Animal Rights News

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This file includes links to papers published by Eubios Ethics Institute, and some other organizations, in the first section. Next it includes topical extracts from
EJAIB and EEIN between January 1994 - 2006 (older news items are in separate files). Last date of updating is referenced in the main News page. Latest news and papers is at the bottom of each of the two sections. Abbreviations for journals
Eubios Ethics Institute home page

American Psychological Association Committee on Animal Research and Ethics Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Animals

Related Papers from Eubios Ethics Institute Publications

Macer, Darryl (1989) "Uncertainties about 'painless' animals", Bioethics 3, 226-235.
Macer, Darryl (1991) "New Creations?", Hastings Center Report 21, 32-3.
Mauron, A.
Letter from Switzerland on Animal Experimentation EEIN 3 (1993), 32.

Relationships towards animals in Japan - Ryuta Kudo & Darryl Macer EJAIB 9 (1999), 135-13.
Commentary on Kudo and Macer - Masahiro Morioka EJAIB 9 (1999), 138-145.
Morality in nature - Michael C. Morris EJAIB 10 (2000), 53-55.
Commentary on Morris: A course correction in Darwinism - Jayapaul Azariah EJAIB 10 (2000), 56-57.
Attitudes towards animals & animal loving week among Japanese young adults - S. Kanamori, T. Kawashima, M. Kuwabara, and D. Macer EJAIB 11 (May 2001), 82-84.
To what extent should Animal Cloning be Permitted? - Maurizio Salvi EJAIB 12 (March 2002), 59-63.
Ethical or Not: A Case of Personal and Agency Guidelines- Robert E. Landsman EJAIB 11 (July 2001), 99-101.
Tradition and Conservation in Northeastern India: An Ethical Analysis - Abhik Gupta and Kamalesh Guha EJAIB 12 (Jan. 2002), 15-18.

Bioethical Transparency and Vegetarianism: Report - Frank J. Leavitt , EJAIB 12 (2002), 212-4

EJAIB 14 (2004), 95-97 Opinions over the use of nonhuman primates in research among Indonesian students - Joakim Hagelin
Sakae KISHIDA and Darryl MACER, Peoples' Views on Farm Animal Welfare in Japan, pp. 335-40 in Editors: Song Sang-youg, Koo Young-Mo & Darryl R.J. Macer, Asian Bioethics in the 21st Century, Eubios Ethics Institute, 2003.

IPR and the Controversy between Developed and Developing Countries: Is It Ethical to Take Care for Animals' Suffering but to Forget the Needs of Humans for Survival? - Carlos Maria Romeo-Casabona , EJAIB 14 (2004), 203-208.


The response to the Great Ape Project continues to appear positive, a recent "pint of view" article by P. Singer was in GEN (1 Nov 1993), 4, 32. The same journal that reports with a strongly commercial leaning on the development of many transgenic animals. On recent evolutionary studies of the African great apes, New Scientist (30 Oct, 1993), 14-5. Book reviews of interest to studies of primate intelligence are in Nature 366 (1993), 121-2, 375, and on creative activity in the brain, Nature 366 (1993), 376-7.

The Dept of Zoology at the University of Marburg in Germany has been told by its local council to stop animal experiments in classes; Nature 365 (1993), 778. It is creating debate there. A conference report from the first World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, held at John Hopkins University in November, is in New Scientist (27 Nov, 1993), 6-7. A recent US government report suggests that animal activist attacks may have peaked, though they tend to be more willing to target individuals; Science 262 (1993), 34.

The possibility of sanctions against Norway due to their whaling activity is discussed in New Scientist (28 Aug, 1993),), 4. Also a book review of Zoos and Animal Rights, is in New Scientist (16 Oct, 1993), 44.

The animal rights group People for Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) recently opened offices in Europe, and has a staff of 70 people in the USA; Science 262 (1993), 1510. A book review of four recent books on animal rights is in Science 262 (1993), 1906-8; and of two of these also see reviews in Nature 367 (1994), 523-4.

The recent issue of a booklet series from the Centre for Research Ethics in Sweden is looking at animal ethics committees in Sweden, for details contact Centre for Research Ethics, Brogatan 4, S-41301 Goteborg, Sweden. A discussion of the strategy of replace, reduce and refine animal research is discussed in JAMA 270 (1993), 2905-7. An appeals court in Germany has upheld a rejection of a state government's attempt to ban animal experiments at the University of Marburg, Nature 367 (1994), 103.

Recent research on the study of the primate mind is in Science 262 (1993), 1517. Chimpanzees can use Arabic numbers to count. On tool use by wild chimps, Nature 367 (1994), 327. Book reviews on the human brain and comparisons are in Nature 367 (1994), 605, 697-8. The methods used to estimate the whale population are discussed in Science 263 (1994), 25-6; Nature 367 (1994), 108.

A special supplement to the Hastings Center Report 24 (1) (1994) is S. Donnelley et al., "The brave new world of animal biotechnology", 32pp. A paper on the general animal rights debate is in HCR 24(1): 24-8. A general critique of genetic engineering research, including animals, is in geneWATCH 9 (1994), 4-5. Letters on animal rights violence include Science 263 (1994), 1073-4.

A review of D.M. Broom & K.G. Johnson, Stress and Animal Welfare (Chapman and Hall, 1994, 211pp, £17) is in New Scientist (12 March 1994), 43. A review of William Paton, Man and Mouse (Oxford University Press, 1993, 288pp., £8) in TIBTECH 11 (1993), 523-4. It looks at the ethics of using mice. A review of F. Barbara Orlans, In the Name of Science: Issues in Responsible Animal Experimentation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993, 297pp., US$40) is in NEJM 330 (1994), 870-1.

The debate on German animal protection laws is discussed in Nature 368 (1994), 487. A paper criticising the US guidelines is W. Stephenson, "Deficiencies in the NIH's Guidelines for the Care and protection of Laboratory Animals", J. Med. & Phil. 18 (1993), 375-88. A report from Tufts University in the USA reports a fall in the use of animals in research by about 20-50% In Europe since the 1970s, and about 25% in the USA since 1985; Nature 368 (1994), 84. In experiments in Japan, that many may agree with are useful at least - the spinal cords of rats have been mended, offering hope to people suffering from back injuries, New Scientist (12 Feb 1994), 16.

Discussion of the idea of a Southern whale sanctuary, which is gaining further support, is in New Scientist (5 March 1994), 4. Studies of the sound sequences emitted by sperm whales, which are not songs, but could well be language, are reported in Science 263 (1994), 753. A review of Steven Pinker, The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language (Morrow, 1994, 494pp., US$23) is in Nature 368 (1994), 360-1. It looks at the origins of language, which are believed to be inherited. A review of Richard Sorabji, Animal Minds and Human Morals: The Origins of the Western Debate (Duckworth, 1993, US$40). It looks at the historical debate over minds of animals, as justifications for drawing a difference between humans and other animals. A review of Euan M. MacPhail, The Neuroscience of Animal Intelligence. From the Seahare to the Seahorse (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993, 506pp., US$45) is in Science 263 (1994), 1635-6. Another review looking at intelligence, but not only organic, is D. McFarland & T. Bosser, Intelligent Behaviour in Animals and Robots (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 1993, 308pp., US$40) is reviewed in Science 263 (1994), 1781-2.

A review is M.E. Raichle, "Visualizing the mind", Scientific American (April 1994), 58-64. A method for mapping memory with positron emission tomography is in PNAS 91 (1994),, 1989-91. Early perceptual learning is reviewed in PNAS 91 (1994),, 1195-7. A review of Francis Crick, The Astonishing Hypothesis. The Scientific Search for the Soul (New York: Scribner, 1994, 319pp., US$25) is in Science 263 (1994), 696; Nature 368 (1994), 359-60. He tries and fails to give consciousness a scientific base, but contributes to the long debate. Papers looking at animal consciousness are New Scientist (8 Jan 1994), 23-5, (22 Jan), 28-31. A paper looking at concepts of beauty is D.I. Perrett et al., "Facial shape and judgements of female attractiveness", Nature 368 (1994), 239-42, 196-7. On the brain and picture naming, Nature 368 (1994), 463-5.

The International Whaling Commission agreed to the creation of a whale sanctuary in the Southern Hemisphere; New Scientist (4 June 1994), 7; (28 May), 3-5; (23 April), 46-7. This covers much of the feeding ground of most whales. Japan has said it will stop killing whales, despite it's earlier desires, Nature 369 (1994), 172. There are fears that dolphins and porpoises which are not covered by the ban may be used to replace the whale meat. Japan had been caught by DNA fingerprinting selling humpback whale meat, as well as several other illegal species, in addition to the Minke whale caught under "research" purposes that is normally sold. Norway has set a quota of 301 Minke whales this year, in continued defiance of the IWC ban on commercial whaling. On 1st July Greenpeace announced it had some encounters with a Norwegian whaling ship, in international waters.

Meanwhile, while France has agreed to protecting whales in the south, in the North Atlantic it has agreed to fishermen using up to 5km long drift nets again this year, which often catch dolphins, New Scientist (30 April 1994), 8. The plans to use low frequency sounds in the ocean to measure ocean warming have been revised, following the concern expressed over the last two years that the sound may upset whales, Science 264 (1994), 1254; New Scientist (16 April 1994), 5.

The USDA has continued to say that laboratory rodents, and birds, are not animals for the purposes of it's animal regulations; Science 264 (1994), 1533. The issue may be decided in court (legally - biologically we know already I hope!). The rodents used in toxicology studies are said to be getting too fat in Science 264 (1994), 1243. Thus efforts to control their diet are being sought. A general moderate paper on animal experiments is D.O. Wiebers et al., "Animal protection and medical science", Lancet 343 (1994), 902-4. Letters on humane use of animals that are attacking the views of Peter Singer are in Nature 369 (1994), 9-10. The problems for US researchers from extremists is discussed in Science 264 (1994), 335.

A book review of The Great Ape Project is in Science 264 (1994), 602-3. A study of language of chimpanzees in the forests of East Africa is described in New Scientist (4 June 1994), 33-7. Talking to animals is discussed in New Scientist (21 May 1994), 44-5. A book review of Adam Kuper, The Chosen Primate: Human Nature and Cultural Diversity, Harvard University Press 1994, 269pp., US$28, is in Nature 369 (1994), 110. A paper finding generally greater female brain size in carnivores that look after their young more is PNAS 91 (1994),, 5495-7. Also on neurological studies, Science 264 (1994), 447-8; and C.D. Salzman & W.T. Newsome, "Neural mechanisms for forming a perceptual decision", Science 264 (1994), 231-7. They use monkeys.

The Netherlands is said to be seeking guidelines for a code for animal euthanasia, following its codified human euthanasia; Japan Times (1 July 1994), 22. A dilemma over deer population control, and the use of guns to shoot birth control agents, is Science 264 (1994), 1079.

A call for better choice of parent chickens for breeding chicken farm birds to allow more friendly birds is New Scientist (21 May 1994), 8. This may allow the farmers debeaking the birds, who often peak each other in the small cages.

In Japan a model New Zealand white rabbit is being made for use in medical education; Yomiuri Shimbun (3 Sept 1994), 34. It will sell at Y68,000, and blood can be taken from the ear, it passes urine, and has some other "live" features. A review is M. Balls, "Replacement of animal procedures: alternatives in research, education and testing", Laboratory Animals 28: 193-211. It also discusses EC laws changes which help the move to alternatives. Other papers on alternatives include M.F.W. Festing, "Reduction of animal use: experimental design and quality of experiments", Laboratory Animals 28: 212-221.

A study of self control suggesting larger species show more is H. Tobin & A.W.Logue, "Self-control across species (Columba livia, Homo sapiens and Rattus norvegicus)", J. Comp. Psychology 108: 126-33. These are pigeons, humans (3, 5 year olds and adults), and rats. A study of culture and pain control for those with chronic pain suggests the feeling of pain can be modified, SSM 39 (1994), 629-45. Pain in animals is discussed in Laboratory Animals 28: 222-31; and caging preferences in hamsters in Laboratory Animals 28: 232-8.

A book review of J. Gould & C.G. Gould, The Animal Mind (Scientific American Library, 1994, 236pp., US$33) is in New Scientist (13 Aug 1994), 40. Chaos in the brain is discussed in Nature 370 (1994), 615-20. Biological modelling of mice on computers is discussed in Science 265 (1994), 886-8. A discussion of consciousness is in Scientific American (July 1995), 88-94; Lancet 343 (1994), 1489. Cognitive maps in human infants are discussed in Nature 370 (1994), 19-20, 250-1, 292-4.

A study showing gorilla's minimise the number of sites for foraging, by apparently counting, is J. Comp. Psychology 108: 107-13. In Africa there are about 2000 orphaned chimps, and experience suggests it is unlikely that they can be introduced into the wild, Science 265 (1994), 312. The US Navy is debating what to do with a surplus 25 dolphins and 5 sea lions that were trained for the military. They will either be cared for until they die or retrained to live in the wild and released, New Scientist (25 June 1994), 5.

In the UK a gag order was made by a London High Court to prevent the listing of a scientist's address and telephone number in an antivivisection newsletter, Science 265 (1994), 870-1. This is protection of personal data, and many other animal rights persons support the ban on publishing personal data. Letters on experimental animals are Nature 370 (1994), 408; Lancet 343 (1994), 1574, and a book review, JAMA 272 (1994), 75-6.

There has been debate over the use of a baboon to receive an organ from the genetically engineered pigs that are made for transplant eventually into humans, New Scientist (9 July 1994), 8.

In the UK the RSPCA is to start giving pork and chicken a label "Freedom Food", to represent that they are made from animals that have not suffered stress, New Scientist (9 July 1994), 4. The problem may be that other research in the USA has found that many pigs find many behaviour of humans to be offensive, such as slapping rumps. Friendly pats and strokes increase litter sizes and relieve stress. Of course the farmer who wants quality meat will not stress animals. Studies of the risks of death and eating meat suggest some advantages in not eating meat, but it is uncertain whether it is really the lack of meat, BMJ 308 (1994), 1667-71.

The problems of enforcing animal welfare laws is shown in Friend, T.H. et al. "Wisconsin's "stale calf" issue and a study designed to resolve some of the animal welfare concerns", J. Anim. Sci. 72: 2260-3. Letters on animal rights include Nature 371 (1994), 99; FASEB J. 8: 891; Lancet 344 (1994), 737.

A very interesting frog dissection is available on the Internet, with interactive responses, and some short videos available: "http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/~insttech/frog/". It is the time of experiment that can save frogs, and is provided free from the University of Virginia.

A book review of Taylor Parker, S. et al., eds., Self Awareness in Animals and Humans (Cambridge University Press, 1994, 442pp. £40) is in Nature 371 (1994), 668. The possibility of gorillas being two species is discussed in Science 265 (1994), 1661; and on chimpanzee species, Morin, P.A. et al. "Kin selection, social structure, gene flow, and the evolution of chimpanzees",Science 265 (1994), 1193-1201, 1172-3. A paper suggesting that language, foresight, musical skills, and rapid movements are necessary to develop intelligence in Calvin, W.H. "The emergence of intelligence", Scientific American (Oct 1995), 101-7.

The use of DNA fingerprinting to show that some illegal species were sold in Japanese supermarkets is in Baker, C.S. & Palumbi, S.R. "Which whales are hunted? A molecular genetic approach to monitoring whaling", Science 265 (1994), 1538-9; Time (31 Oct), 49.

The issues of genetic engineering are discussed in Mepham, T.B. "Transgenesis in farm animals: Ethical implications for public policy", Politics & Life Science 13 (Feb 1994),195-203.

Experiments on response and learning suggest that sheep and pigs are more intelligent than dogs, goats or rabbits; New Scientist (12 Nov 1994), 52-3. The behaviour of a group of dolphins who beached themselves to follow a sick leader, and died in Ireland is discussed in New Scientist (15 Oct 1994), 5. A call for reappraisal of primates based on a classification of social organization is PNAS 91 (1994),, 9941-5. However, they forget Homo sapiens. A study finding little difference in the frontal lobe of humans and chimpanzee brains is reported in New Scientist (26 Nov 1994), 19. A European primate network has been set up for supplies of animals for research, Nature 372 (1995), 120.

