Biotechnology & the Public News

This file includes links to papers published by Eubios Ethics Institute, and some other organizations, in the first section. Next it includes topical extracts from EJAIB and EEIN between January 1994 - 2006 (older news items are in separate files). Last date of updating is referenced in the main News page. Latest news and papers is at the bottom of each of the two sections.

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Abbreviations for journals

European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) Task Group on Public Perceptions of Biotechnology
UK National Centre for Biotechnology Education
Eubios Ethics Institute home page

Related Papers from Eubios Ethics Institute Publications

Macer, D.R.J. Attitudes to Genetic Engineering: Japanese and International Comparisons(Christchurch: Eubios Ethics Institute 1992).
Macer, D.R.J. Bioethics for the People by the People (Christchurch, N.Z.: Eubios Ethics Institute 1994).
Macer, Darryl (1990) "Genetic engineering in 1990", Science & Christian Belief 2, 25-40.
Macer, Darryl (1992) "Japanese attitudes to genetic technology: National and international comparisons. Public and academic support for the use of government-funded genetic screening in Japan", pp. 120-137 in Human Genome Research and Society, eds., N. Fujiki & D.R.J. Macer (Christchurch: Eubios Ethics Institute, 1992).
Macer, Darryl (1992) "General ethical concerns and environmental and regulatory issues", pp. 58-81 in Impacts of Biotechnology in Agriculture and Food in Developing Countries (International Council of Scientific Unions, COSTED: 1992).
Macer, Darryl (1993) "No to 'genethics'", Nature 365, 102.
Macer, D.R.J. (1994) "Perception of risks and benefits of in vitro fertilization, genetic engineering and biotechnology", Social Science and Medicine 38: 23-33.
Macer, Darryl R.J. "Bioethics and biotechnology: What is ethical biotechnology?", pp.115-154 in Modern Biotechnology: Legal, Economic and Social Dimensions, Biotechnology, Volume 12, ed. D. Brauer (Weinheim, Germany: VCH, 1995).
Book Review (1995): John Durant, ed., Biotechnology in public: a review of recent research, in Politics & Life Sciences, 14: 106-108.
Macer, D.R.J. Genetic Engineering in Japan: Preliminary Results of Public Opinion Surveys, EEIN 1 (1991), 71-3.
Macer, D. Editorial, The Impact of Biotechnology in Agriculture and Food in Developing Countries, Conference Report EEIN 2 (1992), 1, 15-6.
Biocult project (UK) EJAIB 5 (1995), 70.
Salvi, M. Ethics and Biotechnology: Analysis of the relationship between ethics and science EJAIB 5 (1995), 151-3.
Leavitt, F.J. Commentary on Salvi EJAIB 5 (1995), 153-4.
Opinions of Mexican Physicians on the Use of Genetic Engineering - E. Casanueva, Lisker, Carnevale, Alonso EJAIB 8 (1998), 6-9 .

Biotechnology and young citizens: Biocult in New Zealand and Japan - Darryl Macer, Hiroko Obata, Mairi Levitt, Howard Bezar, Ken Daniels EJAIB 7 (1997), 111-114.
Attitudes to Biotechnology in Japan and New Zealand in 1997, with International Comparisons - D. Macer, H. Bezar, N.Harman, H. Kamada, N. Macer EJAIB 7 (1997), 137-151.
Attitudes to Biotechnology among Social Sciences Students at the University of Quilmes, Argentina - G. Lucki et al. EJAIB 8 (1998), 54-6.
Biosafety Protocol: An asymmetric fusion of a plenty of politics and a bit of science - Kazuo N. Watanabe EJAIB 9 (1999), 105.
The reporting of genetic engineering in the Japanese media since 1973 - Satoko Hayashi & Darryl Macer EJAIB 9 (1999), 105-107.
Buenos Aires Declaration: Biotechnology for Social and Economic Development EJAIB 10 (2000), 19-20.
HUGO Ethics Committee - Statement on Benefit Sharing EJAIB 10 (2000), 70-71.
Code Of Ethical Practice for Biotechnology in Queensland - Draft For Public Comment download from http://www.premiers.qld.gov.au/bio.pdf ; EJAIB 10 (2000), 85-87.
Macer, DRJ. (1998) Genetic eco-engineering in Asia and International Bioethics Committees, pp. 131-7 in Genes the World Over (Evangelische Akademie Loccum, 1998).
Mary Ann Chen Ng, C. Takeda, T. Watanabe & D. Macer, Attitudes of the Public and Scientists to Biotechnology in Japan at the start of 2000, EJAIB 10 (July 2000), 106-113.
Hiromitsu Komatsu & Darryl Macer, Expectations of biotech of Japanese high school students in 1998 , EJAIB 10 (July 2000), 142-7.
Masahiro Morioka, Commentary on Komatsu and Macer , EJAIB 10 (July 2000), 148.
Takeishi Oka & D. Macer, Change in high school student attitudes to biotechnology in response to teaching materials , EJAIB 10 (Nov 2000), 174-8.

Masakazu INABA and Darryl MACER, Japanese Views of Medical Biotechnology, pp. 178-196 in Editors: Song Sang-youg, Koo Young-Mo & Darryl R.J. Macer, Asian Bioethics in the 21st Century, Eubios Ethics Institute, 2003.

Inaba, M. & Macer, DRJ. (2003) Attitudes to biotechnology in Japan in 2003 , Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics13 (2003), 78-89.

Ekkehard Hansen and Laureni Aparecida Nascimento, Attitudes of Brazilian undergraduate students towards genetic engineering and genetically engineered products , EJAIB 13 (2003), 137-139.

M.N. Jha and S.K. Misra, Human Interference in the Affairs of God, EJAIB 13 (2003), 191-194.

Macer, DRJ. (2003) Genetic engineering: Cross species and cross cultural perspectives, pp. 159-80 in Dialog der Kulturen , ed. S. Fritsch-Oppermann (Evangelische Akademie Loccum, 2003).

Inaba, Masakazu & Macer, DRJ. (2004), Policy, regulation and attitudes towards agricultural biotechnology in Japan, J. International Biotechnology Law 1: 45-53.

Chalobon Kachonpadungkitti and Darryl Macer, Attitudes to Bioethics and Biotechnology in Thailand (1993-2000), and Impacts on Employment , EJAIB 14 (2004), 118-134.
Cagatay Ustun, Gene Cloning is Natural or Not... Is It a Dangerous Tale?, EJAIB 14 (2004), 148.
Minakshi Bhardwaj, Global Institutionalization of Governance of Biotechnology and Universality of Ethical Principles , EJAIB 14 (2004), 208-211.
Stefano Fait, Challenge of Technocracy: Lessons from AUM, EJAIB 14 (2004), 218-222.
Merry Osemwegie, Bioethics in Africa: The new human genetics and a case for responsible global governance EJAIB 15 (Sept. 2005), 141-160.
K. K. Verma, Science and Religion, EJAIB 16 (Sept. 2006), 152-4.
Declaration Of Gijón Against The Use Of Biological Weapons EJAIB 16 (Jan. 2006), 2-3.
K. K. Verma, Biotechnology and Soul, EJAIB 16 (Nov. 2006), 181-2.


