Global Bioethics: East and West, South and North

PROGRAM AND INFORMATION Fourth World Congress of Bioethics (IAB4)

This meeting was organised by the International Association of Bioethics (IAB), in conjunction with the Asian Bioethics Association Third Conference (ABA3) from 4-7 November, 1998, at Nihon University Hall, Ichigaya, Tokyo, Japan. The abstracts are in a separate file. IAB4 was preceded by the Fourth International Tsukuba Bioethics Roundtable (TRT4) and FAB2 (abstracts also on-line) at Tsukuba Science City from 31 October - 3 November.
The abstract file is on-line at: <http://eubios.info/IAB4.html> Sponsors
IAB4 was supported by The Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Commemorative Association for The Japan World Exposition (1970), The Japan Foundation, Tokyo Club, The Ford Foundation, Eubios Ethics Institute, among others. The Coorporating Scientific Associations included the All India Bioethics Association (AIBA),Center for Applied Ethics of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Chinese Association of Medical Ethics, Chinese Society for Philosophy of Nature, Science and Technology, CIOMS, Eubios Ethics Institute, Euroscreen., European Association of Centres of Medical Ethics (EACME), Euroscreen, HUGO Ethics, Foundation for Genetic Medicine, International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) Bioethics Programme, Japan Association of Bioethics, Korean Association of Bioethics, Swiss Re Insurance, UNESCO IBC, WHO SEARO.

Local Organizing Committee
Chairperson: Hyakudai Sakamoto
Vice-chairperson: Takashi Fujimoto, Darryl Macer
Honorary chairpersons: Michio Okamoto, Yoshio Sezai
Advisors: Ichirou Kato, Hiroshi Kida, Kotaro Higuchi, Shigeaki Hinohara, Wataru Mori
Committee members: Kiyoshi Aoki, Akira Akabayashi, Kazuhiko Atsumi, Kouichi Emi, Norio Fujiki, Nobuyuki Iida, Tomonobu Imamichi, Takemochi Ishi, Kouichi Kasamatsu, Kenzo Kiikuni, Kiyotaka Kimura, Rihito Kimura, Toshio Kuroda, Misako Kojima, Hiroko Minami, Noboru Miyata, Masami Muramatsu, Ikufumi Niimi, Sin Numata, Gen Ohi, Kenchi Ono, Hiromoto Sasaki, Setsuko Sato, Miyako Takagi, Fumimaro Takaku, Toshiaki Takasu, Nobuhiko Takase, Masayoshi Tarui, Kazuo Takeuchi, Hiraku Takebe, Sinya Tsuru, Mitsukuni Yasaki, Takao Yamada, Takeshi Yourou.

IAB Scientific Advisory Committee
Alastair Campbell, Alex Capron, Ruth Chadwick, Takashi Fujimoto, Raanan Gillon, Soren Holm, Helga Kuhse, Darryl Macer, Ruth Macklin, Emilio Mordini, Renzong Qiu, Hyakudai Sakamoto, Sang-yong Song, Hans Van Delden, Daniel Wikler

IAB4 Secretariat Office:
Dept. Philosophy, Nihon University,
3-25-40 Sakurajosui, Setagaya-ku,
Tokyo 156-8550, JAPAN
Fax/Tel: Int+81-3-3329-3220
Email: kasamatu@chs.nihon-u.ac.jp


Fourth World Congress on Bioethics Overview

31 Oct - 3 Nov, Satellites at TRT4 and FAB2 in Tsukuba 3 Nov, Summit of National Bioethics Commissions in Tokyo
Nov
9:00-10:40
11:00-12:40
Lunch
14:00-15:40
16:00-17:40
Dusk
Evening
4Opening
Global Bioethics: What do we hope for?
Foundations of Global Bioethics FreeA. Ethics, Economics, & Equity of Health (1)
B. Foundations of Bioethics
C. Clinical Trials & Drug Manufacturing
D. Summit Meeting
A. Genetic Therapy & Genome Research
B. Ethics, Economics, & Equity of Health (2)
C. Medical administration & policy
D. Summit Meeting
Welcome
Reception (18:00-20:30)
5Foundations & Principles of Bioethics: Coherence or Confusion? A. The International Organ Trade
B. Feminist Bioethics
C. Mental Health & Psychiatry
D. Universality of Law & Human Rights
E. Biotechnology & its Commercialisation
IAB
Network Meetings
A. Organ transplants, Xeno-transplants & Artifical Organs (1)
B. Medical Errors & Medical Law
C. C. Ethics, Economics, & Equity of Health (3)
D. Reproduction (1)
A. Reproduction (2)
B. Individual v. Community in Global Bioethics
C. Organ transplants, Xeno-transplants & Artifical Organs (2)
D. Patient Hopes
ABA3 General Meeting
(17:50-19:00)
Dinner boxes served
Public Forum on Bioethics of Cloning
(19:00-21:00)
6Bioethics in Asia: Geographical or Ideological? A. Euthanasia
B. Animals & Bioethics C. Chinese & East Asian Bioethics
D. Bioethics in South and South-East Asia
E. Limits of Genetics (1)
IAB Network MeetingsA.Environmental ethics, Food & Population (1)
B. Limits of Genetics (2)
C. Terminal Care and Ageing
D. European Bioethics Research (1)
A. Nursing Ethics (1)
B. Eugenics, Artificial Evolution & Artificial Life
C. Environmental ethics, Food & Population (2)
D. Bioethical Discourse & Religions
IAB General Meeting
(17:50-19:00)
Dinner boxes served
Public Forum on Bioethics of Environment & Population Control
(19:00-21:00)
7A. Brain Death (1)
B. European Bioethics Research (2)
C. Bioethics, Ethos and History
D. Genetic Tests, Information & Insurance (1)
A. Genetic Tests, Information & Insurance (2)
B. Brain Death (2)
C. Nursing Ethics (2)
D. Corruption & Honesty
E. AIDS and Bioethics (1)
FreeA. Bioethics of Advanced Medicine
B. AIDS and Bioethics (2)
C. Bioethics Education
D. Terminal Care and Quality of Life
E. Brain Death (3)
Closing Forum:
Is Global Bioethics Possible?
Farewell Party (18:10-20:00)
8 Nov. sightseeing excursions,