For about 50 years the drug Premarin has been used to treat post menopausal symptoms in women. It is obtained from the urine of pregnant horses, and there are animal rights protests starting in Canada over the practice of confining the horses while their urine is collected, CMAJ 151 (1994), 1009-12. The question is whether synthetic estrogen can replace all of it with equal effectiveness.

A group of European scientists who use animals for research has grouped together to counter animal rights protesters, Science 266: 1327; Nature 372 (1995), 6. The local government of Hessen, one of the 16 Lander in Germany, continues to call for a ban to the use of animals in teaching; Nature 372 (1995), 584.

There are a number of papers on brain function, which may point the way of the future debate on animals and ethics. These include topics of: fear, Nature 372 (1995), 613-4; word recognition, Nature 372: 260-2; imaging, Nature 372 (1995), 543-6; novelty detection, Nature 372: 90-2; beauty and symmetry, Nature 372 (1995), 134-5, 169-75; malleability of neurons, Science 266 (1994), 1475-6. In general, Nature 372: 372: 54. A self-renewing multipotential stem cell has been found in embryonic rat cerebral cortex,Nature 372 (1995), 263-6. A thalamic nucleus specific for pain and temperature sensation is reported in Nature 372 (1995), 770-2.

The local government of Hessen, one of the 16 Lander of Germany, continues to try to ban the use of animals in teaching, Nature 372 (1994), 584. A researcher's complaints about the handling of monkeys used for virus research shown on a UK TV show is in BMJ 310 (1995), 134. Letters on animal research ethics are in Nature 373 (1995), 279. The FDA has expressed concerns over the safety of xenotransplants, which have recently been discussed more for providing a better organ supply, Science 267 (1995), 19. Rather than ethics they are concerned about hidden diseases.

There has been recent UK debate about the export of animals, such as veal calves, to Europe, Nature 373 (1995), 175-6; Time (6 Feb), 43. The issue of compliance monitoring with possible whaling quotas was the subject of a recent meeting, Science 267 (1995), 163.

In Japan the native deer around a sacred shrine area of Nikko are having to be culled because of mild winters and overbreeding. This winter 1100 will be killed, to keep the projected population in ten years at 10,000. They are damaging the cedar trees and forest.

The issue of whether some animal pests should be completely eliminated or are of use is discussed in BMJ 309 (1994), 1676. Research using robotic crickets is in Science 266 (1994), 1809.

A review on behavior is Clutton-Brock, T.H. & Parker, G.A. "Punishment in animal societies", Nature 373 (1995), 209-15. A book review of Savage-Rumbaugh, S. & Lewin, R. Kanzi. The Ape at the Brink of the Human Mind (Wiley/Doubleday, 1994, 299pp., US$25) is in Nature 373 (1995), 206. They argue that many animals can think and it is natural for them to make different responses over time to the same stimuli, because they think. The mechanism of memory is discussed in Nature 373 (1995), 563-4. The function of one region of the brain, the amygdala, may be essential for recognising fear in facila expressions, Adolphs, R. et al. "Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the human amygdala", Nature 372 (1994), 669-72, 613-4; see also a book review in Nature 373 (1995), 569. On behavioural neurology in monkeys, Nature 373 (1995), 515-8, 518-21. Studies on vision of objects without awareness of them is discussed in Nature 373 (1995), 195.

A new advisory committee to look at ethical issues of genetically engineered animals has been recommended by the Committee on the Ethical Implications of Emerging Technologies, New Scientist (12 March 1994), 12. Animal rights and rodents are discussed in New Scientist (21 Jan, 1995), 49-50.

In the UK there have continued to be protests over the export of veal calves to Europe, which suggests that English people get more excited over animals than some medical ethics dilemmas, BME 105 (Feb), 1; see also, Nature 374 (1995), 402; New Scientist (11 March, 1995), 30-1, 49-50. On general animal attitudes, New Scientist (21 Jan, 1995), 46-7. In a protest action against a golf course in Japan, a court case on behalf of four species of wild animals was brought, but the court rejected it saying that they needed to have names, and addresses, Yomiuri Shimbun (8 March 1995), 1; (9 March 1995), 35.

A review is de Waal, F.B.M. "Bonobo sex and society", Scientific American (March 1995), 82-8. The bonobo society has many similarities to human society, and a comparison with chimpanzees also makes for better understanding of sociobiology of humans. Book reviews of Wrangham, R.W. et al. Chimpanzee Culture (Harvard University Press 1994, 424pp., US$30) are Science 267 (1995), 909-10; New Scientist (28 Jan, 1995), 44. Also on chimps, New Scientist (11 March, 1995), 38-41.

At the International Whaling Commission meeting in May a resolution calling for the cessation of lethal "experiments" on whales was passed by a vote of 21 to 6, especially aimed at Norway and Japan; Nature 375 (1995), 440. Meanwhile in Nature, the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo put a one page advertisement on Nature to argue for allowing whaling.

The great concern of British persons for animals is discussed in BME 105 (1995), 1. The "personal" story of a pet pit bull terrier that waited for 3 years of appeals before being exterminated is in Daily Telegraph (1 May 1995), 19. A retreat from vegetarianism is reported in BMJ 310 (1995), 880.

Ethical issues in teaching animal ethics are discussed in Science & Engineering Ethics 1 (1995), 181-6. A European report is Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations Working Group on Education accepted by the FELASA Board of Management, "FELASA recommendations on the education and training of persons working with laboratory animals: Categories A and C", Laboratory Animals 29 (1995), 121-31. A summary of a UK report, Ethical Review of Research Involving Animals, is NS (6 May 1995), 10; and a letter from the report writers is in Nature 375 (1995), 670. A review on the origin of laboratory mice is Genome 38 (1995), 1-7. A method for measuring stress in mice after transport is in Laboratory Animals 29 (1995), 132-8. The airline Lufthansa has decided to stop primate shipments, Science 268 (1995), 963. In 1994 they shipped 5700 monkeys, more than any other carrier. Most were sent to the USA. British Airways and several other European airways have already ceased transport.

Book reviews on ape minds is Nature 375 (1995), 290; SA (June 1995), 116-7; JAMA 273 (1995), 752. A review is Pfennig, D.W. & Sherman, P.W. "Kin recognition", SA (June 1995), 98-103; and letters on kin recognition are in Science 268 (1995), 185-7. On hunting behaviour, Stanford, C.B. "Chimpanzee hunting behaviour and human evolution", American Scientist 83 (1995), 256-61. A report indicating that the earliest tool use may be 90,000 years ago in Zaire, whereas the earliest European sign is 40,000 years ago, is Science 268 (1995), 495-6. Letters on thumbs and tool use are in Science 268 (1995), 586-9.

A commentary on consciousness is in Nature 375 (1995), 106, 121-3, 139-41, 843; SA (June 1995), 117-8. Brain growth through learning is reported in studies in Nature 375 (1995), 277-8; Zheng, D. & Purves, D. "Effects of increased neural activity on brain growth", PNAS 92 (1995), 1802-6, p.1797-9.

A review of The Great Ape Project is in HCR 25 (May 1995), 49-50. Xenotransplantation is discussed in the organ transplant section below; see also, JAMA 273 (1995), 285-8. An animal research bill may be introduced in Poland, Science 269 (1995), 291. A NASA animal research lab has been criticised, leading to a 6 week ban on experiments, Science 268 (1995), 1692.

Whale numbers are debated in Nature 376 (1995), 11. A World Wild Life Fund Report criticised the Japanese report saying that whaling of minke whales should resume, Japan Times (29 August 1995), 3. In Japan, a survey of 79 health centres about the use of stray dogs and cats for research found that 40 had stopped or greatly reduced the transfer of their animals to researchers, instead using euthanasia, and 14 others had completely stopped providing researchers with strays; Asahi Shimbun (2 Sept 1995), 38.

The modulation of conscious experience by peripheral sensory stimuli is reported in a patient in Nature 376 (1995), 778-81. Dopamine D1 receptors can modulate memory fields, Nature 376 (1995), 572-5. Visual imaging is discussed in Science 268 (1995), 1772-4; and integration of visual and linguistic information in Science 268 (1995), 1632-4. Artificial consciousness is discussed in Time (31 July 1995), 42; also pp. 36-41.

A paper suggesting that there was a common male ancestor 200,000 years ago is Dorit, R.L. et al. "Absence of polymorphism at the ZFY locus on the human Y chromosome", Science 269 (1995), 1183-5, 1141-2. Papers on the evolution of human beings include: Nature 376 (1995), 555-6, 565-71; Science 268 (1995), 1132-3, 1570, 1851; 269 (1995), 476-7. On DNA evolution studies in general, Nature 376 (1995), 163-5, 165-7.

A report on the 24-29 June Kennedy Institute Workshop on Ethical Issues of Animal Research is in Newsletter, The Center for Biomedical Ethics, University of Minnesota (Fall 1995), 1. On isolating drugs from pregnant horse's urine, CMAJ 153 (1995), 518. A letter defending the study showing whale meat is in Japanese supermarkets from illegally caught species of whale, and disputing the commercial from Japan that appeared in Nature is in Nature 377 (1995), 282. On farm animal concerns, Swanson, J.C. "Farm animal well-being and intensive production systems", J. Animal Science 73 (1995), 2744-51. It also considers genetic changes to make animals more compatible with intensive farming methods...

A paper arguing for the benefits of animal research is Senior, K. "Defending the use of animals to research human disease", Molecular Medicine Today 1 (1995), 220-5. The Washington-based PETA group may move office to Seattle, Science 269 (1995), 1049.

There are several papers on xenografts in the Organ transplant section below. In results of one trial, 10 monkeys which had been given a heart from the pigs had survived for an average of 40 days with two still alive at 60 days, Nature 377 (1995), 185-6. The major problem of hyper-acute rejection seems to have been overcome. The Nuffield Council in the UK has a working group on the subject, BME 111 (Sept 1995), 1. Two papers on the subject include, Palca, J. "Animal organs for human patients", HCR 25 (5, 1995), 4; Hanson, M.J., "The seductive sirens of medical progress. The case of xenotransplantation", HCR 25 (5, 1995), 5-6.

Geographic and climatic control of primate diversity is in PNAS 92 (1995), Artificial intelligence is discussed in Nature 377 (1995), 101-2. On visual feature binding, Science 269 (1995), 853-5.

The possible ill effects of handling animals in biodiversity studies in Africa is debated in Science 270 (1995), 1302-3. The need for animal experiments are debated in Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 849, 1102. The overeating of laboratory rats in many US institutions is a serious problem for predicting health effects of drugs, NS (9 Dec 1995), 10. There has been debate in Oceania over Japanese whalers decision to kill another 400 minke whales this year as "research". An acoustic telescope that is said to be better to estimate whale numbers than whale watching has been developed, and the US Navy network of hydrophones will also be checked to estimate wale movements, NS (9 Dec 1995), 7.

There have been numerous concerns expressed about the ethical and safety issues of xenotransplants, NEJM 333 (1995), 1498-501; Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 728-9, 847, 869-73, 969, 1100. A background paper on genetic engineering of animals as donors is Cozzi, E. & White, D.J.G. "The generation of transgenic pigs as potential organ donors for humans", Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 964-8. A survey of 1728 acute care nurses in Australian public hospitals found the majority said that they would not accept an organ from a baboon or chimpanzee, with similar distaste for pig or sheep organs, Nature 378 (1995), 434.

A study looking at the recognition of self suggests that a simple mirror test is not sufficient for assessing the concept of self, Hauser, M.D. "Self-recognition in primates: Phylogeny and the science of species-typical features", PNAS 92 (1995), 10811-4. They found cotton-top tamarins investigated coloured spots on their coat, and used the mirror to examine themselves, something previously seen only in the four primate species. Book reviews of consciousness are in Nature 378 (1995), 455-6. On the interaction between pain and touch sensation pathways, Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 766-73.

A report on xenografting is to be released from the Nuffield Council, UK, in March, 1996, BME 114 (1996), 3-4. There are calls for regulation of viral transmission in xenografts in Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 18-20; Science 271 (1996), 585. Some regulations have just been released in the USA by the Public Health Service.

Labels to indicate the way that the fish are caught, e.g. dolphin friendly, are discussed in NS (2 March 1996), 6; Nature 379 (1996), 299. Sperm whales are discussed in National Geographic (Nov 1995), 56-73.

A study that describes the sharing of food, and punishment for not sharing, in chimpanzees that suggests that they also have morality is reported in NS (17 Feb 1996), 10. An interview with Jane Goodall is in National Geographic (Dec 1995), 102-29. A series of papers on the legacy of Hans Jonas, including a paper Donnelley, S. "Bioethical troubles: Animal individuals and human organisms", HCR 25 (7, 1995), 21-29; are in a Special issue of the Hastings Center Report 25 (1995). Crow behavior and tool use is reviewed in Nature 379 (1996), 207-8, 249-51. Evolution is discussed in Nature 379 (1996), 123-4, 587; Science 271 (1996), 448.

A paper looking at the way the human brain selective retains certain categories of knowledge is Nature 379 (1996), 649-51. They conclude brain regions active during object identification are dependent on the intrinsic properties of the object. Another paper is PNAS 92 (1995), 12470-4. It is interesting to relate this to the type of argument categorization that can be used in survey analysis of open question responses, found in the opinion surveys. At the moment computers cannot emulate the emotions of humans very well, but on the data-processing chess computer, Science 271 (1996), 599.

There is delay on the introduction of a European ban on the import of furs from animals caught in leghold traps which are said to be inhumane because of delays in talks in the ISO in Geneva, NS (13 April 1996), 9. A debate on seal hunting for furs, NS (16 March 1996), 34-9, (20 April 1996), 7. The US NRC has issued a new version of its Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, giving more freedom, Science 271 (1996), 1664.

A book review of de Waal, Frans, Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals (Harvard University Press 1996, 296pp) is in Nature 380 (1996), 301-2; NS (13 April 1996), 40-1. A one hundred year old paper asking whether humans or animals have more common sense is JAMA 275 (6 March 1996). Documentation of aggressive behaviour in some cases by dolphins is reported in Ross, HM & Wilson, B. "Violent interactions between bottlenose dolphins and harbour porpoises", Proc. Roy. Soc. 263 (1996), 283-6. A letter calling for support of fishermen and dolphins is Nature 380 (1996), 282. The structure of the brain may be more important than size alone in development of language, NS (2 March 1996), 41; and on chimpanzee behaviour, Economist (17 Feb 1996), 82.

A paper praising the benefits of service dogs for people with disabilities is JAMA 275 (1996), 1001-6. A book review exploring human-animal relationships is Nature 380 (1996), 401. In general on animal rights, Science 272 (1996), 26; BMJ 312 (1996), 866; 1057.

A review of new toxicity tests using genetic engineering which may spare animal lives is GEN (15 April 1996), 1, 12-3; and on computer models, NS (27 April 1996), 22. On the debate over sheep cloning, GenEthics News 11 (1996), 1. On the ethics of germ-line change in animals, de Pomerai D.I. "Transgenesis in animal systems: A view from within", Science & Christian Belief 8 (1996), 39-60.

There is debate on utilitarian ethics and animal rights including Peter Singer in Proc. Soc. Expt. Biology & Medicine 211 (1996), 109-62. The mechanisms of pain is reviewed in Mogil, JS et al. "The genetics of pain and pain inhibition", PNAS 93 (1996), 3048-55; Lancet 347 (1996), 1604-5. A review of why people are happy is SA (May 1996), 70-2. On the biochemistry of learning are in Nature 381 (1996), 558-9; consciousness, Nature 381 (1996), 97; and of face recognition, PNAS 93 (1996), 922-7; and numerical representation, PNAS 93 (1996), 1514-7.

Plans to put rhesus monkeys into space for studies of the effects of two weeks of weightlessness are being criticized widely as irrelevant (given that humans spend much longer in space) and an ethics committee is examining them, NS (4 May 1996), 5. Mexico is still calling for lifting a ban on its tuna in the USA, NS (25 May 1996), 10. A paper on pets is Anderson, WP. "The benefits of pet ownership", MJA 164 (1996), 441-2.

Infanticide of males by male spiders is reported in Nature 381 (1996), 655-6.

