Biodiversity News

This file includes links to papers published by Eubios Ethics Institute, and some other organizations, in the first section. Next it includes topical extracts from EJAIB and EEIN between January 1994 - 2006 (older news items are in separate files). Last date of updating is referenced in the main News page. Latest news and papers is at the bottom of each of the two sections.

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Abbreviations for journals
Eubios Ethics Institute home page

Related Papers from Eubios Ethics Institute Publications

Azariah, J.The Book of Genesis and Environmental Ethics, Biodiversity and the Food Deficit EJAIB 5 (1995), 6.
Gupta, A.K.Suggested Ethical Guidelines for Accessing & Exploring Biodiversity The Pew Conservation Scholars Initiative EJAIB 5 (1995), 38.
Gupta, A.K. Ethical Dilemmas in Conservation of Biodiversity: Towards developing globally acceptable ethical guidelines EJAIB 5 (1995), 40.

Environmental education and environmental behaviour in Japanese students - Kouji Amemiya & Darryl Macer EJAIB 9 (1999), 109-115.
Everything is Written in the Sky!: Participatory Meteorological Assessment and Prediction Based on Traditional Beliefs and Indicators in Saurashtra - P. R. Kanani with Astad Pastakia EJAIB 9 (1999), 170-6.
Commentary on Kanani. The Scientific Investigation of Asian Folk Practices: A Paradigm of Asian Bioethics - Yeruham Frank Leavitt EJAIB 9 (1999), 176.
Species 2000 plan


A method for transporting elephants live from dangerous or overcrowded areas to safe areas is reported in Newsweek (8 Nov), 54-5. In India recently 50 elephants were moved away from human inhabited areas after they caused many deaths and damage when rampaging. Some species have good behaviour in terms of aiding their own conservation, and others do not, Nature 366 (1993), 300.

A review of biodiversity is in Lancet 342 (1993), 1096-9. The US Endangered Species Act 1973 is being reemphasized for efforts to protect biodiversity, Science 262 (1993), 976-7. However in practise it faces many problems. Sustainable harvesting and living with the rain forest is discussed in New Scientist (25 Sept, 1993), 11-2. In October a new system for marking tropical timber was introduced to try to restrict harvesting to approved methods. A book review on the topic of biodiversity is New Scientist (30 Oct, 1993), 44; and a paper, M. Huston, "Biological diversity, soils, and economics", Science 262 (1993), 1676-9. See also New Scientist (25 Dec, 1993), 6, 7.

The biological question of gene flow and evolution is discussed in S. J. Gould & N. Eldredge, "Punctuated equilibrium comes of age", Nature 366 (1993), 223-7; see also p. 27. On extinction rates, Nature 366 (1993), 118, 307.

A review paper is M. Huston, "Biological diversity, soils and economics", Science 262 (193), 1676-80. One conclusion is that species rich areas are generally poor for agriculture, so that preservation of biodiversity in species-rich areas should not compete so much with agriculture. A paper on biodiversity and grassland ecosystem stability is Nature 367 (1994), 363-5. A book review on marine biodiversity is Nature 367 (1994), 126-7.

A dispute over funding of the Biodiversity Treaty is threatening to hold up the ratification of the treaty by some countries, such as the UK; Nature 367 (1994), 309. A book review of Genes, Crops and the Environment (Cambridge University Press, 1993) is in TIG 10 (1994), 32. It discusses germplasm storage. Efforts in Brazil to save biodiversity are discussed in BMJ 308 (1994), 78. A review of extinctions is D.A. Burney, "Recent animal extinctions: Recipes for disaster", American Scientist 81 (1993), 530-41. It gives a number of examples.

Results of a recent experiment in an Ecotron (controlled greenhouse/environmental container) suggest that species rich ecosystems consume more carbon dioxide than species poor ones; Science 262 (1993), 1511. A discussion of ecology and genetics is in Science 263 (1994), 485-6. A letter on species diversity is in Nature 367 (1994), 326-7.

A book review of Ecology and environmental management of Lyme disease, is in Science 263 (1994), 544-5.

Conservation in the UK is discussed in New Scientist (5 Feb 1994), 7. Conservation in New Zealand is discussed in Trends in Ecology & Evolution 8 (1993), 447-57. A general discussion is M. Hollaway, "Nurturing nature", SA (April), 98-108. The problems of conservation efforts of large animal species in Africa is discussed in J. Berger & C. Cunningham, "Active intervention and conservation: Africa's pachyderm problem", Science 263 (1994), 1241-2. Efforts to freeze sperm, eggs and embryos are discussed in New Scientist (29 Jan 1994), 21-2.

France has agreed to cancel half of Cameroon's foreign debt in return for almost exclusive access to the Cameroon rain forest by French scientists or companies; New Scientist (29 Jan 1994), 7. A general discussion of debt for conservation is T. Eisner & E.A. Beiring, "Biotic Exploration Fund - protecting biodiversity through chemical prospecting", BioScience 44: 95-8. A commentary looking at the benefits to humans of conservation is V. Geist, "Wildlife conservation as wealth", Nature 368 (1994), 491-2; and for industry, M. Allen, "Ecosystems for industry", New Scientist (5 Feb 1994), 21-2. The riches of coral reefs are described in New Scientist (26 Feb 1994), 12-3. Negative impacts of free trade on the environment is discussed in Search 25: 2-5.

Tropical biodiversity and global change is discussed in Science 263 (1994), 933-4. Studies in ecotrons suggest declining biodiversity may reduce the performance of ecosystems, Nature 368 (1994), 686-7, 734-7. Changes in tree turnover time in forests are reported in Science 263 (1994), 954-8. Marine biodiversity studies are urged in Science 263 (1994), 918-20. We often do not see what happens in the sea. A letter on Antarctic benthic diversity is Nature 368 (1994), 297. A book review of R.E. Ricklefs & D. Schluter, Species Diversity in Ecological Communities. Historical and Geographical Perspectives (University of Chicago Press, 1994, 414pp., US$32.50) is Science 263 (1994), 995-6.

A discussion of marine evidence to support the theory that a mass extinction 65 million years ago was caused by an asteriod impact is Science 263 (1994), 1371-2. A letter on the uncertainties in extinction rates is Nature 368 (1994), 105.

A discussion of Biosphere 2 is in Science 263 (1994), 1368-9; Nature 368 (1994), 88. It will allow outside scientists to visit during the new occupancy period, which may reduce scientific doubts.

Ecotourism is applauded as a means to save the environment in New Scientist (16 April 1994), 23-7. A discussion of the merits of biodiversity is Science 264 (1994), 639. A paper documenting the dangers of separation of native areas by manmade structures (e.g. roads) is A. Kruess & T. Tscharntke, "Habitat fragmentation, species loss, and biological control", Science 264 (1994), 1581-4.

A report from a SCOPE/Biodiversity Assessment Synthesis conference held in March is Science 264 (1994), 202-3. A survey in Costa Rica to count all the species in a 110,000 hectare site is underway, Science 264 (1994), 191. On flowering plant diversity, Science 264 (1994), 1549-50. A commentary on Panda survival programs, Nature 369 (1994), 179-80.

Prospecting for new drugs as a means to preserve biodiversity is discussed in GEN (15 May 1994), 14-5; Scientific American (May 1995), 105-6; Ambio 23 (1994), 106-111. Drug companies usually start by looking at the medicinal plants in the culture, but may even use ancient texts, Nature 369 (1994), 702. USAID has expanded its program to protect biodiversity in sub-Saharan Africa, Ambio 23 (1994), 167. A plan called "Lifelands" has been made in the USA by the Wilderness Society, with the main goal to preserve the environment; Science 264 (1994), 1078. Mexico has established a biodiversity program to protect its great biodiversity (about 10% of the world's species can be found there), Nature 368 (1994), 801. A Scottish Natural Heritage Project called "Targeted Inputs for a Better Rural Environment" is looking at preserving the environment as well as farming, Contact: Prof. Joyce Tait, Scottish Natural Heritage, 2/5 Anderson Place, Edinburgh EH6 5NP, U.K.

India has passed a new law to prevent foreign companies from exploiting genes, and it names 9,000 medicinal plants in addition to microbes, which will not be allowed to leave India from next year; Nature 370 (1994), 587. Letters on biodiversity and agriculture are in Science 265 (1994), 457-9.

A political debate in the US over whether to ratify the biodiversity convention is discussed in Science 265 (1994), 859. The US use of trade sanctions to protect sea mammals is reviewed in R.J. McLaughlin, "UNCLOS and the demise of the United States' use of trade sanctions to protect dolphins, sea turtles, whales, and other international marine living resources", Ecology Law Quarterly 21: 3-78. Also on sea mammal biodiversity, Scientific American (Aug 1995), 17-8. On economic realities and biodiversity, Issues in Science & Tech. (Winter 93/94), 49-55.

Two letters on the subject of protecting biodiversity and rare plants are in Nature 371 (1994), 9. It calls for efforts to protect the germplasm resources of Russia, which are endangered through shortage of money. The dangers for the sturgeon survival are discussed in a meeting review in Nature 370 (1994), 602. The World Bank recently tried to privatise genetic resources of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, an attempt that was thwarted, via efforts arising from the Second Session of the InterGovernmental Committee on Biological Diversity in Nairobi, 20 June The Ram's Horn (July 1994), 6-8; Science 265 (1994), 181; New Scientist (2 July 1994), 4. A book review on the conservation of the Everglades is in Science 265 (1994), 976-7. A paper on the use of genetics is S.J. O'Brien, "A role for molecular genetics in biological conservation", PNAS 91 (1994),, 5748-55.

A philosophical debate on whether prairie land in Iowa (e.g. nature) has intrinsic value is in The Ag Bioethics Forum 6: 1-7.

A theoretical paper on habitat destruction and the extinction debt is Nature 371 (1994), 65-6. The value of ecotourism is debated in Australia, New Scientist (13 Aug 1994), 11. On biodiversity in Brazil, Science 265 (1994), 606; and Switzerland, Nature 370 (1994), 500. Biosphere 2 is gaining some approval back and will continue, Nature 370 (1994), 495.

New Books: Orders to: International Academy of the Environment, 4 chemin de Conches, 1231 Geneva, Switzerland. Fax Orders: +41-22-789 25 38. Only credit card orders can be accepted through EMail, provided they be sent from the purchaser's own station. Orders by check must be sent by mail.

Anatole F. Krattiger & Arno Rosemarin, Editors, Biosafety for Sustainable Agriculture: Sharing Biotechnology Regulatory Experiences of the Western Hemisphere, International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA): Ithaca and SEI: Stockholm (SEI), 1994. Index. xiv + 255 pages; ISBN 91-88116-972. Paperback, 24 x 17 cm. A 250 page book containing 22 chapters about regulatory approaches and experiences and an annex with up-to-date worldwide data on field trials with transgenic crops. This book openly shares the experience accumulated by various constituencies that have been involved for nearly a decade in developing and using biosafety regulations. These include governmental regulatory agencies in Canada, Costa Rica, Mexico and the USA, as well as universities, ecological societies, the private sector and international institutions involved in technology transfer. Unit Price SFr. 30.00 or US$ 20.00. Discount of 30% Bulk Orders (10 or more copies); 40% - orders from Developing Countries; 50% - Students (please include copy of ID)

A.F. Krattiger, et.al. (eds). 1994. Widening Perspectives on Biodiversity. IUCN: Gland & IAE: Geneva. Includes 53 Chapters, Foreword, Preface, the Convention on Biological Diversity, Index. xvi + 473 pages; ISBN 2-8317-0200-3. Paperback, 24 x 17 cm. SFr. 45.00 or US$ 30.00. At the Earth Summit in Rio in 1992, over 150 Nations signed the Convention on Biological Diversity--a record by any standard. Since then, nearly 20 other States signed the Convention. Over 40 States ratified the Convention in less than 18 months--another record--so that the Convention became International Environmental Law on 29 December 1993. Widening Perspectives on Biodiversity raises and discusses essential questions related to: the Convention on Biological Diversity, Conservation and Use of Genetic Resources, and North-South Controversies and Opportunities, and provides specific and original answers based on the contributors own experience.

A discussion of the bad consequences for US industry (see also later) of not ratifying the biodiversity convention is Biotechnology 12 (1994), 968-9. Trade and the convention is discussed in Nature 371 (1994), 553-4. On the US biological survey, Nature 371 (1994), 465.

Reviews of the journals Biodiversity and Conservation, and Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, are in Nature 371 (1994), 456-7. The USDA is founding a germplasm bank for livestock, Science 265 (1994), 1647. Funds are being given to Eastern European gene banks, Nature 371 (1994), 93. A call for use of incentives to encourage biodiversity preservation is Valle, S. "Enabling biodiversity", Biotechnology 12 (1994), 1040.

The debate between European and American fishermen on tuna is based on protection of falling tuna populations, Nature 371 (1994), 93; Science 265 (1994), 1525-6. Book reviews on the efficiency of fishing are in Nature 371 (1994), 483.

The question of whether diversity aids stability is debated in Nature 371 (1994), 113-4. Soil bacterial diversity is being studied for agricultural benefits, Science 265 (1994), 1521. Some species benefit from changes, Science 266 (1994), 28-30. On biodiversity, Nature 371 (1994), 565; Science 265 (1994), 1060-1, 1356, 1358. On African conservation, Science 265 (1994), 733-4; rhinos, Science 265 (1994), 1157-8; elephants, Science 265 (1994), 1529; and on Biosphere 2, Science 265 (1994), 1027.

The meeting of the parities to the Biological Diversity Convention ended with little decision; for background, New Scientist (17 Nov 1994), 5; Nature 372 (1995), 307. A global network on ecology data was proposed, and it may commence when its scope is more clear, Science 266 (1994), 1155. The UN FAO germplasm bank that administratively gathers the materials of 12 international seedbanks (see also patent section) should aid the protection of germplasm, Science 266 (1994), 531.

The meeting of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) has established more precise rules for evaluating endangered species, New Scientist (26 Nov 1994), 10-1; Science 266 (1994), 719. They are expected to bring more control on the timber trade. A study finding no bad effect on primate diversity in an area selectively logged for 60 years at 10 year intervals, Plumptree, A.J. & Reynolds, V. "The effect of selective logging on the primate populations in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda", J. Appl. Ecology 31: 631-41. Organised crime appears to be trafficking more endangered animals, Time (4 Nov), 60. The damages to orangutans that are discarded in the wild in Taiwan, after they lose their cuteness and become sexually mature, are posing problems in where to send them, New Scientist (3 Dec 1994), 10.

Ecotourism in Australia is discussed in New Scientist (13 Aug 1994), 11; and a Mayan eco-park is being made, Science 266 (1994), 1641. On profits from biodiversity, see New Scientist (12 Nov 1994), 46; Nature 372 (1995), 42-3, 88-9. Fishing diversity is discussed in Newsweek (19 Dec 1994), 56-7.

A review is Vitousek, P.M. "Beyond global warming: ecology and global change", Ecology 75 (1994), 1861-76. Book reviews on biodiversity are in Nature 372 (1995), 512-3, 373 (1995), 32; Science 266 (1994), 468-9. Ecological character displacement is a phenomenon, that closely related species look different when living together but similar if living apart, and it is reviewed in Science 266 (1994), 746-7.

Note the extensive guidelines and paper by Gupta in this issue. The Biodiversity Convention replaced the ethical concept that genetic resources were the common heritage of humanity with the concept of national sovereign rights. The issues are debated in a symposium in Biotechnology and Development Monitor 21 (Dec 1994), 2-7. In that issue there are also papers on cases where companies are taking commercial control of major crops, such as cotton or oilseed rape, and on replacement production schemes for pyrethins and sugars, Biotechnology and Development Monitor 21 (Dec 94), 8-15. There are several other papers in that thematic issue on the subject (see the exchange journal section for details).