Notes: In Hall A there was simultaneous interpretation in Japanese and English (and in Summit meeting); All other sessions presentations made in English; Hall A=Main hall. All sessions 4-7 November in Nihon University, Ichigaya, Tokyo (as is Summit meeting by invitation).


Program

9:10-10:40 4 November
Opening
Global Bioethics: What do we hope for?
(Chair: Takashi Fujimoto, Darryl Macer)
Yukiyasu Sezai, President, Nihon University, Japan - Welcome Address
Hans van Ginkel, Rector, UNU, Japan - Welcome Address
Michio Okamoto, Senior Adviser of International Institute for Advanced Studies, Japan - Welcome Address
Alastair Campbell (IAB) - Global bioethics - dream or nightmare?
Hyakudai Sakamoto (ABA) - Towards a new "global bioethics"


10:50-12:30 4 November
Foundations of Global Bioethics
(Chair: Eric Meslin, Kanji Fujiki)
Jean-Pierre Changeux, France - Bioethics at the world scale
Harold Shapiro, USA - Title to come
Hiroo Imura, Japan - Title to come
Tom Beauchamp, USA - Foundations of Global Bioethics
Wendy Orr, Truth and Reconciliation Commission, South Africa - Medical Ethics and Human Rights in South Africa
14:00-15:40 4 November Parallel Sessions
A. Ethics, Economics and Equity of Health (1) (cosponsored by International Society for Equity and Health)
(Chair: Daniel Wikler, Barbara Starfield)
Dan Brock, Brown University, USA - Quantitative Models for Prioritization of Health Interventions and Discrimination Against the Disabled
Juan-Carlos Tealdi, Argentina - International Society for Equity and Health
Barbara Starfield, Johns Hopkins University Medical School, USA - International Society for Equity and Health
Jose Paganini, Argentina, former President, Pan American Medical Association - International Society for Equity and Health
Jack Bryant, CIOMS - Title to come

B. Foundations of Bioethics
(Chair: Ranaan Gillon, Tom Beauchamp)
Darryl Macer, Eubios Ethics Institute, Japan - Bioethics is Love of Life
William P. Shantz, Canada - An Alternative paradigm for medical ethics
Jonathan Chan, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong - The possibility of dialogue on bioethics between different traditions - a methodological reflection
Daniel Fu-chang Tsai, University of Manchester and National Taiwan University Hospital - Ancient Chinese medical ethics and the four principles of biomedical ethics
Sunil K. Pandya, Jaslok Hospital & Research Centre, India - History of medical ethics in India

C. Clinical Trials and Drug Manufacturing
(Chair: Fumimaru Takaku, Ann Lewis Boyd)
Soren Holm, University of Copenhagen, Denmark - Research ethics in the 21st century - where to go after informed consent
Richard Ashcroft, Univ. of Bristol, UK - Equipoise, knowledge and ethics in clinical research and practice
Christian Munthe, Goteborg University, Sweden - Informed consent and quality of available information
Emilio Mordini, Psychoanalytic Institute for Social Research, Italy - Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues in Research on New Vaccines and Vaccination Policies: A European Perspective
Nikola Biller, University of Goettingen, Germany - Just a placebo? Changing attitudes towards the placebo effect in Western Medicine
Mark G. Brennan, University of Bristol, UK - Sleeping with doctors: a philosophical examination of the rites of passage and social mores of clinical ethicists

D. Summit of National Bioethics Commissions


16:00-17:40 4 November Parallel Sessions
A. Genetic Therapy & Genome Research
(Chair: Norio Fujiki, Darren Shickle)
Erin D. Williams, Leslie A. Platt, & Stephen J. McCormack, Foundation for Genetic Medicine, USA - Generally Accepted Principles, Protocols and Practices: A New Construct for Genetic Medicine
Keith Joseph, St. Vincent's Hospital, Australia - Chaos, genetic engineering and the precautionary principle
Soren Holm, University of Copenhagen, Denmark - Informed consent to genetic experimentation - problems and pitfalls
Kaori Muto Yamamoto, Health Care Institute, Tokyo, Japan - Knowledge and attitude of families with Huntington's disease and their physicians in Japan
Miyako Okada-Takagi, Toyoko Gakuen Women's College, Tokyo, Japan - Japanese Situation in Gene Therapy
Vladimir I. Ivanov, Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russia - Ethical and legal aspects of genetic research and service in Russia

B. Ethics, Economics and Equity of Health (2)
(Chair: Dan Brock, Juan-Carlos Tealdi)
Sarah Marchand, Daniel Wikler, Bruce Landesman, USA - Class, Health, and Justice
Paul Menzel, Pacific Lutheran University, USA - The Inclusion of Societal Values in the Measurement of Health Care Cost-Effectiveness
Leo Pessini, Brazil - Bioethics in Latin America
Bela Blasszauer, Medical University of Pecs, Hungary - Are Medical Universities Promoting a Humane Health Care System?
Fabienne Peter, Harvard University, USA - Equity and health
G. Berlinguer, Senate, Italy - Work, Health and Ethics