A conference review from the use of animals in biomedical research is in JAMA 276 (1996), 87-8. And a pharmaceutical company, Pharmagene has decided to end all animal experiments, and to continue testing on leftover tissue from human operations, NS (31 August 1996), 4. They claim that there is so much human genetic information that animal experiments are not required. Animal rights groups in the USA are seeking a retirement home for 1500 chimpanzees (they can live to about 55 years old). Also on animal experiments see ATLA 23 (1995), 284-6, 289-92, 306-11, 312-6, 318-31, 607-14, 828-36. On validation of toxicity tests, ATLA 23 (1995), 139-42, 398-409; Toxic., in Vitro 9 (1995), 815-9, 851-6.

The annual debate on the whaling ban has failed to resolve the issue, and it may be unlikely to see whaling resume, NS (22 June), 12-3; (29 June 1996), 3-4; (6 July), 4. The UK has said it will not support resumption of any whaling, and the US dropped their request that the Makah tribe of Washington state be allowed to catch 5 grey whales next year. The Russian Inuit have a quote of 140 grey whales, but studies found most are killed with automatic rifles or anti-tank weapons! This is not really indigenous whaling! In Canada a group of Inuit hunters killed the first bowhead whale for 20 years, as an exemption, Globe & Mail (6 Sept 1996), A1, A5. Norway has rejected the IWC, and will hunt 425 minke whales this year, there are 118,000 of those species estimated to be in the North East Atlantic.

Fishermen are trying to use acoustic warnings to protect porpoises from their nets, SA (Sept 1996), 40-2. The US Navy has opened up its new antisubmarine tracking system to public hearings and environmental assessment, for fears that the 230 decibel sound at 75-1000 Hertz will harm marine mammals (this is 100 times the level that changes the course of a grey whale); NS (3 August 1996), 12. A UK study suggests that even gun shots cause avoidance of dolphins in seismic surveys for oil companies, and Chevron Company has said that it includes warning shots to scare aware sea mammals at low volume in contracts with seismic surveys it has; NS (31 August 1996), 10. In Canada there is going to be a referendum in British Columbia to decide whether bear hunting can continue, Globe & Mail (6 Sept 1996), A1, A4.

A review on the genes known to be involved in pain is Nature Genetics 13 (1996), 382-3. The use of behaviour to predict genetic structure in wild baboons was used in PNAS 93 (1996), 5797-801. A book review on de Waal, F., Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals, Harvard University Press 1996, is in SA (Sept 1996), 176-7. On the mind, NS (3 August 1996), 42-3. As discussed in the animal section above, a single gene change that alters nurturing behaviour has been reported, Science 273 (1996), 577-8. On transgenics and animal welfare see Biotechnology 13 (1995), 1424; ATLA 23 (1995), 380-97.

On artificial intelligence a book review is in Nature 382 (1996), 593-4.

A discussion of the genetic engineering of animals for confinement agriculture by B.Rollin is AgBioethics Forum 8 (June 1996), 1, 4. A journal looking at these issues is Society and Animals, PO Box. 1297, Washington Grove, MD 20880-1297, USA (ISBN 1063-1119; US$30 per year). A book review of Ridley, M., Origins of Virtue (Viking, 1996, 20pds, ISBN 0-670-86357-2) is NS (19 Oct. 1996), 49. A review of methods to control computers with neural signals, which shows the level at which we may begin to understand brain signals, is SA (Oct 1996), 82-7. On methods to examine information processing using magnetoencephalography, PNAS 93 (1996), 8809-15.

In recent years the number of animals used in research has dropped substantially, with a 35% drop in the United States in the past decade, and even more dramatic reductions in Europe. The Netherlands has taken the lead on alternatives to animal testing and has slashed the number of animals used by some 60% since 1978. Dutch law requires classes in animal welfare and consideration of alternative methods, which researchers say can be time-consuming but don't unduly impede research, Science 274 (1996), 168-71. The genetics of pain has become more clearer with the study Konig, M. et al. "Pain responses, anxiety and aggression in mice deficient in pre-proenkephalin", Nature 383 (1996), 585+.
On the role of animal experiments in assessing drug safety, BMJ 313 (1996), 1488. Efforts to develop alternatives for carcinogen testing are reviewed in NS (30 Nov 1996), 7; however delays in the development have delayed the replacement of animals, Nature 383 (1996), 748. Dead chicken eyes are one of the alternatives being suggested, NS (2 Nov 1996), 10. Guidelines on animal health from the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations are in "FELASA recommendations for the health monitoring of mouse, rat, hamster, gerbil, guinea pig and rabbit experimental units", Laboratory Animals 30 (1996), 193-208. Methods to enhance anesthesia of guinea pigs are suggested in Laboratory Animals 30 (1996), 220-7; and recommendations for euthanasia of experimental animals in the EC, in Laboratory Animals 30 (1996), 293-316. Male and female humans perceive pain to different degrees, NS (2 Nov 1996), 16; BMJ 313 (1996), 1168.

A review of Ridley, M. The Origins of Virtue (Viking 1996, 295pp., 20pds) is Nature 383 (1996), 785-6. A special chimpanzee is under genetic study, because of human features, Science 274 (1996), 727. On artificial intelligence, NS (9 Nov 1996), 41. The Science Museum and Imperial College in London have unveiled Magnus, a step on the road to an artificial human brain; NZ Herald (4 Jan 1997), A17. Promoters of circuses in New Zealand predict that within several years only horses and dogs will be used for animal acts, because of public rejection of exotic animals, Christchurch Star (20 Dec 1996), 11. A study finding increased cage size increases the welfare of marmosets is Laboratory Animals 30 (1996), 317-26.

A new book on animal philosophy or ethology is Dol, Marcel, et al., eds. Animal Consciousness and Animal Ethics. Perspectives from the Netherlands (Van Gorcum (PO Box 43, 9400 AA Asasen, The Netherlands), 1997, 249pp.). A review essay of Rollin, BE. The Frankenstein Syndrome: Ethical and Social Issues in the Genetic Engineering of Animals, is in Bioethics 11 (1997), 67-74; also, Verhoog, H. "Genetic modification of animals: Should science and ethics be integrated?", The Monist 79 (1996), 247-63. At the end of 1997 Swiss voters will vote on a constitutional amendment to stop many types of transgenic animal research, which is leading to wide debate, Science 275 (1997), 607.

In general on animal rights and ethics, SA (Feb 1997), 63-77; JME 22 (1996), 300-1. Retirement plans for US research chimps have been made, NatMed 3 (1997), 128. An appeals court in the US has ruled that the animal guidelines from the National Academy of Sciences may not be valid because it should have held its meetings in public, NS (25 Jan. 1997), 9. A paper on teaching animal ethics is J. Animal Science 75 (1997), 273-6.

On the future of a legal elephant ivory trade, NS (8 Feb. 1997), 12-3. Papers on animal stress include, Grandin, T. "Assessment of stress during handling and transport", J. Animal Science 75 (1997), 249-57; Schaefer, AL et al. "The use of electrolyte solutions for reducing transport stress", J. Animal Science 75 (1997), 258-65; Molony V. & Kent JE., "Assessment of acute pain in farm animals using behavioral and physiological measurements", J. Animal Science 75 (1997), 266-72. A record of the killing of monkeys and apes and their transport in Africa is in Natural History (Feb 1997), 36-47. Grizzly bears that cross the border from the USA to Canada may be shot, but the debate on the wildlife protection bill has continued for a year, NS (11 Jan. 1997), 9.

Studies of memory are in Nature 385 (1997), 481-2, 680-1; PNAS 93 (1996), 13435-522; NS (4 Jan. 1997), 16; and of emotions, Nature 385 (1997), 694; Science 275 (1997), 29-30. On artificial intelligence, SA (Jan 1997), 114-5; Nature 385 (1997), 399; Newsweek (10 March, 1997), 10. The use and abuse of drugs affecting the brain, for example to improve learning, is reviewed in Science 275 (1997), 459; NS (8 Feb. 1997), 3, 32-6. On serotonin, Nature 385 (1997), 123. On the roots of violence, NS (1 Feb. 1997), 40-1. The scientific basis of decision-making is discussed in Science 275 (1997), 1269.

The energy budget of penguins that favours their huddling together is reported in Nature 385 (1997), 304-5.

On the ethical issues of cloning as they relate to animals, CMAJ 156 (1997), 1149-50. Ethics of xenotransplantation are discussed in Chemistry & Industry (17 Feb 1997), 152; and in the section on Organ Transplants.

A discussion of animal agriculture systems and social constraints is CSTPE Newsletter 6 (March-April 1997), 1-4. Book reviews on horses and culture are in Nature 386 (1997), 341-2. A paper suggesting that animals may not suffer when being hunted is Vines, G. "Who's suffering now?", NS (22 March 1997), 30-3. Part II of EC Working Party Recommendations for euthanasia of experimental animals in Europe are in Laboratory Animals 31 (1997), 1-32. In New Zealand there is debate over Maori tribal rights to harvest whales, though in practice they use dead whales beached on the shore, NZ Herald (11 March 1997), A6.

Hormones appear to be involved in parental favoritism, Nature 386 (1997), 231; also TREE 12 (1997), 99-103. Many breeds of domestic dogs do not appear to develop into adults, NS (29 March 1997), 5. A review is Konig, B. "Cooperative care of young mammals", Naturwissenschaften 84 (1997), 95-104. Monkey society being explained by the resource-defense hypothesis of behaviour is supported by a study in Proc. Royal Society London B. 264 (1997), 253-9; Nature 386 (1997), 555-6. A review of de Waal, F & Lanting, F., Bonobo, Univ. California Press 1997, ISBN 0-520-20535-9, is in NS (15 March 1997), 41. The policies on the hunting of bears is linked to infanticide, Nature 386 (1997), 450-1.

Some lawyers are using brain scans to defend their client7s behaviour, which could be premature use of the technology, NS (22 March 1997), 16-7. Visual perception is discussed in Nature 386 (1997), 550-1, 835-8. Decision-making involves intuition, Science 275 (1997), 1269, 1293+. A book review of Language in Cognitive Development. Emergence of the Mediated Mind, is Science 275 (1997), 1611; and a series of papers on cognition are in Science 275 (1997), 1547, 1580-1608. A review of robotics and cockroaches in research is NS (22 March 1997) ,26-8.

On the ethical issues of cloning as they relate to animals, CMAJ 156 (1997), 1149-50. Ethics of xenotransplantation are discussed in Chemistry & Industry (17 Feb 1997), 152; and in the section on Organ Transplants.

A discussion of animal agriculture systems and social constraints is CSTPE Newsletter 6 (March-April 1997), 1-4. Book reviews on horses and culture are in Nature 386 (1997), 341-2. A paper suggesting that animals may not suffer when being hunted is Vines, G. "Who's suffering now?", NS (22 March 1997), 30-3. Part II of EC Working Party Recommendations for euthanasia of experimental animals in Europe are in Laboratory Animals 31 (1997), 1-32. In New Zealand there is debate over Maori tribal rights to harvest whales, though in practice they use dead whales beached on the shore, NZ Herald (11 March 1997), A6.

Hormones appear to be involved in parental favoritism, Nature 386 (1997), 231; also TREE 12 (1997), 99-103. Many breeds of domestic dogs do not appear to develop into adults, NS (29 March 1997), 5. A review is Konig, B. "Cooperative care of young mammals", Naturwissenschaften 84 (1997), 95-104. Monkey society being explained by the resource-defense hypothesis of behaviour is supported by a study in Proc. Royal Society London B. 264 (1997), 253-9; Nature 386 (1997), 555-6. A review of de Waal, F & Lanting, F., Bonobo, Univ. California Press 1997, ISBN 0-520-20535-9, is in NS (15 March 1997), 41. The policies on the hunting of bears is linked to infanticide, Nature 386 (1997), 450-1.

Some lawyers are using brain scans to defend their client7s behaviour, which could be premature use of the technology, NS (22 March 1997), 16-7. Visual perception is discussed in Nature 386 (1997), 550-1, 835-8. Decision-making involves intuition, Science 275 (1997), 1269, 1293+. A book review of Language in Cognitive Development. Emergence of the Mediated Mind, is Science 275 (1997), 1611; and a series of papers on cognition are in Science 275 (1997), 1547, 1580-1608. A review of robotics and cockroaches in research is NS (22 March 1997) ,26-8.

An economic analysis is Cork, LC. et al. "The costs of animal research: Origins and options", Science 276 (1997), 758-9. The efforts of an Italian Research Institute to reduce laboratory animal use are reported in Lancet 349 (1997), 1557. The reduced by 41% in 1996 from 1988 figures. The US is reducing regulations to introduce alternatives for animals, Science 276 (1997), 41; NIH, Validation and Regulatory Acceptance of Toxicological Test Methods (NIH Publication 97-3981). In Germany the use of animals for cosmetic testing has been banned since 1987, and an alternative to the Draize test has worked, Science 276 (1997), 19. The US space researchers have canceled plans to fly more rhesus monkeys on spaceflights following an unexplained death after a previous mission, Nature 387 (1997), 4. A book review on Dilemmas of Animal Experimentation is Lancet 349 (1997), 1109-10. A paper looking at experiments is Poole, T. "Happy animals make good science", Laboratory Animals 31 (1997), 116-24. A new book is Appleby, MC. & Hughes BO. eds., Animal Welfare (CAB International, 1997, 336pp., ISBN 0-85199-180-7, US$45).

Analysis of the suffering experienced by a hunted animal is in Nature 387 (19 April 1997); NS (19 April 1997), 3, 7; (3 May 1997), 51. The study showed that red deer have similar levels to animals which have traumatic injury, and was commissioned by the National Trust, which has since banned all hunting from its lands. Long term stress can lead to depression, Xu L. et al. "Behavioural stress facilitates the induction of long-term depression in the hippocampus", Nature 387 (1997), 497-500. There are distinct ATP receptors on pain-sensing and stretch-sensing neurons, Nature 387 (1997), 505-8.

A paper looking at the potential harm to cloned sheep is Gordon, M. "Suffering of the lambs", NS (31? May 1997), 16-7. In the USA once a transgenic animal has been licensed by the FDA as a source of proteins, it would not come under the ethical guidelines that apply to research institutes in USDA. The ammonia from chicken faeces in farms is often at levels which harm animals and humans, NS (19 April 1997), 10.

On consciousness, NS (3 May 1997), 34-9; (31 May 1997), 45; SA (June 1997), 140-1; Science 276 (1997), 821-4. A study of English and Japanese finds that the language of emotions is the same, PNAS 94 (1997), 5489+; NS (17 May 1997), 17. However a paper suggesting different areas of the brain are used for first and second languages is Nature 388 (1997), 171-4. On language acquisition, Science 276 (1997), 1177-9; Nature 387 (1997), 547-8. Estrogen may influence neurons to improve their ability for higher mental functions, Science 276 (1997), 675-6.

The Great Ape Project has released a newsletter, available by Email: GAP@envirolink.org, <http://www.envirolink.org/orgs/

gap/> A book review of de Waal, F. & Lanting, F. Bonobo: The Forgotten Ape (Univ. California Press 1997, 210pp., US$40) is Nature 387 (1997), 142-3. DM attended a Conference on Animal Consciousness held in Wageningen, The Netherlands, 3-4 July, 1997. When the proceedings are published they will be announced. A study suggesting chimpanzees mate outside their social group as well is Nature 387 (1997), 358-9. The suggestion that whales talk through their beaks is made in NS (10 May 1997), 20. A paper asking whether octupuses are capable of occupational learning is Hamilton, G. "What is this octopus thinking?", NS (30 May 1997), 30-5. On perceptual learning, Nature 387 (1997), 401-6.

Genetic differences may explain the attention span needed for success of drug detection and other trained dogs, NS (10 May 1997), 30-3. A discussion of why female woodpeckers destroy each others eggs is in Natural History (June 1997), 32-7. A study of male budgies finds them more likely to cheat on their mate when out of sight, NS (7 June 1997), 19. Cooperation among lions is discussed in SA (May 1997), 52-9. A philosophical paper is Windsor, DA. "Equal rights for parasites", Persp. Biol. & Med. 40 (1997), 222-9.

Animal activists in the USA are calling for more openness in reports about research in a Supreme Court case, Science 277 (1997), 473. The US National Research Council report on the fate of 1500 older research chimpanzees has recommended the NIH establish an autonomous Chimpanzee Management Program to acquire 1000 chimpanzees from government labs and shelter them for the rest of their life, Science 277 (1997), 471; Nature 388 (1997), 218. It ruled out euthanasia as unethical. The US Air Force is also finding a new home for its 144 chimpanzees from the space program, NS (28 June 1997), 5.