The results of the Eurobarometer survey 39.1, conducted in May-June 1993, has been released in a report called Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering: What Europeans Think about it in 1993. They included many of the same questions as conducted in 1991, to compare the trends in opinion. I will be reviewing this and comparing the results to other countries of the world, and the results of the International Bioethics Survey in the forthcoming book, Bioethics For the People by the People. Some of the key results were: a slight improvement in awareness of biotechnology, television was most important as a source, than newspapers. There is less optimism about genetic engineering in 1993 than in 1991, last survey. See also comments in Nature 366 (1993), 496.

A Christian perspective of species manipulation, looking at issues of stewardship and species boundaries is T. Hartman & R. Williams, "The ethics of species manipulation", Science and Christian Belief 5 (1993), 117-138. Book reviews of interest to genetic engineering are in Nature 366 (1993), 379-80.

Comments on the use of ancient biological material to obtain DNA sequences of old organisms are in Nature 366 (1993), 24, 513; Science 262 (1993), 655; Scientific American (Oct 1995), 15; (Nov), 60-66; JAMA 270 (1993), 2376.

The Norwegian Ministry for the Environment has prepared an English copy of Act N. 38 of 2 April 1993, "The Act relating to the production and use of genetically modified organisms", and copies of Report No. 25 (1992-3) on Biotechnology related to Human Beings (which is an English summary of a lengthy report in Norwegian prepared for the Norwegian Parliament) are available from G. Gjertsen, Royal Norwegian Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, Grubbegt, 10; P.O. Box 8011 Dep., N 0030, Oslo 1; NORWAY.

General notes on discussion of society's views of science are in Lancet 342 (1993), 980. Public awareness is discussed in Biotechnology 11 (1993), 1208.

A survey of attitudes to biotechnology in Canada has been reported, from the Canadian Institute of Biotechnology. The executive summary is available (130 Albert Street, Suite 420, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5G4, Canada), however the full report costs C$1500 so I have not obtained a copy. The results were consistent with US surveys, and they attempt to divide the public into several groups based on religious belief, interest in science, and support for biotechnology. I will discuss these results in the overall world picture in the forthcoming book along with the International Bioethics Survey.

The decreasing interest in science in Japan among young people is a source of concern in the annual Science and Technology Agency white paper, Science 263 (1994), 177. General public understanding of science in Europe is the topic of a commentary in Biotechnology 12 (1994), 113. A book review of G. Holton, Science and Antiscience (Harvard University Press 1993, 203pp., US$25) is in Science 263 (1994), 252; Nature 367 (1994), 522-3. Pseudoscience in Russia is discussed in Nature 367 (1994), 588.

A recent survey of N=1004 consumers in the USA by T. Hoban, (Fax Int+1-919-5153180), found that many consumers were not opposed to BST, especially after they received information from trusted bodies such as the AMA, FDA or NIH. They had little trust in groups that opposed BST. They were supportive of a proposition to establish a toll-free hotline for further information. A discussion of how to deal with negative news stories is GEN (15 Feb 1994), 4.

Two local newsletters that may be of interest to readers for their comments about sustainable agriculture are: Honey Bee, c/o Prof. Anil K. Gupta, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmeddab 380 015, INDIA (US$30 annually); The Ram's Horn, 125 Highfield Road, Toronto, Ontario M4L 2T9, CANADA (US$20 annually).

A book review of John Harris, Wonderwoman and Superman: The Ethics of Human Biotechnology (Oxford University Press 1992), is in Bioethics 8 (1994), 187-8. A discussion paper edited by C. Allen & P.B. Thompson, (CBPE 94-1) reviewing the recent popular books on biotechnology in the USA is available from Center for Biotechnology Policy and Ethics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4355, USA, for US$4.

The risk perceptions in different cultures of AIDS is reported from a survey in SSM 38 (1994), 1337-46. A comparison of US public and expert views of risk from a radioactive waste repository is in Risk Analysis 13: 643-8. A paper on risk perceptions is in Risk Analysis 13 (1993), 675+. A report on a UK public opinion survey which shows British people trust physicians more than other members of society, is in Biotechnology 12 (1994), 218.

For comments on the two controversial products of genetic engineering on sale in the USA see the later section on "Safety of Recombinant DNA Products". A short report of a survey of what the US public thinks about science and knowledge of scientific history is in Science 264 (1994), 902. Asked what the greatest threat to humanity was, 30% chose AIDS or another epidemic. A book review of general interest on science policy is Nature 368 (1994), 819.

A call for open and honest discussion of industry problems in biotech is called for in GEN (15 April 1994), 4, 35. It would certainly enhance the public view of industry. The activity report (1991-3) from the EC group of advisors on the ethical implications of biotechnology is available from DG XII - E; BIODOC, Commission of the European Communities, Rue de la Loi, 200, B-1049 Brussels, BELGIUM.

In the UK a search for 15 members for a lay panel to assess the safety of genetically modified plants was made in Nature 369 (1994), 369. The industry is interested to make the public less suspicious of products made from GMOs. A conference review of the symposium on biotechnology and ethics held in Hong Kong last Nov (Jan. issue) is in the newsletter of the Centre for Applied Ethics, Hong Kong Baptist College, 2(1), 1-7. The proceedings will be published as a book in the future. Two book reviews on the ethics of biotechnology are in HCR 24(2): 42-3.

In early August a scientist working in the Arbovirus Research Unit at Yale University did not report an accident in which he was contacted with the fatal Sabia virus. He went out to Boston to stay with friends, and continued to behave as normal. Later he became sick with the virus and was isolated, and his friends and contacts are being monitorred; Nature 371 (1994), 1. This has been severely criticised , and will be a strong example for those who say we cannot trust scientists. This rare virus was isolated from a dead body in Brazil, and is given to 3 laboratories in the world to study. It causes haemorrhagic fever, as do hantaviruses. The Centers for Disease Control threatened to close the lab, as Nature supports, but they also point out we need laboratories to study these unusual viruses, and we need responsible scientists who will follow the rules.

A call for public involvement in biotechnology decisions is TIBTECH 12 (1994), 107-8. A discussion of the benefits and negative impacts of biotechnology in developing countries is GEN (August 1994), 4, 47. See also Biotechnology 12 (1994), 746.

Education of biotechnology organised by US biotechnology associations is discussed in GEN (August 1994), 38.

A positive review of the International Bioethics Survey, and the book Bioethics for the people by the People is Dixon, B. "Biotech in Thailand", Biotechnology 12 (1994), 954. He points out that we need to look at why people have the opinions they do about biotechnology, and whether and why they change with time.

A discussion of changing ideas in Germany which will allow expansion of biotechnology is GEN (15 Sept 1994), 1, 22, 36. A report on a round-table debate held in January in Europe is The Ethical Aspects of Biomedical Research and the Biopharmaceutical Industry, 115pp., Netherlands Haemophilia Society, Jan van Gentstraat 130, 1171 GN Badhoevedorp, The Netherlands. A review on public concern about nuclear waste is in Science 266 (1994), 145.