C. Medical and Pharmaceutical Administration and Policy
(Chair: Koichi Emi, Sue Sherwin)
Frank Leavitt, Israel - Ethics in Pediatric Research
Billy F. Andrews, Louisville School of Medicine, USA - The rights of children to informed consent//Key principles in making ethical decisions in pediatrics
Leonardo D. de Castro,University of the Philippines - A Survey Of Pediatricians' Attitudes Towards Severely Deformed Neonates
Zelina Ben-Gershon and Bracha Rager, Ministry of Health, Israel - A law on privacy of DNA information and cloning
Kiran Prasad, University of Wisconsin, USA - Medical records and privacy in an electronic age
Egbert Schroten, Utrecht University, The Netherlands - Biotechnology, Ethics and Public Policy: The Dutch Solution in Global Perspective
D. Summit of National Bioethics Commissions
9:10-10:40 5 November
Foundations and Principles of Bioethics: Coherence or Confusion?
(Chairs: Peter Singer, Naoki Kamo)
Robert Veatch, USA - Foundations of Bioethics
Susan Sherwin, Canada - Foundations, Methods, Lenses: The Role of Theories in Bioethics
H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr., Baylor College of Medicine/Rice University, USA and Allyne L. Smith, Jr., University of Osteopathic Medicine and Health Sciences, USA - Beyond a Global Bioethics: Taking Moral Diversity Seriously
Raanan Gillon, UK - 'The Georgetown mantra' and global bioethics- steering a path between ethical imperialism and ethical relativism
10:50-12:30 5 November Parallel Sessions
A. International Organ Trade
(Chairs: David Rothman, Tsuyoshi Awaya)
David J. Rothman and Sheila M. Rothman, Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, USA - An Overview of the Bellagio Report on Transplantation, Bodily Integrity and the International Traffic in Organs
Nancy Scheper-Hughes, University of California - Berkeley, USA - Transplantation and Bodily Integrity: A Report on Current Practices in Brazil and South Africa
Lawrence Cohen, University of California - Berkeley, USA - Transplantation and Bodily Integrity: A Report on Current Practices in India.

B. Feminist Bioethics
(Chairs: Gwen Anderson, Anne Donchin)
Sue Sherwin, Dalhousie University, Canada - The role of gender, race, and culture in autonomy discussions
Françoise Baylis, Dalhousie University, Canada - Pregnant women and substance abuse: A recent supreme court of Canada decision
Zhu Wei, Shanghai Medical University, China - A dilemma on women's autonomy in reproduction
Sandra Eagle, University of Virginia, USA - Whitner v. South Carolina: Maternal vs. Fetal Rights in United States' State and Federal Law on Gender Identity Disorder in Japan
Sahip Pelin, University of Ankara, Turkey - Feminist Approaches in Medical Ethics
Hajime Mizoguchi, Rissho University, Japan - Bioethical Aspects

C. Mental Health and Psychiatry
(Chairs: Sandro Gindro)
Ming-Jen Yang et al., Chang Gung University, Taiwan - Ethical issues in routine psychiatric practice in Taiwan: from the perspective of medical students
Simo Vehmas, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland - Is it Wrong to Deliberately Conceive or Give Birth to a Child With Mental Retardation?
Chirita Vasille and Roxana Chirita, University Psychiatric Hospital "Socola", Romania - Ethical issues in Psychatric Care: A Romanian View
* Roxana Chirita and Chirita Vasille, University Psychiatric Hospital "Socola", Romania - Moral issues of suicide in Romania
Zbigniew Szawarski, University of Wales, Swansea, UK - Wisdom and the Art of Healing

D. Universality of Human Rights and Concept of Person
(Chairs: Takao Yamada, Sato)
Bethany Spielman, Southern Illinois University, USA - US Courts and bioethics opinions: Committees, counsels and expert witnesses
Arthur Zitrin, New York University Medical Center, USA - Ethics and death penalty in USA
Bernadette Tobin, Plunkett Centre for Ethics in Health Care, Australia - The concept of human dignity in the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights
Robert B Leflar, University of Arkansas School of Law, USA - The Development of Patients' Rights in Japan As Seen Through American Eyes
Wolfgang Goetze-Claren, University of Munich, Germany - The European human rights agreement in biomedicine
Derek Morgan, University of Wales, Cardiff, UK - Where Do I Own My Body?
Naomi Gale, Bar-Ilan University, Israel - Human Rights and Battered Women

C. Biotechnology and its Commercialization
(Chairs: Miyako Okada-Takagi, Grahame Bulfield)
Darren Shickle, University of Sheffield, UK - Are Genetic Enhancements really Enhancements
Godfrey Tangwa, University of Yaounde, Cameroon - Globalisation Or Westernisation? Ethical Concerns in the Whole Bio-Business
Peter Whittaker, National University of Ireland, Ireland - Genetically Engineered Crops - to Grow or not to Grow
Donald M.Bruce, Society, Religion and Technology Project, Church of Scotland - Who is Rubbing the Genie's Lamp? - What Recent Developments in Biotechnology Patenting and Genetically Modified Food tell us about Public Policy and Accountability
Shinichi Shoji & Katsuko Kamiya, Japan - Differences in attitudes of medical and non-medical students towards use of advanced medical technology
Osamu Kanamori, Japan - Philosophy of technology and bioethics
Thijs Visser & Henk Verhoog, Leiden University, Netherlands - Genetic Engineering and the Moral Relevance of Naturality