There are calls in the UK for a commission to examine the welfare of transgenic animals, Nature 388 (1997), 311-2. A call for using more inbred strains of mice so that numbers used in toxicology tests can be reduced is Festing, MFW. "Fat rats and carcinogenesis screening", Nature 388 (1997), 321-2; NS (26 July 1997), 5. On vegetarianism, NZ Science Review 53 (1996), 72-8; 54 (1997), 19-22.

A review on the evolution of the cortex is PNAS 94 (1997), 2900-4. On the structure of memory, Science 277 (1997), 330-1; and the brain function, SA (August 1997), 78-83; PNAS 94 (1997), 2787-8. Robot sight may be developed from animal models, NS (21 June 1997), 21. Great tit mothers favoured feeding chicks with red mouths, Proc. Royal Society London B 264 (197), 959-62. On altruism, TREE 12 (1997), 99-103.

The requirement for long-term toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals on non-rodent animals is to be reduced from 12 to 9 months in the USA, Nature 389 (1997), 616. It should reduce the number of non-rodent animals used by 30%. Europe and Japan only require 6 months. A repeated call for communication between the activists and researchers is Nature 388 (1997), 820, 389 (1997), 5. Criticism of using restrained macaques in space is debated in Nature 389 (1997), 537. Scientists are afraid of the teaching of animal rights among children, Science 277 (1997), 1419.

In 1989 I published a paper on ethics of making painless animals in the journal Bioethics. A step toward this has been taken with the paper, Murata, T. et al. "Altered pain perception and inflammatory response in mice lacking prostacyclin receptor", Nature 388 (1997), 678-82. On the cellular mechanisms of agonists of opioid receptor, and animals, Nature 389 (1997), 382-9.

A profile of researcher Jane Goodall is SA (Oct. 1997), 42, 44; and on secrecy among female chimpanzees, Science 277 (1997), 774-5. On the coevolution of language and the brain, Nature 388 (1997), 734. Consciousness is discussed in NS (23 Aug. 1997), 40-1. A series of papers on learning are in Natural History (Sept. 1997), 42-65.

DNA studies of whales in supermarkets in Japan and South Korea finds much is from illegally caught animals, not minke whales, NS (30 Aug. 1997), 14. Killer whales have invented ways to eat stingrays in innovative eating, NS (16 Aug. 1997), 5. A letter on cannibalism by the Fore tribe in New Guinea is Nature 389 (1997), 11. Archaeologists are finding that it was common until recently in many parts of the world, Science 277 (1997), 635-7.

On ethics and animals rights, Thomasma, DC. & Loewy, EH. "A dialogue on species-specific rights: Humans and animals in bioethics", CQHE 6 (1997), 435-44; Whitehouse, PJ. "Readdressing our moral relationship to nonhuman creatures: Commentary...", CQHE 6 (1997), 445-8; Bulfield, G. "Biotechnology and farm animals", BME 131 (1997), 13-7; Linzey, A. "Ethical and theological objections to animal cloning", BME 131 (1997), 18-22; NS (29 Nov 1997), 56; Science 278 (1997), 557-60.

A series of papers on animal well-being is in Laboratory Animal Science 47 (No. 6, Dec 1997), 564-97. The UK is increasing the number of inspectors for animal research guidelines, and scientists will have to say why an animal alternative cannot be used, Nature 389 (1997), 896; and on alternatives, NS (18 Oct 1997), 10; (25 Oct 1997), 3. European countries in general have also agreed to improve welfare, Nature 390 (1997), 546; NS (25 Oct 1997), 25. The closure of the LEMSIP in New York University for primates has caused controversy, Nature 390 (1997), 321. A book review on chimps is Fouts, R. Next of Kin: What Chimpanzees Have Taught Me About Who We Are (Morrow, 1997, 420pp., US$25) is Nature 390 (1997), 246-7. On the descendants of NASAs chimps, NS (13 Dec 1997), 23.

A study found Chinese and American deaf children spontaneously use certain signs, suggesting some innate language ability Goldin-Meadow, S. & Mylander, C. "Spontaneous sign systems created by deaf children in two cultures", Nature 390 (1997), 279-81. Chimps possess the same structures for syntax as humans, Newsweek (19 Jan 1998), 48-50. Some pain is good and other pain is bad, Science 278 (1997), 239-40. Female mice have a specific gene for blocking out pain, NS (18 Oct 1997), 19. Social ants with one queen have longer life than if there are many, Nature 389 (1997), 906-7. On memory research, Nature 390 (1997), 281-6; emotions, Nature 391 (1998), 35-6; face recognition, Nature 390 (1997), 458-9; Science 278 (1997), 41; and on vertebrate magnetic sense, Nature 390 (1997), 371+.

Letters on evidence of cannibalism are in Science 277 (1997), 635, 1745-6. Norway has raised its whaling quota to 671 minke whales in 1998, an increase from 580 for 1997 (though only 503 were caught), Reuters (7 Dec 1997); and on the whaling debate, NS (25 Oct 1997), 12. A paper looking at the distress caused to hunted deer is Nature 391 (1998), 22. A review on wild animal law is J. Environmental Law 9 (1997), 287-302.

Norway's animal welfare group, Dyrebeskyttelsen has made a legal suit trying to outlaw fur farms on 17 Feb. 1998. Norway produces about 19% of the skins for the world's fur trade. A study finding many affects of stress in pigs is J. Animal Science 76 (1998), 474-83. A new non-opiod painkiller, called ABT-594, from frogs, has been found, Science 279 (1998), 32-3, 77+. A philosophical paper is Allen, C. "Assessing animal cognition: Ethnological and philosophical perspectives", J. Animal Science 76 (1998), 42-7. The chimpanzee planum temporale has human-like pattern s in its brain language area, Science 279 (1998), 220-2.

No animals will be allowed for European researchers in the space station project, Nature 391 (1998), 733. The German animal protection law is under debate, Nature 391 (1998), 624. The US laboratory animal populations are increasing so calls are made for increasing lab space for growth of animals used as disease models, Nature 391 (1998), 623. A discussion of why some animals are pests and other friends is NS (10 Jan. 1998), 49. On the future of whaling, NS (24 Jan. 1998), 47.

On baboon society in Egyptian images, Nature 391 (1998), 654. A study of cooperation and conflict among animals is Nature 391 (1998), 635-6. A proposal is Abel, T. et al. "Memory suppressor genes: Inhibitory constraints on the storage of long-term memory", Science 279 (1998), 338-41. Molecular mechanisms of short-term memory using integrin are also discussed in Nature 391 (1998), 435-6, 455-60.

The Dutch government has banned the further use of nuclear transfer in cows, following the announcement by Pharming that they had made two cows. They will continue cloning research overseas, and use other techniques in Holland, GEN 18 (1 April, 1998), 22, 43; Science 279 (1998), 1444. The Pharming cloning ban could spread, NatBio 16 (1998), 321-2.

On the decline in use of laboratory animals, Nature 392 (1998), 541. There is a court case in the USA against the Coulston Foundation by the USDA for ill-treating chimps, Nature 392 (1998), 430. A report from the dealing at the IWC on whale quotas is Nature 392 (1998), 541.

A discussion on relationships with virtual pets on computers is SA (April 1998), 29-30. The role of instinct and imitation is discussed in Dugatkin, LA. & Godin, JGJ., "How females choose their mates", SA (April 1998), 56-61. On the evolution of menopause, Nature 392 (1998), 759-60. On gender differences in shared life experiences, SSM 46 (1998), 1077-85; math ability, Science 279 (1998), 1459; and men's brains shrink more rapidly than women's in old age, Lancet 351 (1998), 575; Nature 392 (1998), 148. A study has found that people using sign language use both hemispheres of the brain, PNAS 95 (1998), 922-9; Nature 392 (1998), 233-4.

The habitat is seen to play an increasing role in shaping behaviour, Science 279 (1998), 1454-5. The question of whether other animals lie is debated in NS (14 Feb. 1998), 23-6. A book review of Brothers, L., Friday's Footprints: How Society Shapes the Human Mind (Oxford Univ. Press, 1998), is NS (7 Feb. 1998), 47. Magnetic fields may help rewire brains after injuries, NS (14 Feb. 1998), 18. A study has found that human ovulation is regulated by human pheromones, Nature 392 (1998), 177-9.

A discussion of how English language has manipulated the International Whaling Commission is Takahashi, J. "English dominance in Whaling debates. A critical analysis of discourse at the International Whaling Commission", Japan Review 10 (1998), 237-53. Still many loopholes are exploited in the regulations, Nature 393 (1998), 206. While DNA fingerprinting can show abuses of whaling, and Norway and Japan have decided to make national databases, after the results showing some Japanese supermarkets included many illegal species, but there are calls for international monitoring, NS (30 May 1998), 14. Some whales were stranded during military tests of sonar in Greece, Science News 153 (1998), 184. Dolphin sonar signals have inspired the use of sound signals as a possible vehicle to transmit data across the Sea, NS (27 June 1998), 14.

A book review of Sober, E. & Wilson DS. Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior (Harvard University Press, 1998) is in Nature 393 (1998), 639-40. A book review of The Social Animal is NS (14 March 1998), 48-9.

Different groups are still requesting the old space chimp colony, Science 280 (1998), 1186. There has been an unexpectedly high death rate of experimental animals on the space shuttle, Nature 393 (1998), 4. A chimp that has many human-like habits like walking upright is shown by DNA testing to be a chimpanzee, Science 280 (1998), 207. The Japan Monkey Center has arranged the sale of monkeys from zoos to medical research institutes, drawing criticism, Nature 393 (1998), 404. There is a large trade in monkey and primate meat in many countries, NS (2 May 1998), 18-9. A paper on number processing ability is NS (7 March 1998), 43-4; and on the ability of young children to learn new words, Science News 153 (1998), 268-9. A paper on speciesism is in Monash Bioethics Review 17 (April 1998), 30-8. New birth control methods are being tested in South Africa for elephants, BioScience 48 (1998), 76-81. The New Zealand government has delayed introduction of tough laws that were proposed against fighting dogs, Christchurch Star (12 June 1998), A7.

A paper from the International Bioethics Education Survey (see 1996 book from Eubios Ethics Institute) is Tsuzuki, M. et al. "Animal experiments and bioethics in high schools in Australia, Japan, and New Zealand", J. Biological Education 32 (1998), 119-26. Efforts to give mice legal protection in the USA are renewed in Nature 393 (1998), 6. A review is Casebolt, DB. et al. "Care and use of fish as laboratory animals: Current state of knowledge", Laboratory Animal Science 48 (1998), 124-35. There is criticism in a leaked report on the standard of animal care in UK universities, NS (28 March 1998), 4.

Adult primate brains can grow new neurons, Science News 153 (1998), 180. On memory, Nature 393 (1998), 635; Science 280 (1998), 37, 59-60; Newsweek (15 June 1998), 44-50; and brain conditioning, Science 280 (1998), 77-81; and split brains, SA (July 1998), 49-55. The memory of pain can be removed, JAMA 279 (1998), 1114-5. Evidence of unconscious priming during operations performed under anesthesia should make surgeons more positive in what they say during operations, NS (2 May 1998), 14. A paper looking at the motivational state of animals during agonistic encounters, and finding it relates not to size but potential gain in resource value, Nature 393 (1998), 66-8. Speech recognition is discussed in American Scientist 86 (1998), 236-44. On emotion, Nature 393 (1998), 34; Science 280 (1998), 1005-7; NS (7 March 1998), 46-7; SA (May 1998), 104-6; and images of fear, Nature 393 (1998), 417-8. On human mind evolution, Science 280 (1998), 380; NS (21 Feb. 1998), 44-5, (28 March 1998), 51.

A new book is Bekoff, M. with Meaney, CA., Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare (Greenwood Press, 1998, 446pp). A review of the issue is Webster, AJF. "What use is science to animal welfare?", Naturwissenschaften 85 (1998), 262-9. A paper looking at historical ideas is Harrison, P. "The virtues of animals in seventeenth-century thought", J. History of Ideas (1998), 463-84. On consciousness, D, Macer, "Animal consciousness and ethics in Asia and the Pacific", J. Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 10 (1998), 249-67; and a series of 3 other papers on consciousness are in the same issue, pp. 215-296. On deep ethology, Bekoff, M. "Deep ethology and responsible science", The Animal's Agenda (July 1998), 20-1; and The AV Magazine (Winter 1998), 10-18.

Cloned mice have been made renewing the ethics debate, Nature 394 (1998), 408-9. On the mechanism of memories, Science 281 (1998), 1151-2, 1185-7, 1188-91. One of the distinct features of the human mind may be the ability to think randomly, NS (22 August 1998), 32-5. Animal fat and cholesterol is also thought to have allowed a large brain to evolve, Perspectives in Biology & Medicine 41 (1998), 417-25. A book review of The Emotional Brain is Lancet 351 (1998), 1896; and of How the Mind Works, Science 281 (1998), 653. A paper on vocal dialects in bat is Naturwissenschaften 85 (1998), 347-9. Cooperative relationship evolution is discussed in Nature 394 (1998), 175-9. In general on animal rights, Nature 394 (1998), 635-6.

A study of chimpanzees has found they also depend on tool use for survival when in difficult times, Amer. J. Physical Anthropology 106 (1998), 283; NS (22 August 1998), 25. On speciesism, BioScience 48 (1998), 638-41. A Eurasian ape is considered a great ape ancestor, Science 281 (1998), 622-3. A study of domestication of wild guinea pigs is Naturwissenschaften 85 (1998), 307-17. There are more drugs becoming available for treating exotic animals, FDA Consumer (July 1998), 19-25.

Animal experimentation rules in India are discussed in Science 281 (1998), 1777; 282 (1998), 415; Nature 395 (1998), 10, 108. Video images can be some substitute, D'eath, RB. "Can video images imitate real stimuli in animal behaviour experiments", Biological Reviews 73 (1998), 267-92. An alternative to painful skin tests is now accepted by the FDA for many substances, Science 281 (1998), 39. Chimpanzee research is discussed in Science 281 (1998), 47.

A genetic debate is which of our genes make us humans, Science 281 (1998), 1432-4. There may be a great ape genome project, Science 282 (1998), 239-40. Animal communication is discussed in Science News 154 (1998), 174-5; Nature 395 (1998), 29-30, 656-7; and animal play, NS (29 Aug. 1998), 41. Intelligence may be linked to vision also, Nature 396 (1998), 36. Emotions and culture are discussed in Science News 154 (1998), 132, 190-1; Science 281 (1998), 1597. Birds can remember what, where and when, Nature 395 (1998), 11-2, 215-6; Science News 154 (1998), 181. Mathematics sense is discussed in Nature 391 (1998), 856. On the evolution of altruism, Science 281 (1998), 1619-20; NS (12 Sept. 1998), 44-5; Nature 395 (1998), 760-1. Cyborg consciousness is discussed in Human Relations 51 (1998), 1209-26. A review on mate choice and MHC is Heredity 81 (1998), 239-45.

Animal production is discussed in Indian J. Animal Sciences 68 (1998), 701-12. In the UK there are still many supporters of animal hunts, claiming scientific support, NS (19 Sept. 1998), 5. Farmed mink may not be killed humanely, NS (10 Oct. 1998), 16. Teaching great white sharks to link food with children's playboards is considered very dangerous, NS (24 Oct. 1998), 4.

There have been militant animal rights attacks in Germany and the UK, Nature 396 (1998), 505; NS (12 Dec. 1998), 3. A review paper is Dawkins, MS. "Evolution and animal welfare", Quarterly Review of Biology 73 (1998), 305-328. On feminist views on animal science, Schillo, KK. "Toward a pluralistic animal science: Postliberal feminist perspectives", J. Animal Science 76 (1998), 2763-70. A series of papers on animals and humans are in World Health 51 (No.4, July 1998), 3-30. India has backed off central control for animal experiments, putting the responsibility onto local institute and university ethics committees, Science 282 (1998), 1967.