The Center for Biotechnology Policy and Ethics, Texas, is organising several satellite shows followed by Internet discussions, on water on 31 January, animal care on 28 Feb, and family farms on 28 March, see CBPE Newsletter entry. The Council for Responsible Genetics (Boston) is now entering its second decade, and some reflective papers on past and future roles are in Genewatch 9(5/6), 1-4. A summary of their positions on many bioethical and genetic issues is in the same issue, Genewatch 9(5/6), 5-9.

In the UK a recent public trial of biotechnology found a positive vote, New Scientist (29 Oct 1994), 3, (12 Nov 1994), 5; Nature 372 (1995), 122; Science 266 (1994), 964-5. The lay panel approach has been used in Denmark, as a consensus conference. The panel however, suggested stricter monitoring, which industry did not welcome. The risks of teaching about biosafety are discussed in GEN (Dec 1994), 32.

Comments on public opinion surveys and biotechnology are in Biotechnology 12 (1994), 1048-9, 13 (1995), 20-1; see earlier discussion on pp. 870-5, 954. A comment on tampering with nature is HortScience 29: 1402-3. Several of the results of last years Canadian Institute of Biotechnology survey of public opinion on biotechnology (see Bioethics for the People by the People) about the perceived role of the Canadian government in regulation of biotech are discussed in Ram's Horn (Dec 1994), 5-6.

A new volume of the encyclopaedic series on biotechnology has been published, Rehm, H.-J. & Reed, G, et al. Biotechnology, A Multi-volume Comprehensive Treatise, Legal, Economic and Ethical Dimensions (VCH, Weinheim, 1995, 695pp., 520DM). It includes 18 chapters of interest in the ethical, legal and public opinion debate. In one, I ask "What is ethical biotechnology?".

Opinions from the UK national consensus conference (EJAIB 1: 12) on plant biotechnology are in GenEthics News 4 (1995),11; Biotechnology 12 (1994), 1346-8. A letter on public opinion of biotechnology is Biotechnology 12 (1994), 1313. A critique of the money and progress of biotechnology through the examples of the Flavr Savr tomato, herbicide tolerant crops and BST is New Scientist (7 Jan 1995); The Ram's Horn (Jan 1995), 4-5. The attack is that these advances, if we accept they do have some benefits, were not major problems and public money could have been better spent on more needy goals.

Europe is considering minimum standards for science education, Nature 373 (1995), 181. A recent opinion poll in Czech found that science was the fourth most highly regarded profession i=among ones used, Nature 372 (1994), 604.

Criticism of a survey on acceptance of genetic engineering in Australia commissioned by the Dept. of Industry, Science and technology is New Scientist (18 Feb, 1995), 49. Critics claim that biased questions resulted in the high acceptance of gene technology that was observed; but the results are consistent with the 1993 results of the International Bioethics Survey, conducted in 1993.

A review of Wright, S., Molecular Politics: Developing American and British Regulatory Policy for Genetic Engineering, 1972-1982 (University of Chicago Press, 1994, 591pp., US$30) is Nature 374 (1995), 127-8; and a review of Ethics of Biotechnology is Lancet 345 (1995), 372. Also on the costs and benefits of biotechnology, Ram's Horn 124 (March), 1-2.

A call for a more positive public image of biotechnology in the U.S. context is GEN (15 Feb 1995), 4, 12; and in Europe, TIBTECH 13 (1995), 42-4. Public understanding of science was the function of a science week in March, Nature 374 (1995), 291-2. The Smithsonian Museum in the USA has been reassessing its planned "Science in American Life" exhibition, because it includes pollution, Science 267 (1995), 966.

A new book is Ravichandran, V. and Daniel, R.R., eds., The Role of Science in Food Production in Africa (COSTED-IBN, Madras, India, 1994, 140pp.), which is the proceedings of the seminar held in Ghana.

A survey in Japan by the Prime Minister's Office after the sarin gas murders has found 78% have worries about science, however, asked whether science does more good, the same or more harm, the responses were 52, 31 and 6%, respectively, Yomiuri Shimbun (14 May, 1995), 1. On public understanding of science in general, Nature 375 (1995), 671.

The proceedings of a November, 1993 symposium on "Ethical aspects of modern biotechnology", are published as Studies in Research Ethics No. 5 (1995, editors Kaiser, M. & Welin, S., 141pp., ISBN 91-971672-4-X, US$12), (Centre for Research Ethics, Brogatan 4, S-41301 Goteburg, SWEDEN). In a further publication the Swedish government commission is examined in Forsman, B. & Welin, S. "The treatment of ethics in a Swedish Government Commission on Gene Technology", Studies in Research Ethics No. 6. (1995) (42pp., ISBN 91-971672-5-8).

A paper on the utilitarian calls for genetic engineering is Crisp, R. "Making the world a better place: Genes and ethics", Science & Engineering Ethics 1 (1995), 101-10. Comments on the ethics of biotechnology are being examined by a forum, Cutting Edge, Los Angeles Times (24 May, 1995), D1, 6.

A book review of Drtonamraju, K.R., ed., Haldane's Daedalus Revisited (Oxford University Press, 1995) is in Nature 375 (1995), 370-1. A book review of Adams, J. Risk (UCL Press, 228pp., BMJ 310 (1995), 1206. A report on the establishment of the US National Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management is EST 29 (1995), 167A. The US National Academy of Science's Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy is discussed in an editorial in Science 268 (1995), 783. The risks of asteroid collisions are discussed in Nature 375 (1995), 174, 288-9.

A new US survey on attitudes to biotechnology and genetic engineering is reviewed in GEN (July 1995), 4-5. The study by Hallman, W.K. & Metcalfe, J. "Public perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnology: A survey of New Jersey Residents", can be obtained by writing to Dr Hallman, Dept. of Human Ecology, Cook College, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA. They included several open questions. An editorial "Biotechnology and God" looks at the opposition to gene patents by religious groups and Jeremy Rifkin, Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 489. Bioethics and biotechnology is discussed, with the similar question, in Biotechnology 13 (1995), 735-7.

Public acceptance of foodstuffs as a commercial issue is discussed in GEN (July 1995),15, 41. The last minute decision to maintain some OTA in the US Congress is welcome, better then nothing, and is reported in Science 268 (1995), 1842.

Several cases of biotechnology product substitution and other affects on developing countries are in Biotechnology and Development Monitor No. 23 (June, 1995), 2-13. Canadian researchers are looking at the impact of biotechnology on the developing world, together with the development of cooperation agreements in Latin America, GEN (15 June 1995), 24. The potential for biotechnology to serve the developing world is discussed in Arntzen, C,J. "Biotechnology in the service of the developing world", Center for Biotechnology Policy and Ethics Newsletter 5 (Jul 1995), 1-4.