14:00-15:40 5 November Parallel Sessions
A. Organ Transplants, Xenotransplants and Artificial Organs (1)
(Chairs: Kazuhiko Atsumi, )
Kazuhiko Atsumi, Tokyo, Japan - Consideration on bioethics in the research and application of artificial organs
Bethany Spielman, Southern Illinois University, USA - Non-Heat-Beating Cadaver Organ Procurement in the U.S.: A Controversial Practice in Search of a Legal Home
Julian Savulescu, Murdoch Institute Rsym Childrens Hospital, Australia - Cloning as a Source of Human Tissue for Transplantation
Wolfgang Goetze-Claren, Dusseldorf, Germany - Organ transplants and alternatives (Title?)
Tsuyoshi Awaya, Tokuyama University, Japan - The Human Body as a New Commodity
Eroun Ozsunay, University of Istanbul, Turkey - Organ transplants in Turkey

B. Medical Errors and Medical Law
(Chairs: Sunil Pandya, )
T. A. Cavanaugh, Univ. San Francisco, USA - Error, Responsibility, Forgiveness, and Compensation
Yutaka Tejima, Tsukuba, Japan - Patient rights in Japan: Is it time for a new medical compensation system?
Tamayo Okamoto, Hiroshima prefectural College, Japan - Informed consent for allied health professionals
Tanida Noritoshi, Japan - Influence of Truth Disclosure on Quality of Life in Cancer Patients
Un Jung Pak, Ewha Womans University, Korea - Bioethics and Legislative Policy
Yasushi Tsukamoto, Kantoh Central Hospital, Japan - Refusal of blood transfusion on religious grounds. A Surgeon's View on how far patient's autonomy shall be respected.

C. Ethics, Economics and Equity of Health (3)
(Chair: Daniel Wikler, Leo Pessini)
James Dwyer, USA - Patients without borders
Jozef Glasa, J. Bielik, J. Dacok, M. Mojzesova, J. Porubsky, A. Stefko - Institute Medical Ethics, Slovakia - Bioethics in the Period of Transition - An Experience from Central European Country (Slovakia)
Frank J. Leavitt, Israel - Can Medicine be Ethical if it is not Egalitarian?
Li Jining, Guangxi College, China - The proper and fair allocation of health resources
R.N. Sharma, Pune, India - Ecstasy and Ethics in Poverty - a romantic myth
*Eskter Kisnodi, Pecs, Hungary - Ombudsman in the Hungarian health care system

D. Reproduction (1)
(Chairs: R. Alta Charo,)
Shinryo Shinagawa, Hirosaki, Japan - Human Reproduction and Bioethics in Japan
Alison Brookes, Deakin University, Australia - Routine prenatal ultrasound: making sure everything is 'all right'
Sjef Gevers, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands - Late Abortion In Case Of Severe Fetal Abnormalities
Zhang Kaitai, Cao Kaibin, China - The influence and prevention of medical irradiation to the sexual gland of children and youth of childbearing age - pre-life medical ethics
Jing-Bao Nie, University of Texas Galveston, USA - The silence of Chinese people on abortion: Its socio-cultural and personal meanings
Lourdesita Sobrevega-Chan & Rosena D. Sanchez, Ateneo-Social Research Office, The Philippines - Ethical Issues that Emerged in the Study on Abortion and Reproductive Health Among Filipino Women


16:00-17:40 5 November Parallel Sessions
A. Reproduction (2)
(Chair: Shinryo Shinagawa, Peggy Battin)
Ken Daniels, University of Canterbury, New Zealand - To give or to sell human gametes - the interplay between ethics, policy and pragmatics
Minakshi and Jayapaul Azariah, India - Cloning: Paradox, Paradigm and Ethics in Indian Society

David M. Kaplan, University of Toronto, Canada - The Impact Of The Legal Abortion Controversy On North American Human Embryo Research Policy
R. Alta Charo, University of Wisconsin, USA - The Sacred Cell - The Argument From Potentiality In The Era Of Cloning
A.K. Tharien, India - Human cloning from an Indian viewpoint
Adnan Hyder, South Asia Net - Ethics of cloning: a South Asian perspective

B. Individual v. Community in Global Bioethics
(Chairs: Mitsukuni Yazaki, Nobuhiko Takase)
Derek Morgan, University of Wales, Cardiff, UK - What Does Biomedical Diplomacy Mean? Law, ethics, risk and the regulation of modern medicine
Deborah Diniz, Brasilia University, Brazil - Principialist Theory and Cross-Culturalism on Bioethics: the Brazilian case
Robert Baker, Union College, USA - A Theory of International Bioethics
T. A. Cavanaugh, Univ. San Francisco, USA - Female and Infant Male Circumcision: Is There an Ethical Difference?
Naoko T. Miyaji, Kinki University School of Medicine, Japan - Bioethics, Culture and the Images of "America"
Chee Khoon Chan, Universiti Sains Malaysia - Malaysian Healthcare in Transition: Re-negotiating the Social Contract

C. Organ transplants, xenotransplants and artificial organs (2)
(Chairs: Stellan Welin,)
Stellan Welin, Goteborg University, Sweden - Clinical Trials of Xenotransplantation: Some Ethical Issues
Anders Persson, Goteborg University, Sweden - Xenotransplantation
Mairi Levitt, University of Central Lancashire, UK & Darryl Macer, Japan - Young people's views on xenotransplantation
Anbu Krishnika and Jayapaul Azariah, India - Contemporary ethical and social perception among the educated community of Tamil Nadu on Organ Transplantation
Sung-Suk Han, Catholic University Nursing College, Korea - A study of the current ethical situation in organ transplantation in Korea
Octavi Quintana, European Commission - Opinion of The Group of Advisers on the Ethical Implications Of Biotechnology To The European Commission on Human Tissue Banks