A note on the biosafety initiatives and the biodiversity treaty (EJAIB 1: 12) is in Nature 372 (1994), 585; and a critique of the vagueness of the treaty is Nature 373 (1995), 278.

Biosphere 2 is getting another chance, with another research plan, Science 267 (1995), 169. Destruction of coral reefs is discussed in Science 266 (1994), 1930-3.

Position: If any of the readers may be interested, the International Academy for the Environment is calling for a new Associate Director for the Biodiversity/Biotechnology Programme. The deadline is 1st May, and needs Ph.D. and experience in the subject. If you are interested, contact Dr Anatole Krattiger, Int. Academy of the Environment, 1231 Conches, Geneva, Switzerland.

The issue of disappearing biodiversity and drugs is discussed in Newman, E.B. "Earth's vanishing medicine cabinet: Rain forest destruction and its impact on the pharmaceutical industry", AJLM XX (1994), 479--501. The exploration of the sea to find novel drugs is reviewed in GEN (15 March 1995), 1, 10-11; and on Antarctica, New Scientist (18 Feb, 1995), 5.

Britain's policy to plant many trees is questioned in New Scientist (14 Jan, 1995), 12-3. The role of zoos in conservation is questioned in New Scientist (28 Jan, 1995), 51-2. The isotope assessment method for determining the origin of ivory is being questioned, and the ivory ban continues, Science 267 (1995), 1264. Discussion of the genetics of cheetahs and efforts to preserve them are in Nature 374 (1995), 309-10.

The loss of bird species across Pacific Islands has been occurring ever since humans came, Steadman, D.W. "Prehistoric extinctions of Pacific Island Birds: Biodiversity meets zoo-archaeology", Science 267 (1995), 1123-31.

The US Endangered Species Act is being debated again this year, with the issue why more new species are joining it than leaving it, Science 267 (1995), 1256-7; Nature 374 (1995), 9. A book review of the last 500 years of environmental change in North America is Nature 374 (1995), 24-5. Some of Europe's endangered habitats will be excluded under the EU's new Habitat Directive, New Scientist (11 March 1995), 8. In Utah in the USA a recent Eco-challenge marathon was criticised for brining many people to race over delicate terrain, destroying parts of the environment that is protected and they are meant to be made aware of, New Scientist (11 Feb, 1995), 5.

The climate warming is causing some decline in the number of zooplankton, Science 267 (1995), 1324-6. Frogs and salamanders are also disappearing due to habitat destruction and/or ozone depletion, Blaustein, A.R. & Wake, D.B. "The puzzle of declining Amphibian populations", Scientific American (April 1995), 52-7.

A paper reporting the needs for sustainable fishing is Pauly, D. & Christensen, V. "Primary production required to sustain global fisheries", Nature 374 (1995), 255-7, 213-4. Canada has been involved in policing of international ocean fishing stocks on its East Coast, by trying to prevent Spanish and European fishing boats, which raises some bioethical issues in the extent of jurisdiction each country has over biological resources. It is an interesting and challenging legal question, and ethically we could say that the waters off Newfoundland are a lot more Canadian than European, and there should be some limits to fishing - though such policy has large ramifications on the global scene.

DNA methods to aid in the conservation of biodiversity are discussed in Biotechnology 13 (1995), 522; and general scientific methods in Science 267 (1995), 1954-5. The international seed banks of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research are discussed in Science 268 (1995), 11. General comments on the global extinction of species are in NS (8 April 1995), 31-5. The culling of elephants in South Africa is debated in Time (5 June 1995), 42-3; while in other countries poaching is the problem, NS (22 April 1995), 8. The extinction of migratory birds caused by hostile environments is raised in Science 267 (1995), 1956-7; and on general extinction, Nature 375 (1995), 460. A discussion of the idea that birds evolved in a sudden burst is SA (June 1995), 22; Science 267 (1995), 1421-2; Benton, M.J. "Diversification and extinction in the history of life", Science 268 (1995), 52-8. On gene number and biological complexity, TIG 11 (1995), 94-100.

The US Wetlands Reform Bill is criticised as weak in Science 268 (1995), 970. A study by the US National Academy of Sciences has supported the science behind the endangered species act, at the same time that it was being criticised in Congress, Nature 375 (1995), 349; NS (22 April 1995), 9. In Uganda local people are aiding the protection of gorillas, Science 267 (1995), 1761; NS (8 April 1995), 6. Butterfly poachers have been charged in the USA, NS (29 April 1995), 10.

A method to follow migration using tags in river bass has resulted in smuggling charges against a fish pond owner in the USA, Science 267 (1995), 1765. Declining salmon stocks in the Pacific suggest future shortages, SA (May 1995), 21-2. At the end of April the Canadian government was criticised for its seizure of Sapish turbot fishing boats outside of the official territorial waters. The point is that fishing stocks are being depleted by European boats on the American side of the Atlantic, and the problem is a global issue requiring more thought on common interests and national interests. A plan to aid fishermen in the Comoros Islands so that they will leave the coelacanth so that it can build up numbers is discussed in NS (29 April).

A conference report on biodiversity and health is in Lancet 345 (1995), 1042; Science 267 (1995), 2018.

There is a report of a 25 million year old bacteria that was preserved in a bee that was in amber, being brought to life; Science 268 (1995), 977, 1060+. There are calls for the experiments to be repeated, but it appears that the results are real, and the Bacillus sphaericus is similar to today's species.

A review is Pimm, S.L. et al. "The future of biodiversity", Science 269 (1995), 347-50. Biosphere 2 is attempting to be more realistic in future studies, SA (August 1995), 24-6. On Amazonian biodiversity, Science 269 (1995), 63-6, 31.

The effects of climate on ecology are reviewed in Root, T.L. & Schneider, S.H. "Ecology and climate: research strategies and implications", Science 269 (1995), 334-41. On ecological experiments, Science 269 (1995), 313-5324-7, 328-31, 421.

Conservation is discussed in: Madagascar, Science 269 (1995), 1568-9; and in general, Science 269 (1995), 318-23. The US Endangered Species Act is discussed in Science 268 (1995), 1114-5, 1212-3, 1124; 269 (1995), 23; Eisner, T. et al. "Building a scientifically sound policy for protecting endangered species," Science 269 (1995), 1231-2; Nature 376 (1995), 3. Balance between radicalism and academics in the US ecology movement is called for in Nature 376 (1995), 455, 461. Wetlands regulations need revision according to a National Research Council Report, EST 29 (1995), 304A. On the future of the EverGlades, Science 268 (1995), 1688-90.

Plans to study 165 coral reefs are efforts to monitor possible change, Science 268 (1995), 1687; 269 (1995), 1247-9. An ocean anomaly has killed many fish around Australia, 100 millions of pilchards have been washed up over a 5000 km section of the coast, Science 268 (1995), 1431. Disturbance of penguins by tourists is noted in Nature 376 (1995), 301-2.

estimates for the value of forest products for pharmaceuticals of US$20 billion annually in the US market is in Science 268 (1995), 1551; and drugs also appear in ancient texts, Nature 376 (1995), 546. Aboriginal burning for vegetation management in British Columbia is discussed in Human Ecology 22 (1994), 171-88.

A book review of Budiansky, Stephen, Nature's Keepers: The New Science of Nature Management (Free Press, 310pp., US$25) is in Nature 377 (1995), 104-5. Endangered species protection is discussed in Science 269 (1995), 1212-3, 1231-2, 1803-4; SA (Oct 1995), 34. The future of US ecology is discussed in Nature 377 (1995), 380; Science 269 (1995), 1531-2. The US National Biological Survey is expected to continue with some reduced funding, Science 269 (1995), 1807. The use of a crane to study canopy ecology is shown in SA (Oct 1995), 21, 24.

A review is Safina, C. "The world's imperiled fish", SA (Nov 1995), 46-52; and some brighter news in Myers, R.A. "Population dynamics of exploited fish stocks at low population levels", Science 269 (1995), 1106-8, 1043, which suggests that it is not an evolutionary danger but simply over-fishing so that fish stocks may return. There is a scientific dispute behind a legal battle on salmon fishing in Pacific Salmon stocks, Science 269 (1995), 1507-8. The eruptions of Mt Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1992 led to cooler water in the winter, promoting nutrient flow to deeper water, resulting in increased algae and phytoplankton growth, which caused coral death in regions, Nature 377 (1995), 507-10.

A discussion of the success of connecting isolated wildlife refuges by ecological corridors is Science 270 (1995), 1428-31. Canadians are attempting to save more wolves, and other endangered species and 180 scientists wrote a letter about proposed law to the government, NS (2 Dec 1995), 13. Preventing trade in endangered species continues to be a major problem, but new laws in the USA may even hinder researchers, Nature 378 (1995), 341. Book reviews of conservation biology are in Nature 378 (1995), 347-8.

Management of freshwater ecosystems in the USA is debated in Science 270 (1995), 584-5. Some frogs require IVF, NS (7 Oct 1995), 9. The use of genetic tests to conserve species is reviewed in NS (11 Nov 1995), 30-3. Deaths of coral reefs in Southeast Asia caused by cyanide fishing are major causes of destruction, NS (11 Nov 1995), 14-5.

A proposal to grow multi-species forests for sustainable forest development is NS (9 Dec 1995), 54.

A report on a grant proposal in the UK called the Eden Proposal to enclose 8 hectares for ecological research (Biosphere 2 is Arizona is 1.3 hectares), is Science 271 (1996), 437. A book review of reconstructing ecosystems and some successful examples, of Stevens WK, Miracle under the Oaks: The revival of Nature in America (Pocket 1995, 333pp, US$22) is in Nature 379 (1996), 217-6; and on Kew Gardens, Nature 379 (1996), 502-3.

There is debate between geneticists on the best strategy for survival of the cheetah, NS (17 Feb 1996), 14-5. Monogamy and survival is discussed in NS (17 Feb 1996), 18. The animals at the top of food chains have higher stress hormone levels, Science 271 (1996), 292; Nature 379 (1996), 212. Biodiversity and production is reviewed in Nature 379 (1996), 673-4; Tilman D et al. "Productivity and sustainability influenced by biodiversity in grassland ecosystems", Nature 379 (1996), 718-20; also see National Geographic (Dec 1995), 60-89.

Already 10% of the world's coral reefs have been lost, and if the current trends continue, 70% will be lost within 40 years, with 175000 species becoming extinct, NS (17 Feb 1996), 9. There are obvious calls to protect reefs. On overfishing, Nature 379 (1996), 481.

Problems of how to rebuilt wildlife habitats between separated pieces of wildlife reserve are discussed in Australia's case in Science 271 (1996), 1362-3; and wetlands are also being discussed, NS (6 April 1996), 49-50. In the USA there is controversy over the use of poisoned necklaces with 1080 around lambs to kill coyotes, because there is a chance of secondary poisoning, NS (10 Feb 1996), 5. In the UK the Queen and Royal land is excluded from wildlife laws, NS (3 Feb 1996), 4.

Effects of ozone and environmental change on Norway spruce are discussed in Plant, Cell and Environment 18 (1995), 1345-7. Socio-economic analysis of firewood use in Turkey is Bioresource Technology 54 (1995), 285-90. The effects of carbon dioxide on coral reefs are discussed in Science 271 (1996), 1298-300. A chip that may be part of the asteroid that is thought to have hit the earth 65 million years ago leading to the extinction of the dinosaurs has been found, Science 271 (1996), 1806.

The health of Amazonian rainforest and biodiversity is reviewed in NS (23 March 1996), 38-42; and on biodiversity, Science 271 (1996), 1497.

A UK House of Lords Science and Technology Committee has criticized European governments for failing to cut fish catches as recommended by scientists, because fish stocks continue to be unsustainably fished, NS (10 Feb 1996), 4. A collaboration between a conservation group, WWF and UniLever has been made to push for sustainability, Nature 379 (1996), 759.

There are urgent calls to stop the use of cyanide for fishing in coral reefs, Time (3 June 1996), 47-9. Efforts to preserve the Antarctic protocol are being increased, NS (27 April 1996), 10. A call for continued research into Antarctica by US bases is being made in efforts to keep them open, Nature 381 (1996), 99.

The Dutch government has insisted further studies of Australian hardwood forests in order to show the are being sustainably managed before they will import timber from them, NS (8 June 1996), 5. The giant panda is at the center of a long-running scientific debate about the appropriate use of technology in China, home to all of the world's approximately 1000 wild pandas as well as nearly 100 living in 29 zoos and research centers. A new project to produce the world's first giant panda conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) has led to much debate, Science 272 (1996), 1580-1581.

A review of the Biodiversity Treaty is Iwu, MM. "Implementing the Biodiversity Treaty: how to make international co-operative agreements work", TIBTECH 14 (1996), 78-83. On identification of microbial diversity, TIBTECH 14 (1996), 190-7. The dilemmas of immediate food in Africa from using national parks and lost tourist resources is shown in the case of Akagera national park in Rwanda, NS (4 May 1996), 52; also NS (27 April 1996), 36-9. A study of the effects of mass extinctions on biodiversity is Nature 381 (1996), 146-8; and of body size, Nature 380 (1996), 672-3; also on the Dodo, Nature 381 (1996), 205. Seedbanks are being encouraged as discussed earlier, NS (27 April 1996), 5.

Tangley, L. Ground rules emerge for marine bioprospectors. BioScience 46 (1996), 245-9. A call to half the global fishing fleet is made in NS (10 August 1996), 48. On wetland restoration, EST 30 (1996), 292-6A.

The news event of August may have been the announcement of evidence suggesting primitive life had existed on Mars, when meteorites left it a few billion years ago and these were preserved in Antarctica, Lancet 348 (1996), 417; Nature 382 (1996), 563, 565, 575-7; NS (17 August 1996), 4-11; Science 273 (1996), 864-6. Life in the Dead Sea is also very extreme, and the mechanism it uses to survive is described in NS (22 June 1996), 15; or in other hot springs, Arch. Hydrobiol. 136 (1996), 563-74. On archeal origins of life, PNAS 93 (1996), 6228-30.

In New Zealand there was a government U-turn over plans to shoot wild horses in an overpopulated area following public protest. However the problem of the damage they cause continues, and the question how to catch wild horses safely and transport to farms (if they can be found), Christchurch Press (7 August 1996), 2; (14 August), 9. Rats are also targets of another hunt, NS (17 August 1996), 13. Orphan elephants in Africa have been found to be aggressive, NS (20 July 1996), 5.

Reduced genetic diversity of crops is a major source of concern, making us more vulnerable to the effects of disease, NS (17 August 1996), 14-5. Exploiting biodiversity is discussed in TIBTECH 14 (1996), 181-2; J. Natural Products 58 (1995), 1325-57. On the value of biodiversity book reviews are in Nature 382 (1996), 594; and on the loss of biodiversity, Environmental Health Perspectives 104 (1996), 386-8. For details of the Species 2000 plan to document all the world's known species by the year 2000, see <http://www.sp2000.org

A survey by the IUCN World Conservation Union has found that about one quarter (1096) of the world's 4600 mammal species are threatened with extinction, and they are listed in their Red List. Birds are under this, with 11% endangered, NS (5 Oct. 1996), 5. On biodiversity studies, Science 274 (1996), 63-4. Wayward Grizzlies Spark Debate on US Endangered Species Act, Science 274 (1996), 493. A review of McConnell, F., The Biodiversity Convention: A Negotiating History (International Environmental Law & Policy Series, Kluwer Law International, 1996, pp. 223, $114.00, £77.00, (hbk)) is in Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1304-5. The question of whether there are still some Tasmanian tigers left alive is raised in SA (Oct 1996), 32-3. The UK government may spend less on endangered species, NS (19 Oct 1996), 5. A review of the economic benefits of rare and endangered species is Ecological Economics 18 (1996), 197-206.