Book reviews on public acceptance of technology are in Nature 376 (1995), 653-4, 753-4; Science 268 (1995), 1198-200; 269 (1995), 109-10, 637; Time (17 July, 1995), 38-55. Results of a Japanese STA survey of expectations of science find that the Japanese are more mixed in the benefits and risks of science and technology than in the USA, Science 269 (1995), 307. Science and everyday life is discussed in Science 269 (1995), 1199. Creationalism is discussed in SA (July 1995), 12-3; Science 268 (1995), 1196-8. Education is discussed in EST 29 (1995), 239A; Science 268 (1995), 1693-4. Science history in Nature 376 (1995), 477.

A special issue of Biotechnology and Development Monitor 24 (Sept 1995), 24pp., includes a series of papers on the theme "Biotechnology in the USA". One paper is on public acceptance, Rothenburg, L. & Macer, D. "Public acceptance of food biotechnology in the USA", Biotechnology and Development Monitor 24 (1995), 10-13. A paper on control of biotechnology in the USA,Webber, D.J. "The emerging federalism of US biotechnology policy", Politics & Life Sciences 14 (1995), 65-72. A Swiss group is continuing activities to hold another referendum against genetic engineering, Gene Therapy Newsletter 15 (Oct 1995), 2. A review of a study on Haldane's Daedalus, Science 269 (1995), 1291.

A paper exploring risk perceptions is Frewer, L.J. & Sheperd, R. "Ethical concerns and risk perceptions associated with different applications of genetic engineering: Interrelationships with the perceived need for regulation of the technology", Agriculture & Human Values (Winter 1995), 48-57. It is based on responses of 176 public in the UK. Also on risk perception of foods, Sparks, P. & Sheperd, R. "Public perceptions of the potential hazards associated with food production and food consumption: An empirical study", Risk Analysis 14 (1994), 799-806.

A Harris telephone poll, conducted in April 6-9 for the Center for Social and Legal Research in Hackensack, New Jersey, shows that the US public is optimistic about the benefits but concerned about potential abuses of genetic testing and use of human DNA. Among 1000 adults, 56% said state DNA databases containing "genetic fingerprints" of all newborns would be "very" or "somewhat" acceptable, and 68% would be likely to ask doctors for genetic tests if they were available at a reasonable price. However, 86% would be concerned if employers and insurers used genetic tests before deciding whether to hire or insure someone. Some 85% agreed that a national bioethics advisory commission should be established to advise and make recommendations on bioethical issues arising from human biology research, Human Genome News (July/August 1995), 7(2), 3.

A eulogy for the former Office of Technology Assessment in the USA from George Brown, draws the idea how an agency set up to make government more rational has been lost in a sometimes irrational cost-cutting effort, Ram's Horn 130 (Oct. 1995), 5. See also, SA (Nov 1995), 30.

More information on the Genentech organised on-line education program for teachers is in Biotechnology 13 (Sept 1995), 1022. Information can be obtained through Email contact, Teeter.geoffrey@gene.com A paper on how to incorporate consumer concerns into undergraduate courses is J. Animal Science 73 (1995), 2727-32.

In the 1995 Grocery Attitudes of Canadians survey from the Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada, 28% said that they were "completely or most" confident in the safety of biotechnology products, with 16% "not sure" and 56% "very or somewhat doubtful". With BST, the confident group is 10%, and the doubtful group 60%; GEN (Dec 1995), 30-31. In a 1995 Survey of Consumer Shopping, 54% of people who know something about biotechnology would be "very likely" or "somewhat likely" to buy produce modified to taste better or fresher. A further mention of the 1994 Australia gene technology survey is Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 857; and a claim that it was biased based on looking at the questions and framing of answers is Hindmarsh, R. et al. "Manipulating genes or public opinion?", Search 26 (1995), 117-21.

A letter reporting the low knowledge of genetics among medical students, suggesting the public has even less knowledge is BMJ 311 (1995), 1370. A review of the ethics of genetic engineering and public concern is Berg, P. & Singer, M.F. "The recombinant DNA controversy: Twenty years later", PNAS 92 (1995), 9011-3. They review the thinking since the Asilomar Conference of 1975. A journalists discussion on the difficulties of discussing biotechnology is Sant'Ana, A. & Valle, S. "Public perception of biotechnology: problems in the Third World", TIBTECH 13 (1995),126-7.

A general book review on sociotechnical change is NS (9 Dec 1995), 48-9. The perceptions of risk are discussed in Selinger, B. "Changing our perception of risk", Search 26 (1995), 313-5. The future of the French risk assessment commission is uncertain, Nature 379 (1996), 4. A discussion of the distrust of science is Maddox, J. "The prevalent distrust of science", Nature 378 (1995), 435-7; also see Nature 379 (1996), 5. The use of science in movies is discussed in NS (9 Dec 1995), 28-32. Views of benefits and risks of agbiotech vary among scientists, Chemical & Engineering News (21 Aug 1995).

A new book available from Hong Kong is Becker, G.K., Buchanan, JP eds., Changing Nature's Course. The Ethical Challenge of Biotechnology (Hong Kong University Press, 1996, 208pp., ISBN 962-209-403-1). It includes the proceedings of a 1993 conference held in Hong Kong on the challenges of biotechnology, and includes 14 chapters by different authors, including DM). A review related to medicine is Glanz K & Yang H. "Communicating about risk of infectious diseases", JAMA 275 (1996), 253-6.

The decline of science as an issue in the Australian election is discussed in NS (17 Feb 1996), 3, 46. The role of the media in reporting science, sometimes breaking deadlines for press release is Lancet 346 (1995), 1681-3.

A survey of Japanese public attitudes to biotechnology and food from GMOs has been conducted in Autumn, 1995, which makes interesting comparisons with the surveys of Macer in 1991 (1992), Macer and Kato in 1993 (1994), and Macer et al. 1995, reported in the last issue of EJAIB. The latest survey was conducted in collaboration with Thomas Hoban who has conducted a survey of US public attitudes in 1992 (Hoban & Kendall 1993), and involved Nihon Tokei Chosa Company (Japan Statistical Survey Inc.) who conducted a telephone survey, with N=793, a 79% response rate. Comparisons were made with US opinion. Awareness of biotechnology is higher in Japan, and Japanese people have a more affirmative image of benefits from biotechnology, consistent with my earlier surveys. The acceptance of specific examples of GMOs included tastier tomatoes, with 45% agreeing, 24% rejecting and 31% neutral, similar to Macer (1994). There was low awareness of the herbicide-tolerant soybean, but if the safety was assured two thirds would buy the products.

A new book is Coping With Deliberate Release: The Limits Of Risk Assessment, Edited By Ad Van Dommelen (International Centre for Human and Public Affairs, Pastoor Smitsstraat 25, 5014 RH Tilburg, The Netherlands 1996, 256pp., ISBN 90-802139-4-2; Order information: Email: R.vonSchomberg@kub.nl). The focus of this book is on our capacity to assess and foresee the possible risks that are involved with deliberate environmental releases of genetically modified organisms. The aim of this volume is to contribute recent analyses and views from a range of disciplines to the ongoing debates on public participation, biosafety and regulation. To cope with the challenges of modern biotechnology and genetic engineering we must explore the limits of our risk assessments.