A book review of Horn, RE., Mapping Great Debates: Can Computers Think? (Macro VU Press, 1998), is Nature 396 (1998), 426-7; also NS (28 Nov. 1998), 52. On virtual sounds, Nature 396 (1998)72,1-3 ; and sign language is heard in the auditory cortex, Nature 397 (1999), 116. Gestures help people talk, NS (21 Nov. 1998), 25. The question of whether lack of language led to stone art is discussed in NS (28 Nov. 1998), 10. Singing lessons from mother to child in whales could affect the evolution of the species, NS (5 Dec. 1998), 15; Science 282 (1998), 1616. On whale fossils and origins, SA (Jan 1999), 29-30.

A commentary on interspecies learning is Goodall, Jane "Learning from the Chimpanzees: A message humans can understand", Science 282 (1998), 2184-5. Some New Zealanders have attempted to make the government accept the proposal of the Great Ape Project in law, giving great apes rights under the law, Science 282 (1998), 1255. A book review of Apes, Language and the Human Mind is SA (Nov. 1998), 121.

A book review of Cornwell, J., ed., Consciousness and Human Identity (Oxford University Press, 1998, 256pp.) is Nature 397 (1999), 117-8. Consciousness and complexity is discussed in Science 282 (1998), 1846-51. Monkeys were taught to order numbers from 1-9, Science 282 (19978), 46-9. The evolution of knowledge of numbers is discussed in Science 282 (1998), 641-2. Music training improves verbal memory, Nature 396 (1998), 128. Birds may refine their songs while sleeping, Science 282 (1998), 2163-4. On memory, Lancet 352 (1998), siv6; and long term mind change, Science 282 (1998), 1062-3. Symbols in thinking are reviewed in Nature 396 (1998), 325-7. Consciousness of sight is discussed in BMJ 317 (1998), 1696-7; NS (12 Dec. 1998), 61. Honeybees link sights to smells, Nature 396 (1998), 637. The involvement of peripheral nerves in pain perception is discussed in PNAS 95 (1998), 10354-5. Discussion of pain is in Newsweek (11 Jan 1999), 42-8. Brain regrowth and cortical connections in monkeys are found in Science 282 (1998), 1117-21; and the possibility of brain transplants is discussed in Science 282 (1998), 2213. Brain maps are reviewed in NS (12 Dec. 1998), 60; and on brain size, NS (7 Nov. 1998), 20.

Hunters in the US may soon get an open season on snow geese in an attempt to reduce numbers, NS (28 Nov. 1998), 13. European mink are being given a safe haven from hunting, NS (5 Dec. 1998), 7. A book review of If a Lion could Talk is NS (7 Nov. 1998), 60. Drugs for dogs and cats with Alzheimer's disease are being prescribed in some countries, Science News 154 (1998), 252-4.

The New Zealand government has been asked to give rights to Great Apes other than human beings, as an extension of the Great Ape project; NS (13 Feb. 1999), 3, 20-21; Lancet 353 (1999), 610; Nature 397 (1999), 555. A discussion of whether it is better for animals to live outside (i.e. for their happiness) is NS (23 Jan. 1999), 18-9. A book review on the subject of insect eating cultures is NS (27 March 1999), 52. Debate over whether early humans ate meat is in Science 283 (1999), 303, 368+. Debate over whether Pueblo Indians 1000 years ago were cannibals or just cut corpses in witch executions is reported in Science 283 (1999), 629. Three papers on animal ethics in Italian are in Itinerarium 6 (No. 11, Nov. 1998), 65-100.

Some scientists have called against using chimps for further HIV research, Science 283 (1999), 1090-1; NS (20 Feb. 1999), 6; for ethical and scientific reasons. There are funding problems with housing those chimps already infected with HIV, Nature 398 (1999), 644. A series of papers on ethics of animal experimentation are in CQHE 8 (1999), 1-88; JAMA 281 (1999), 385-6; Science 283 (1999), 181. The European researchers will be able to use rodents for space station experiments, Nature 398 (1999), 642. Letters on animal rights are in Science 283 (1999), 181, 327-9, 639, 938. At the University of Minnesota 116 research animals were stolen by protesters, Nature 398 (1999), 553. The number of animals used for research in Germany in 1997 was 40% less than in 1991 (a total of 1.5 million), Nature 398 (1999), 278. In the USA a lawsuit is forcing the USDA to reconsider what are protected animals for research, Science 283 (1999), 767, 769. The use of pain control by selected nerve cutting is discussed in Science News 155 (1999), 108-9. It is possible a new test using acetic acid on frog legs may be more ethically acceptable than current mammalian tests of pain, NS (6 Feb. 1999), 22. Frogs do not appear capable of experiencing fear. A new book is Dol, M. et al., ed., Recognizing the Intrinsic Value of Animals. Beyond Animal Welfare, Animals in Philosophy and Science (Van Gorcum, 1999, 141pp., ISBN 90-232-3469-3).

Humpback whale songs may include grammar, NS (27 Feb. 1999), 24. A book review on whale evolution is Science 283 (1999), 943. On whale protection, Nature 398 (1999), 365-6; NS (16 Jan. 1999), 5. The cultural life of whales may reduce their diversity, Science News 154 (1998), 342. A device that reads brain waves has allowed people to write sentences, Experimental Brain Research 124 (1998), 223+; NS (? January, 1999), 4. On average they took 80 seconds to chose each character. The ethical question of improving the brain function is discussed in Maquire, GQ. & McGee, EM. "Implantatable brain chips? Time for debate", HCR 29 (No. 1, Jan. 1999), 7-13. A spelling device for the paralyzed is reported in Nature 397 (1999), 297-8.

On connectivity, nurture and human learning, Science 283 (1999), 40-1, 77-9, 798-9, 1538-40, 1832-4; NS (20 March 1999), 30-3. On communication, Science 283 (1999), 333, 1272-3; Nature 397 (1999), 667-72; 398 (1999), 577-8; collective decisions in bees, Nature 397 (1999), 400; and brain healing, Science 283 (1999), 1126-7. A review of the species in the human genus, Science 284 (1999), 65-71. Altruism and selfishness are discussed in NS (27 Feb. 1999), 46-7. A new theory has suggested that cooking tubers signaled a major point in evolution of bigger brains, Science 283 (1999), 2004-5. Research on vocal organs of Neandertals is not convincing on whether they could talk, Science 283 (1999), 175, 1111. A book review on the evolution of grief is Nature 397 (1999), 479-80. A book review of Wills, C. Children of Prometheus: The Accelerating Pace of Human Evolution (Perseus 1998, 310pp.) is Nature 398 (1999), 575-6. On assessing animal cognition, J. Animal Science 76 (1998), 42-7. A book review on psychological testing is Nature 397 (1999), 312-3.

Artificial intelligence is discussed in SA (March 1999), 35-6; Nature 397 (1999), 663-4; NS (9 Jan. 1999), 4.

A new report is Straughan, R. Ethics, Morality and Animal Biotechnology (BBSRC (UK), Spring 1999, 26pp., ISBN 07084-06157). Papers include, Chapouthier, G., "Can the principles of human rights be extended to animals and the environment?", IJB 9 (No. 4, 1998), 53-60. A book review of Nichols, M. & Goodall, J., Brutal Kinship (Aperture 1999, 127pp., US$25) is Nature 399 (1999), 537; which highlights through photos the difference in life style imposed by humans on chimpanzees in captivity. A report on a grey whale kill by the Malak tribe in Washington state, USA is in NS (29 May 1999), 12.

Papers on animal welfare include, Fisher, M. "Animal welfare isn't just a science", Vetscript (June 1998), 2-3; Fisher, MW. "Agricultural ethics - a role in animal production", Proceedings of the NZ Society of Animal Production 57 (1997), 88-90. Results of opinion surveys on the issue in the UK find few people support animal experiments, NS (22 May 1999), 26-31. Animal activists have caused US$2 million damage in an attack at the University of Minnesota, Science 284 (1999), 410-1; NS (17 April 1999), 14. The US Senate is toughening federal penalties for such attacks, Nature 399 (1999), 397.

A discussion of the large wastage of transgenic mice in the efforts to find the desired transgenic animal is NS (8 May 1999), 4. However, lab animals may also be spared with transgenic techniques using sperm, NS (22 May 1999), 21. On regulation of rodents for experiments in the USA, Science 284 (1999), 1463. . The US NAS is supporting the use of alternatives to animals for production of antibodies, Science 284 (1999), 230. The EPA has announced it will no longer require animals for some high production volume chemical tests, NS (15 May 1999), 15.

On the philosophy of pain in philosophy, IJB 9 (No. 4, 1998), 37-42. A series of papers on pain are in Lancet 353 (1999), 1607-9, 1610-5, 1784-8, 1865-9. When one person feels pain other person's neurons fire in sympathy, NS (8 May 1999), 17. A letter on the mystery of female beauty is Nature 399 (1999), 214-5. Evolution of behaviour is discussed in SA (June 1999), 98-9; Nature 399 (1999), 322; and on thinking, Science 284 (1999), 922-3, 970-4, 1531-3. Artificial intelligence is discussed in Science 284 (1999), 745; NS (8 May 1999), 26-31. A study of nerve cells has found that spindle-shaped cells that are associated with speech in humans are found only in closely related apes since the last 15 million years of evolution, but not in other mammal species of whales, NS (8 May 1999), 25. Of course there may be some other processes not yet found as well.

There has been controversy in India over the ordered release of 50 primates from a research facility because of inadequate monkey runs, Lancet 354 (1999), 659; Science 285 (1999), 180-1, 997. On public concern over infections from chmips, NatMed 5 (1999), 718. Animal experiments in the UK rose in 1998 from the figure in 1997 by 0.9%, to a total of 2.66 million procedures. 27% involved genetically modified animals, a rise of 27%, BMJ 319 (1999), 402. There was a 6% fall in primate experiments, and it is still the second lowest total since 1955. Attitudes to animal experiments shift dramatically when people are told they have medical benefits, BMJ 318 (1999), 1438; Science 284 (1999), 1604-6. Researchers are being told to spread more messages of the benefits of animal experiments, JAMA 282 (1999), 619-21. Lawyers for the US government are trying to dismiss a lawsuit that would extend the Animal Welfare Act to cover 23 million mice, rats and birds used in experiments, Nature 400 (1999), 197, 305. Vice President Gore has been criticized for promoting more tests for toxic chemicals, Nature 400 (1999), 606. There may be conflicting results, Science 285 (1999), 1190-1. ES cells may prove to be a useful test for chemicals, NS (5 June 1999), 13.

Henry Spira the animal rights campaigner who died is discussed in Probe 7 (1 August 1999), 1, 5-8. A Spanish judge has ruled against a prohibition on children under 14 years attending bullfights, saying the children are unaffected, Lancet 354 (1999), 496.

The 1.5% average difference in nucleotides between chimps and humans is often with the normal human variation, so more complex tests may be needed to differentiate, NatGen 22 (1999), 119-20; NS (19 June 1999), 58. Chimps in the wild show culture, Vogel, G. gChimps in the wild show stirrings of cultureh, Science 284 (1999), 2070-3; Science News 155 (1999), 315; NS (19 July 1999), 11. Chimps may be models of contentment as well, Science 285 (1999), 661. New research on consciousness is described in Science 284 (1999), 2073-4. Chimp mothers are not easily matched to daughters in photos by chimps, NS (19 June 1999), 19. A complex for Gorilla human interaction in the Bronx is reported in Time (5 July 1999), 40-2. On invention in other species, Science News 155 (1999), 364-6.

The contribution of persistent pain to suffering is discussed in Lancet 353 (1999), 2233-7. Pain can be separated from its anticipation in the human mind, Science 284 (1999), 1979-81. On the meaning of pain in women, SSM 48 (1999), 1791-1802. Genes for painkillers are targets of possible manipulation, Science 284 (1999), 1634. A study of the physiological responses of sheep during long road journeys is in Animal Science 69 (1999), 19-27. Stress and life expectancy in rabbits is reviewed in Naturwissenshaften 86 (1999), 388-93.

A study has shown that owls can experience visual illusions, Nature Neuroscience 2 (1999), 586-8, 660-3.The tendency of humans to view things as alive is discussed in Science News 155 (1999), 360-2. On the myth of unconscious, NEJM 341 (1999), 133. The concept of sentinels who watch out at risk for cooperative mammals is discussed in Science 284 (1999), 1640-4. A book review on caring and the history of hospitals is Science 285 (1999), 1362. Cognition by a minibrain like an insect is discussed in Nature 400 (1999), 718-9. On language, NS (21 August 1999), 36-40; SA (July 1999), 32-4; Nature 400 (1999), 821. Brain implants are being taught how to read the mind, NS (26 June 1999), 7. On the question of whether animals see colours, Philosophical Studies 94 (1999), 189-209.


The Smithsonian Institution cancelled a program on pate de foie gras after pressure from animal rights groups, Probe 7 (Nov 1999), 3-4. There are violent threats on many researchers, NS (6 Nov. 1999), 5; Nature 402 (1999), 7; Science 286 (1999), 1059. The Indian government has been sued over the release of monkeys from the National Institute of Nutrition, Lancet 354 (1999), 846. A review on development of more humane testing is Science 285 (1999), 1068-71. There is an increase in the number of animal rights courses being offered in the USA, Nature Medicine 5 (1999), 973. The Coulston Foundation in the US, the largest chimp care facility, has reached a deal with the government to settle claims it was substandard, Nature 401 (1999), 101; Science 285 (1999), 1649-50. It includes relocating some chimps retired from the space program, NS (6 Nov. 1999), 15.

A book review on childrenfs learning is NS (Oct. 1999), 52-3; Nature 401 (1999), 643-4; Science 285 (1999), 1673-4; 286 (1999), 59-60; and on Toys, NS (Oct. 1999), 38-41. Low status monkeys play dumb when learning in mixed social groups, PNAS 96 (1999), 12965-9. The question of what is human nature and neuroscience is discussed in Brown, WS. & Jeeves, MA. "Portraits of human nature: Reconciling neuroscience and Christian anthropology", Science & Christian Belief 11 (1999), 139-50. Emotions and decision-making are discussed in Science News 156 (1999), 59, 88-90; Nature 401 (1999), 847-9. On memory, Lancet 354 (1999), 1532; Science 285 (1999), 1503-4; and sleep, NS (25 Sept. 1999), 3, 26-30. A family with an early to bed, early to rise mutation has been found, Lancet 354 (1999), 840. Coevolution of language and brain is discussed in BMJ 319 (1999), 715. Sex differences in behaviour may be in the eye of the beholder mainly, NS (Oct. 1999), 52-3. Animal communication was the subject of a conference, Science 285 (1999), 1480-1. On the brain, BMJ 319 (1999), 587; AJHG 65 (1999), 1215-21; NS (9 Oct. 1999), 30-4. A video has been released of what cats see, based on neural signals, NS (2 Oct. 1999), 17. The oldest playable musical instruments have been found from a Chinese site 9000 years old, Nature 401 (1999), 366-7.

Selfishness and cooperation is discussed in BioScience 49 (1999), 899-909. There are ecological implications for wolf behaviour changes in response to climate seen in Nature 401 (1999), 905-7.

Artificial corneas may save rabbits from eye tests, and may eventually be used for human transplants, NS (18 Dec. 1999), 7; Science 286 (1999), 2051-2. Animal rights protests are discussed in Science 286 (1999), 1477; Lancet 354 (1999), 1978. Vegetarianism is discussed in Time (8 Nov, 1999), 76-7. The idea to grow new brains and stem cells is reviewed in Time (8 Nov. 1999), 66-9. A book review on Imaginary Companions and the Children who create them, is Nature 402 (1999), 351.

A review of DNA analysis for whale meat analysis is Bowen, BW. " A field born in conservation's cold war", TREE 15 (2000), 1-2. Evolutionary studies suggest higher primates may have an Asian root, Science News 156 (1999), 244. The violations of a chimp care facility, the Coulston Foundation in the USA, are discussed in Science 286 (1999), 1269-70.

The idea that humans will evolve into a superorganism is discussed in NS (25 Dec. 1999), 78-9; Frith CD. & Frith, U. "Interacting minds - A biological basis", Science 286 (1999), 1692-5. The limits to how much we can have in our brain is discussed in NS (18 Dec. 1999), 26-31. Language is discussed in Science 286 (1999), 2283-4; Current Biology 9 (1999), R672; and reason in Science 286 (1999), 1861-2. Colour perception in a blind patient is analyzed in PNAS 96 (1999), 14124-9. People who know no fear are discussed in Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 266 (1999), 2451-6. In general, Thompson P. "Evolutionary ethics: its origin and contemporary face", Zygon 34 (1999), 473-84.