D. Patient Hopes
(Chairs: William Ruddick, Noritoshi Tanida)
William Ruddick, New York University, USA - Hope and Deception
Toni Suzuki Laidlaw & Sue Sherwin, Dalhousie University, Canada - Metaphors for medical interactions: Some ethical implications
Bengt Brylde, Goteborg University, Sweden - Relief of Suffering as a Goal of Medicine
Tom Buller, University of Alaska, USA - Subjective Values, Objective Good, and Incompetent Patients
Renzong Qiu, China - Dying in Peace


19:00-21:00 5 November
Public Forum on Bioethics and Cloning
(Chair: Muramatsu, Sorem Holm)
Grahame Bulfield, Director, Roslin Institute - Title to come
Donald M.Bruce, Society, Religion and Technology Project, Church of Scotland - Cloning and the Limits of Technology - A View from Edinburgh
Ruth Macklin, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, USA - Views on cloning from around the globe
R. Alta Charo, NBAC, USA - The NBAC Report: Politics, Process, And Proposals Octavi Quintana, European Commission - Opinion of The Group of Advisers on the Ethical Implications Of Biotechnology To The European Commission on Cloning
John Harris, University of Manchester, UK - Cloning and Human Rights
Boris Yudin, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia - Discussions on Human Cloning: Politicians and Scientists
Ruth Chadwick et al., HUGO Ethics - What should HUGO say about Human Cloning?

9:10-10:40 6 November
Geographical or Ideological Boundaries for Bioethics in Asia and Africa
(Chair: Frank Leavitt, Noboru Miyata)
Renzong Qiu, Academy of Social Sciences, China - Relational Concept of Personhood and Right Approach in Bioethics
Hasna Begum, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh - Global Bioethics: Not Conceptual, but Real
Gregg Bloche, Georgetown University, USA - International Human Rights and the Globalization of Bioethics
Rihito Kimura, Waseda University/Georgetown University, Japan - Bioethics and Bio-Cultural Diversity in Asia
R.R. Kishore, Ministry of Health and Welfare, India - Geographical or Ideological Boundaries for Bioethics in Asia and Africa
10:50-12:30 6 November Parallel Sessions
A. Euthanasia
(Chair: Van Delden,)
Helga Kuhse, Monash University, Australia - Public Policy and Medical End-of-life Decisions from Intention to Consent
Guomei Xiao, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, China - Euthanasia
John Griffiths, University of Groningen, Netherlands - Lessons from the Dutch Euthanasia Experience
Dan Brock, Brown University, USA - A Critique of Some common objections to Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia
V. Manickavel, College of Medical Sciences Bharatpur, Nepal - Death and Dignity
Cao Kai Bin, Shanghai Medical University, China - Suggestion on legislating euthanasia in Shanghai

B. Animals and Bioethics
(Chair: Peter Singer, )
Ingmar Persson, Lund University, Sweden - Harming the non-conscious
Peter Singer, Monash University, Australia - The Great Ape Project
S.Omer Sheriff & D.S. Sheriff, VMKV Medical College Salem, India - Animals in Biomedical research - can we justify all out experimentation?
M. Selvanayagam, LIFE, India - Experimental animals: Relevance and impact in institutions of higher education in India

C. Chinese and East Asian Bioethics (cosponsorred by Chinese Association for Medical Ethics)
(Chair: Renzong Qiu, Gen Ohi)
Takashi Tsuchiya, Osaka City University, Japan - How bioethics was introduced into Japan
Jinling Wang, Zhejiang Academy of Social Sciences, China - The Status of Women as Subjects In Maintaining and Promoting Their Own Health
Sun Muyi & Sun Liou, The Center for Applied Ethics of Nanjing Railway Medical College, China - Tao Culture, Christian Bioethics and Global Bioethics
Xiao Wei, China - Confucian Culture and Bioethics: Past and Today
Benfu Li, Beijing Medical University, China - The change of Chinese traditional values toward life
Guomei Xia, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences China - Prostitution: between humanity or commodity

D. Bioethics in South Asia (cosponsorred by WHO Regional Office for South East Asia)
(Chairs: South East Asian Health Ethics Network)
Jens Seeberg, WHO, SEARO and Reidar Lie, University of Bergen, Norway - Ethical dilemmas in clinical work: A research base for a teaching module for South- and South East Asia
Zaman Ara, Sir Salimullah Medical College Dhaka, Bangladesh - Ethics and resource allocation: A questionnaire study in the South East Asian Region
John Thomas, SEAHEN, India - Ethical issues in clinical practice: A qualitative study in Vellore, India
Zaman Ara, Sir Salimullah Medical College Dhaka, Bangladesh - Ethical issues in clinical practice in selected South/South-East Asian countries: A questionnaire study

Caroline Camu–as, Columbia University, USA - Development of a Code of Ethics in Viet Nam
Vasantha Muthuswamy, Secretary, ICMR, India - National bioethics guidelines in India

E. Limits of Genetics (1)
(Chairs: Eric Meslin, )
Jacob Dahl Rendtorff, University of Copenhagen, Denmark - The concept of genetic integrity
Darren Shickle, University of Sheffield, UK - Are Genetic Enhancements really Enhancements
Ray E. Spier, University of Surrey, UK - Is it time to begin to consider the ethical implications of future Hominid speciations?
Anbu Arivukkodi and Jayapaul Azariah, University of Madras, India - Gene Therapy: Positive but uncertainty in futuristic goals
Petra Gelhaus, Westfalische Wilhelms-University Munster, Germany - What is a gene? Theoretical and ethical considerations