The fifteen chapters of this volume are the concerted attempt of internationally distinguished authors from Europe, the United States and Japan to map promises and perils in the emerging social and political landscape of modern biotechnology. Part I. The Limits of Risk Assessment: Scientific Backgrounds contributions by: Philip Regal - Sheldon Krimsky - Ad van Dommelen - Manuela Jaeger and Beatrix Tappeser - Brian Goodwin; Part II The Limits of Risk Assessment: Regulatory Practice contributions by: Les Levidow, Susan Carr, Rene von Schomberg and David Wield - Ruth McNally - Les Levidow - Soemini Kasanmoentalib - Rene von Schomberg. Part III The Limits of Risk Assessment: Political Conditions contributions by: Piet Schenkelaars - Peter Wheale and Ruth McNally - Christine von Weizsaecker - Christoph Rehmann-Sutter and Adrian Vatter - Darryl Macer.

A survey of what members of the American Society of Microbiology think of regulations is Rabino, I. "What US researchers think of regulations and regulators", Biotechnology 14 (1996), 147-50. A series of papers on biotechnology in Europe, including a discussion of the public debate, are in Biotechnology & Development Monitor 26 (1996), especially pp. 2-8. The debate in Germany is summarized in Biotechnology 13 (1995), 1048-9; see also section below.

The Newsletter AgEthics Forum is now available only on Internet, and further information from the Iowa State University Bioethics Program is on <http://www.public.iastate.edu/ ~grad_college/bioethics/. For alternative views on biotechnology the RAFI homepage is <http://www.charm.net/ ~rafi/rafihome.html. The influence of the media is discussed in Lancet 347 (1996), 416. The exhibition funded by the American Chemical Society on Science in American Life at the National Museum of American History continues to be shown despite the Society's concern that it presents a mixed portrayal of science, Nature 380 (1996), 89.

Another new book expected October 1996 is Reiss, MJ. & Straughan, R. Improving Nature? The Science and Ethics of Genetic Engineering (Cambridge University Press, 1996, 304pp., 17 pounds). A book review of Biotechnology, Vol 12 (VCH 1995) is in TIBTECH 14 (1996), 66. Another version of Berg, P & Singer, M. "The recombinant DNA controversy: Twenty years later", Biotechnology 13 (1995), 1132-4 (also published in PNAS earlier).

Several papers on risk and risk assessment are in Nature 380 (1996), 10-2. An older study of 11-14 year olds in the USA is Riechard, DE. & McGarrity, J. "Early adolescents' perceptions of relative risk from 10 societal and environmental hazards", J. Env. Education 26 (1994), 16-23. A study of young students in Taiwan is She, H-C. "Elementary and middle school students' image of science and scientists related to current science textbooks in Taiwan", J. Science Education & Technology 4 (1995), 283-94.

A report on the efforts at UNESCO to look at science and ethics is, UNESCO Sources 79 (May 1996), 20-1. The question of whether we should manage technology or it should manage us is in Center for Biotechnology Policy & Ethics (Texas) Newsletter 5 (No. 6, 1996), 1-3. A paper looking at the concept of playing God in medicine is Zohar, NJ. "Human action and God's will: A problem of consistency in Jewish bioethics", J.Med.&Phil. 20 (1995), 387-402.

The US public continues to have much faith in science, with more believing benefits have outweighed harmful results, Nature 381 (1996), 355; Science 272 (1996), 1256. Book reviews on the subject are in Nature 381 (1996), 383. On education of public education of social issues of science, Nature 381 (1996), 183; Education in Science (Jan 1996), 8-10.

A review of the UK House of Commons S&T committee report on genetics is in JMG 33 (1996), 266-7. Book reviews of Marteau, T. & Richards MPM, The Troubled Helix: Social and Psychological Implications of the New Human Genetics (Cambridge University Press 1996, 35pds, 355pp.) are in BMJ 312 (1996), 1174-5; Lancet 347 (1996), 1392-3; and of Kitcher, P, The genetic revolution and human possibilities (New York: Simon & Schuster 1996, 381pp., US$25) is in Lancet 347 (1996), 1171-2. Also on genetic engineering, IDHL 47 (1996), 91-3; Goldbort, RC. "How dare you sport thus life?": Frankensteinian fictions as case studies in scientific ethics", J. Medical Humanities 16 (1995), 79-91. A review of genetic and ethics by television is in BMJ 312 (1996), 1366. On the role of media, BMJ 312 (1996), 1087-90, 1308-11, 1533-5, 1600-3.

New Book: Mepham, T.B., Tucker, G.A. & Wiseman, J., eds., Issues in Agricultural Bioethics (Nottingham University Press, 1995, ISBN 1-897676-23-9, vi + 411pp.)

This book contains the proceedings of a 1993 conference, and includes 24 chapters on: Social and philosophical dimensions (2), food and bioethics (4), crop protection (4), environmental sustainability (3), animal production (4), farm animal welfare (3), and policies and scenerios that may make appropriate biotechnology (3). It fills a niche that has been rather short of books, and is a valuable addition not only because of the topics covered. It is quite timely to think of bioethics in agriculture, especially at the time of scandals about food safety and disease prevention.

The discussions from the conference are not included, rather it is more as a academic referenc point with bibliographies, and a varied content. Many scientists were challenged to consider ethical topics, and the product is interesting because of the variety of authors and approaches - rather than following only the set arguments of bioethics that is common at some conferences. It is to be recommended.

From 22-24 August, in Wellington, New Zealand, there was a talking technology conference on Plant Biotechnology. It was made of 15 persons from New Zealand, as a lay panel to give a report on the subject after hearing talks from various persons representing a range of opinions about biotechnology. The USA is planning 38 public science shops, Science 273 (1996), 572-3. Risk communication is discussed in AJPH 86 (1996), 921-3; Nature 382 (1996), 109; and risk in Nature 382 (1996), 504-5; Environment 38 (No. 6, 1996), 11-15, 35-39; BioScience 46 (1996), 488-91.

A new book is Concepts in Biotechnology, Orient Longman, that was organized by COSTED. More details later. A literature review of popular images of physicians is Lancet 348 (1996), 458-60; and on health information, JAMA 275 (1996), 1932-3. On ethics in Science, Biologist 43 (1996), 48.

On public impact of research, Science 273 (1996), 27. A review of a pesticide and the media is Friedman, SM. et al. "Alar and apples: newspapers, risk and media responsibility", Public Understanding of Science 5 (1996), 1-20. On German society and science attitudes, Science 273 (1996), 722. A survey of 2000 UK public confirms the idea that public understanding of science is not always linked to acceptability, Evans, G. & Durant, J. "The relationship between knowledge and attitudes in the public understanding of science in Britain", Public Understanding of Science 5 (1996), 57-74; pp. 223-32; Biotechnology 13 (1995), 532.

Science and religion is discussed in Nature 382 (1996), 37-8; NS (10 August 1996), 46; and a commentary on the life and death of Thomas Kuhn is Nature 382 (1996), 203-4. Objectivity is discussed in Nature 382 (1996), 751-4, 769-70.