The proceedings of the First Training Workshop on Ethnobotany and its Application to Conservation (16-21 Sept 1996) have been published, ed. Zabta Shinwari, National Hebararium/PASA, National Agricultural Research Centre, Park Road, Islamabad, Pakistan. It is aimed at encouraging grassroots conservation, and describes many of the local and indigenous efforts to preserve biodiversity. This has been found to be more successful than scientists saying what should be done. A report from the UN Biodiversity Convention meeting in Montreal in September is in Nature 383 (1996), 205. A call for efforts to save natural history museums which have collections of past organisms, is Science 273 (1996), 1792-3.

Six countries are still holding up ratification of the Antarctic protocol, NS (14 Sept. 1996), 5. Microbial biodiversity under the ground is discussed in SA (Oct 1996), 72. Further on Martian life, SA (Oct 1996), 20-1; Science 273 (1996), 1637-8. There are high costs involved in maintaining biodomes, Nature 382 (1996), 18.

There continues to be complaints by local fishermen in India about exploitation of fish resources by high tech boats, SA (Oct 1996), 24-6. There are general fears of a food shortage also, NS (19 Oct. 1996), 10. An analysis of tropical log bans is Ecological Economics 18 (1996), 189-96.
Kew gardens is under some controversy for accepting money from release of their plant collections, Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1644. The ecological benefits of fire are reviewed in Nature 384 (1996), 312-3.

A review of competition among habitats for protection is Science 273 (1996), 916-8. Methods to estimate ecosystem health are outlined in Balmford, A. et al. "Using higher-taxon richness as a surrogate for species richness: II. Local applications", Proc. R. Soc. London B 263 (1996), 1571-5. A world map indicating global forest cover is in SA (Nov 1996), 32. Predictions of the consequences of habitat loss for migratory populations are in Proc. R. Soc. London B 263 (1996), 1325-7. Several different methods are being tested as contraceptives in elephants in Kruger National Park in South Africa to overcome the excess of elephants, NS (30 Nov 1996), 9.

News of signs of life 3.8 billion years old have been reported in Greenland, Nature 384 (1996), 21-2. Further on life on Mars, NS (26 Oct 1996), 5; (9 Nov), 3. A discussion on the likelihood of habitable worlds is Nature 384 (1996), 107.

On 1 January 1996, Columbia University took over scientific management of Biosphere 2, the 3.15-acre closed ecosystem in Oracle, Arizona, USA, Science 274 (1996), 1150+. A number of on-line references are given in the article, including Related Resources on the World Wide Web: <http://130.17.2.215/> California State University Biological Web Server (CSUBIOWEB), provides a searchable list of Web sites in biological sciences. <http://golgi.harvard.edu/ biopages.html>World Wide Web Virtual Library: Biosciences . <http://conbio.rice.edu>Center for Conservation Biology Network. The site includes the World Wide Web Virtual Library: Biodiversity, Ecology, and the Environment. The virtual library provides links to hundreds of documents on global sustainability resources and information on endangered animals and plants. <http://www.erin.gov..au/erin.html>Australian Environment On-line. <http://straylight.tamu.edu/bene/bene.html>Biodiversity and Ecosystems Network, BENE. <http://www.keil.ukans.edu/> Biodiversity and Biological Collections Web Server at the University of Kansas Natural History Museum is devoted to information of interest to systematists and other biologists who study biodiversity and the environment. <http://www.epa.gov/>United States Environmental Protection Agency. <http://www.wcmc.org.uk/>World Conservation Monitoring Centre, global data on biodiversity and information relating to WCMC's activities in this field. The Web site provides access to conservation databases, data, maps and statistics on the forests, coasts, species, and protected areas. <http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/

Welcome_.HTM> Sustainable Development Dimensions, A service of the Sustainable Development Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, provides a variety of information resources on sustainable agriculture and development. <http://iisd1.iisd.ca/ic/> Information Sources for Sustainable Development, Canada. A full text of the Youth Sourcebook on Sustainable Development. <http://www.ncat.org:7050/> Sustainable Development Resources database. <http://www.biO2.edu> The Biosphere 2 Center Web Site.

On the economics of plants, Belal, AE. & Springuel, I. "Economic value of plant diversity in arid environments", Nature & Resources 32 (No.2, 1996), 33-9; Bhat, MG. "Trade-related intellectual property rights to biological resources: Socioeconomic implications for developing countries", Ecological Economics 19 (196), 205-17. A book on preserving culture and biodiversity is Mitschein, TA & Miranda, PS. Poema: A Proposal of Sustainable Development in Amazonia (Belem, Brazil: Universidade Federal do Para, 1996, 79pp.). For information about Poema which also publishes a newsletter contact, Poema, Universidade Federal do Para, Campus University do Guama, Setor Professional - Casa do Poema, Caiza Postal 8606 Belem, PA-CEP 66075-900, Brazil (Email: poema@marajo.esecom.ufpa.br).

The expanding trade in herbal teas and medicines has led to at least 18 species of plant becoming endangered, NS (15 Feb. 1997), 6; Nature 385 (1997), 570. On eco-friendly coffee planting, Science 275 (1997), 12-3.

A very successful International Conference on Creativity and Innovation at Grassroots Level, was held from 11-14 Jan., 1997, Ahmedabad. The proceedings will be published, and details given when available here. Many farmers joined academics in an unusually diverse meeting. The Honey Bee Network encourages local innovation at grass roots levels, and has a journal, called Honey Bee, Contact: Prof. Anil K Gupta, SRISTI, c/o Indian Inst. Management, Ahmedabad - 380 015, India. Fax: Int+91-79-6427896/ Email: anilg@iimahd.ernet.in The UN has reduced funding in Global Environment Facility, Nature 385 (1997), 106-7.

A book on conservation of crocodiles is Subba Rao, MV. A Handbook of Indian Crocodiles (Andhra University Press 1993, 70pp., US$10). Proceedings of a conference are in a work, Subba Rao, MV. Forests, Wildlife and Environment (Andhra University Press 1993, 70pp., Rs450). Copies of both books can be ordered from Prof. M.V. Subba Rao, Sivasadan, 50-120-8/1, Seethammadhara N.E., Visakhapatnam 530 013, INDIA. A book review of Biodiversity II, is Science 275 (1997), 175; and of Takacs, D. The Idea of Biodiversity: Philosophies of Paradise (John Hopkins University Press 1996, 393pp., US$36) is in Nature 385 (1997), 591. A scientific discussion of how many species can be lost before ecosystems are destroyed is Natural History (Feb 1997), 48-53. Sexual discrimination in bird species is reported in Nature 385 (1997), 486-7. On forest conservation, NS (22 Feb. 1997), 10.

Seahorses have joined the endangered species list, Time (13 Jan 1997), 42-4. The loss of fish stocks in the North Sea is discussed in Cook, RM et al. "Potential collapse of North Sea cod stocks", Nature 385 (1997), 521-2;NS (8 Feb 1997), 6; (15 Feb. 1997), 46. In Seattle there is controversy of models used to estimate salmon stocks and fishing quotas, Nature 385 (1997), 668. The trade in cartilaginous fish is causing some shark species to become endangered, NS (14 Dec. 1996), 50. A review of the dropping water level in the Dead Sea and plans to revive it are in NS (8 Feb. 1997), 37-41. A book review of Cohn, N. Noah's Flood: The Genesis Story in Western Thought (Yale University Press 1996, 150pp., US$30) is in Nature 385 (1997), 407-8. On case studies of extinction, Nature 385 (1997), 776-7.

A review is Dobson, AP et al. "Geographic distribution of endangered species in the United States", Science 275 (1997), 550-3; 499-500. The Pentagon is increasing its efforts to conserve endangered species, Science 275 (1997), 20.

A study has found that insect wings may have evolved from ancestral gills, Nature 385 (1997), 627-30. On the origins of birds and reptiles, SA (Feb 1997), 12-4. Life may have existed on Earth more than 3580 million years ago, Science 275 (1997), 38-9. Discussion of the possibilities of life on Mars are in Newsweek (17 Feb 1997), 48-50; NS (21/28 Dec 1996), 3-4; (1 Jan. 1997), 50; Nature 385 (1997), 201, 592-3.

On the exploitation of biodiversity from the ocean, Nature Biotechnology 15 (1997), 324. Economics of extinction are discussed in NS (12 April 1997), 46. Political forces make it difficult to conserve fish stocks, Nature 386 (1997), 95, 105-10, 205; NS (22 March 1997), 12; as for tropical forests, SA (April 1997), 44-8. A study of the impact of the Danube River Dam on the Black Sea is Nature 386 (1997), 385-8; NS (29 March 1997), 4. On coral reefs, NS (8 March 1997), 46.

Calls to change the US Endangered Species Act are being resisted by some biologists, Nature 386 (1997), 530. It is difficult to define what is life, NS (5 April 1997), 46-7; and a new method for counting the range of species on the earth is based on genetics, Science 275 (1997), 1740--2; which is based on the huge microbial diversity, TIBTECH 1996 (1996), 327-9. Measuring selection forces in plants is reviewed in J. Heredity 88 (1997), 1-7.

On the exploitation of biodiversity from the ocean, Nature Biotechnology 15 (1997), 324. Economics of extinction are discussed in NS (12 April 1997), 46. Political forces make it difficult to conserve fish stocks, Nature 386 (1997), 95, 105-10, 205; NS (22 March 1997), 12; as for tropical forests, SA (April 1997), 44-8. A study of the impact of the Danube River Dam on the Black Sea is Nature 386 (1997), 385-8; NS (29 March 1997), 4. On coral reefs, NS (8 March 1997), 46.

Calls to change the US Endangered Species Act are being resisted by some biologists, Nature 386 (1997), 530. It is difficult to define what is life, NS (5 April 1997), 46-7; and a new method for counting the range of species on the earth is based on genetics, Science 275 (1997), 1740--2; which is based on the huge microbial diversity, TIBTECH 1996 (1996), 327-9. Measuring selection forces in plants is reviewed in J. Heredity 88 (1997), 1-7.

The value of the world's environment has been calculated at 33 trillion 1994 US dollars a year, Costanza, R. et al. "The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital", Nature 387 (1997), 253-60, 231-2; NS (17 May 1997), 11; Science 276 (1997), 1029; NY Times (20 May, 1997), C1, 5. The provide more of the data used in these calculations on the www notes to the lengthy paper and tables in the paper. They include some account of people's moral choices to protect and value certain species beyond their tourist or economic use. It may make people realize the value of what is usually not included in financial accounting. The amount each year is twice that of human economic activity.

A book review on Holland, BK, ed, Prospecting for Drugs in Ancient and Medieval European Texts: A Scientific Approach (Harwood, 1996, 114pp., US$65) is Nature 387 (1997), 251-2. A related paper on Japan is Numata, M. "Biodiversity and conservation - From herbals to the Red Data book", Nat. Hist. Res. 4 (1997), 57-67. The need to protect the needs of indigenous people in preserving the environment is discussed in NS (31 May 1997), 14-5. There has been a decision to allow trade in ivory from controlled stocks, after much debate, NS (7 June 1997), 14-5. 59 tonnes will be allowed into Japan in 1999 from the 3 countries. A study of green advertising on Australia's Gold Coast is Ambio 26 (1997), 190-1. A new book in Paperback is Kellert, SR. The Value of Life: Biological Diversity and Human Society (Island Press, US$17).

There is debate over the best methods for forestry is in Science 276 (1997), 1868-9; NS (24 May 1997), 30-3; NS (24 May 1997), 14. Studies are comparing traditional square patterns with a more random logging of large trees, leaving the forest to recover itself which the wildlife may find more easy to recover to. On nutrient cycles in forests, Ecological Modelling 99 (1997), 51-69. One of the general problems is when a habitat is also someone else's land, and whether the habitat conservation plans protect endangered species, Science 276 (1997), 1636-8, 1662-3.

The experience with New Zealand's black robin population which has now risen to 200 from 5 in 1980, suggests genetic diversity may not be essential (at least until disease), NS (31 May 1997), 10. New Zealand is being used as an intermediate for illegal smuggling of birds from Australia, NS (3 May 1997), 10. On evolutionary trees, Science 276 (1997), 218-9; and diversity, Science 276 (1997), 659, 734-40. The possibility of life on Europa, a moon of Jupiter, NS (19 April 1997), 13; are now echoed by those hopeful of finding life on Mars with the arrival of the roving vehicle.

A project to catalogue all the species in Costa Rica has been canceled over funding problems, Science 276 (1997), 893. A world biodiversity database in CD-ROM is available from Springer-Verlag. An idea for a world Biodiversity Year has been suggested in the USA by Newt Gingrich, a republican, who have been seen to be against the environment controls of the EPA, Science 276 (1997), 1323.

On depletion of fishing resources, Nature 387 (1997), 339; 388 (1997), 106; NS (26 April 1997), 6. A study finds dams take away plant life and biodiversity from riverbanks, Science 276 (1997), 683. The Antarctic Environment Protocol is now being implemented in discussions, following signature by 24 countries, with Japan and Russia expected to sign now the USA has signed, Science 276 (1997), 685. The first trials of chemical birth control in elephants have been suspended as the societies became disordered, NS (31 May 1997), 5.

A commentary, Cohen, J. "Can cloning help save beleaguered species?", Science 276 (1997), 1329-30; is being discussed at conferences A two year study in the Natural History Museum in London suggests there is no DNA in insects preserved in amber, as in Jurassic Park stories, Proceedings Royal Society London, Biological Sciences (22 April, 1997); Science 276 (1997), 361. Other studies may have had contaminating DNA. The selling of a T.rex skeleton for millions of dollars is discussed in NS (24 May 1997), 7; also see, NS (26 April 1997), 42-3; Newsweek (19 May 1997), 58.

A further grassroots network has been formed in India, called the Gujarat Grassroots Innovation Augmentation Network (GIAN), as a follow up of the successful International Conference on Creativity and Innovation at Grassroots held in Ahmedabad, India, 11-14 Jan, 1997; Honey Bee 8 (April-June, 1997), 1. Contact: Prof. Anil K. Gupta, Indian Institute of Management, Vastrapur, Ahmedabad 380 015, INDIA. Indian bureaucracy has been blamed for loss of one monitoring project on turtles, taking 3 and half years to get approval to put transmitters on turtles, however there are hopes that other projects may be successful, Science 276 (1997), 1785.

Scientific methods are being used to show that ivory that is traded comes only from approved stocks, NS (28 June 1997), 4. Long tusks may be linked to genetic vigor, but it also makes animals most likely to be poached, Science 276 (1997), 1972. At the CITES Convention meeting, there was less protest against Asian medical drugs from endangered species, NS (21 June 1997), 6. Karp, A. et al. "Molecular technologies for biodiversity evaluation: Opportunities and challenges", NatBio 15 (1997), 625-8. calls for more immediate efforts, like planting native seeds are in NS (14 June 1997), 48; J. Applied Ecology 34 (1997), 547-65. However, Australia may import 100 rhinos into Queensland Savannah to form a reservoir for the endangered species, NS (21 June 1997), 10.

A series of papers on "human-dominated ecosystems" and conservation is in Science 277 (1997), 457, 486-525. The paper, Vitousek, PM. et al. "Human domination of earth's ecosystems", Science 277 (1997), 494-9; reports that the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has increased 30% since the industrial revolution, more atmospheric nitrogen is fixed by humanity than all natural terrestrial sources combined, more than half the accessible surface fresh water is used by humanity, and one quarter of bird species have been driven to extinction. The role that ecotones play in generating new biodiversity means they should be conserved more, Science 276 (1997), 1855-7. A review of the percent of native plants at risk across states in the USA is SA (August 1997), 26. On conservation in general, Uhl, C. et al. "Natural resource management in the Brazilian Amazon", BioScience 47 (1997), 160-8; Guha, R. "The authoritarian biologist and the arrogance of anti-humanism. Wildlife conservation in the Third World", The Ecologist 27 (1997), 14-20; TREE 12 (1997), 131-3; and biodiversity in general, Science 276 (1997), 1811; Nature 388 (1997), 529-30; TREE 12 (1997), 91-2; Proc. Royal Soc. London B 264 (197), 943-8. On Australian aboriginal resource use, Human Ecology 25 (1997), 159-95.