14:00-15:40 6 November Parallel Sessions
A. Environment Ethics, Food and Population (1) (Joint with IALES)
(Chairs: Makoto Numata, Toshio Kuroda)
Jayapaul Azariah, President, All Indian Association of Bioethics - Environmental valuation, health and perception of nature
Ronald Nakasone, Graduate Theological Union, USA - Pratityasamutpada as a Framework of Ethical Deliberation
Sang-yong Song, Korea - The White, Jr. Thesis Revisited - The Judeo-Christian Concept of Nature
R.N. Sharma, National Chemical Laboratory, India - Alternative/Appropriate - Universal Ethics for the Human Species
Yunhui Park, President of KBA, Korea - Critique of Anthropocentric Ethics - Towards the Foundation of Ecocentric Ethics

B. Limits to Genetics
(Chairs: Ruth Chadwick, Ly-Yun Chang)
Robert Kneller, University of Tokyo, Japan - Japanese and US Approaches to Genetic Testing for Susceptibility to Adult-Onset Diseases
Matti Hayry, University of Helsinki, Finland - The unrestricted commercialisation of genetic testing: Are there specific ethical problems?
Tuija Lehto, University of Helsinki, Finland - Should access to genetic information be restricted?
Fumi Maekawa and Darryl Macer, University of Tsukuba, Japan - What Japanese Students Think the Limits of Genetics Should Be?
Norio Fujiki & K. Hashimoto, Gene Analysis Laboratory Tsuruga, Toyobo, Japan - Bioethics on Gene Diagnosis in a Commercial Laboratory

C. Terminal Care and Aging
(Chairs: Robert Veatch,)
Paul J Reitemeier, Ferris State University, USA - Results of the 1997 National Survey of U.S. Bioethicists on Physician Assisted Suicide
AbdulFadl Mohsin Ebrahim, University of Durbin-Westville, South Africa - The Living Will: An Islamic Ethico-Legal Perspective
Kamaljit Singh & S.Y. Tan, St. Francis Hospital University of Hawaii, USA - The Singapore advance medical directive: Observations on Asia's first living will
Michael D. Fetters, University of Michigan, USA - Medical decision making paradigms at the end-of-life: A comparison of Japanese and US physicians
Cong Yali, Beijing Medical University, China - Critical care ethics: China's perspective
Hans Van Delden - The concept of autonomy in the care for the elderly

D. European Bioethics Research (1) (cosponsored by EACME)
(Chair: Alastair Campbell, Richard Ashcroft)
Marian Verkerk, University of Groningen, The Netherlands - A care perspective on coercion and autonomy
Alastair Campbell, University of Bristol, UK - Rediscovering virtue in bioethics - report of a European project
Jan Bernheim, Vrije University Brussel, Belgium and M. Rose, Humboldt-University Berlin, Germany - To Maximise the Utility of Health Care Interventions, Subjective Quality of Life can be measured as Idosyncratic Anamnestic Comparatitive Self-Assessment, the Gestalt of an Individual Empiricial Emergent Construct
M. Rose, et al. Humboldt-University Berlin, Germany - Weighting Dimensions of Quality of Life by Global Anamnestic Comparatitive Self-Assessment to Meet the Ethical Imperative of Maximising the Utility of Health Care Interventions
Svend Andersen, Denmark - Bioethics: foundations and application - a Danish research project.


16:00-17:40 6 November Parallel Sessions
A. Nursing Ethics (1)
(Chair: Noriko Katata, Anne Davis)
Anne J. Davis and Takako Mitoh, Nagano College of Nursing, Japan - Ethical Dilemmas Faced by Clinical Nurses Caring for the Terminally Ill in the West and in Japan
Marie Vassallo, Australia (IAB Nursing Net) - Inadequacies of an ethic of care to nursing
Ivan Segota, University of Rijeka, Croatia - The First Code of Ethics of Croatian Nurses
Emiko Kohnishi, Nagano College of Nursing, Japan - International and Japanese Nurses Attitudes About Information Disclosure
Ayako Soyano, Nagano College of Nursing, Japan - Ethical issues at the patient's end of life: International nurses' and Japanese nurses' perceptions

B. Eugenics, Artificial Evolution and Artificial Life
(Chair: Takeshi Yohro, Qiu Renzong)
George P. Smith, Catholic University Law School, USA - Genetic enhancement technologies: programming a Brave or confused New World?
Demetrio Neri, University of Messina, Italy - What fuss about eugenics!
Petra Gelhaus, Westfalische Wilhelms-University Munster, Germany - What is a gene? Theoretical and ethical considerations
Ainsley Newson, Murdoch Institute Royal Children's Hospital, Australia - Ethical Issues in Genetics Research into Intelligence
Yanguang Wang, China - An Overview of Chinese "Eugenics" and its Values
Carlos M. Romeo-Casabona, BBV Foundation, Spain - Health and Eugenics Practices: Looking Towards the Future

C. Environment Ethics, Food and Population (2)
(Chairs: Jayapaul Azariah, Sang-yong Song)
Richard Weisburd, University of Tsukuba, Japan - The Role of Environment Ethics in Development Policy
K.K. Dua, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, India - Science, Ethics and the Environment
Jan Bernheim, Ruut Veenhoven and Francis Heylighen, Free University of Brussels, Belgium - Quality of life as the criterium of Global Progress : an empirical analysis, a contemporary evolutionary framework and a contribution to Global Bioethics.
Masahiko Sato, Tokyo, Japan - A Buddhist Perspective on Environment Ethics
*M.V. Subba Rao, Visakhapatnam, India - Bioethical studies of tribals in Vizianagaram District of Andra Predesh, South India