Included in a report of an ad hoc committee on ethics to the Executive Committee of the National Agricultural Biotechnology Council, were recommendations that "Each NABC member institutions should ensure that subject matter on ethical issues associated with food and agricultural biotechnology is systematically integrated into the curriculum of their institution"; "they should also develop a mechanism to support faculty interest and research on ethical issues; include ethics in public education; CSTPE Newsletter 6 (No. 1, 1996), 2. A review of the US False Claims Act is Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 726-7.

A report of a study of high school students in the UK, Spain, Finland and Germany is in Chadwick, R. et al., BIOCULT. Cultural and Social Objections to Biotechnology: Analysis of the Arguments, with Special Reference to the Views of Young People (University of Central Lancashire, 1996). An Internet site for electronic public debate about biotechnology is BIOSIS, <http://www.aladdin.co.uk/cfinney/biosis/, maintained by the Science Museum, London. In general new Internet sites are listed and updated on my Internet site information page.

A new report written in an easy to understand style is: Straughan, R. & Reiss, M. Ethics, Morality and Crop Biotechnology (London: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council 1996). They have also released a new book, Improving Nature? The Science and Ethics of Genetic Engineering, (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996) reviewed in NS (7 Sept 1996), 43.


Book Review - La Sante Parfaite

by Lucien SFEZ; Paris: Le Seuil, 1995

It is a new ideology this book would like both to identify and criticize. Seizable throughout apparently very different themes, from dietetics to biotechnology, which yet form a same object, it is a vast theoretical construction bound to the supply for equality, decision, communication - old political models which are now out of work.

This "perfect health" ideology is a new bio-ecological "figure" which suggests the disturbing idea of general purification of planet and man. More global than communication ideology, it does not only point out social links between individuals, but also the individual himself, in its own existence. Leaning on the acquirements of information and communication sciences, it ambitions to draw us across a large story of the beginnings of like, and to project on the future what is due to be called an utopia.

After a long inquiry throughout Europe, Japan and United States, Lucien Sfez undertakes the systematic exploration and radical criticism of this new utopia: the international human genome project, ecological sciences or artificial life, and all their associated ideologies which lie underneath all the contempory images.

The author who has published books about decision-making and communication is Professor at the University of Paris I, and manages the Doctorate degree in "Communication, technology and power" (Contact address: Dept. of Political Science, University of Paris I, Pantheon-Sorbonne, 14 rue Cujas 75231, Paris Cedex 05, France).


The challenges of new genetics for public policy are discussed in GEN (15 Sept. 1996), 4, 35. A new book is Holdrege, Craig, Genetics and the Manipulation of Life. The Forgotten Factor of Context (Lindesfarne Press, 1996, 192pp., US$15, ISBN 0-94026-77-0). It looks at how the environmental affects the phenotype that an organism has, first going through this teachers observations on plants, then going onto to take a contextual approach to human genetics. A discussion on evolution is being put on the Internet, Science 273 (1996), 1661; see also NS (14 Oct. 1996), 44-5.

Book reviews of, Genetic Engineering: Dreams and Nightmares by Enzo Russo and David Cove (W.H. Freeman, New York, 1995, pp. 243, $22.95, (hbk)); DNA & Destiny: Nature & Nurture in Human Behavior by R. Grant Steen (Plenum Publishing, New York and London, 1996, pp. 295, $28.95, (hbk)), and Double-Edged Sword: The Promises and Risks of the Genetic Revolution by Karl A. Drlica (Addison Wesley Publishing Company, New York, 1994, pp.241, $20.00, (hbk)), are reviewed under the title "Bioethics made too simple" in Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1296-1303. A discussion of the public awareness of genetics, and the recently started Gene Shop in Manchester is in EuroScreen 6 (Autumn 1996), 1-3. A letter on whether sociologists have greater fear of genetics is in Science 273 (1996), 1781-2 (though this was found in the Japan Association of Bioethics survey reported by Macer et al. in EJAIB 6 (1996).

Cancer, science, society and the communication of risk is debated in BMJ 313 (1996), 799-801; and on risks and benefits of treatment, BMJ 313 (1996), 735-8. A discussion of why friends are more trusted than scientists over risk is NS (28 Sept. 1996), 36-9. On the risks of scientific inventions, book reviews are in SA (Oct 1996), 120-2; Science 273 (1996), 1806-7.
German resistance to genetic engineering appears to diminishing according to a public opinion survey, in which 29% said that genetic engineering should be rejected, Nature 385 (1997), 8-9. On public fears of genetics, GEN (1 Jan 1997), 4, 38-9, 42. A collection of papers on the subject is von Schomberg, R. & Wheale, P., eds., The Social Management of Biotechnology (Tilburg University, Faculty of Philosophy, 1996). It includes numerous papers on ethical issues of transgenic animals. On expansion of biotechnology, Bunders, Jose et al., eds, Biotechnology. Building on Farmer's Knowledge (MacMillan, ETC Netherlands 1997, ISBN 0-333-67082-5, 256pp., 9pds). On the ethics of genetic engineering a paper is Rappaport, S. "Genetic engineering: technology, creation and interference", ASSIA: Jewish Medical Ethics III (No.1, 1997), 3-4; and Rehmann-Sutter, C. "Frankensteinian knowledge", The Monist 79 (1996), 264-79.

In the UK a gene shop opened in Manchester airport, as a result of EuroScreen, to make more people aware of genetics, BMJ 314 (1997), 252. The results of a UK survey suggesting limited understanding of genetics, as kinship, is Richards, M. & Ponder, M. "Lay understanding of genetics: a test of a hypothesis", JMG 33 (1996), 1032-6. Reviews include Turney, J. "The public understanding of genetics - where next?", Eur. J. Genetics in Society 1 (1995), 5-20; Hoban, T. "Consumer acceptance of biotechnology: An international perspective", NatBio 15 (1997), 232-4. The French National Bioethics Committee will also include public consensus style meetings in the future, Nature 385 (1997), 288.

Review articles on the future hopes for science and medicine are in Newsweek (27 Jan 1997), 34-41. Discussion of antiscience movements is in SA (Jan 1997), 96-101; Nature 385 (1997), 405-6. On risks and ethics, McCarthy, D. "Rights, explanation, and risks", Ethics 107 (1997), 205-25. Also on risk, Nature 385 (1997), 1. Book reviews on risk are in Nature 385 (1997), 129-30. In Japan the HIV blood scandal and food poisoning with E.coli 0-157 may have raised questions among the public in their trust in scientists, Nature 385 (1997), 9. On public attitudes about science, Science 275 (1997), 1258.

The reporting of mortality rates in the UK is different among newspapers, and incomplete reporting is criticized in BMJ 314 (1997), 81. School science education is being reviewed in the UK, Nature 385 (1997), 102; NS (14 Dec 1996), 49. Whether democracy is an Asian value is debated in Time (1946-1996 special issue), 114-5.