Dams to control water usually reduce biodiversity, SA (August 1997), 20, 22; and on the global impact of the Aswan dam, NS (26 July 1997), 10. Warming may harm penguins, Science 276 (1997), 1790; and on coral reefs, Science 277 (1997), 165-6. Reindeer are causing damage to tundra in the Arctic, NS (14 June 1997), 6. On the destruction of fishing methods, NS (14 June 1997), 4; TIBTECH 15 (1997), 130-2; Science 277 (1997), 486-93, 509-15; and marine pollution, Newsweek Bulletin (29 July 1997), 24-5. In July Canadian fishermen blocked a US ferry in Vancouver in a protest on salmon fishing.

An international convention on forests failed at the recent second Earth Summit, due to moves from Brazil, India and USA; NS (5 July 1997), 22. An Indian restriction on logging is leading to import of logs from New Zealand there, Asian Wall Street Journal (22 July 1997), 4. Brazil has opened the Amazon to legal logging, in a response to the illegal logging there. Also on forests, BioScience 47 (1997), 437-45; Science 277 (1997), 522-5; and on forestry law, J. Forestry 95 (1997), 3-13.

A report on the Comparative Nutrition Society is TREE 12 (1997), 9-10.

The large forest fires in Indonesia not only destroy huge areas of forests but have caused much health damage through air pollution, Nature 389 (1997), 315, 321; NS (4 Oct. 1997), 3-4. Other areas are being planted, NS (23 Aug. 1997), 9. Logging does increase animal stress, a study looking at the droppings from owls has revealed, Science 277 (1997), 901.

A review of global change in biodiversity by species invasions is Nature 389 (1997), 627. A review is Power, M. & McCarty, LS. "Fallacies in ecological risk assessment practices", EST 31 (1997), 370-5A. On the dangers of releasing ballast water with new organisms, from ships, NS (20 Sept. 1997), 59. One of the sanctuaries for wild-life is no-man's land between North and South Korea. A list of the types of species that are endangered in the USA is Science 277 (1997), 1116-7. On rhinoceros, Nature 388 (1997), 636. There are questions about the IUCN, Nature 389 (1997), 436.

The mode of speciation is discussed in Science 277 (1997), 1622-3. On the extinction of dinosaurs, NS (16 Aug. 1997), 23-9; SA (Sept. 1997), 95-7; Science 277 (1997), 644-5. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of coelacanth has shown it is not as old as a lungfish, to the DNA of frogs, Science 277 (1997), 1436. On Noah's flood evidence, NS (4 Oct. 1997), 24-7.

A review is Tanksley, SD. & McCouch, SR. "Seed banks and molecular maps: Unlocking genetic potential from the wild", Science 277 (1997), 1063-6. On administrative bureaucracy in the UN Biodiversity Convention and UNEP, Nature 389 (1997), 1, 5.

Recombinant approaches can be used for accessing biodiversity, NatBio 15 (1997), 1322; NS (1 Nov 1997), 64. On evolution of biodiversity, Science 277 (1997), 1788-9; 278 (1997), 390; SA (Dec 1997), 58-65; Science 278 (1997), 596-8; NS (8 Nov 1997), 36-40; (29 Nov 1997), 4; and its assessment, Science 278 (1997), 689-92, 2058-60. There are poor prospects for birds that are oiled, Nature 390 (1997), 449-50. Letters on restoration of ecosystems are in Science 278 (1997), 997-1000. A book review of Daily, GC, Nature's Services. Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems (Washington, DC., Island Press 1997, 392pp., US$50, ISBN 1-55963-475-8) is Science 277 (1997), 1783.

A 650 page report by the Ministry of the Environment in NZ is State of New Zealand's Environment, and includes an audit of the state of the environment, finding the most worrying problem is decline in biodiversity, 85% of lowland forests and wetlands are gone, 800 species are threatened with extinction, originally 93 birds were unique to NZ but 43 of these are extinct and 37 are endangered. 85 of 154 Japanese mammals are in danger of extinction, NS (15 Nov 1997), 27. On red and grey squirrels in the UK, NS (20 Dec 1997), 11; while the introduced mink is causing much damage, NS (29 Nov 1997), 26. On tiger conservation, Time (24 Nov 1997), 31-2.

Brazil is passing a law to protect the Atlantic rain forest, a 95,000 square km area of the forest, Science 278 (1997), 1699. A study shows that isolated rain forest fragments do not survive well, Laurance, WF. et al. "Biomass collapse in Amazonian forest fragments", Science 278 (1997), 1117-8, 1016. There are still large portions of Amazonian and Indonesian forests burning, NS (11 Oct 1997), 10; which can be compared to small scale slash and burn agriculture, NS (15 Nov 1997), 24-5. On timber, Dauvergne, P. Shadows in the Forest: Japan and the Politics of Timber in Southeast Asia (MIT Press, 1997); Dauvergne, P. "A Model of Sustainable International Trade in Tropical Timber." Int. Env. Affairs 9(1997), 3-

21. On the US Species Law, and politics, Science 278 (1997), 1389. Politics has preserved biodiversity in Korea's demilitarized zone, Science 277 (1997), 242-3.

Some scientific arguments for an ecocentric-based approach are McNaughton, SJ et al. "Promotion of the cycling of diet-enhancing nutrients by African grazers", Science 278 (1997), 1798-800; Kay, RF. et al. "Primate species richness is determined by plant productivity: Implications for conservation", PNAS 94 (1997), 13023-7; McGrady-Steed, J. et al. "Biodiversity regulates ecosystem predictability", Nature 390 (1997), 162-5; Naeem, S. & Li, S. "Biodiversity enhances ecosystem reliability", Nature 390 (1997), 507-9. On the connectivity of coral reefs, Science 278 (1997), 1454-7; NS (25 Oct 1997), 5. On fish kills and eutrophication, EST 31 (1997), 492A; Science 277 (1997), 1808-11; and over-fishing, NS (11 Oct 1997), 55; (18 Oct 1997), 15; (8 Nov 1997), 12; (15 Nov 1997), 26; SA (Nov 1997), 17, 20; (Dec 1997), 32; Nature 390 (1997), 109.

A commentary calling for economics to preserve the environment is Nature 391 (1998), 629-30; also Cornell University and Schering Plough have signed a bioprospecting deal in Ithaca, New York, Science 279 (1998), 973. However the Caiman trade is leading to extinction, SA (March 1998), 70-6. On ethics, Oksanen, M. "The moral value of biodiversity", Ambio 26 (1997), 541-5. Knowledge of biodiversity is power, NatBio 16 (1998), 115. Book reviews on Zoos and Sea World shows are Nature 391 (1998), 757-8. Efforts to improve US germplasm banks are being made, Science 279 (1998), 793. On calculating the costs of natural resource drainage, EST 32 (1998), 86-90A. A book review of Grifo, F. & Rosenthal, J., eds, Biodiversity and Human Health (Island Press, 1997) is JAMA 279 (1998), 408.

There is concern in the US that more wetlands will be industrially developed, Science 279 (1998), 980. The loss of conservation protection in the UK is discussed in NS (24 Jan. 1998), 18-9. A series of papers on sustainable marine fisheries are in Ecological Applications 8 (1998, Supplement), S1-174. A paper showing how fishing is moving down the marine food webs nonsustainably is Science 279 (1998), 860-3, 809, 821-2. There are disputes over protection of spawning of Atlantic salmon, Science 279 (1998), 800. On preservation of coral reefs, Science 279 (1998), 807-8. The use of cloning to preserve Pandas is being suggested, NS (24 Jan. 1998), 5. Experiments suggest nuclear transfer from mammals into enucleated cow oocytes can lead to animal growth.

Preserved embryos have been discovered in rocks that are about 570 million years old, Nature 391 (1998), 529-30, 553-8; Science 279 (1998), 803-4. Ants have been discovered in amber about 92 million years old, Nature 391 (1998), 447. Also on fossils, SA (March 1998), 102-3; NS (10 Jan. 1998), 47; and on evolution, NS (24 Jan. 1998), 36-40; SA (Feb. 1998), 38-47.

A review is Svirezhov, YM, & Svirejeva-Hopkins, A, "Sustainable biosphere: critical overview of basic concept of sustainability", Ecological Modelling 106 (1998), 47-61. A discussion of obtaining bioresources from the sea is GEN 18 (1 March, 1998), 8, 23, 36. Some marine compounds fight cancer, NS (7 Feb. 1998), 11. There is a lawsuit against the selling of rights to bioprospecting in Yellowstone National Park hot pools in the USA, Science 279 (1998), 1624. On money and genes, NS (14 Feb. 1998), 1. On the value of land and species distribution, Science 279 (1998), 2126-8. Governments should stop the subsidies to industry that do environmental harm, Nature 392 (1998), 327-8.

A raid in New Zealand on restaurants found many illegal species in shops, Christchurch Star (1 April 1998), 1. There continues to be overfishing around the world, NS (14 Feb. 1998), 4. A commentary discussing whether conservation targets work is in Science 279 (1998), 2060-1. Papers on the use of molecular markers in conservation are in Ecology 79 (1998), 361-425. Inbreeding does lead to extinction, so genetic tests can help avoid this, Nature 392 (1998), 441-2.

More than 10% of the world's known plants are under threat of extinction according to a list published by the International Union for Conservation of nature <http://www.wcmc.org.uk>, Nature 392 (1998), 534. On the consequences to the ecosystem of changing biodiversity, BioScience (Jan 1998), 43-52; Science 279 (1998), 2106-8. A report on some of the damage caused by forest fires and the orangutans in Indonesia, The Bulletin (31 March 1998), 26-8. Many mountain animal species may thrive in avalanche paths, Science 279 (1998), 1853. On planning for biodiversity, Science 279 (1998), 2068-9.

The possibility of life on some moons in Jupiter is discussed in Time (16 March, 1998). There appears even less likelihood that the rock artifacts discovered on Martian rocks are signs of life, SA (April 1998), 19-20.

The environmental contaminant DDE fails to influence the outcome of sexual differentiation in the marine turtle Chelona mydas, Environmental Health Perspectives 106 (1998), 185-8. Birds eggs started to thin long before DDT, maybe it is due to acidification, Science News 153 (1998), 261. On decline in amphibians by a fungus, NS (13 June 1998), 4-5, 48. A toxic chemical in boat paint may be responsible for deaths of sea otters, NS (23 May 1997), 12. A discussion of missing male births in human societies is SA (July 1998), 22, 24. Lead is a reproductive toxin in animals including humans, Occup. Environ. Med. 55 (1998), 364-74. A discussion of why in 1997 100+ Mediterranean monk seals dies is Nature 393 (1998), 17-8. A trial of ecosystem engineering by humans to model that of other species is Proc. Royal Soc. Lond. B 265 (1998), 1091-6; Science 280 (1998), 1195-6. A man-made wetland failed to attract some birds back to the old habitats, Science 280 (1998), 371-2.

Bioprospecting is discussed in Nature 393 (1998), 301, 617; Economist (30 May 1998), 79-81. Some Australian laws are said to inhibit such prospecting, NatMed 4 (1998), 651. Loss of biodiversity threatens new treatments, BMJ 316 (1998), 1266; JAMA 279 (1998), 1679-81; NS (16 May 1998), 23. A series of papers on the value of ecosystem services is Ecological Economics 25 (1998), 1-141; also Ecological Applications 8 (1998), 342-9. The current estimate of US$33 trillion per year compared to the total GNP of US$18 trillion, Costanza R. et al. "The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital", Ecological Economics 25 (1998), 3-15 (reprint Nature 387 81997), 253-60. On evolution of birds, Nature 393 (1998), 32-3; 753+; and vertebrates, Nature 393 (1998), 917-9; and microbial diversity, Nature 393 (1998), 410-1; PNAS 95 (1998), 6578-83. In general on biodiversity, Natural History 107 (June 1998), 42-63. An update on the changes to the UN Biodiversity Convention is Nature 393 (1998), 202. More than one tenth of the world's plants are expected to go extinct soon, NS (11 April 1998), 12. On the idea of species, supplement pp. 1-4; NS (13 June 1998).

On American forest policy, BioScience 48 (1998), 471-7; and Asian forest depletion, Science 280 (1998), 367, 1899-900; NS (21 March 1998), 36-9. A review of the 1997 state of the world's forests is Nature & Resources 33 (1997), 18-25. There is debate over whether there was ancient forest in current peat bogs in Scotland, NS (21 March 1998), 22. A study of ranching in South America suggests where forests are cut down the water flow may increase rather than decrease, NS (4 April 1998), 22. A study suggests small fragments of forest may not be worth saving, NS (9 May 1998), 10; Natural History 107 (July 1998), 34-51; Nature 393 (1998), 23-4; however, see the papers of Malhotra in Bioethics in Asia on preservation of biodiversity in sacred groves. Yellowstone National park is recovering from the recent forest fires, Science 280 (1998), 1527-8. On biodiversity of bison prairies, Science 280 (1998), 677. A review of the efforts to preserve Kenyan wildlife is Science 280 (1998), 510-2, 1518-9. Endangered species recovery is reviewed in BioScience 48 (1998), 177-84, 347-52. A conflict between the Chinook salmon and the expansion of Seattle is discussed in NS (7 March 1998), 13. Temperature rise is expected to kill salmon, Science 280 (1998), 1349. In general on fishing depletion, NS (11 April 1998), 45; (16 May 1998), 40-4.

Spain has agreed to a US$70 million debt for nature swap to aid biodiversity conservation in Latin America, Nature 395 (1998), 210. Ecologists have suggested that some of the destroyed South East Asian forests that have been cut down may be able to recover, Cannon, CH. et al. "Tree species diversity in commercially logged Bornean rainforest", Science 281 (1998), 1366-8, 1295-6; NS (5 Sept. 1998), 12. Beetle species diversity is discussed in Ecological Monographs 68 (1998), 295-323. The impact of primate losses is assessed in Science 281 (1998), 1780-1. On logging in rain forests, Science 281 (1998), 1453-7; and renewable resource exploitation, Ecological Economics 26 (1998), 227-42, 243-58.

In general however, havens of biodiversity are usually not protected well, NS (19 Sept. 1998), 25. There is a plan to re-create a long-lost Siberian steppe ecosystem with large mammals, Science 281 (1998), 31-2. The stability of ecosystems is determined by complex webs, Nature 395 (1998), 744-5; 396 (1998), 22-3; also Science 281 (1998), 1444-5. The World Conservation Monitoring System has estimated that 10% of tree species are under threat, Science 281 (1998), 1426. Seed storage is debated in Nature 395 (1998), 758.

Ecologists are seeking flexible protection rules in the US, Nature 391 (1998), 829. Fears that tourists will bring diseases to Antarctica are discussed in NS (10 Oct. 1998), 3-4. Orcas are preying on sea otters off the Aleutians altering the balance, NS (25 Oct. 1998), 25. New Zealand's fish quota system does not appear to be protecting fish stocks, NS (29 August 1998), 46. The question of when herbivores enhance plant production is discussed in Ecology 79 (1998), 2242-52. Coelacanths have been found in Indonesian waters, Nature 395 (1998), 319-20, 335. Protection of ocean birds is called for in NS (24 Oct. 1998), 13.

The loophole in the Biological Diversity Convention on prospecting in botanic gardens allows them to be used for bioprospecting, Science 281 (1998), 1273. The search in oceans for new therapeutic agents is discussed in Lancet 352 (1998), 794. A proposed six-kingdom system of life is reviewed in Biological Reviews 73 (1998), 203-66; and on nematode evolution, Nature 392 (1998), 71-5.