Escalating violence may be stopping some researchers from using animals, SA (Feb. 2000), 32; JAMA 283 (2000), 743-4. In response to protests the NIH is scaling back the mouse ascites method which currently kills about 1 million mice a year, Science 287 (2000), 207. Vaccine studies are being delayed by a shortage of Indian rhesus macaques, Science 287 (2000), 959-60. Dissection has been banned in Israeli schools, Nature 402 (1999), 845. The effects of sensory deprivation in a nematode worm are reported in Nature 403 (2000), 740-1, 804-9.

Numerical memory span in chimpanzees has been tested in Ai, with a number of 5 being remembered, similar to human preschool children, Kawai, N. & Matsuzawa, T. "Numerical memory span in a chimpanzee", Nature 403 (2000), 39. Chimpanzee links to HIV, and vaccine production in the late 1950s, are discussed in Science 287 (2000), 233. Consciousness is still a mystery, Science 287 (2000), 791. A review on memory is Science 287 (2000), 248-51. A protein based element of inheritance is discussed in Science 287 (2000), 661-4.On pain, JAMA 283 (2000), 117; and language, Nature 403 (2000), 361-2.

Industry in the UK is asking for laws to stop animal rights economic terrorism, Financial Times (6 April 2000), 10. There have been complaints over the delays in animal license processing in the UK, Nature 404 (2000), 529. A comment on ethics is van Hoosier, GL. "Principles and paradigms used in human medical ethics can be used as models for the assessment of animal research", Comparative Medicine 50 (2000), 103-5.

A study has found goats were domesticated 10000 years ago, Zeder MA. & Hesse, B. "The initial domestication of goats (Capra hircus) in the Zagros mountains 10,000 years ago", Science 287 (2000), 2254-7. A review on the mind of a dog after domestication is NS (March 2000), 22-7. The question of number representation in animals is reviewed in American Scientist 88 (2000), 144-51.

Japan is continuing to attempt to down-list several whale species from their endangered status, Nature 404 (2000), 531-2. A study of diving mammals has revealed how they conserve energy, by intermittent locomotion, Science 288 (2000), 83-4.

Embryo splitting techniques allow production of cloned rhesus monkeys in larger numbers, NatBio 18 (2000), 135. There is a shortage of rhesus monkeys for AIDS experiments in the USA, Science 287 (2000), 1591. Protests have led to the closure of only primate breeding facility in the UK is reported in Nature 404 (2000), 215.Payment for labour in monkey communities is reported in Nature 404 (2000), 563. A new book is Goodall, J. Africa in my Blood. An Autobiography in Letters (Houghton Mifflin, 386pp.).

There are archaelogical signs from a Homo erectus site half a million years old in Japan that they built huts, NS (March 2000), 4.The study of ancient DNA from Neanderthals is giving clues that we lived together for many thousands of years, Nature 404 (2000), 127, 453-4, 490-3; Science 287 (2000), 2405; SA (April 2000), 98-107. The question of cognitive decline in aging is discussed in Nature 404 (2000), 125. On Art and the Brain, Nature 404 (2000), 123-4; and dreams, NEJM 342 (2000), 899-900. Intelligence is discussed in Science 287 (2000), 1395. Pain killers may need to be sex specific, BMJ 320 (2000), 536. Artificial life is discussed in NS (1 April 2000), 42-7.

A review on the cloning debate is Coghlan, S. "An ethical examination of the public response to non-human mammalian cloning", Monash Bioethics Review 19 (2000), 12-32. The NIH has taken over responsibility for the care of 288 chimpanzees infected with HIV and hepatitis C as a result of research projects, Nature 405 (2000), 262. Chimpanzees not only use toothpicks but also use twigs to extract loose deciduous teeth, Science 288 (2000), 1747. Macaques in many parks are infected with herpes B which can be passed by blood contact into humans sometimes, giving rise to some debate on whether they should be killed for public health reasons, NS (23 April 2000), 16. On animal care in Austria, Nature 405 (2000), 13. A discussion of the mechanisms of pain is Science 288 (2000), 1669-72. A study of the affects of transport in summer on horses is J. Animal Science 78 (2000), 1458-66. A study of transportation on goats is J. Animal Science 78 (2000), 1450-7. Analysis of whale meat in Japan shows it is hiding an illegal trade in endangered whales, some accidentally caught, though most may be accidentally caught, NS (1 July 2000), 11. The Olympics are expected to lead to increased consumption of kangaroo meat in Australia.

The development of human nature is discussed in Nature 405 (2000), 512-3, 931-3; Science 288 (2000), 816-7. A book review of Odent, M. The Scientification of Love (Free Association Books, 2000, 130pp.) is BMJ 320 (2000), 1346. A book review of Boehm, C. Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior (Harvard University Press 1999), is Nature 405 (2000), 735-6. A study of language discrimination in human newborns and cotton-top tamarin monkeys show both could distinguish Dutch from Japanese only when played in the forward direction, not backwards, Science 288 (2000), 349-51. Study of primate language is discussed in Science News 157 (2000), 280-2. Whale songs lengthen in response to sonar, Nature 405 (2000), 903. In the social wasp Polistes dominulus unrelated helpers work together, Nature 405 (2000), 784-7. Also on cooperation, Science 288 (2000), 850-2; Science News 157 (2000), 231. Female owls advertise good genes before males do, Science News 157 (2000), 310. A book review of Bagemihil, B. Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity (St. Martin's Press 1999, 751pp.), on the wide extent of animal homosexuality is JAMA 283 (2000), 2170.

Artificial intelligence and the Internet as a global brain are discussed in NS (24 June 2000), 11, 23-7. On social engineering, NS (6 May 2000), 46-7. The future of robots that can reshape themselves and rebuild themselves is starting, NS (13 May 2000), 6.

A book review of Tansey, G. & D'Silva, J., The Meat Business: Devouring a Hungry Planet (Earthscan Publications 2000) is BMJ 321 (2000), 306. A US federal judge has granted that activists have a right to challenge the USDA exemptions for rodents and birds from experimental rules, Science 289 (2000), 377. Heidegger and animal welfare is explored in Environmental Ethics 22 (2000), 259-71. A study of how children see animals is J. Biol. Edu. 33 (1999), 142-8. Results of animal experiments that are connected to a stroke therapy called constraint-induced movement therapy, Probe 8 (1 July 2000), 1, 6. On alternative tests, Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), A118-9.

Book reviews on Great Ape culture study are Nature 406 (2000), 345-6. Primates have a history of conflict resolution, Science 289 (2000), 586-90. The development of fair play is modeled in Nature 406 (2000), 248-9; and on evolution of the mind, Nature 406 (2000), 124-5; Science 288 (2000), 2137; and language, Science 289 (2000), 251-2; Current Biology 10 (2000), R516-7. There is a link between sleep and memory processing, Lancet 356 (2000), 405. The brain is still difficult to divide into regions, Nature 406 (2000), 565; but a brain project is developing, Nature 406 (2000), 443, 445, 545-6. On the brain, Nature 406 (2000), 458-9; and learning periods, Science 288 (2000), 2116-9. Optimization may be modeled after social insect behaviour, Nature 406 (2000), 39-42. General intelligence has been supported by experiments, Duncan, J. et al. "A neural basis for general intelligence", Science 289 (2000), 457-60, 399-400; NS (29 July 2000), 3. Emotional intelligence is important for leadership, Human Relations 53 (2000), 1027-55.

The number of animals used for transgenic experiments in the UK in 1999 rose 14% to 512,000, Nature 406 (2000), 821. On the use of transgenic animals in testing, Splice 6 (Sept. 2000), 8-9. A call to include mice and birds in the US Animal welfare Act as "animals" is made in Orlans, FB. "The injustice of excluding laboratory rats, mice, and birds from the Animal Welfare Act", KIEJ 10 (2000), 229-38. Also on the exclusion of rodents, NS (9 Sept. 2000), 12-3; Nature 407 (2000), 549, 659; Science 289 (2000), 23, 243-4. Indian rules on animal experiments have been tightened, Lancet 356 (2000), 1421. The question of laws versus guidelines is debated in Nature 408 (2000), 133, 675-6. The experiments should be well designed anyway otherwise they will be a waste, Nature 407 (2000), 671.

A paper on positive correlation between good relations and productivity is seen in Hemsworth, PH. Et al. gRelationships between human-animal interactions and productivity of commercial dairy cowsh, J. Animal Science 78 (2000), 2821-31. The effect of hut design on pigs is assessed in J. Animal Science 78 (2000), 2832-5. The violent attacks by activists in the UK are intimidating many researchers, Nature 407 (2000), 3. The question of eating fish before meat because of the ecological situation of tuna, Ecologist 30 (2000), 46.

The power of memes is discussed in SA (Oct. 2000), 64-72; Philosophy 75 (2000), 161-82. On consciousness, Nature 407 (2000), 450-1, 564; NS (2 Sept. 2000), 46-7. Human concept learning is discussed in Nature 407 (2000), 630-3. Humans may flirt like guppies, Science News 158 (2000), 143. Mice that win in a fight the day before are more likely to win the next day too, NS (19 Aug. 2000), 7. The concept of evolutionary progress is discussed in BioScience 50 (2000), 451-8. Databasing the brain is discussed in Nature 406 (2000), 822-5.

The rapid loss of minor languages in the world is discussed in NS (12 Aug. 2000), 16-7. Technology is also related to language, SA (Sept. 2000), 107, 110. Whistle matching in dolphins shows individual language, Janik, VM. gWhistle matching in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)h, Science 289 (2000), 1355-7, 1310-1. On the controversial decision of japan to start killing more whales, Science 289 (2000), 2264-5. The noise in the Arctic may create a problem for some whales, NS (30 Sept. 2000), 12. On animal built structures, Science 289 (2000), 1882.

Chimpanzees in Madrid have started to puree their food to prepare it, NS (Sept. 2000), 6. Chimp knowledge is discussed in NS (14 Oct. 2000), 39-42. Love is discussed in NS (28 Oct. 2000), 38-41. Motivations for generosity are discussed in Science 290 (2000), 454-5. On the role of sex in human behaviour, Science 289 (2000), 1478-9. Human pheromones are discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 835; NS (2 Sept. 2000), 7. Book reviews of Robo sapeins. Evolution of a New Species are NS (16 Sept. 2000), 51; SA (Oct. 2000), 96-8. Artificial life is discussed in Nature 407 (2000), 945-6.

There is evidence of cannibalism in Southwestern USA, Nature 407 (2000), 25-6, 74-8; Science 289 (2000), 1663. A book review on Forest of Taboos is Science 289 (2000), 2288.

The LD50 test is no longer to be used in any of the 29 OECD countries, NS (9 Dec. 2000), 3, 6. The changes to include mice and birds as protected animals under the USDA Animal Welfare Act is applauded in Science 290 (2000), 1299-300; Science News 158 (2000), 334-5; NatMed. 6 (2000), 1197. A review of prescriptions for animals is FDA Consumer< (Nov. 2000), 24-30. The question of how to define distress is discussed in Science 290 (2000), 1474-5. Two papers on animal ethics are Morris, MC. “Ethical issues associated with sheep fly strike research, prevention, and control”, J. Ag. & Env. Ethics 13 (2000), 205-17; Morris, M. “Animal care ethics, ANZCCART, and public perceptions of animal use ethics”, J. Ag. & Env. Ethics 13 (2000), 249-57. Alternatives to animal tests are discussed in <Everyman’s Science <35 (April 2000), 30-2.

Two studies of whether animals bite more under full moon have concluded that they do, but dogs may not, BMJ 321 (2000), 1559-63. A new look at the theory that humans evolved as a semiaquatic ape in the ocean is NS (Dec. 2000), 28-33.

Chimpanzees are discussed in Nature 409 (2001), 133. The Great Ape Project has started a census of apes living domestically in the USA, calling for volunteers to describe their lives, Science 290 (2000), 929. The US Congress has approved a retirement plan for chimpanzees that have helped medical science, that involves a series of sanctuaries, Science 290 (2000), 2233. A primate genome project is discussed in Science 290 (2000), 1504-5. There has been debate on the genetic engineering of Andi, a rhesus money (see Animal Genetic Engineering section). There is controversy in Japan over the fate of Japanese macaque monkeys that are captured, and some of which who are sent to research laboratories(between 1-2,000 a year), Nature 408 (2000), 280, 637. New guidelines have been drafted by the Environmental Agency.

The question of illegal whaling in Japan as a source of profit is debated in Science 290 (2000), 1695-6. Humpback whales in the Pacific off Australia have changed their theme song after introduction of a theme song from Indian ocean individuals, Nature 408 (2000), 537. On the future of bowhead whales, NS (18 Nov. 2000), 44-6. Also on whales and dolphins, Science News 158 (2000), 284-6. Consciousness is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 77; NS (18 Nov. 2000), 35-9.

A study of altruism in slime mould, Dictyostelium discoideum, is Nature 408 (2000), 965-7. Human language is discussed in Nature 408 (2000), 403-4; Science 290 (2000), 2051-2; PNAS 97 (2000), 13476-7. Penguin fathers preserve food for their chicks, Nature 408 (2000), 928-9. Brain cells detect danger before we feel fear, Lancet 356 (2000), 47. Neurons in monkey prefrontal cortex track past or predict future performance, Science 290 (2000), 1786-9. Lithium increases the amount of gray matter in the brain, Science News< 158 (2000), 309. On memory, Nature 408 (2000), 525. We may be able to boost memory, Science 290 (2000), 2275-6. Sleep deprivation impairs memory, Lancet 356 (2000), 1907. In general on neuroscience, Science 290 (2000), 1113-20. On artificial intelligence, Nature 408 (2000), 305-6; 409 (2001), 17-8, 409-11; Newsweek Special Issue (Dec. 2000), 54-6.

The ethics of animal biotechnology are discussed in Salvi, M. "Transforming animal species: the case of Oncomouse", Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (2001), 15-28. He looks at why people make a difference between animals and human germ-line engineering. A letter from FASEB to say that their opposition to proposed changes in the USDA animal law is not a lack of concern about animals is Nature 409 (2001), 977. The need for a middle ground in animal experiments is discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 244, 248-9; Nature Immunology 1 (2000), 359; NS (27 Jan. 2001), 3. A report from the attacks on Huntingdon Life Sciences because of their animal tests is Nature 409 (2001), 429; NS (27 Jan. 2001), 3. A call to reduce ship speeds to 14 knots to lower the whale mortality rate caused by ship collisions is NS (27 Jan. 2001), 14. Also on the Right whale, Science 291 (2001), 429.

The ability to empathize with others may be in the right prefrontal cortex, Lancet 357 (2001), 366; Brain 124 (2001), 279-86. The process of assigning objects to categories is studied in primate research in Science 291 (2001), 260-2, 312-5. On the evolution of universal grammar, Science 291 (2001), 114-7. Autonomous mental development in robots and animals is discussed in Science 291 (2001), 599-600.

A report from the Japanese chimpanzee genome project is Nature 409 (2001), 651-2. A book review on the chimpanzee world view is Science 291 (2001), 440-1. A review is Whiten, A. & Boesch, C. "The cultures of chimpanzees", SA (Jan. 2001), 48-55. On altruism in baboons, NS (27 Jan. 2001), 19.

The question of whether Japanese macaques are threatened by neuroscience research is raised in Nature Neuroscience 4 (2001), 335. In Germany a 400 page list of scientists who work with animals has been published as part of a scar campaign, Nature 410 (2001), 857. In the UK some companies have expressed concern over the activities against animal experiments, and the Huntingdon Life Sciences, Nature 410 (2001), 733. The director of that lab. was attacked by a group, Nature 410 (2001), 8. On USDA regulations to use lab. animals, JAMA 285 (2001), 941. On animal testing in India, Lancet 357 (2001), 885-6. Animal research in the post genome era may increase as models increase for human disease, Lancet 357 (2001), 817. Sweden has backed a ban on animal tested cosmetics, European Voice (5 April 2001), 3. On fur farming for mink, Nature 410 (2001), 35-6. On Heidegger and animal welfare, Env. Ethics 22 (2000), 259-71. Assessing the welfare state is discussed in Nature 410 (2001), 31-2.