The issue of whether ethical concerns about genetics are a luxury of developed countries is discussed by S. Sahai in Biotechnology & Development Monitor 30 (March 1997), 24. A statement objecting to genetic engineering by the British Columbia Biotechnology Circle is in Ram's Horn 146 (March 1997), 7-8.

A new newsletter looking at agriculture is the TAD issues (TAD=Technology and Agrarian Development) March 1997, from the Working Group TAD, Wageningen Agricultural University, Nieuwe Kanaal 11, 6708 PA Wageningen, the Netherlands. The group are also involved in a July conference, on Animal Consciousness, listed on the conference section. TAD have a network on access to food. A 53pp. report on a year of research especially on animal care, but more general is Fisher, M. Agricultural Ethics, contact the author at Invermay Agricultural Centre, Private Bag 50034, Mosgiel, New Zealand.

The US United Church of Christ, General Synod 17 on Social Policy Action (Cleveland: Office for Church in Society, United Church of Christ) has made a Pronouncement on the Church and Genetic Engineering, which is on-line in Geneletter 1(5) (March 1997), at <http://www.geneletter.org/0397/ churchviews.htm. In summary "This Pronouncement, which recognizes that genetic engineering expands our understanding of creation and increases our ability to alter the natural world, affirms a cautious, thoughtful and just use of genetic engineering. The Pronouncement recognizes that the church has a growing pastoral responsibility in genetic screening and counseling."

For cloning see Assisted Reproductive Technology and genetic Engineering of Animals sections. The media had much discussion, some references to cloning taken from BIOETHICSLINE, and ETHX, the online database of documents at the National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature, Washington DC include: Washington Post 1997 February 24; A1, A12; February 25; A17; February 26; A18-19; February 28; E3; March 2; A26, C1, C5; March 3; A3, A17, A19; March 5; A1, A10, A15; March 12; 19; Newsweek 1997 March 10; 53-60; Time 1997 March 10; 60-75; New York Times 1997 February 24; A1, B8; February 25; A26, D1, D2; February 26; B4, C9, C12; February 27; p. A23, B1, B3; March 1; 1, 10; March 2; 1E, 14E, 16E; March 3; B6-8.

A discussion of risk asseSSMent from a UK meeting is Nature 386 (1997), 310; also Science 275 (1997), 1050-1. A report from NZ, Australia and Germany is Rohrmann, B. Perception and Evaluation of Risks: Findings for New Zealand and Cross-Cultural Comparisons (Lincoln Environmental, Lincoln Univ., May 1996), Information Paper No. 54; 29pp.

On views of Palestinian Teachers, Hashweh, MZ. "Palestinian science teachers' epistemological beliefs: A preliminary survey", Research in Science Education 26 (1996), 89-102. The use of drawings to communicate ideas in a UK study is in Rennie, LJ. & Jarvis, T. "Children's choice of drawings to communicate their ideas about technology", Research in Science Education 25 (1995), 239-52; and on how perceptions of what science is change, Speering, W. & Rennie, L. "Students' perceptions about science: The impact of transition from primary to secondary school", Research in Science Education 25 (1995), 283-98. Discussion of social issues in a 15 year old class in the UK is Ratcliffe, M. "Pupil decision-making about socio-scientific issues within the science curriculum curriculum", Int. J. Science Education 19 (1997), 167-82. Also on science education, NS (5 April 1997), 52. Japan may relax the minimum age of university entrance examination and high school years for some students in the future, Science 275 (1997), 1425.

The issue of whether ethical concerns about genetics are a luxury of developed countries is discussed by S. Sahai in Biotechnology & Development Monitor 30 (March 1997), 24. A statement objecting to genetic engineering by the British Columbia Biotechnology Circle is in Ram's Horn 146 (March 1997), 7-8.

A new newsletter looking at agriculture is the TAD issues (TAD=Technology and Agrarian Development) March 1997, from the Working Group TAD, Wageningen Agricultural University, Nieuwe Kanaal 11, 6708 PA Wageningen, the Netherlands. The group are also involved in a July conference, on Animal Consciousness, listed on the conference section. TAD have a network on access to food. A 53pp. report on a year of research especially on animal care, but more general is Fisher, M. Agricultural Ethics, contact the author at Invermay Agricultural Centre, Private Bag 50034, Mosgiel, New Zealand.

The US United Church of Christ, General Synod 17 on Social Policy Action (Cleveland: Office for Church in Society, United Church of Christ) has made a Pronouncement on the Church and Genetic Engineering, which is on-line in Geneletter 1(5) (March 1997), at <http://www.geneletter.org/0397/ churchviews.htm. In summary "This Pronouncement, which recognizes that genetic engineering expands our understanding of creation and increases our ability to alter the natural world, affirms a cautious, thoughtful and just use of genetic engineering. The Pronouncement recognizes that the church has a growing pastoral responsibility in genetic screening and counseling."

For cloning see Assisted Reproductive Technology and genetic Engineering of Animals sections. The media had much discussion, some references to cloning taken from BIOETHICSLINE, and ETHX, the online database of documents at the National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature, Washington DC include: Washington Post 1997 February 24; A1, A12; February 25; A17; February 26; A18-19; February 28; E3; March 2; A26, C1, C5; March 3; A3, A17, A19; March 5; A1, A10, A15; March 12; 19; Newsweek 1997 March 10; 53-60; Time 1997 March 10; 60-75; New York Times 1997 February 24; A1, B8; February 25; A26, D1, D2; February 26; B4, C9, C12; February 27; p. A23, B1, B3; March 1; 1, 10; March 2; 1E, 14E, 16E; March 3; B6-8.

A discussion of risk asseSSMent from a UK meeting is Nature 386 (1997), 310; also Science 275 (1997), 1050-1. A report from NZ, Australia and Germany is Rohrmann, B. Perception and Evaluation of Risks: Findings for New Zealand and Cross-Cultural Comparisons (Lincoln Environmental, Lincoln Univ., May 1996), Information Paper No. 54; 29pp.

On views of Palestinian Teachers, Hashweh, MZ. "Palestinian science teachers' epistemological beliefs: A preliminary survey", Research in Science Education 26 (1996), 89-102. The use of drawings to communicate ideas in a UK study is in Rennie, LJ. & Jarvis, T. "Children's choice of drawings to communicate their ideas about technology", Research in Science Education 25 (1995), 239-52; and on how perceptions of what science is change, Speering, W. & Rennie, L. "Students' perceptions about science: The impact of transition from primary to secondary school", Research in Science Education 25 (1995), 283-98. Discussion of social issues in a 15 year old class in the UK is Ratcliffe, M. "Pupil decision-making about socio-scientific issues within the science curriculum curriculum", Int. J. Science Education 19 (1997), 167-82. Also on science education, NS (5 April 1997), 52. Japan may relax the minimum age of university entrance examination and high school years for some students in the future, Science 275 (1997), 1425.