There is no simple reason for the recent decline in amphibian populations, EST 33 (1998), 352-3A; Financial Times (15 August 1998), II; NS (25 July 1998), 21; SA (August 1998), 27; Nature 394 (1998), 418-9; however endocrine disrupting chemicals are still being released, The Chemical Engineer (28 May 1998), 5. Estrogen mimics may disrupt the brain circuits for reproduction, NS (18 July 1998), 4. The UK is conducting a major study on hormone effects, EST 33 (1998), 305A. The EPA is lowering the permitted level for release of selenium from 5ppb to 2.5ppb, to lessen risk of reproductive impairment, EST 33 (1998), 350A.

A report on difficulties to study the dugong, which is suffering from silt and loss of the seagrass and weed that it eats, SA (Sept. 1998), 20-1. The World Trade Organization (WTO) ruled in April 1998 that the US ban on shrimp imports from nets which also kill sea turtles was against free trade, raising concerns that the environment will always come second, SA (August 1998), 33-4. There are good reasons to protect biodiversity, NS (15 August 1998), 30-3; and it is false economics to ignore what we already gain but only focus on making new wealth, NS (15 August 1998), 48. A study of how areas for conservation are chosen is Proc. Roy. Soc. London B. 265 (1998), 1475-82. In general on biodiversity, SA (August 1998), 99-100. Plant experts have called also for protection of pathogenic microorganisms, NS (22 August 1998), 5. The camel immune system is being studied for the way the immune system makes proteins that not only bind foreign bodies but stop them working, NS (25 July 1998), 17.

A new strategy for tiger protection is called for by WWF to focus on keeping larger areas rather than small niches, NS (15 August 1998), 12. Vanishing pools of biodiversity tend to become extinct, Science 281 (1998), 626; Nature 394 (1998), 272-4. Calls for conservationalists to optimize the use of money are in NS (1 August 1998), 7. There is controversy over the showing in museums of Chinese fossils that have been illegally exported, Science 281 (1998), 315-6. On the role of museums in protecting biodiversity, Nature 394 (1998), 105, 413. Japan has been criticized for using an excuse of research for starting tuna fishing 7 weeks earlier than the international treaty on bluefin tuna, with a resultant ban on such ships from Australasian ports, NS (18 July 1998), 15. On marine biodiversity, Science 281 (1998), 1157-9.

A book review of The Rural Landscape is NS (28 Nov. 1998), 50; and The Hungry Hollow is NS (14 Nov. 1998), 51. Plans for a global eco-survey are finding support difficult, Nature 397 (1999), 97. The diversity components of primate endangered species are reviewed in PNAS 95 (1998), 11279-83. Genetic resources are essential for survival, as seen in US greater prairie chickens, Science 282 (1998), 1695+. Speciation is discussed in Researches on Population Ecology 40 (1998), 173-222. The impact of grazing varies with the nutrient status of an ecosystem, Ecology 79 (1998), 2581-92. An English translation of the report by Japan's Elsa Nature Conservancy on an orca capture is on <http://www.yin.or.jp/user/rdavis/orcareport.html>

Once a small fire has burnt Amazon forest, it becomes increasingly easier for the second or third fire to ignite and this is accelerating destruction of the forest, Science News 154 (Oct 1998). A commentary on conservation targets in South American temperate forests is in Science 282 (1998), 1271-2. In the US some temperate forests are growing, Science 282 (1998), 1253. A prediction on species abundance of 80 tree species in Eastern USA following climate change is made in Ecological Monographs 68 (1998), 465-85. Reef losses are resulting from high temperatures, Science 282 (1998), 871. On salmon conservation, SA (Jan 1999), 100+; and seafood production, Science 282 (1998), 883-4.

A review of laws for conservation in China and a call for enforcement is Ambio 27 (1998), 489-91. Papers on concepts in conservation from Southeastern USA are in Ecological Applications 8 (1998), 907-89. As the US Dept. of Energy sells more land next to its national laboratories there are fears over falling biodiversity, Science 282 (1998), 616-7. The transfer of some African game reserves to local government control is also raising fears of loss of species, NS (7 Nov. 1998), 16-7. A book review on the passion for bird watching is Nature 397 (1999), 119. A report on biodiversity in India by the Ministry of Environment and Forests is Implementation of Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity in India. National report. 1998, 59pp. About 127,000 species of organisms have been described in India, but many remain to identify. India has 85 National Parks and 448 Wildlife Sanctuaries covering 148,000 square km, covering equal to 4.2% of land area.

A report on the ivory trade is Wilcox, Richard, African Elephant Ecology and the Politics of Ivory Trade: A Comparative Study of Botswana, Kenya and Japan (1998 140pp.), Contact: rwilcox@interlink.or.jp; or send self-addressed stamped envelope to R. Wilcox, #103, 1-17-8 Nishi Sugamo, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 170-0001 JAPAN.

On the origin of life, TIBS 23 (1998), 491-5; Science 282 (19918)4, 28-9; and on a hydrogen-producing mitochondrion, Nature 396 (1998), 517-9. One of the first angiosperms, flowering plants has been found in China, Science 282 (1998), 1692-5. A single gene can separate some species, NS (28 Nov. 1998), 11; and imprinted genes may separate others, NS (12 Dec. 1998), 16. Zebrafish have 7 clusters of the Hox developmental genes, unlike 4 in mammals, and this greater number may allow more evolutionary experimentation, NS (5 Dec. 1998), 25. There is decreasing support for the claim there was life on Mars, Science 282 (1998), 1398-400. Dinosaurs are discussed in Nature 396 (1998), 529-30; NS (2 Jan. 1999), 96. On archaeology and the history of human society, Science 282 (1998), 1441-57; SA (Nov. 1998), 118-20. On human origins, NS (2 Jan. 1999), 15, 92-3.

A report on the protection of nature is Donnelley, S., ed., "Nature, Polis, Ethics. Chicago Regional Planning", HCR 28 (No. 6, Nov. 1998), Special Supplement S1-42. The use of the Vienna Convention on the law of treaties and the environmental problems of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros project are reviewed in Int. & Comp. Law Quarterly 47 (1998), 837-54. A book review of L. Margulis, The Symbiont Planet (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1999) is NS (23 Jan. 1999), 45.

A series of papers on germplasm protection for plants are in HortScience 33 (1998), 1119-35. The OECD may help preserve microbiological collections, Science 283 (1999), 1240-1. On animal protection, SA (March 1999), 28, 30. Exotic plant species can invade hot spots of native plant diversity, Ecological Monographs 69 (1999), 25-46. The UK green charter may be too late to save Caribbean islands, and other territories, but efforts are being made to protect biodiversity there, NS (20 March 1999), 18-9. On possible Martian life, Science 283 (1999), 1841. On conservation of bioresources Nature 398 (1999), 37; NS (16 Jan. 1999), 49. Bioprospecting is discussed in NatBio 17 (1999), 411.

Coral bleaching is discussed in SA (April 1999), 30-1. US senators are attempting to fund some efforts to conserve some reefs, Nature 398 (1999), 363. Carbon dioxide can affect coral reefs, Science 284 (1999), 118-20; Plant Cell and Environment 21 (1998), 1219-30. There are claims that Antarctica is being exploited, Nature 397 (1999), 375. Letters on otter-eating orcas are in Science 283 (1999), 176-7.

A call for forest sustainability has been made in the Columbia river basin, Science 283 (1999), 1996-8; and in general, NS (6 Feb. 1999), 11. A paper finding that the present estimates of deforestation in the Amazon basin only measure half the affected area is Nature 398 (1999), 505-8. The development of seedlings in the gaps of managed forest clearing may help tree diversity, NS (30 Jan. 1999), 15. Several papers on biodiversity and high-value farming are in J. Applied Ecology 35 (1998), 948-90. On methods to list endangered species and protect them, Science 284 (1999), 36-7.

On damage to fish populations, Ambio 28 (1999), 112-24; Science 284 (1999), 237, 574-5, 1537-8. The US dolphin-safe label on tuna will now also be permitted for tuna from boats that may have chased dolphins as long as dolphins were not killed, NS (15 May 1999), 22. On coral damage, Ambio 28 (1999), 188-90; NS (24 April 1999), 13. The consumer demand for turtles in China is the main cause of demise of their populations, and includes many endangered species, SA (June 1999), 32-3. A report on wildlife harvest in logged tropical forests is in Science 284 (1999), 595-6. Using market forces may be the way to control illegal wildlife trade, NS (8 May 1999), 51. On the resumed elephant ivory trade, Nature 399 (1999), 297.

In general on biodiversity, Science 284 (1999), 276-7. A series of papers on stress in ecological systems is in Ecological Applications 9 (1999), 429-503. There has been criticism from both sides over Canada's proposed conservation law, Nature 399 (1999), 10. A series of papers on Antarctica are in NS (17 April 1999), 28-58. Deer gender may be determined by deer density, Nature 399 (1999), 407-8.

A study questioning the causes of coral reef decay is EST 33 (1999), 270-1A; NS (3 July 1999), 22; Nature & Resources 35 (1999), 16-25. The loss of fisheries from the Bering Sea is discussed in Time (16 August 1999), 42-4. Ecology is beyond the bounds of science, Nature & Resources 35 (1999), 38-49.

Forests are discussed in Ambio 28 (1999), 295; Nature 400 (1999), 231-2. Papers on Biosphere 2 are in Ecological Engineering 13 (1999), 1-64. Illegal logging is destroying an orangutan group, NS (3 July 1999), 24. Threats of losing biodiversity data is discussed in Nature 400 (1999), 207. OECD is setting up a global facility on biodiversity, Science 284 (1999), 22-3. Conserving genetic resources is reviewed in Genome 42 (1999), 562-9. On saving African wildlands, Science 284 (1999), 825. Elephants feel stress when they lack space, Science News 155 (1999), 341. A plan to save Hawaii's threatened biodiversity is in Science 284 (1999), 81.

Biomass and energy is discussed in Science 284 (1999), 1209. Glaxo Wellcome has entered a US$3 million deal for drug hunts in Brazil, Nature 400 (1999), 302. An historical paper is Foster, KP. "The earliest zoos and gardens", SA (July 1999), 64-71. It suggests there were zoos 4000 years ago. DNA has been isolated from frozen ice, Science 285 (1999), 327. Denmark has funded a DNA analysis lab. In Uganada for biodiversity work, Science 285 (2 July 1999). The Chinese Three Gorges Dam is discussed in NS (17 July 1999), 14.

In India the prohibitions on killing stray dogs are a public health problem, Lancet 353 (1999), 2219. Australia is killing feral cats to save the numbat, NS (3 July 1999), 5. The killing of buffalo in USA is discussed in NS (12 June 1999), 18-9. The idea of hormone-releasing patches to encourage kakapo in New Zealand to breed is discussed in SA (August 1999), 23. On the diversity of evolution, Science 284 (1999), 2106-2142

The problems of biodiversity loss are discussed in Sale, JB. "Biodiversity loss in the developing world and sustainable development", Science & Christian Belief 11 (1999), 129-38. Ecosystem assessment is reviewed in Science 286 (1999), 685-6. The economic worth of ecological diversity is discussed in Nature 401 (1999), 323-4. The possible impacts of farming the oceans are discussed in NS (2 Oct. 1999), 34-6. Sustaining the fish already in the ocean is proving difficult, EST 33 (1999), 452-7A.

150 countries supported the Recife Initiative to increase funding for the prevention of desertification on 27 Nov. 1999 in Brazil. Vegetation affects the rate of a desert growth, SA (Oct. 1999), 36-7. There will be an investigation of Lake Vostok, isolated from the biosphere for one million years, Nature 401 (1999), 203. Papers on the Arctic tundra are in Ambio 28 (1999), 209-91. On hot spring biodiversity, Nature 401 (1999), 644. The damage from clearing India mangrove forests is increasing, NS (6 Nov. 1999), 12. Marine oil drilling has left an unlikely haven for some corals on the legs of oil platforms, NS (6 Nov. 1999), 16. Many old tree species are endangered, especially conifers, NS (2 Oct. 1999), 15. Deforestation affects gene flow and seed dispersal, Nature 401 (1999), 129; TREE 14 (1999), 378-9. On plant biodiversity, Science 286 (1999), 1123+.

A review of efforts to save the California condor is BioScience 49 (1999), 864-8. African apes and monkeys are expected to be lost in the near future, NS (23 Oct. 1999), 17. The use of biotechnology to safe endangered species is discussed in NS (2 Oct. 1999), 40-3.

A paper on restoring wild species is Doremus, H. "Restoring endangered species: The importance of being wild", Harvard Environmental Law Review 23 (1999), 1-92. A collection of letters and papers by Dr. Mike Vandeman (Email:mjvande@pacbell.net) on conservation including a paper "Wildlife Need Habitat Off-Limits to Humans" is on-line at < http://www.imaja.com/change/environment/mvarticles/>. There is a decrease in wilderness areas, Time (8 Nov. 1999), 82-4. A legal analysis of the listing of the bull trout under the Endangered Species Act in the USA is Public Land & Resources Law Review 20 (1999), 99-130.

Some species are likely to be mainly born in zoos rather than the wild in the future, Newsweek (27 Dec. 1999), 54-7. The question of whether cloning should be used to revive an extinct bird, the Huia, in New Zealand was debated at a conference in July 1999. For the news release and pictures of the Huia see <http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/ radewey/cu-071699.html>

In Brazil forest rangers carry machine guns, Newsweek (25 Oct. 1999), 54-5. The difficulty of defining a species is discussed in NS (20 Nov. 1999), 1. Ecosystem communication is discussed in Science 286 (1999), 1684-5, 2068-9, 2091-2. Biodiversity protection is reviewed in J. Natural Resources & Environmental Law 14 (1999), 85-114. Experiences of conservation biologists hiding as a moose are described in NS (25 Dec. 1999), 62-4. The impact of agriculture on forests is discussed in Science 286 (1999), 1283.

There are fears that lobster stocks will be depleted n the Atlantic, NS (25 Dec. 1999), 16. Cod catches are a third of what they were in the 1980s in Europe, NS (20 Nov. 1999), 14. A legal study on dugongs is Leong, E. "Indigenous Australians and dugongs in the Southern Great Barrier Reef: Legal remedies", Univ. Queensland Technology & Law J. 14 (1999), 108-42. Coral is discussed in Ambio 28 (1999), 472-8; Nature 402 (1999), 601.

A book review of Terborgh, J., Requiem for Nature (Island Press 1999, 656pp, US$25) is Nature 403 (2000), 593-4. It asks whether we should conserve biodiversity for its own sake. On conservation biology, Nature 403 (2000), 26-7. The question of when to cull elephants and sell ivory is discussed in SA (Jan. 2000), 41-2. The question of what state forests should be attempted to be restored to is difficult, Science 287 (2000), 573-5. It depends on how far the clock should go back. A proposal for more national parks in the Amazon is discussed in Science 287 (2000), 786-9.

There is controversy over the use of a small Island in Anguilla that is being leased to make a rocket launch pad, NS (12 Feb. 2000), 22. The idea to breach dams on the Snake river in Idaho is being discussed in Science 287 (2000), 27. Protests against a proposed Venezuela salt factory that would replace a salt marsh are discussed in Ram's Horn 176 (2000), 1-4. Letters on biosphere management are in Science 287 (2000), 234-5. The debate in Kenya on the future of protecting wildlife is in Financial Times (29 Jan. 2000), Weekend 1. Safer herbicides have been found from salt marshes, NS (5 Feb. 2000), 7. The threats of emerging infectious diseases to biodiversity is discussed in Science 287 (2000), 443-9.

A www site to list all amphibian species to help protect them has been launched www.amphibiaweb.org, Nature 403 (2000), 471. On the evolution of species diversity, Nature 403 (2000), 125. Researchers are starting to buy species names for a fee, Science 287 (2000), 421. Local data are needed for conservation, Nature 403 (2000), 241.

