Developing countries 87, 90
Discrimination 118
DNA 114
DNA fingerprints 115
Do no harm 5-6
Down's syndrome 123
Ecology 45, 47, 67, 68, 103
Economics 2, 55, 57, 60, 67, 68, 82, 92, 103, 104
Ecosystem 45
Education 9, 125, 142-149, 152
Endangered species 58
England 82 (see Britain)
Environment 45, 47, 57, 62, 67, 68, 83-85, 103, 104, 125, 135, 143, 153
Environmental Ethics 8
Erythropoietin 88
Ethics 5, 130
Eugenics 3, 45, 47, 48, 50, 64, 66, 69
Eurobarometer 37, 132
Europe 34, 37, 62, 81, 95, 115, 119, 132, 134, 140
European Parliament 115, 140
European Patent Convention 87
European Patent Office 87
Family register book 119
FAO 90, 109
FBI 115
FDA 94, 96, 109, 141
Fermentation 83, 96
Fibre optics 24, 30
Food 55-56, 60, 94-109
Food safety 94-97, 100, 102, 141, 151, 154
Forestry 97
France 38, 62, 82, 84, 89, 115, 122, 134
Fructose corn syrup 86
Fukui 115
GEMs 140, 151
Gene therapy 111, 122-124, 141, 152
Gene banks 85
Genetic disease 54, 56, 59, 115, 119
Genetic Engineering
Acceptability 41-51
Awareness 23, 39-40
Benefits 31, 51-62, 86, 96, 151, 153
Concern 31, 34, 50, 52, 62-81, 97-108, 131, 132, 138, 149, 151
Japan 1-3, 75, 81
Public opinion 3
Regulation 136-141
Risks 52, 62-81
safety 76
Genetic information 7
Genetic manipulation (See Genetic engineering)
Genetic register 115
Genetic screening 114, 151, 153
Genetic testing 120, 151
Germany 38, 62, 82, 84, 134, 136
GMO 2, 36, 62, 68, 71, 77, 78, 94-109
Release 77-81, 136-141, 151
God 8, 43, 46, 48, 64, 66, 75
Government 125, 128, 133, 135
Green movement 125
Herbicide tolerance 85
Hippocratic Oath 6, 110, 113
Human Genome Project 89, 115
Human growth hormone 88
Human health 46
Human rights 4, 63, 154
Humanity 44, 46, 65, 67
Huntington's disease 120
In vitro fertilisation 24, 27, 29, 31, 33, 111, 117, 145
Industry 57, 58, 60, 68, 82, 83, 125, 133, 134, 135
Informed consent 112, 113
Insulin 94
Italy 38, 62, 134
Japan (throughout text)
JBA 2, 71, 137, 138
Justice 6, 113, 154
Kanamycin 96
Kanebo Pharmaceuticals 86
Kirin Breweries Ltd. 88
Kiwifruit 94
Law 5, 154
Lloyds 141
MAFF 85, 140
Media 69, 71, 128, 147-149, 152, 154
Medical ethics 110-114
Medical malpractice 5
Medicine 54, 56, 57, 58, 94, 98
Medicines 95, 97
Merck & Co. 85
Mexico 86
Milk 86
Minamata disease 36
Ministry of Education 115, 140
Ministry of Health and Welfare 2, 109, 141
MITI 2, 138, 140
Mitsui Petrochemical Industries 86
National health insurance 116, 117, 120
Nature 8, 44, 46, 64, 66, 80, 101, 102, 105, 153
Netherlands 38, 82, 108, 149
New Zealand 20-37, 40-49, 51-60, 62-73, 81, 82, 88, 90-93, 97-108, 127, 129-134, 137, 140, 142-145, 147, 151, 152, 153
Newspapers 21
Newton 25, 107, 108, 132
NHK 147
NIH 75, 89, 136
Nikkei 22, 25, 29, 36, 60, 74, 76, 107, 131, 148
Non-response 12
Nonmaleficence 6
Nuclear energy 37
OECD 82, 85, 109, 125
Oncomouse 87, 88
Osaka Bioscience Institute 75
OTA 19, 25, 41, 71, 77, 81, 82, 83, 87, 115, 117, 121, 123, 128
Pakistan 86
Patents 87-92, 154
Public opinion 87, 90-92, 152
Paternalism 111, 125
Patient rights 125
Pesticides 24, 25, 31, 34, 62, 77, 78, 80, 95
Pharmaceuticals 86
Plant variety rights 89, 92
Pollution 3, 34, 62, 78
Polycystic kidney disease 120
Potato 95
Preimplantation diagnosis 117
Prenatal diagnosis 111, 116
Prenatal genetic screening 116-120
Presymptomatic screening 116, 120
Prime Minister's Office 19, 25, 33, 36, 37, 49, 59, 70, 80, 107, 111, 112, 118, 123, 124, 126, 134, 149
Privacy 7, 15, 115, 119
Product Safety 128, 130, 131, 141, 151
Public opinion 131, 132, 141, 153
Public participation 76, 131, 132, 134, 135, 139, 151, 153
Public trust 128
Public understanding 134, 142-149, 150
Quality of life 37
Questionnaire Design 11-12
Rabies 81
RAC 141
Recombinant DNA 109, 136, 141
Regulation 46
Regulations 44, 65, 108
Religion 75, 126, 148
Response rate 13-14
Retroviruses 76
Rights 4 (see human rights)
RIKEN 75-76
Risk 71
Saccharomyces cerevisiae 95
Sample Characteristics 15-18
Sample error 14
Sample Response 12-15
Sample Selection 10-11
Sampling 10, 13
Science and Technology
Awareness 23, 150, 152
Benefit/risk 34, 150
Benefits 38, 54, 60, 150
Concern 29-38, 131, 150, 153
Interest 19-23, 150
Magazines 20
Perceptions 19-38
Regulation 131
Risks 23, 29-38, 131
Science funding 133, 151
Science policy 125, 126, 131-132, 133
Science regulation 131, 141, 151
Scientists 126, 128, 135, 143 (see throughout text)
Seeds and Seedlings Law 88
Sex selection 120
Shikonin 86
Shinjuku 76
Showa Denko 94
Silicon chips 24, 27, 30
Slippery slope 66
South Korea 115
Soyabean 95
STA 2, 85, 138, 140
Superconductors 24, 26, 31
Sustainability 4, 9
Teachers (throughout text)
Technology transfer 86
Television 21
Tokyo Institute of Technology 146
Tomato 96
Toxins 95
Tryptophan 94
Tsukuba Science City 36, 75
Tsukuba University (throughout text)
U.N. Declaration of Human Rights 4, 87
University of the Air 147
UPOV Convention 89
USA 19, 25, 34, 36, 38, 41, 71, 75, 77, 78, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 109, 114, 115, 117-122, 125, 128, 130, 131, 136, 137, 140, 141, 149, 152
Utilitarianism 8
Waseda University 146
WHO 109
Yeast 95
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