In Japan the child chimpanzee Ayumu is learning Japanese characters from his mother Ai, Science 292 (2001), 205. The question of how the genome alters the view humans have of themselves and other species is discussed in Science 291 (2001), 1219-20. The Biomedical Primate Research Centre in the Netherlands, which houses 1000 chimps is to be targeted for closure by animal welfare groups, Nature 410 (2001), 506. On the chimp genome project, Science 291 (2001), 2297; NS (17 Feb. 2001), 18. A book review of de Waal, F. The Ape and the Sushi Master (Basic Books 2001) is NS (7 April 2001), 49. A discussion of orangutans is NS (3 March 2001), 26-31. On monkeys and humans, Science 291 (2001), 1705-6. Primate research will soon be ended as animals become extinct, Nature Neuroscience 4 (2001), 111. Development of moral sense is discussed in NS (3 March 2001), 38-42.

A new branch to the dolphin family tree has been added, Science 291 (2001), 2531-2. New Zealand continues to push for a South Pacific whale sanctuary to the IWCC and Japan rejects it. On the cultural life of whales, NS (24 March 2001), 26-31. There is no pain if no brain, Lancet 357 (2001), 939. Animal belief is discussed in Philosophy 75 (2000), 587-598. On memes and minds and evolution, Philosophy 75 (2000), 161-82. A new book is Roell, D.R., The World of Instinct. Niko Tinbergen and the Rise of Ethology in the Netherlands (1920-1950), (Van Gorcum 2000, 242pp.). The career of Niko Tinbergen is traced to the development of ethology, and behavioral sciences.

Human flesh is on sale in Moldova, Japan Times (14 April 2001), 14. On cannibalism, NS (3 March 2001), 54.

A paper on ethics are Munro, L. "Future animal: Environmental and animal welfare perspectives on the genetic engineering of animals", CQHE 10 (2001), 314-24; Engels, EM. "The moral status of animals in discussions on xenotransplantation (part 1)", Human Genome Review 13 (July 2000), 165-82; Harvard Law Review 114 (2001), 1542-9. Animals are more conscious than early thought, PNAS 98 (2001), 4833-4; NS (30 June 2001), 48-51; which implications for ethics, Philosophical Studies 103 (2001), 315-40. A paper on the appropriate number of rats in cages is Laboratory Animals 35 (2001), 80-90. On human consciousness, Nature 411 (2001), 415-6. The future of zoos is discussed in Science 292 (2001), 1304-5; BioScience 51 (2001), 172-7.

Dolphins have been shown to recognize themselves in mirrors, apparently, SA (July 2001), 15; Science News 159 (2001), 279. Japan is still calling for more whaling, NS (9 June 2001), 17. Facial recognition is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 1271; NS (16 June 2001), 25. Elephants can recognize friend or foe, McComb, K. et al. "Matriarchs as repositories of social knowledge in African elephants", Science 292 (2001), 491-4, 417-8; Science News 159 (2001), 244. Pain perception is discussed in PNAS 98 (2001), 6537-9. A survey of Swedish students responses to compulsory courses in laboratory animal science is Laboratory Animals 35 (2001), 188-93. Animal tests and the genome pooroject are discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 1805-6.

Europe has stopping experiments on chimpanzees, Nature 411 (2001), 123. A discussion of animal rights groups activities is BioCentury (30 April 2001), A12-3; Newsweek (7 May 2001), 54-6; Nature 411 (2001), 7. On chimpanzees, Current Anthropology (2001), 407-8; SA (July 2001), 15; American Scientist 89 (2001), 120-2; NS (28 April 2001), 49; Nature 411 (2001), 126-8, 525-6, 995-6; Science 292 (2001), 205. The NIH has found a home for 300 chimpanzees at Charles River laboratories, Science 292 (2001), 1279-80. Gene expression in chimps differs to human brains, Science 292 (2001), 44-5; Animal traditions is reviewed in NatGen 28 (2001), 15. On hand morphology and tool use in early humans, PNAS 98 (2001), 2953-5.

A study of the reliability of research protocol reviews for animal research is discussed in Science 293 (2001), 608-9. On animal welfare and science, ATLA 29 (2001), 209-10; JAMA 286 (2001), 304-5. The difficult fate of Indian bears that were forced not to perform by an animal rights shift in India is discussed in Time (9 April 2001), 45.

Other Great Apes also use herbal medicines, Huffman, MA. "Self-medicative behaviour in the African Great Apes: An evolutionary perspective into the origins of human traditional medicine", BioScience 51 (2001), 651-61. The pressures in the Congo on gorilla survival are discussed in NS (21 July 2001), 43-5. On animal culture, Newsweek (21 May 2001), 60-1. Chimp handedness is discussed in Science 293 (2001), 601. Egalitarianism in female lions is reported in Science 293 (2001), 589, 690-3. Long distance communication in elephants may be through low frequency waves, NS (4 August 2001), 28-31. Human language processing is discussed in SA (June 2001), 42-49.

A study of the Mu opioid receptor and pain perception is Science 293 (2001), 311-5. On sensory neurons and pain, NatMed. 7 (2001), 772-3; Lancet 358 (2001), 168-9. There are cultural differences in expressions of happiness, Science 293 (2001), 45. In general on cognitive neuroscience, Nature 412 (2001), 128-9.

Petting of dolphins can be harmful to them, Time (21 May 2001), 52-3. The future of the IWC and its problems in controlling whaling are discussed in NS (4 August 2001), 3-4. A paper on the study of consciousness is in Biology International 41 (June 2001), 53-60. A book review of Animal Traditions is Science 293 (2001), 610-1. The question of neurotheology and whether God is needed by the human brain is discussed in Newsweek (14 May 2001), 40-5. Also on God, Science 293 (2001), 54. The question of what is human and science is discussed in Nature 412 (2001), 479-80. A discussion between the Dalai Lama and scientists on scientific ways to study meditation is reported in Research News and Opportunities in Science and Theology 1 (July 2001), 1-2. A paper on the nature of emotions is in American Scientist 89 (2001), 344-50.

The evidence that humans were cannibals is reviewed in SA (August 2001), 48-55. A study of Neanderthal cranial ontogeny is Nature 412 (2001), 534-8. There is a lack of fossil evidence on the evolution of chimpanzees, Nature 412 (2001), 131-2. Artistic creativity and the brain is discussed in Science 293 (2001), 51-2; BMJ 323 (2001), 55. On evolutionary ethics, AIBA Newslink 4 (August 2001), 1-2. Virtual playmates may be an extension of this for children, NS (28 July 2001), 23. Also on artificial intelligence, NS (11 August 2001), 20.

A survey of animal laboratories I India found 300 of 367 were not keeping animals properly, Science 293 (2001), 2187-8. A book review on rats is NS (8 Sept. 2001), 48. The Coulston Foundation in New Mexico has lost its license from the NIH to house 300 chimpanzees, Science 293 (2001), 1415-6. A paper on the plight of orangutans is The Ecologist 31 (Sept. 2001), 34-7. A policy change in Indonesia may lead to release of hundreds from captivity, NS (22 Sept. 2001), 14. The question of how many primates are endangered is discussed in NS (6 Oct. 2001), 54.

A book review of The Triumph of Sociobiology is Nature 413 (2001), 109-10. Evolution of animals and humans is discussed in Nature 413 (2001), 157-61, 252-3, 455-6; Science 293 (2001), 1246-9. Whale evolution is discussed in Science 293 (2001), 2216-7, 2239-42; Nature 413 (2001), 277-81; NS (22 Sept. 2001), 18. Doubts over the effects of sonar on whales are expressed in SA (Oct. 2001), 12-3. Neanderthal evolution is discussed in Science News 160 (2001), 71; Science 293 (2001), 1980-1; and on other humans, SA (Oct. 2001), 26-7; Nature 413 (2001), 514-9.

A possible neural difference in human brains and other animals is discussed in Science News 160 (2001), 132. On consciousness, Nature 413 (2001), 683. Moral reasoning has been found to depend on emotion, Science 293 (2001), 1971-2. Making eye contact enhances the appeal of a pleasing face, of either gender, Nature 413 (2001), 589. A cortical area has been found to be selective for visual processing of the human body, Science 293 (2001), 2425-30, 2470-3. A study that has found how some people are tone deaf is NS (22 Sept. 2001), 21. On baby hand movements and language, Nature 413 (2001), 35. Artificial consciousness is discussed in Nature 413 (2001), 23. A review of the film AI is NS (28 July 2001), 40-43.

A review is Kolber, A. gStanding upright: The moral and legal standing of humans and other apesh, Stanford Law Review 54 (2001), 163-204. A review of why humans are a musical species, and its significance is Natural History (Dec 2001), 48-57. The acquisition of symbolic language is considered to be a distinct feature of humans, SA (Dec. 2001), 42-9. An asymmetric Broca area in other great apes like humans suggests similar potential for speech, Nature 414 (2001), 505. A discussion of culture by Frans de Waal is NS (15 Dec. 2001), 46-9. The molecular biology of memory storage is reviewed in Science 294 (2001), 1030-8; and on the role of sleep in memory and learning, Science 294 (2001), 1048-51; Nature 414 (2001), 546-50. A book review of A Mind So Rare: The Evolution of Human Consciousness is BMJ 323 (2001), 1312. A series of papers on altered states of consciousness are in Social Research 68 (2001), 585-904. Baboons have some abstract thought, NS (20 Oct. 2001), 6.

The punishment of free riders, as a type of altruistic cooperation sustains cooperation between people, Nature 415 (2002), 125-8, 137-40. A review on fair play is SA (Jan 2002), 80-5. Neural processing may cause laterality in tool making by crows, Nature 414 (2001), 707. Regional magnetic fields are navigational markers for sea turtles, Science 294 (2001), 364-5. A single gene dictates ant social behaviour, Science 294 (2001), 1434. Germany has seen an increase in laboratory animal deaths due to deaths from transgenic mice, Nature 414 (2001), 835.

A book review of Regan, T. Defending Animal Rights (Univ. Illinois Press, 2001, 224pp.) is in Nature 414 (2001), 396-7. An animal rights protestor who was in prison in the UK has starved himself to death, Nature 414 (2001), 242. Letters on the assessment of reviewers of animal research are in Science 294 (2001), 1831-2. Molecular biology is helping pain research, The Scientist (29 Oct. 2001), 16, 18, 27. On the evolution of human birth, SA (Nov. 2001), 60-5.

The fragility of the Right whale population in the North Atlantic is shown in a study suggesting that a reduction in the deaths of two females per year would make the difference between survival and not of the species, Nature 414 (2001), 493-4, 537-41. Also on Right whales as markers of ecological shifts, Science 294 (2001), 1894. The US Navy has admitted that a high power sonar caused the death of at least 16 whales (and suspected many more) in March 2000, Nature 415 (2002), 106. Noise can bring on decompression sickness in whales and dolphins, NS (15 Dec. 2001), 17.

The question of the integrity of animals made by genetic engineering is debated in Bovenkerk, B. et al. "Brave new birds: The use of 'animal integrity' in animal ethics", HCR 32 (Jan. 2002), 16-22; Smith, KR. "Animal genetic manipulation \ A utlilatarian response", Bioethics 16 (2002), 55-71. On animal research in the UK, BME 174 (2002), 7-8. The question of animal pacing in cages is discussed in NS (26 Jan. 2002), 34-7.

The construction of a chimpanzee-human comparative clone map has neem reported in Science 295 (4. 2002). A major gene influencing social behavior has been reported to be a pheromone binding protein, Science 295 (2002), 328-31. Discussion of the enlargement of the human brain is in NS (16 March 2002), 11. On cyborgs, NS (23 Feb. 2002), 26-9.


From May 2002 news the papers on conxiousness are placed in the related News file on Mental Function and the Mind.

Some of the ways that advanced medicine is helping the health of pets is discussed in Pathways 3 (April 2002), 3-23. The US senate blocked the moves to extend animal protection for rodents and birds, Nature 415 (2002), 826; Science 295 (2002), 1190-1. A German law that restricts animal research further is discussed in Nature 416 (2002), 355. On animal rights debates, Lancet 359 (2002), 809; Nature 414 (2002), 687. Examination of whether animal experiment data helps medicine in fluid resuscitation is BMJ 324 (2002), 474-6..

Unventilated cages can have high carbon dioxide levels, Laboratory Animals 36 (2002), 209-12. The issue of cage comfort and research is discussed in NS (9 March 2002), 11. Recommendations for health monitoring of rodent and rabbit colonies are in Laboratory Animals 36 (2002), 20-42. Animal health habits can help human health, NS (23 Feb. 2002), 42-5.

There is evidence that cattle were herded in Africa for 10,000 years, Hanotte, O. et al. "African pastoralism: Genetic imprints of origins and migrations", Science 296 (2002), 336-9, 236.

A book review of great Apes and Humans is NS (9 Feb. 2002), 48. A new primate research center at the University of Cambridge was halted by protests, Nature 415 (2002), 725. There are calls to allow primate research in Europe to continue, Nature 416 (2002), 670. Most large primates in Africa are killed for their meat, NS (9 March 2002), 14. A bank loan to a chimp care facility in USA is discussed in Nature 415 (2002), 248. Mutualism in cooperative vertebrates is reviewed in Science 296 (2002), 69-72. Gene evolution studies suggest the brain has evolved quickly, Science 296 (2002), 234-5. Brain size and intellect are discussed in NS (23 Feb. 2002), 15; Nature Neuroscience (2002); Science 295 (2002), 1220-3. The origin of language is discussed in NS (30 March 2002), 24-7. The question of whether early humans could think and cave paintings from 100,000 years ago are discussed in Newsweek (21 Jan. 2002), 43. A review on the evolution of whales is SA (May 2002), 52-61. The far-reaching impacts of the lowered whale numbers in the 20th century on the ecosystem are discussed in Science 295 (2002), 1457. Whaling in Japan is discussed in NS (2 Feb. 2002), 6. At the May 2002 meeting of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) Japan failed to get support for increasing its whale catch.

Some of the ethical issues of engineering animals are discussed in Reiss, M. "Engineering animals to order", Biologist 45 (1998), 161-3. A book review of Marks, J. What it means to be 98% Chimpanzee: Apes, people and their genes (University of California Press, 2002) is NS (8 June 2002), 50. Discussion of how animals feel virtues is in NS (13 July 2002), 34-7. A call for allowing some experiments on primates is made in Nature 417 (2002), 673.

Discussion of whether animal experiments are less cruel if animals willingly cooperate is in NS (6 July 2002), 22. Discussion of a controversial cat study is in Nature 417 (2002), 778. Animal rights has been added to the German constitution, BioCentury (20 May 2002), A13. Research has shown that dolphins and whales contain such high levels of mercury that they are unsafe for humans to eat, whether or not they should be caught according to the IWC, NS (8 June 2002), 17. The IWC failed to reach agreements, NS (1 June 2002), 9.

Systematic reviews of animal experiments are called for in the UK, Lancet 360 (2002), 586. The UK House of Lords has suggested alternatives should be encouraged and researched, BMJ 325 (2002), 238. Ethics of animal genetic manipulation and research is discussed in Bioethics 16 (2002), 55-71. The need to reinterpret some Biblical passages on the meaning of human nature and animals is raised in Jeeves, M. "Changing portraits of human nature", Science & Christian Belief 14 (2002), 3-32, also p. 33-50. A study has shown that dogs can count, NS (3 Aug. 2002), 20.

Discussion of the justification for animal testing is in Nature 419 (2002), 337; BMJ 325 (2002), 1038-9; NS (20 July 2002), 14-5; (23 Nov., 2002), 16-7; Scrip Magazine (Oct. 2002), 11-3; ATLA 30 (2002), 477-8; Science 298 (2002), 1515. Primate experiments are even more difficult to justify, NS (23 Nov., 2002), 5. Research on the mechanism of pain is developing, Lancet 359 (2002), 1786; 360 (2002), 1002.

In the future robots could be good friends for children, NS (3 Aug. 2002), 22-3; (16 Nov., 2002), 30-3. Study of a gene that affects fear response is Science 297 (2002), 319. Animal cognition is discussed in Nature 419 (2002), 255; NS (12 Oct., 2002), 50-1. A book review on Pavlov's phyisology factory is Nature 419 (2002), 252-3. Social feeding in Caenorhabditis elegans is induced by neurons that detect aversive stimuli, Nature 419 (2002), 899-903. The evolution of animal behaviour and nosy neighbours are discussed in Nature 419 (2002), 242-3. A book review of Blum, D., Love at Goon Park is SA (Nov. 2002), 78-9.