New Canadian laws to protect endangered species include one million dollar fines for killing endangered plants or animals, Vancouver Globe & Mail (11 April 2000), A1, A7. An Australian has been jailed for removal of fossilized footprints, Nature 404 (2000), 4. In general on species extinction, Nature 403 (2000), 843-4; 404 (2000), 541. Papers on economic evaluation of biodiversity are in EST 34 (2000), 1381-1461; Splash, CL. "Multiple value expression in contingent valuation: Economics and ethics", EST 34 (2000), 1433-8. The question of siting of paper mills in pristine environments is discussed in EST 34 (2000), 546-51. A historical analysis of drug discovery is in Science 287 (2000), 1960-4. Hazel trees can also provide taxol, Science 288 (2000), 27-8. An interview with Ed Wilson is EST 34 (2000), 122-6A.

The question of what to conserve with limited resources is discussed in NS (26 Feb. 2000), 12. The priority is hotspots, Myers, N. et al. "Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities", Nature 403 (2000), 853-8. Scenarios for changes in biodiversity in the year 2100 are predicted in Science 287 (2000), 1770-4. It is said that private institutions cannot protect biodiversity alone, Nature 404 (2000), 120. Producer-decomposer codependency affects biodiversity, Nature 403 (2000), 762-4. Reliance on citation index undermines the study of biodiversity, Nature 403 (2000), 698. The fossil record reveals delayed recovery times of about 10 million years from extinction, Nature 404 (2000), 129-30, 177-80; see also p.122-3. It means that humans will not live to see the planet's fauna recover, NS (11 March 2000), 18. Plant species extinction is discussed in EST 34 (2000), 130-5A. A study finding that it took only 100 years to drive the 11 species of moa extinct in New Zealand is Holdaway, RN. & Jacomb, C. "Rapid extinction of the Moas (Aves: Dinornithiformes): Model, test, and implications", Science 287 (2000), 2250-53; 2170-1. Motorways are the last haven for some birds of prey, NS (4 March 2000), 19.

Ethics of fisheries are discussed in AIBA Newslink 3 (Feb. 2000), 1-2; also see this issue EJAIB 10 (May 2000). Climate variability is affecting North Sea Cod, Nature 404 (2000), 142. The use of robots will be used in fish conservation, NS (18 March 2000), 12. The question of the science of breaching dams to allow salmon to spawn is discussed in EST 34 (2000), 112A. In Portugal fishermen who take the large claw off male fiddler crabs and then return the crab, have led to altered sex balance, because the declawed males cannot attract females, NS (19 Feb. 2000), 5. The bleaching of coral is discussed in Nature 404 (2000), 142-3. Evidence for the decline of amphibian species is in Nature 404 (2000), 752-5. Sustainable use of hawksbill turtles is discussed in a book review in Nature 404 (2000), 704. On biological invasion, Science 287 (2000), 1762.

A policy discussion of extension of protected areas in Africa is Science 287 (2000), 1759-60. The debate over allowing some ivory trading continues, NS (8 April 2000), 20. Zimbabwe, South Africa, Botswana and Namibia have applied to the UN conference on endangered species to lift the ban. It has been found that there are actually two species of African elephant, NS (1 April 2000), 15. Human conflict in Congo threatens bonobos and gorillas, Science 287 (2000), 2386-7.

The trade-offs in biodiversity are discussed in Tilman, D. "Causes, consequences and ethics of biodiversity", Nature 405 (2000), 208-11. Following international criticism and NGO opposition Mexico cancelled plans to build what would have been the world's largest saltworks, UNESCO Sources 122 (April 2000), 22. A series of papers on biodiversity are in UNESCO Courier (May 2000), 16-37. A comment on the human environment and biodiversity is in AIBA Newslink 3 (June 2000), 1-3. Research on human population in biodiversity hotspots is in Nature 404 (2000), 990-2. The consequences of changing biodiversity are reviewed in Nature 405 (2000), 234-42.

A Madasgacar study is Kremen, C. et al. "Economic incentives for rain forest conservation across scales", Science 288 (2000), 1828-32; 1763-4; and on marketing conservation, Nature 404 (2000), 923-4; 405 (2000), 507; NS (17 June 2000), 11. A call for farmers to reap financial benefits from plants they sow is NS (24 June 2000), 18. On efforts to save rain forests, NS (May 2000), 16-7; Ambio 29 (2000), 136-42. A review of the growing number of privately owned parks is Ecol. Econ. 33 (2000), 173-83. A controversial oil pipeline from Chad to the coast through Cameroon, that will be 1050km long, puts coral reef and coastal fisheries worth 80 times the annual revenue at risk from oil spills and construction pollution, NS (17 June 2000), 20. In the Caribbean rocket pads are a source of destruction, NS (3 June 2000), 5.

Some animal species will have no where to go with climate change, NS (13 May 2000), 28-32. CITES has delayed exemption plans for shipments of DNA samples from endangered species, even though the long delays in approval mean some research is hampered, Science 288 (2000), 592. A discussion of controlled trade and saving endangered species is NS (22 April 2000), 19. A series of papers on genetics and evolution are in J. Heredity (May 2000), 183-228. On DNA banks for endangered species, Science 288 (2000), 275-7. A report on biotic invasions is Ecol. Appl. 10 (2000), 689-710; Science 288 (2000), 852-4. Coffee and biodiversity is discussed in NS (24 June 2000), 19; Ecol. Econ. 33 (2000), 267-81; and Cacao cultivation, Ambio 29 (2000), 167-73.

The US has set quotas on the spiny dogfish to reestablish stocks, Science News 157 (2000), 246. The fall in the leatherback turtle population is reported in Nature 405 (2000), 495, 529-31, 881. The homogenization of fish faunas across the USA is discussed in Science 288 (2000), 854-7. Corals are expected to perish with global warming, NS (27 May 2000), 8. In general on biodiversity, NS (22 April 2000), 6; (13 May 2000), 46-7; TREE 15 (2000), 243-7; Nature 405 (2000), 207-18.

Plans to make an inventory of Amazonian medicines are threatened by disputes in Venezuela, BMJ 321 (2000), 9. A paper studying the worth of a forest is Godoy, R. et al. "Valuation of consumption and sale of forest good from a Central American rain forest", Nature 406 (2000), 62-3. The value of a forest to the poor may be not this potential, Ambio 29 (2000), 126-30. On loss of rainforests, Science 289 (2000), 35-7. China's forest policy is reviewed in Science 288 (2000), 2135-6. There is controversy over destruction of red spruce trees infected by brown spruce longhorn beetle from Europe, in Halifax, NS (15 July 2000), 10.

Book reviews on biodiversity, include, Medicine Quest, in Nature 406 (2000), 235-6; Hotspots, in Nature 406 (2000), 237-8; also Nature 406 (2000), 346. Modeling ecosystems is discussed in Nature 406 (2000), 463-4. There are still undocumented species in New Zealand, but they are disappearing, NZ Science Monthly (May 2000), 4.

On the losses of leatherback turtles caused by driftnet fishing, Nature 406 (2000), 560. Lobsters are being killed by pesticides in New York, NS (12 Aug. 2000), 11.The damage to the flora of Guadalupe Island, Mexico following goat introduction is described in SA (August 2000), 18-20. Parsees in Mumbai are facing a shortage of vultures that means their dead bodies are not consumed as they believe they should be, by vultures, NS (5 August 2000), 20. On animals dying out due to sickness, NS (5 August 2000), 32-5.

On search for extraterrestrial intelligence, Nature 406 (2000), 551; SA (July 2000), 38-47. Life on other planets may not be intelligent but may need to survive harsh conditions, SA (July 2000), 30-2; NS (8 July 2000), 10. Bioprospecting is discussed in Int. J. Biotechnology 2 (2000), 132-44. A deal betweeen Novartis and BioAmazonia in which microbes will be prospected from the Amazon is discussed in Ecologist 30 (2000), 8. In particular from sea sponges, NS (30 Sept. 2000), 19. Pricing of ecosystems is reviewed in BioScience 50 (2000), 347-54; and on values of wetlands, Ecological Economics 35 (2000), 1-30; Science 289 (2000), 1860-3. Cash to save biodiversity has been targetted to hotspots, Nature 406 (2000), 818. In general on defining the targets for conservation, Applied Vegetation Science 3 (2000), 3-72; BioScience 50 (2000), 441-9; Science 289 (2000), 51, 1875. On conservation, BioScience 50 (2000), 133-44; NS (23 Sept. 2000), 44-5; Science 289 (2000), 2289; Newsweek (25 Sept. 2000), 54; Nature 407 (2000), 683-4. Indian vulture decline is discussed in Science 289 (2000), 1679; NS (30 Sept. 2000), 5. The question of how much data is enough for policy formation is discussed in Science 289 (2000), 1282-3.

Global warming is the main threat to coral reefs, Nature 407 (2000), 932. Against cyanide fishing see Nature 408 (2000), 8-9. It is also a threat to many terrestrial species, Nature 407 (2000), 121. Overfishing is the main threat to fish species, Science 289 (2000), 876-7; Nature 406 (2000), 882-5; 407 (2000), 837-8. Dams are a threat to salmon in the USA, and there are questions on whether to breach dams or not, Science 289 (2000), 716-9. Trout in New Zealand are getting more clever on avoiding fishermen, NS (26 Aug. 2000), 6. A case of otters which are endangered migrating to a no otter zone is reported in Science 289 (2000), 1271-2. On environmental stress as an evolutionary force, BioScience 50 (2000), 217-25; and on species evolution, Science 289 (2000), 288-90, 462-3, 516-8; 1557-60; BioScience 50 (2000),7-12, 501-7; Nature 407 (2000), 689-90, 962. Life in extremes is discussed in Nature 407 (2000), 132.

Possibility to clone endangered or extinct species is discussed in Newsweek (23 Oct. 2000), 50-1; SA (Nov. 2000), 84-9; NS (14 Oct. 2000), 5; NatBio 18 (2000), 1129. A cloned gaur is being carried by a surrogate mother cow, Nature 407 (2000), 666. In Moscow the DI Ivanovsky Institute of Virology faced having electricity shut off because of electricity debts, which would detroy its virus collection, Nature 407 (2000), 5. Immunocontraception of African elephants is debated in Nature 407 (2000), 149. The Millennium Seedbank in the UK plans to store seeds from 10% of the worldfs seed plants, Science 289 (2000), 1461.

Two thirds of Europefs forests are damaged, NS (28 Oct. 2000), 6; and US forests are also damaged, Nature 408 (2000), 135-6. On rain forest conservation review, Science 289 (2000), 1471-4; and on tropical forests, TREE 15 (2000), 332-7; Ambio 29 (2000), 302-9, 322-8. China has a new forest ploicy, Science 289 (2000), 2049-50. A global ecosystem survey is discussed in Science 289 (2000), 1676-7. There are efforts to make 2001, International Biodiversity Observation Year, an important one, BioScience 50 (2000), 103-7. A global biodiversity map is discussed in Science 289 (2000), 2279, 2305-16. Amateur conservationist may be killing off frogs, NS (2 Sept. 2000), 14. Some biologists face danger themselves by working in conflict areas, Science News 158 (2000), 78-9.

On the use of sacred groves to preserve biodiversity, Honey Bee 11 (July 2000), 19-20. Ecological restoration of the Everglades is described in Nature 409 (2001), 128-9. A method to predict extinction is reviewed in Ecology 81 (2000), 3312-29; PNAS 97 (2000), 11688-9. Microorganisms should be high on the list of species to preserve, Science< 290 (2000), 1503. New databases< aid conservation, Science 290 (2000), 2073-4. Assessing ecosystem types is useful for reaching sustainability, Environmental Management< 26 (2000),479-89. On tropical forest conservation, Science 290 (2000), 2084-6. Prevention of ship pollution by ballast tanks is discussed in EST 34 (2000), 14-5A, 17A.

Bioprospecting is discussed in Nature 408 (2000), 278; NatBio 18 (2000), 1123. Environmental accountability is discussed in Environmental Management 26 (2000), 515-26.

The use of dogs to help in conservation is reported in Science 291 (2001), 435. Studies in the Arctic suggest already some species are suffering from climate warming, Science 291 (2001), 424-5. On ethical issues in the Kankakee wetlands, Politics and the Life Sciences 18 (1999), 191-200.

A study that found small funding increases can enhance biodiversity conservation in parks is Bruner, AG. Et al. "Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity", Science 291 (2001), 125-8. On tropical forest biodiversity, Science 291 (2001), 606-7; and controversy over the Advance Brazil project which may destroy one quarter of the rain forest, NS (27 Jan. 2001), 10. Searching for aliens is reviewed in Nature 409 (2001), 1080-2. Studies on the scale dependence of plant biodiversity are reviewed in Science 291 (2001), 864-8. In general, Nature 409 (2001), 992-3.

Cod stocks in the North Sea may be beyond point of recovery, and a total ban has bee suggested, NS (Jan. 2001), 16-7. The US has been urged to built up marine reserves, Nature 409 (2001), 971. Intensive fish farming can destroy marine ecosystems, Nature 409 (2001), 972.

A paper on ethical issues is Posey, DA. "Cultural and spiritual values of biodiversity: A complementary contribution to the global biodiversity assessment", Honey Bee 12 (March 2001), 16-9. On French Natural History, Nature 410 (2001), 303-4. Economic value of biodiversity is discussed in a book review in Nature 410 (2001), 751-2. On the scientific aspects, Pachepsky, E. et al. "Toward a general theory of biodiversity", Nature 410 (2001), 923-6. Letters on the complexity of risk of extinction are in Science 292 (2001), 217-8. Tourism is further threatening pandas in China, Newsweek (16 April 2001), 44; and poaching is killing elephants in India, NS (10 March 2001), 46-9. On rhino conservation, NS (24 Feb. 2001), 17.

A call for DNA technology and cloning to bring back the Dodo to Mauritius is in Financial Times (14 April 2001), Weekend XV. In general see, Australasian Science (August 2000), 26-7.

A review roundtable discussion is James, A. et al. "Can we afford to conserve biodiversity?", BioScience 51 (2001), 43-52. On ecosystem services, Science 291 (2001), 2047. Conservation conflicts across Africa are reviewed in Science 291 (2001), 2616-9; Nature 410 (2001), `2529-60. Medicinal plants may be close to urban settlements, not just in rainforests, NS (24 March 2001), 18; J. Ethnopharmacology 75 (2001), 19; Lancet 357 (2001), 938. On the complex causes of amphibian population declines, Nature 410 (2001), 639-40, 681-4. All members of society must work together to save biodiversity, Nature 410 (2001), 14.

Ecologists have claimed a victory in the agreement after many protests to open the dyke gates and let water come back into Isahaya Bay in Japan, Nature 410 (2001), 619. The European Union is asking to increase by 60% its catch from the West African fishing grounds, which may kill off those grounds like the North Sea, NS (31 March 2001), 19. China is burning much wood from forests of surrounding regions, NS (3 March 2001), 17. Indonesia is still losing many forests, and on corruption there, Nikkei Weekly (9 April 2001), 1. On community management of aboriginal forestry in Canada, Osgoode Hall Law J. 37 (2000), 711-74.

The UK has set up a gene bank to protect rare sheep breeds, in light of the foot and mouth disease outbreak, Nature 410 (2001), 858. The fires (pyres) from the burning animals may be emitting more pollutants than all the factories of the UK this year, The Independent (22 April 2001), 1.

A study of turtle mating is J. Heredity 92 (2001), 206-11. A study of mountain sheep survival found age was the most significant factor in in harsh winters, Science 292 (2001), 1499-500. Contraception and African elephants are debated in Nature 411 (2001), 766.

A new UN report suggests there has been some slow down in the loss of forests, Science 291 (2001), 2294.