D. Global Bioethics Discourse and Religion
(Chair: Rihito Kimura, Alastair Campbell)
Ole Doering, Institute of Asian Affairs, Germany - Conceptual language of bioethics
Michael Tai, Chungshan Medical & Dental College, Taiwan - An Endeavour to a Culturally Relevant Bioethics for Asians
Leonardo de Castro, Univ. Philippines, Philippines - Asian Bioethics: A commitment to what is truly human
Jing-Bao Nie, University of Texas Galveston, USA - Toward an interpretative cross-cultural bioethics
Adnan Hyder, South Asia Net - Women's rights, abortion and Islam


19:00-21:00 6 November
Public Forum on Bioethics of Environment and Population Control
(Chairs: Toshio Kuroda, R. Alta Charo)
Peggy Battin, University of Utah, USA - Sex and Consequences: Global Population Growth vs. Reproductive Rights
Maurizio Mori, University of Pisa, Italy - Why not to give up the embryo-controversy for more serious questions on the morality of controlling human reproduction?
Gen Ohi, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan - Is environmental ethics for posterity for possible?
Jayapaul Azariah, President, All Indian Association of Bioethics - The Importance of our Water
Ness, Michigan State University, USA - Title to come
9:10-10:40 7 November Parallel Sessions
A. Brain Death (1) Symposium
(Chair: Daniel Wikler, Kazuo Takeuchi)
Panelists:
Alex Capron - Title to come
Peter Singer, Monash University, Australia - Brain death: an idea whose time has passed?
William Ruddick, New York University, USA - Brain-Death / Near-Death / Human Death
Kenichi Uemura - Title to come

B. European Bioethics Research (2)
(Chair: Emilio Mordini, Sandro Gindro)
Marian Verkerk, University of Groningen, The Netherlands - A care perspective on coercion and autonomy
Guy Widdershoven, University of Maastrict, Netherlands - A very easy death: Autnomoy versus care
Michael Parker, Imperial College London, UK - A Conversational Approach to Medical Ethics
George Agich, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, USA - Rehabilitating Autonomy: What Phenomenology Can Offer
Donna L. Dickenson, Imperial College London, UK - Cross-cultural issues in European bioethics

C. Bioethics, Ethos and History
(Chairs: Alastair Campbell, Renzong Qiu)
Robert Baker, Union College, USA - History and Methodology in Biomedical Ethics
Albert R. Jonsen, University of Washington School of Medicine, USA - Evaluation of the Birth of Bioethics
Zhang Daqing, Center for History of Medicine, Beijing Medical University - Universal Principle of Bioethics: Application and Problems
Pinit Ratanakul, Mahidol University, Thailand - History of Medical Ethics in Thailand
Maurizio Mori, University of Pisa, Italy - Title to come

D. Genetic Tests, Information and Insurance (1) (cosponsored by Swiss Reinsurance Company and Mitsui Life Insurance Company)
(Chairs: Andre Chuffart, Junzo Tanaka and Ruth Chadwick)
Andre Chuffart, Swiss Re Zurich, Switzerland - Genetics and life insurance
Miyoharu Kobayashi, The Daiichi Mutual Life Insurance Company, Japan - Basic Principles of Life Insurance
Michael Morris, University of Geneva, Switzerland- The debate on genetic testing: what are we talking about?
Alexandre Mauron, University of Geneva, Switzerland - Predictive medicine and individual destinies: reconciling actuarial fairness with social justice


10:50-12:30 7 November Parallel Sessions
A. Genetic Tests, Information & Insurance (cosponsored by Euroscreen)
(Chair: Ruth Chadwick, )
Euroscreen - The implications for service provision of genetic counseling of developments in genetic screening and testing in primary care: ethics and public policy issues
Ruth Chadwick, University of Central Lancashire, UK - Criteria for genetic screening: the impact of pharmaceutical research
Urban Wiesing, Eberhard-Karls University Tubingen, Germany - Global Bioethics and Particular Histories in the Case of Genetics
Jorgen Husted, Aarhus University, Denmark - What makes genetic information special?
Tony McGleenan, Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland - Genetic technology and Insurance: The Challenge of Regulation
Darren Shickle, University of Sheffield, UK - Media, genetics and the Holy Grail

B. Brain Death (2)
(Chair: Kazuo Takeuchi, Alex Capron)
Daniel Wikler, University of Wisconsin, USA - Brain Death Saves Lives
Melissa Hersh, Medical College of Wisconsin, USA - Listening to Families and Staff: A Look at the Perceptions and Values Surrounding the Brain Death Experience
Carl B. Becker, Kyoto University, Japan - Brain death in China and Japan
Paul J Reitemeier, Ferris State University, USA - Caring for the Vegetative Patient: Compassionate Opportunity, Scientific Futilty or Social Irrationing?
Michael D. Fetters, University of Michigan, USA - Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and care of deceased patients: Japanese and US perspectives
John P. Lizza, Kutztown University, USA - Persons and Death

C. Nursing Ethics (2)
(Chair: Emiko Kohnishi, Anne Davis)
Dawn Doutrich, Linfield-Good Samaritan School of Nursing, USA - A Follow-up Study of Japanese Nurses Cultures, Values, Practices
Young Rhan Um, Dept. of Nursing, SoonChunHyang University, Korea - An integrated Method of new Casuistry and Specified Principlism to Resolve Ethical problems in Clinical Situations
Ahn Sung-Hee and Sung-Suk Han, Catholic University Nursing College, Korea - An analysis and evaluation of student nurses' participation in ethical decision making
Hui-ying Li & Tatsuya Hobara, Yamaguchi University, Japan - Spiritual Care for Dying Patients in Hospice
*Karoly Schultz, Tolma County Teaching Hospital, Hungary - End of life decisions in neonates in Hungary