Retired chimps from the Coulston Foundation are being moved to a sanctuary, Science 297 (2002), 2191-3; Nature 419 (2002), 330. Efforts to save great apes in Africa are being made, as they face great threat, Science 297 (2002), 2203. The DNA between chimps and humans is jumbled in sequence, Science 298 (2002), 719-20; Nature 418 (2002), 910-2; Lancet 360 (2002), 504. The behaviour of orangutans is reviewed in SA (June 2002), 46-51.

A law suit has linked the death of whales to a research cruise, Science 298 (2002), 722. Californian sea lions have performed memory tests better than other non-human animals, NS (26 Oct., 2002), 25.

In the UK a House of Lords Committee concluded that animal experiments will remain, Science 297 (2002), 767.  There was controversy in Cambridge over the proposed construction of a new primate research center, Science 298 (2002), 1862-3; Nature 420 (2002), 447. In New Zealand there has been debate over opossum fur trade traps, NS (14 Dec., 2002), 13. In India scientists have accused the government in limits on animal research, BMJ 325 (2002), 1192.

A book review on marine mammals is Science 297 (2002), 58-9. The dangers of underwater noise to animals in the sea is discussed in Nature 420 (2002), 740; NS (14 Dec., 2002), 20. On the economics of animal cooperation, Science 298 (2002), 2146-7. Fungus-farming insects have multiple evolutionary origins, PNAS 99 (2002), 15247-9. A book review of Love at Goon park is Nature 420 (2002), 741.

A book review on chimpanzee emotions is Science 298 (2002), 1720-1. Book reviews of Marks, J. What it Means to be 98% Chimpanzee are NatMed. 8 (2002), 1193;  NEJM 347 (2002), 2087.

Ethics of biotechnology using animals is discussed in J. Commercial Biotechnology 9 (2003), 163-70. An Indian activist on animal rights has been removed from the government committee, BMJ 326 (2003), 68. On animal rights in general, Science 299 (2003), 1013-4.  A book review of Love at Goon Park is in NEJM 348 (2003), 670-1.

Kanzi the bonobo has started to talk, NS (25 Jan., 2003), 12. Chimpanzee tool use is taught by group behaviour, Science 299 (2003), 27-8. Tests of a sonar designed to protect whales have been called of because the sonar itself might harm whales, Nature 421 (2003), 202.

The conclusions of the UK House of Lords Select Committee in Animals in Scientific Procedures are in BME 185 (2003), 10-1. The Nuffield Council has set up a panel to examine animal research,  BME 186 (2003), 5. A report from a Cambridge meeting that debated primate research, Science 298 (2002), 1862-3. Vegetarianism is discussed in Environmental Ethics 24 (2002), 275+. A book review on Looking for Spinoza is SA (March 2003), 78-9. Animals in seventh Century marketplace in the UK are reviewed in Social History of Medicine 15 (2002), 375-92. Equality across species is debated in Environmental Ethics 24 (2002), 295+, 339-52. False memories and pain are discussed in Science 299 (2003), 1306.

The ethics of introduced large herbivores in Europe is discussed in Environmental Ethics 24 (2002), 3+. Animal behaviour and feeding is discussed in Current Biology 13 (2003), 763-6; and on dog behaviour, Byrne, R. "Animal communication: What makes a dog able to understand its master?", Current Biology 13 (2003), R347-8. A cheap dog contraceptive vaccine may lessen the need for sterilization, NS (19 April 2003), 19. On ecofeminism, Environmental Ethics 24 (2002), 149+. Lawsuits have blocked trials of sonar, because it may harm whales, SA (May 2003), 17; NS (22 Feb. 2003), 8.

Neuroethics is discussed in AIBA Newslink 6 (June 2003), 1-2. Animal rights are questioned in National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2003), 287-308. Whaling is discussed in NS (24 May 2003), 11; (21 June 2003), 3, 7. Strict laws can make research designed to benefit animals also difficult, Science 300 (2003), 1486. Fish lips may feel pain, Science 300 (2003), 897. Attitudes to animal experiments in UK and France are discussed in ATLA 31 (2003), 83-4. Transgenic mice may be an alternative to monkeys for testing of live polio vaccine now, Bulletin WHO 81 (2003), 251-60.

A call for those countries opposed to whaling to clearly state their moral objections is in NS (23 Aug. 2003), 3. Animal rights are questioned in National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2003), 287-308. Japanese animal rights groups dislike the violent methods used in the UK, Nature 424 (2003), 119. Europe has retired the last research chimpanzees, NatMed. 9 (2003), 981. China has launched a primate centre to broaden their medical use, Nature 424 (2003), 239-40. Discussion of human savagery to humans is in SA (July 2003), 23. There may a legacy of cannibalism in our genes, Current Biology 13 (2003), R592-3. Evolution of cooperation is discussed in NS (28 June 2003), 14-5. On sociality in bees, Current Biology 13 (2003), R644-5.

Understanding of pain is developing, Nature 424 (2003), 729-30; PNAS 100 (2003), 8538-42. Pharmacological modulation of learning is discussed in Science 301 (2003), 91-4. Men and women may react to pain differently, Lancet 361 (2003), 2052-3. On meditation, Time (4 August 2003), 48-57. Fear memory retrieval is discussed in Science 301 (2003), 846-50. Learning in mice is discussed in Nature 424 (2003), 1004-5. Comparisons of human speech and bird song are in PNAS 100 (2003), 8030-5, 9645-6. Birds sing at higher pitch in urban noise, Nature 424 (2003), 267. A review on the birth of human-specific genes during primate evolution is Genetica 118 (2003), 193-208. Evolution of human head louse and clothing is reviewed in Current Biology 13 (2003), 1414-7.

An animal rights group has claimed it caused explosions at Chiron company in USA, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1230; Scrippharma.com 2881 (3 Sept. 2003), 12. In general on animal rights groups, Science 298 (2002), 1515. On ethics of GM, Verhoog, H. "Naturalness and the genetic modification of animals", TIBTECH 21 (2003), 294-7. A discussion of a pig's life is in In Context 10 (Fall 2003), 10-11. Fox hunting is discussed in NS (16 Aug. 2003), 4. Captivity of wide-ranging animals is discussed in Nature 425 (2003), 473.

Naval sonar may be responsible for deaths of porpoises and whales, Nature 425 (2003), 549; NS (11 Oct. 2003), 10. Levels of toxaphene congeners in Beluga whales in Canada are reported in EST 37 (2003), 4603-9. On whaling, NS (23 Aug. 2003), 3.

The UN has called for an emergency meeting on protection of the Great Apes, Financial Times (4 Nov. 2003), 4. A gorilla count has resumed in central Africa, Nature 425 (2003), 652. About 91 genes separate humans and chimpanzees (see HGP News). Ebola is threatening them also, Science 300 (2003), 1645. On humanizing a chimp brain, NS (18 Oct. 2003), 5. Illusions in the primate brain are discussed in Science 302 (2003), 789-91 (Also see Brain Function news section). A book review of Intelligence of Apes and Other Rational Beings is Nature 425 (2003), 454. On primate origins, Science 298 (2003), 1564-7, 1606-10. There appears to have been widespread human cannibalism, TREE 18 (2003), 489-90. Meat eating in humans dates back to 2.5 million years in our ancestors, NS (6 Sept. 2003), 19. A discussion of whether Neanderthals were caring is in J. Human Evolution (Nov. 2003); Science 301 (2003), 1319. Paternal care in a multi-male primate society (savannah baboons) is reported in Nature 425 (2003), 136-7, 179-81; NS (13 Sept. 2003), 26.

In many cases the costs will outweigh the benefits of using animals in experiments, Research Europe (5 Feb. 2004), 7. Protestors in the UK have ended plaNS for a primate research center at University of Cambridge, Nature 427 (2004), 471. A UK legal decision may help stop harassment of employees of 7 Japanese companies who use animal testing at Huntingdon Life Sciences in the UK, Scrip Magazine (Dec 2003), 22-3. The monitoring of lab animals during experiments is described in NS (28 Feb. 2004), 12-3. The negative effects of sonar on cetaceaNS is discussed in NS (24 Jan. 2004), 45. A paper on minimizing harm from experiments is Morris, MC & Weaver, SA (2003), "Minimizing harm in agricultural animal experiments in New Zealand", J. Agric. & Env. Ethics 16, 421-37.

Chicken welfare is found to be influenced more by housing conditioNS that stocking density, Nature 427 (2004), 342-4.

A series of papers on what makes humaNS human with comparisoNS to chimpanzees is in NS (21 Feb. 2004), 36-43; Current Biology 14 (2004), R148-9; Nature 427 (2004), 208-9; 428 (2004), 606; Science 302 (2003), 1960-3. Genetic studies of chimp genome compared to human genome find about 1500 genes have some differences between the two species, Nature 426 (2003), 746, 750. Dating of languages is discussed in Nature 426 (2003), 391-2, 435-9; Science 303 (2004), 1315-39; SA (April 2004), 24-5. The ethics of intention and pain are discussed in Philosophical Quarterly 53 (2003), 502+. Imaging studies are being used to see how the brain thinks about pain, Science 303 (2003), 1121, 1162+. Cannibalism and energy for a species are reviewed in Ecological Monographs 74 (2004), 135-57.

Experiments with crows suggest they have the ability to deceive, which is mainly seen in primates, NS (24 April, 2004), 19; Animal Cognition 7 (2004), 69+. On aggression in primates, Science 304 (2004), 818-9. A paper howing that there is an impact of caging rats is Polley, DB. Et al. "Naturalistic experience transforms sensory maps in the adult cortex of caged animals", Nature 428 (2004), 67-71. The impact of caging chickeNS is assessed in Nature 427 (2004), 275, 342+. An obituary of James Rachels is in Lancet 362 (2003), 1681. An interview with Colin Blakemore is in Lancet 362 (2003), 1590. He may have been declined a Knighthood because of his pro-animal research stance, NatMed. 10 (2004), 109. Animal research is a major issue in the UK, Nature 428 (2004), 882. A review of evidence that animal research benefits humaNS is BMJ 328 (2004), 514-7.
Husbandry refinements for mammals in telemetry procedures are suggested in Laboratory Animals 38 (2004), 1-10. A monitor can be used to help prevent patients under anesthetic from feeling pain, NS (17 April 2004), 6-7. Also on pain, BMJ 328 (2004), 468; JAMA 290 (2003), 2480-1; NS (1 May 2004), 9. Emotional and physical pain are connected in the brain, JAMA 290 (2003), 2389-92. Following opposition the University of Cambridge has shelved plaNS for a primate neuroscience centre, Lancet 363 (2004), 460; Nature 427 (2004), 92, 471. Germany's largest primate lab may close after alleged mistreatment of monkeys there, Nature 427 (2004), 4.
Whale call responses to boat traffic is measured in Nature 428 (2004), 910; NS (1 May 2004), 19. A humpback whale study is underway to follow their habitats, Nature 427 (2004), 668. A study of dolphin monitoring is being made in New Zealand, Nature 428 (2004), 111. Creation of synthetic life is reviewed in SA (May 2004), 48-55. Artificial intelligence is reviewed in SA (May 2004), 84-5.
Chimps have been found to remember for three years number games, NS (15 Nov. 2003), 16. Studies of humanness in animals are discussed in NS (3 Jan. 2004), 3; Nature 428 (2004), 606. On chimpanzee genetics, NS (3 Jan. 2004), 9; Nature 428 (2004), 242. Survival of great apes is delicately posed, NS (17 Jan. 2004), 5; Nature 426 (2003), 369. The harms to animals from ecotourism are discussed in NS (6 March 2004), 3. A book review of Animal InnovatioNS is Nature 427 (2004), 679.
An analysis of wildlife interactioNS in the USA is Laliberte, AS. & Ripple, WJ., "Wildlife encounters by Lewis and Clark: A spatial analysis of interactioNS between Native AmericaNS and wildlife", BioScience 53 (2003), 994-1003. Burials in Cyprus suggest cats were ancient pets, Science 304 (2004), 189; NS (17 April 2004), 13. A study that finds no benefits of pet ownership for cardiovascular disease is MJA 179 (2003), 466-8. On chicken meat and farming, NS (15 Nov. 2003), 19. Vegetarianism and health is discussed in Lancet 363 (2004), 1482.

The question of human suitability for eating animals is discussed in SA (June 2004), 9-10. The UK is planning new laws to restrain animal rights activists, Nature 429 (2004), 223. The UK is considering to build a primate research center at a military site, Porton Downs, Science 302 (2003), 1127; though the primate research center at Cambridge was rejected, Nature Neuroscience 7 (2004), 285, 413. The UK has doubled the money given to find alternatives to animal tests, Nature 429 (2004), 334.  India has announced it will built the largest animal research facility in Hyderabad, NatMed. 10 (2004), 443. In general on animal rights, NS (22 May 2004), 48-9. The role of planar polarity in determining the size and shape of animals is discussed in Nature 429 (2004), 247.

Curiosity may be a reason for medicinal plant use in chimps, NS (8 May 2004), 17. The genome sequencing of chimpanzee chromosome 22 and comparisons to human chromosome 21, has revealed more differences in gene expression than was previously expected, Nature 429 (2004), 355. Studies of whale cooperation suggest it could be more advanced than in humans, NS (15 May 2004), 42-5; Science 302 (2003), 990-1. Counts of whales are still underway, Science 303 (2003), 39-40. The exemptions for the military to allow sonar experiments that have been shown to kill and harm whales is reported in Science 302 (2003), 1487-8. Social bonds of baboons enhance infant survival, Science 302 (2003), 1231-4, 1234-6.

A book considering the history of relationships to animals is Henninger-Voss, MJ. Animals in Human Histories. The Mirror of Nature and Culture (University of Rochester Press, 2002; ISBN 1-58046-121-2).  A paper with discussion of the theory of human rights applied to mythical beasts is in Law Quarterly Review 120 (2004), 428+. The UK has increased action against animal rights activists, Current Biology 14 (2004), R635-6; NatBio 22 (2004), 935; Science 305 (2004), 761; Nature 430 (2004), 399, 597; 431 (2004), 125;  as has Russia, Science 304 (2004), 1900. Poor record keeping on animal experimental approvals at some Japanese institutions has been found, Nature 430 (2004), 714; and there are also problems in Israel, Nature 430 (2004), 129. There have been allegations of abuse of primates in Columbia University, NatMed. 10 (2004), 558. On animal welfare in laboratories, SA (August 2004), 80-1. Painkilling drugs are discussed in Science 305 (2004), 325-9.

Protests in Spain have derailed plans for building a European chimp home, Science 305 (2004), 1227. Reducing animal experiments is discussed in NS (7 August 2004), 3. There is a reported shortage of primates for scientists to do research on, NS (21 Aug. 2004), 6-7; Nature 430 (2004), 958. Loss of forest makes monkeys sick, Science 305 (2004), 1230-1.The genomics of the chimpanzee versus human genomes are compared in Science 304 (2004), 1590; 305 (2004), 191-2; JAMA 292 (2004), 28-9. A book review about why only 30,000 genes works is Science 304 (2004), 1601-2. In Chicago zoo chimps can blow air at spectators in an interactive display, Science 305 (2004), 337.

The costs of bushmeat to endangered species is discussed in www.bushmeat.org/r_a.html, Science 304 (2004), 1883. The question of whether humans are born to be cannibals or not is discussed in NS (10 July 2004), 30-33. There are many dangers of persons eating meat, NS (14 Aug. 2004), 42-5.  Commercial whaling is discussed in NS (31 July 2004), 6-7. Whales may be washed ashore with cold water signals, NS (17 July 2004), 12. Blue whales have been detected returning to Alaska, Nature 430 (2004), 496. Inside pods of dolphins some are the most social, NS (14 Aug. 2004), 12. The loss of endangered porpoises in nets is a concern, Nature 429 (2004), 590. On elephant communication, NS (19 June 2004), 15. Ocean noise may damage fish as well as mammals, Nature 430 (2004), 291. Developmental plasticity is discussed in Nature 430 (2004), 419-21.


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