A study of how emperor penguins may face climate change is in Nature 411 (2001), 183-6. Conservation tillage and climate change is discussed in Biotechnology and Development Monitor 46 (June 2001), 12-7. Adjustment to climate change is constrained by the arrival dates for migratory birds, Nature 411 (2001), 296-8. Adaptive species can change when climate changes, Nature 411 (2001), 531-2. Estimates of biodiversity may have to be reduced as beetles may have very broad host ranges, and thus reduce the insect diversity, Biol. J. Linnean Society 71 (2001), 583; NS (14 April 2001), 25. Limits to diversity are considered in Science 292 (2001), 1481. On naming species, Science 292 (2001), 2249-50. The Gaia hypothesis is discussed in NS (16 June 2001), 30-3. There are advantages to work together for unicellular organisms also, Science 292 (2001), 448-9.

An analysis of endangered species recovery plans is in BioScience 51 (2001), 643-9. The CITES Fort Lauderdale criteria are discussed in Harvard Law Review 114 (2001), 1769+. When one species is lost, their relatives tend to become easier to be lost, NS (22 April 2001), 6. Nature reserves may not capture all of biodiversity, Ecological Applications 11 (2001), 999-1007. Uncertainties in habitat planning are reviewed in American Scientist 89 (July 2001), 351-9. On extinction of species, Science 292 (2001), 217-8; PNAS 98 (2001), 5389-92. In the USA there is debate over proposals to extract oil from the last coastal Alaskan wilderness area, SA (May 2001), 55-61; EST 35 (2001), 240-7A. The loss of some endangered species also results in cultural decline, BioScience 51 (2001), 256-7, 591-3. The destruction of artifacts I Mesopotamia is reviewed in Science 293 (2001), 32-5. The question of controlling trade as a way to protect species is discussed in NS (22 April 2001), 19. Ecosystem restoration for conservation is reviewed in Ecological Engineering 17 (2001), 1-2. However recreated wetlands are not as good as the original, Science 293 (2001), 25. Mass extinctions of large mammals may be caused by ice-age hunters, Science 292 (2001), 1819. A study of biodiversity and resource plunder in geological records is PNAS 98 (2001), 4290-2.

Valuation of biodiversity is suggested in Nature 412 (2001), 34-6; BioScience 51 (2001), 270-2. A book on tourism is Holden, A. Environment and Tourism (Routledge 2000). Management of Chinese ecotoursim is discussed in Ambio 30 (2001), 62-3. Tourism is also an important agent of globalization and change, Time (21 May 2001), 48. Conflicts between poor people and biodiversity conservation are discussed in NS (12 May 2001), 12. The story of taxol discovery and its pursuit from Yew trees is NEJM 345 (2001), 1335-6; Science 292 (2001), 1073-4. The impact of overlapping international regimes to protect biodiversity is discussed in Global Governance 7 (2001), 95-117. Biodiversity research in Singapore is discussed in Nature 412 (2001), 118. Illegal logging in Indonesia is discussed in Science 292 (2001), 959-60; and on tropical forests in Costa Rica, Science 292 (2001), 1074. Sustainable logging in Venezuela is discussed in J. Applied Ecology 38 (2001), 756-70.

Coral reefs appear to bleach in order to survive climatic change, Nature 411 (2001), 765-6. The size is also important for their survival, Science 292 (2001), 1493-4, 1532-4. Maintaining ocean diversity is discussed in Environment 43 (April 2001), 30-7. On depletion of fish stocks, Jackson, JBC. Et al. "Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems", Science 293 (2001), 629-37; NS (28 July 2001), 40-3. Salmon have reached record levels in US rivers in 2001, Nature 411 (2001), 226. Sea urchin recovery from mass mortality and coral reefs are reported in PNAS 98 (2001), 4822-4. Divergent sexual selection enhances reproductive isolation in sticklebacks, Nature 411 (2001), 944-7. On speciation genes, Nature 411 (2001), 635-6; 412 (2001), 31-3; PNAS 98 (2001), 6714-9. Parental risk taking in birds is discussed in Science 292 (2001), 494-8. A viviparous lizard can select the sex of its embryos, Nature 412 (2001), 698-9.

The question of whether cloning can save endangered species is asked in Current Biology 11 (2001), R245-6. Discussion of the last thylacine in Australia and the 1933 film is NS (21 July 2001), 46-7. A rare cypress tree uses a surrogate mother in reproduction, Nature 412 (2001), 39.

A type of arbovirus is causing decline of seals, NS (12 May 2001), 6. The massacre of sea lions in the Galapagos for sex organs is reported in Nature 412 (2001), 367. The loss of turtles is also alarming, NS (11 August 2001), 17. Bushmeat trade is also threatening large African mammals, SA (June 2001), 15-6.

The construction of a level 4 lab for future analysis of soil samples from Mars is introduced in NS (9 June 2001), 10. Searching for extraterrestrial life is discussed in Nature 411 (2001), 229, 994-5; 412 (2001), 209-53, 260.

Catastrophes and ecosystems are discussed in Nature 413 (2001), 591-6; Science 293 (2001), 2377. Studies in Holland question whether birds do better when farming is cut back, Nature 413 (2001), 659. The question of bringing back large mammals to restore ecology is discussed in NS (29 Sept. 2001), 40-3. The cost savings of preserving biodiversity are highlighted in a World Resources Institute report, Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems, www.wri.org/wr2000. An assessment of the socioeconomic impacts of climate change on US forests is BioScience 51 (2001), 753-64; and further articles in the Sept. 2001 issue discuss forest ecosystems. Assessing the status of US biodiversity is reported in Environment 43 (Sept. 2001), 10-23.

A book review of Leakey, R. and Morell, V., Wildlife Wars, is in Nature 413 (2001), 353-4. There are two species of African elephants, Science 293 (2001), 1414, 1473-7. Elephant hunting is discussed in Science 293 (2001), 2203-4. People and biodiversity in Africa is discussed in Science 293 (2001), 1591-3. In Canada scientists want tougher endangered species laws, Science 293 (2001), 1417. Biological corridors are needed to protect animals and wildlife, Science 293 (2001), 2199.

The question of ownership of bluefin tuna in the deep sea is Science 293 (2001), 1267-8, 1310-4. Most farmed salmon do not know their natural enemies, NS (6 Oct. 2001), 11. Conservation genetics is reviewed in Nature 413 (2001), 678. A discussion of the tutrtle meat market in South America is NS (8 Sept. 2001), 28-33.

Recent work of IUBS programs in biodiversity is in Biology International 42 (Dec. 2001), 3-33. A discussion of historical overhunting of humans and mass extinctions is Science 294 (2001), 1459-62. Overfishing is discussed in Nature 414 (2001), 535-6, 477; Science 294 (2001), 1920-3. China has been inflating catches which may have fooled predictions of a decline in fish stocks, NS (1 Dec. 2001), 18. Extinction is discussed in SA (Nov. 2001), 28-37. Phenotypic plasticity in the interactions and evolution of species is discussed in Science 294 (2001), 321-6. The behaviour of animals is important for conservation plans, Nature 414 (2001), 246-7. In general on biodiversity, Science 294 (2001), 804-8; SA (Jan. 2002), 67-9. On giant pandas, Science 294 (16 Nov. 2001).

The Chalilo dam project in Belize is discussed in NS (22 Dec. 2001), 4. Crops grown on set-aside land bring wild birds back to the fields, Nature 414 (2001), 687. The role of fires in burnoff of forests is Science 294 (2001), 1005-6. On mangrove forests, BioScience 51 (2001), 807-15. Papers on forests in Indonesia are in The Indonesian Quarterly 29 (2201), 132-213. On bioprospecting, Nature 414 (2001), 685. On the conservation of wild species in seed banks, BioScience 51 (2001), 960-6.

Europe has been accused of plundering the fish stocks from poor nations, NS (12 Jan. 2002), 15. Chinese statistics are questioned on fish catches in Newsweek (21 Jan. 2002), 42-3; and on fishery management, Science 295 (2002), 1235-6. A series of papers on fish ecology are in Ecological Applications 12 (2002), 138-237. Priority lists for marine biodiversity and tropical reefs are discussed in Science 295 (2002), 1280-4. Antarctic sea ice is a habitat for extremophiles, Science 295 (2002), 641-4. The sea is full of diverse microorganisms, Nature 415 (2002), 572-4, 590-1. The question of breaching dams to save salmon breeding grounds is discussed in EST 36 (2002), 96A.

The question of the role of tropical forests as a carbon sink is discussed in Ecological Applications 12 (2002), 3-7. Indonesian forests are rapidly disappearing, NS (2 March 2002), 6. The Amazon is discussed in Science 295 (2002), 639-40, 1643-4. Much diversity in forests is still unknown, Science 295 (2002), 636-7. The question of stability and biodiversity is discussed in Nature 416 (2002), 23-4, 426-9; Science 295 (2002), 1245-8. In general on the loss of biodiversity, Science 295 (2002), 1835.

A book review on Hulme, D. & Murphee, M., eds., African Wildlife and Livelihoods: The Promise and Performance of Community Conservation (Heinemann, 2001, 344pp.) is in Nature 415 (2002), 591-2. Protests in the USA have failed to block a mountain lion survey, Nature 416 (2002), 5. There have been claims of misconduct in endanagered species issues in the USA, Science 295 (2002), 250-1.

Book reviews of biodiversity and biotechnology issues are in Nature 415 (2002), 960-1. How to study the genes of closely related species is discussed in Genetical Research 78 (2002), 209-212. The evolution of sex ratio is discussed in Science 295 (2002), 1685-91. The concept of a species is discussed in Science 295 (2002), 1238-9. Good luck and law of the jungle is discussed in NS (9 Feb. 2002), 28-31.


The climatic affects on coral are discussed in Science 296 (2002), 277-8; NS (20 April, 2002), 11. Using artificial networks for modeling seal populations in New Zealand is reported in Ecological Modelling 148 (2002), 111-31. There has been criticism of the decision to allow sturgeons to be caught in the Caspian sea, Science 295 (22 March 2002). A study of fisheries productivity over the past 2200 years in the Pacific is Nature 416 (2002), 729-32. Protecting the oceans and conservation is discussed in Science 296 (2002), 458-60.

Science and the Convention on Biological Diversity is discussed in Science 295 (2002), 2371-2. Hopes for life on Mars by plants appear difficult, NS (13 April, 2002), 11. A new class of organism has been found in ocean hot vents, Nature 417 (2002), 27-8. A new insect order has also recently been added, Science 296 (2002), 445-6. The design of life and evolution is discussed in Science 295 (2002), 2373-4.

A discussion of the plans to revive the Tasmanian Tiger by cloning is in Science 296 (2002), 1797. Linking marine biology to biotechnology is reviewed in Current Opinion in Biotechnology 13 (2002), 244-8. The collapsing fisheries of Africa are reviewed in NS (13 July 2002), 5; and in Europe fisheries scientists will set limits rather than politicians, NS (8 June 2002), 4. A recount of flowering plants has increased the estimate by 100,000 species, NS (29 June 2002), 11. Climate change is pushing the limits for many endangered plants, NS (1 June 2002), 19. Even small open spaces can cause risks of animals becoming extinct in the Amazon, NS (15 June 2002), 11. On comparative biology, Science 296 (2002), 1792-3.

The interplay between pests and pesticides in preserving museum collections is discussed in NISTADS News 4 (1) (2002), 58-64.. A discussion of St. Francis of Assisi as the patron saint of ecology is Science & Christian Belief 14 (2002), 51-78.

A treaty to share genetics commons rather than have genes as property under CBD is debated in GeneWatch 15 (July 2002), 14-15. Conservation is discussed in Science 298 (2002), 1995-6. A book review of The Lost World of the Moa is Nature 420 (2002), 361. International scientific unions are concerned about biodata, Nature 419 (2002), 777. The question of how many fish are left in the sea is raised in Nature 419 (2002), 662-5; Far Eastern Economic Review (15 August 2002), 48-51. The question of whether to ban ivory sales is raised in NS (19 Oct., 2002), 14-5.

A book review on Moa is in Science 298 (2002), 2136-7. The prospects for making hunting of mammals sustainable are discussed in Nature 421 (2003), 8-9; and in Russia, Science 297 (2002), 1123; NS (24 Oct., 2002), 9. Fur fingerprints may stop illegal trapping, NS (30 Nov., 2002), 19. In general on biodiversity and sustainability, Nature 421 (2003), 113-4; NS (7 Dec., 2002), Inside Science pp. 1-4; Science 297 (2002), 519-20. There are still many species to identify, Science 297 (2002), 1545-8; 298 (2002), 365.  A book review on alien life is Nature 421 (2003), 114-5. The first reported new species of life is discussed in NS (7 Dec 2002), 17. Improving gene banks is discussed in Nature 419 (2002), 7.; Science 297 (2002), 1625-6.

Some greening of deserts in Africa is allowing cultivation of desert areas for crops, NS (21 Sept., 2002), 4. Conserving native plants in China is discussed in Science 297 (2002), 935-6.

A review of economic reasons for conserving wild nature is Science 297 (2002), 950-3. The use of direct cash payments to conserve biodiversity is reviewed in Science 298 (2002), 1718-9. The logo of the Forestry Stewardship Council is discussed in NS (26 Oct., 2002), 6. Amazon forest conservation is discussed in Science 297 (2002), 920-2, 1478; and on deforestation estimates, Science 298 (2002), 999-1001. The US Endangered Species Act is discussed in SA (Oct. 2002), 10-1. Canada has a law also, Science 296 (2002), 2123. Bioprospecting in Canada is reviewed in Nature 418 (2002), 718-20; 419 (2002), 768. The CITES Agreement is discussed in NS (23 Nov., 2002), 10. A profile of Ted Turner and conservation money is SA (Aug. 2002), 22-3.

Fisheries collapse is expected in more areas, Nature 419 (2002), 662-5; NS (7 Oct., 2002), 54; Science 297 (2002), 94-6. Trawling destroys many aspects of marine life, Science 298 (2002), 2123. The US plans to have fish farms in deeper water are raising concerns, Nature 420 (2002), 451. Europe has reduced quotas for fishing even more, Nature 421 (2003), 6. Anglers fishy stories can reduce stocks more at times when fish are fewer, NS (7 Dec., 2002), 18. The issue of the same sized fish in markets is discussed in Science 297 (2002), 31-3.  A study of the level of flame retardant (PBDE) in North Sea fish is EST 36 (2002), 4025-32. Atrazine may alter the gender of wild frogs, NS (2 Nov., 2002), 13. The worlds' only captive Yangze River dolphin died, Science 297 (2002), 511.

Fisheries management is discussed in Issues in Science and Technology (June 2001), 77-84. The Artic faces a toxic time bomb as toxins melt, NS (1 Feb., 2003), 9.  Coral reefs are being damaged by sediment, Nature 421 (2003), 317, 705-6, 727-30. A flamingo disease is discussed in NS (9 Nov., 2002), 8. Variation in Amazon forests is reported in Science 299 (2003), 241-4.  There is debate over the impact of global warming on ecology, Science 299 (2003), 38, 1165-6. However some species are known to be threatened, NS (4 Jan., 2003), 4.

The cloning of an endangered species (Bos gaurus) is described in Cloning 2 (2000), 79+. There have been ecotourism threats in New Zealand against endangered birds, NS (1 Feb., 2003), 5. On the hunt for alien life, Nature 421 (2003), 769.

Better understanding of Panda scent marks may help conservation, NS (5 April 2003), 40-2. Problems in world fish supply are discussed in NS (22 March 2003), 44-7; The Ecologist (Jan 2003), 2; Science 298 (2003), 939. Some Atlantic cod froze to death in chilly waters, Nature 422 (2003), 792. The ways that science can help establish marine reserves is discussed in Environment 45 (March 2003), 8-19. Loss of coral reefs has several factors, NS (12 April 2003), 16-7. Restoration of marshlands in Iraq is called for in NS (26 April 2003), 14-5. The US is changing its policy on loss of wetlands, EST 37 (2003), 82A. Wetlands management in New Zealand is reviewed in Pacific Ecologist (Summer 2002/2003), 37-41. A giant squid was recovered in New Zealand, NS (12 April 2003), 18.