D. Corruption and Honesty in Healthcare Systems
(Chairs Bela Blasszauer, James Dwyer)
Bela Blasszauer, Medical University of Pecs, Hungary - Handling of Patient Complaints: A Hungarian Experience
Torbjorn Tannsjo, Gothenburg University, Sweden - Informal Coercion in Health Care: East and West
James Dwyer, New York University, USA - Challenging Unethical Practices
Florencia Luna, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina - Corruption and Honesty
T. Manopriva & D.S. Sheriff, VMKV Medical College Salem, India - The phenomenom of cheating in the university examination - A general perspective

E. AIDS and Bioethics (1)
(Chair: Ruth Macklin)
Eric Feldman, New York University, USA - Ethics and the Japanese HIV/Blood Scandal
R.R. Kishore, MHW, India - Human Trial of HIV Vaccine : The Indian Context
Yanguang Wang, China - A Strategy of Tolerance for the Prevention of HIV and AIDS in China
Salud Zaldivar, the Philippines - Peer Reflection on the Ethical and Societal Issues Relating to Antiretroviral Treatments in Resource-Constrained Settings


14:00-15:40 7 November Parallel Sessions
A. Bioethics of Advanced Medicine
(Chair: Fumimaro Takaku)
Robert Veatch, USA - International perspectives on advance directives
Tom Buller, University of Alaska, USA - Framing the Physician Assisted Suicide Debate
Solomon Benatar, University of Capetown, South Africa - Research ethics in 'developing' countries: Universalism, Imperialism and Context
Kazuhiko Atsumi, Tokyo, Japan - Automation of Diagnosis and Artifical Intelligence
Hiroshi Nishida, Japan - Medical decision-making on neonates with poor prognosis

B. AIDS and Bioethics (2)
(Chair: R.R. Kishore)
Ruth Macklin, UNAIDS Ethical Review Committee, USA - AIDS: Dealing with the Global Pandemic
Makina Kato and Darryl Macer, University of Tsukuba, Japan - Metaphors of AIDS from around Asia
Florencia Luna, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina - Clinical Trials in Developing Countries
R. Dhanapriya and Jayapaul Azariah, India - Compassion as Bioethics essence in AIDS Care

C. Bioethics Education
(Chair: George Agich, Ono)
Kaoru Ushijima, Chiba Museum of Science & Industry, Japan - Biotechnology and Science Museums
*Baby Flankit Vittabai and Jayapaul Azariah, India - Bioethics Survey in High Schools of Tamil Nadu
Ann Lewis Boyd, Hood College, USA - Teaching bioethics a comparison of two classes: one in the United States and one in Thailand
George Agich, USA - Does Anything Important for Bioethics Lurk in the Hidden Curriculum?
Rosario A.T. Alora, San Tomas University, Philippines - Undergraduate Curriculum in Bioethics

D. Terminal Care and Quality of Life
(Chairs: )
Young Mo Koo, Seoul National University, Korea - Hopeless discharge: A Korean case
Xu Zongliang, Shanghai Medical University, China - Traditional values of life and death, and euthanasia
Tia Powell, Columbia University, USA - Cultural Issues in End of Life Medical Decisions
Jocelyn Downie, Dalhousie University, Canada - Dying Justice: Reflections on end-of-life policy in Canada
Peter A. Sy, University of the Philippines - (Re)Imagining Death and Dying in the Philippines: An Exploration of Ethical Problems and Prospects

E. Brain Death (3)
(Chair: William Ruddick, Kenichi Uemura)
Kaori Sasaki, University of Lancaster, UK - Analysis of the effects of the debate concerning brain death in Japan in the context of culture and postmodernism with special reference to global bioethics
Tetsuo Furukawa, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan - The brain-dead are really unconscious?
Kenichi Oi, Mekai University, Japan - What are the real obstacles to organ transplantation from a brain dead patient in Japan? An approach from the cultural, social, legal and ethical aspects
A. Bagheri, Center for Medical Ethics, Iran - The Islamic Views on Brain Death


16:00-17:40 7 November
Closing Forum: Is Global Bioethics Possible?
(Chair: Alastair Campbell, Hyakudai Sakamoto),
Takashi Fujimoto, Chiba University, Japan
Ruth Macklin, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, USA
Darryl Macer, Eubios Ethics Institute, Japan/New Zealand - Bioethics and Global Love
Vasantha Muthuswamy, IMRC, India
Daniel Wikler, University of Wisconsin, USA - Does Bioethics Need a World Forum?
Alastair Campbell, University of Bristol, UK - Vote of thanks and IAB5
Posters
Akira Akabayashi, Nobuko Fukatsu, Ichiro Kai 1), Hirokatsu Kitai 2), Hisao Kato 3), Kazumasa Hoshino 4) [1) School of Health Sciences & Nursing, The University of Tokyo, 2) Saitama Chuo Hospital 3) Keio University 4) Kyoto Women's University], Japan - The Current Status of Ethics Committees and Decision Making Procedures in Medical Schools and General Hospitals in Japan.
J. Glasa, J. Bielik, J. Dacok, J. Klepanec, M. Mojzesova, J. Porubsky, L. Soltes - Institute Medical Ethics, Slovakia - Research Ethics Committees and the Health Care Reform (Slovakia, 1990 -1998)
J. Glasa, J. Bielik, J. Dacok, J. Porubsky, Institute Medical Ethics, Slovakia - Development of Bioethics in Slovak Republic: 1990 - 1998
Hisanori Higurashi & Darryl Macer, University of Tsukuba, Japan - Bioethics of transportation choices
IAB4 Abstracts
TRT4/FAB2 Abstracts
To Eubios Ethics Institute