Ethnobotanical knowledge among Amerindians is surveyed in Science 299 (2003), 1707. The question of payments for biodiversity is raised in Science 299 (2003), 1981-2. The price of computerizing herbarium specimens is discussed in Nature 422 (2003), 375-6. Soil invertebrate fauna enhances grassland succession and diversity, Nature 422 (2003), 711-4. Ecological engineering by caterpillars increases insect herbivore diversity on White Oak, Ecology 84 (2003), 682-90. The reasons why biodiversity is important are discussed in Nature 421 (2003), 900-1; 422 (2003), 475; Science 300 (2003), 71-2, 1843;  Heredity 90 (2003), 282-90. The US is downgrading the status of the grey wolf from endangered to threatened, though it was only reintroduced 8 years ago to the wild, NS (19 April 2003), 9. A DNA test will be used to judge whether unwelcome Bison are protected or not based on their relation to earlier bison, Science 300 (2003), 1835. Bears in Banff National Park may get too used to people so that similar numbers die as in the unprotected areas, NS (22 Feb. 2003), 9.

The relationship between the price of coffee and deforestation is discussed in Science 300 (2003), 587.

Papers on endocrine disruptors are in Science 298 (2003), 938-9; Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (June 2002), supplement 3, 335-488.

There is evidence that life on the planet earth is even older than thought, NS (22 Feb. 2003), 28-31; SA (April 2003), 52-9. On human origins, Nature 422 (2003), 473; and on evolution, Nature 421 (2003), 895; 422 (2003), 663-4. The tragedy of loss of Iraqi antiquities is discussed in Science 300 (2003), 559-60.

Diversity studies should also consider the organisms inside the soil, Nature 424 (2003), 26-7. The cryptic herbivores of the rinaforest canopy are discussed in Science 300 (2003), 916-7. A book review of Deforesting the Earth is Science 300 (2003), 907-8; and on the stability of forest biodiversity, Nature 423 (2003), 635-8. The relationship of forest fires to boreal forest is reported in Science 300 (2003), 972-5. A discussion of the Three Gorges Dam in China as habitat fragmentation is Science 300 (2003), 1239-40; and on protecting China's biodiversity in general, Science 300 (2003), 1240-1. Glacial refugia are hotspots of diversity, Science 300 (2003), 1563-5.

Over-fishing is reviewed in SA (July 2003), 34-9. Canada has cut cod-fishing but Europe has not, Nature 423 (2003), 212; NS (14 June 2003), 8. Ocean-friendly labels are discussed in NS (17 May 2003), 5. The Pew OceaNS Commission has called for a change in US ocean policy, Science 300 (2003), 1484-5; Nature 423 (2003), 577. The survival of gray whales off Russia as oil is developed is uncertain, Science 300 (2003), 1365. On conservation, NS (24 May 2003), 7, 25. Run off to the sea may destroy coral reefs, NS (7 June 2003), 8.

A report from the UK on the role of field sports in conservation is Nature 423 (2003), 531-3. The loss of mammoths from North America may be linked to human settlement, Science 300 (2003), 1373-4. The Permian extinction is discussed in Nature 423 (2003), 384. On conservation policy, Science 300 (2003), 1508-9. Australia researchers may have too hastily destroyed wheat varieties after a virus infection, which was later found to already be present in Australia, Nature 423 (2003), 210.

A call for buying the wilderness areas of the world at cheap prices as wilderness nature reserves is made in NS (23 Aug. 2003), 4-5. The benefits from sale of products from rainforests are reviewed in NS (19 July 2003), 36-9. There is debate over whether oil wealth helps conservation, NS (16 Aug. 2003), 6. Soil microfauna may not be affected by fires, Ecological Engineering 20 (2003), 113-9. Socioeconomics drive urban plant diversity, PNAS 100 (2003), 8788-92. On agrobiodiversity, Naturwissenschaften 90 (2003), 241-50. A seedbank in Iraq holds hope for a recovery, Nature 424 (2003), 242. Legal roles in marine conservation are discussed in Nature 424 (2003), 603.

A study of whale levels before whaling started in the North Atlantic is Nature 424 (2003), 479, 715; Science 301 (2003), 451, 508-10. The level of sperm whales may have been 12 times the level previously thought. The global decline of coral reefs is analyzed in Science 301 (2003), 929-33, 955-8. Europe has banned deep sea trawling to save coral, Nature 424 (2003), 988. Electric jolts may keep out unwanted fish, Science 301 (2003), 157-8. The UN is joining Russia to save the Western Pacific salmon, Science 301 (2003), 1167. Pirates catching krill in Antarctica are endangering the ecosystem, NS (26 July 2003), 10. On marine conservation, Nature 424 (2003), 723. Hotspot conservation is discussed in American Scientist 91 (2003), 344-53.

On extinction processes, Current Biology 13 (2003), R461-2. Global perspectives on forest canopies are in Science 301 (2003), 183-6. It is not always easy to know which species are problems in ecosystems, Science 301 (2003), 52-3. Molecular phylogenies and speciation are discussed in Science 301 (2003), 478. Genetic diversity in Yellowstone grizzly bear could be enhanced by import of bears for conservation, PNAS 100 (2003), 4334-9.

A description of underwater tourism is Newsweek (13 Oct. 2003), 34-8. Legal ivory sales did not help curb the black market, NS (25 Oct. 2003), 11.

A new report is Wardle, P., et al., World Forests, Society and Environment (UNU, 2003). China is being blamed for felling of trees in Myanmar, NS (25 Oct. 2003), 5. The pristine forest of the Amazon in 1492 may have had many people, Science 301 (2003), 1645-6, 1710-4. On world national parks, Science 301 (2003), 1289. Wilderness and biodiversity conservation are reviewed in PNAS 100 (2003), 10309-13; NS (23 Aug. 2003), 4-5. Havens can be difficult to find, Nature 425 (2003), 754. On environmental services of biodiversity, PNAS 100 (2003), 2764-9. Genetic diversity in crop plants is reviewed in Crop Science 43 (2003), 1235-48.

A report has said the science of listing endangered species in the USA is sound, but their habitats are threatened, Science 302 (2003), 35. On biodiversity and evolution in general, Science 300 (2003), 1621, 1692-1711. Evolution, assymetry and order are discussed in NS (16 Aug. 2003), 32-5. The effects of human settlement on birds in Colorado are reported in Ecological Applications 13 (2003), 1041-59. In one moa species females were 3 times bigger than males, Nature 425 (2003), 172+; NS (13 Sept. 2003), 17. On Chinese biodiversity preservation, Nature 425 (2003), 890. Biodiversity in South Africa may be protected if people value it, Ecological Economics 46 (2003), 199-216.

Cod fish farming is debated in The Ecologist (Sept 2003), 56-7. Ecological subsidies alter the structure of marine communities, PNAS 100 (2003), 11927-8. The fishery effects of marine reserves give benefits beyond their boundaries, TREE 18 (2003), 448-55. Also on loss of fish stocks, Nature 425 (2003), 125-6. Sturgeons are endangered and miscalculations were made, NS (20 Sept. 2003), 6-7. A census on marine biodiversity has been made suggesting 20,000 species of fish, Science 302 (2003), 773; Nature 425 (2003), 889. Loss of eels is occurring, Science 302 (2003), 221-2; NS (4 Oct. 2003), 14; and of Klamanth fish, Science 302 (2003), 765. Trawlers are causing many deep sea fish to be lost, NS (30 Aug. 2003), 6. The use of rigs as reefs is discussed in Nature 425 (2003), 891.

Genomic sequencing of sea water has found great diversity of organisms, NS (13 March 2004), 12. Discussion of microbial biodiversity is in Nature 428 (2004), 25-6; Current Biology 14 (2004), R65-6. There are many species not yet identified in the oceans, NS (20 Dec. 2003), 20. in the USA, declining numbers of species have been added in recent years to the list of endangered species, Nature 426 (2003), 592; BioScience 54 (2004), 180-1. The burden of overcrowding upon the environment is discussed in NS (22 Nov. 2003), 6-7. Decline in birds is discussed in NS (13 March 2004), 14-5; and butterflies in Science 303 (2004), 1747; 304 (2004), 27. On conservation genetics, NatGen 35 (2003), 297. Conservation policy in coffee growing areas is discussed in Science 303 (2004), 625-6. Tropical soils and food security is discussed in Science 302 (2003), 1356-9; and fisheries in Science 302 (2003), 1359-62; Nature 326 (2003), 378-9.

The dangers of ecotourists are discussed in NS (6 March 2004), 6-7. The conservation of dangerous animals like pumas and wolves is feared by some, but most avoid humans, Nature 427 (2004), 385; NS (15 Nov. 2003), 50. India and Bangladesh are carrying out a joint tiger survey, Science 303 (30 Jan. 2004). Hunters have led to decreased horn size in bighorn sheep because of selective shooting, Nature 426 (2003), 595. Trophy hunting in African male lioNS causes much damage as older males are shot, NS (28 Feb. 2004), 16. Ivory sales have increased fears of illegal trade in elephant tusks, NS (20 March 2004), 10. The exotic pet trade not only hurts biodiversity but also has human health concerns, Nature 427 (2004), 277. Overall however human health depends upon biodiversity, Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (2004), A12-3. Prospects for making money from bioprospecting are not clear, SA (Dec. 2003), 17-8; Nature 427 (2004), 576, 769.

The impact of global warming is also to blame to smaller numbers of North sea cod, NS (13 Dec. 2003), 8; Nature 428 (2004), 4. An overall calculation of extinction risk from climate change is in Nature 427 (2004), 145-8. Reducing risks to endangered ocean species is the goal of marine reserves that are expected to be made in the USA soon, NS (15 Nov. 2003), 49; (21 Feb. 2004), 8; BioScience 54 (2004), 27-39. Hatcheries may help for some endangered salmon, Science 303 (2004), 1980. In Norway salmon stocks are under threat from a parasite, NS (28 Feb. 2004), 14. Antarctic biodiversity is discussed in Current Biology 14 (2004), R169-70. Pollution from sewage is one factor leading to decline in corals, NS (10 Jan. 2004), 12-3; Science 303 (2004), 1293; 304 (2004), 31.

A call for tests of the presence of DNA on Mars are made in NS (27 March 2004), 19. A paper looking at inhabitable stars in our Galaxy is in Science 303 (2004), 59-64. The cal for more space exploration is made in Science 303 (2004), 589.

Poets and scientists have both addressed extinction, Nature 428 (2004), 895. On conservation, NS (24 Jan. 2004), 13. The future of Brazil nut exploitation is unsure, Science 302 (2003), 2112-4. Salvage harvesting of trees after natural disturbance is discussed in Science 303 (2004), 1303. On Canadian endangered species laws for fish, Science 304 (2004), 955.

Biodiversity and millennium development goals are discussed in Asian Biotechnology and Development Review 6 (March 2004), 15-40. The beef trade is destroying Brazilian rainforest, NS (10 April 2004), 14-5. A discussion of Amazonia in 1492 and deforestation is Science 302 (2003), 2067-70; 304 (2004), 1109. There is debate over how virgin some forests are,  Science 304 (2004), 402-3. A book review of The Kruger Experience: Ecology and Management of Savanna Heterogeneity is Nature 429 (2004), 504-5. On conservation, Nature 429 (2004), 346-7; Newsweek (29 March 2004), 49. Biodiversity hotspots are discussed in BioScience 53 (2003), 916-7;  Science 304 (2004), 831-3. The decline of oak forests is discussed in BioScience 53 (2003), 915. The question of removing protected populations to save endangered species is discussed in Science 302 (2003), 1532. Viagra has been suggested as a way to save some animals, Newsweek (19 April 2004), 70-1. Flawed data has affected the conservation of panthers in the USA, Nature 429 (2004), 235. Bamboo species are being endangered as it is used, NS (15 May 2004), 12.

Ancient fires have been found on the river Jordan banks about 790,000 years ago, NS (8 May 2004), 16. The Biodiversity Convention has imposed some bureaucracy that affects the way countries can use bioresources, Nature 429 (2004), 129.

Fisheries are discussed in Science 302 (2003), 1359-61; 304 (2004), 955; Nature 428 (2004), 899-900; 429 (2004), 15. The competition between fisheries and marine mammals is discussed in NS (15 May 2004), 6-7; and with leatherback turtles, Nature 429 (2004), 521. Taboos can be a way to protect marine areas, NS (17 April 2004), 9.  Aquariums affect marine conservation, Natural History (March 2004), 50-5. The US may include hatchery raised salmon with wild in determining whether a species is endangered,  Science 304 (2004), 807.  Contests can help develop new ways for conservation, Nature 429 (2004), 120. Frogs can do very well in zoos,  Science 304 (2004), 1441. On dangers for amphibians, Ecological Applications 13 (2003), 1515-21.  Studies of the South Pacific have found that some green areas are caused by physical deposits rather than phytoplankton, as is normally assumed from satellite imaging, Science 302 (2003), 1514-5, 1548. On deep sea biology, Science 302 (2003), 991. Coral reefs are discussed in Science 302 (2003), 1502-3.

The importance of preserving animal genetic diversity is discussed in NS (10 July 2004), 45; Nature 429 (2004), 967-8. Conservation genetics is discussed in Nature Genetics – Reviews 5 (2004), 702+. It is difficult to find valuable products in nature, Nature 429 (2004), 585, 598-600. Forest biodiversity and economics of timer industry are discussed in Ecological Economics 49 (2004), 135-48. A denial that cutting trees leads to flooding is in NS (19 June 2004), 18. The role of asteroids in mass extinctions is discussed in Science 302 (2003), 1314-6; NS (5 June 2004), 20. The three gorges plan may be a risk to ancient fish, Science 302 (2003), 1149-51. Increased biodiversity could lead to greater parasite diversity, which might work against preservation, NS (5 June 2004), 14. High iron may cause anemia in black rhinos which leads to many deaths, NS (31 July 2004), 12. On soils and agriculture in precontact Hawaii, Science 304 (2004), 1665-9.

Plankton diversity is discussed in Nature 431 (2004), 813-4; Science 305 (2004), 1548. The decline of coral reefs is discussed in Nature 429 (2004), 827-33. A system using electric current may help cure coral reefs, Science 305 (2004), 1398. Sportfishers may help decline of fish stocks, Science 305 (2004), 1235. A web site with fish catch data is searoundus.org. Exotic predatory fish from fish tanks can harm wild fish, NS (3 July 2004), 13. Drilling into an Antarctic lake is discussed in NS (7 Aug. 2004), 6-7. Whales are indicators of the toxic chemicals in the ocean, Science 304 (2004), 1584-6. Ecosystem-based fishery management is discussed in Science 305 (2004), 346-7.

Poaching of elephants continues, NS (7 Aug. 2004), 45; (28 Aug. 2004), 16-7. Extinction is discussed in Science 305 (2004), 1632-4; Nature 430 (2004), 385; and speciation in Science 305 (2004), 612-3. Tiger salamanders is discussed in Science 305 (2004), 1554. The benefits of a global biodiversity information facility are discussed in BioScience 54 (2004), 485-6. Freezing DNA and cells from animal species as a bank for future use in cloning if the species become extinct is being implemented in London, NS (31 July 2004), 5; Science 305 (2004), 603. Improving the status of invertebrates is discussed in BioScience 54 (2004), 487-94. Searching for alien messages is discussed in NS (7 Aug. 2004), 30-1. The possible origin of life in space is discussed in NS (21 Aug. 2004), 17.


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