The preliminary results of Eurobarometer 40.1 for Europe are described in Nature 387 (1997), 845-7. The results for USA, Canada, Japan and New Zealand (J and NZ by D. Macer and colleagues in next issue) will appear later, as will the full results of the surveys. They surveyed a range of questions as will be presented later in EJAIB. They found risk is less significant than moral acceptability in shaping public perceptions for six applications, as has been argued in surveys by Macer (1992, 1994). They also found the UN was most trusted as an information source. They generally found the public in supportive countries had a low level of contact, low level of knowledge, a menacing image and many expectations, and vice versa.

There was also a telephone survey conducted by MORI/Greenpeace Europe in the national omnibus surveys, Britain (N=1003), Denmark (N=580), France (N=1005), Italy (N=1002), Netherlands (N=750) and Sweden (N=500) in December 1996 (Total N=4840 of 15 year olds or over), Corrado, M. et al. Attitudes to Genetically Modified Food - A survey of European Public Opinion (Greenpeace Germany, MORI, 1997). In total they found 22% would support it and 59% oppose the development and introduction of genetically modified food or food derived from genetic engineering, with 15% neither and 5% don't know. 17% agreed that "I personally would be happy to eat genetically modified food", and 67% disagreed, 12% neither, 4% don't know.

The survey was also conducted in New Zealand 9-15 April by AGB McNair for Greenpeace New Zealand, with one question on whether eating genetically engineered food would cause them to worry or not, on a five point scale from 1 not worry at all to 5 worry a lot, and the responses were: 12%, 8%, 17%, 17%, 43%, with 2% don't know. However the introduction before the question read "Genetically engineered food involves artificially changing the genetic make-up of a plant. For example, a vegetable might have a virus, bacteria, or genetic material from another plant or animal inserted into it to make it tolerant to a pesticide or have a longer shelf-life. Genetically engineered food will shortly be available in new Zealand supermarkets". One could say that there were several words in this introduction that could be leading, which was also a potential problem with the following survey.

In a survey from the International Food Information Council on US Consumer attitudes toward food biotechnology was done with the Wirthlin Group Quorum, 21-4 March, 1997, using 1004 telephone interviews in the USA. 79% said they had heard or read of biotechnology, but 21% had heard nothing at all. 40% new that foods produced through biotechnology where in the supermarket, 37% no, 23% don't know/refused. The acceptance of foods was higher in a question worded that the tomatoes or potatoes would taste better or fresher, with 55% saying it was likely they would buy, and 43% saying it was unlikely. There was high support for the FDA policy not to label unless an allergen or substantial change is made, with 78% saying they totally support whereas 20% said they totally oppose. As of that date 23% said they had read a lot about cloning, 42% some, 23% a little, and only 12% none. They then asked 3 questions on the application of cloning to humans, animals and plants, using a 5 point scale with 5 acceptable and 1 unacceptable, and found the means 1.2, 2.2 and 3.0, respectively.

In the UK a survey of views of 386 high school students on GMOs is reported in Nature 387 (1997), 340.Letters on whether science is a cultural construct are in Nature 387 (1997), 543-6. On the ethics of biotechnology in developing countries, GEN (15 May 1997), 4, 32. A related book review is Gross, PR. et al., eds., The Flight from Science and Reason (NY Academy of Sciences, NY, 1996, ISBN 1-57331-002-6) in Science 276 (1997), 750-2. Also on science in society, SA (June 1997), 142-3; Nature 388 (1997), 1.

A series of ten case studies in non-medical bioethics are in Ag Bioethics Forum 8 (Dec. 1996), 1-7. The Association of American Geographers has started an ethics project (Dr. Jim Proctor, UC Santa Barbara, Email: jproctor@geog.UCSB.EDU); Creation Care 3 (1, Spring 1997), 9. The mistrust of the media by Australian scientists found in focus groups is reported in NS (19 April 1997), 53; Science Communication 18 (3) (1997).

The ethical code of EuropaBio, the European Association for BioIndustries is reprinted in BME 129 (1997), 3-4. Comments to their Email: mail@europa-bio.be. On media analysis, Pellechia, MG. "Trends in science coverage: a content analysis of three US newspapers", Public Understanding of Science 6 (1997), 49-68; Hagedorn C. & Allender-Hagedorn, S. "Issues in agricultural and environmental biotechnology: identifying and comparing biotechnology issues from public opinion surveys, the popular press and technical/regulatory sources", Public Understanding of Science 6 (1997), 233-245. There are differences between Europe and America, NS (12 July 1997), 47. In Australia a survey found people wanted to hear more about science in the media, NS (21 June 1997), 51. There are sex differences in the use of S&T in children's cartoons, J. Science, Education & Technology 6 (1997), 103-10. A criticism of the way scientists use the press to release results is NatMed 3 (1997), 701.

Some papers on perceptions of genetics include, Richards, M. "Lay and professional knowledge of genetics and inheritance", Public Understanding of Science 5 (1996), 217-230; Torgersen H. & Seifert F. "Aversion preceding rejection: results of the Eurobarometer Survey 39.1 on biotechnology and genetic engineering in Austria", Public Understanding of Science 6 (1997), 131-142; Schibeci, R. et al. "Public attitudes to gene technology: the case of the MacGregor'sÆ tomato", Public Understanding of Science 6 (1997), 167-183; Frewer, LJ. & Sheperd, R., "Ethical concerns and risk perceptions associated with different applications of genetic engineering: Interrelationships with the perceived need for regulation of the technology", Agriculture & Human Values 12 (1995), 48-57; Frewer, LJ. et al. "'Objection' mapping in determining group and individual concerns regarding genetic engineering", Agriculture & Human Values 12 (1995), 1-13; Frewer, LJ. et al. "Public concerns in the United Kingdom about general and specific applications of genetic engineering: Risk, benefit, and ethics", Science, Technology and Human Values 22 (1997), 98-124. A personal profile of Jeremy Rifkin is in SA (August 1997), 28, 32. In general on ethics of genetic engineering, TIBTECH 15 (1997), 193.

The developing views of churches to genetics is reviewed in Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (1997), 273-96. 0n biotechnology education initiatives in schools, NatBio 15 (1997), 850-1. A discussion of the risk society idea in the context of fear of crime is Br. J. Sociology 48 (2997), 256-65. A comment on the widespread belief in UFOs in the USA is JAMA 278 (1997), 193.

The UK is to have a consensus conference on human genetics (there have already been some held), Nature 389 (1997), 222. The question of trust and bioethics industry is addressed in an editorial in Nature 388 (1997), 647. A call for better public understanding of and confidence in technology is made in GEN (1 Sept. 1997), 4, 36. On belief in superstition, Nature 389 (1997), 29; and sociology of science, Nature 389 (1997), 451-2.

The Swiss have started debate on another referendum on biotechnology (to be held in spring 1998), this on transgenic animal research, Nature 389 (1997), 103. Europeans appear to have more concern over biotechnology than the USA, NatMed 3 (1997), 819. This was also seen at an International Conference on Scientific Literacy organized by the Academy of Sciences, Chicago, USA, 3-6 Oct., 1997. On consumer participation in research and advocacy groups, BMJ 315 (1997), 499; and against patronizing the public, NS (13 Sept.), 3; (27 Sept. 1997), 49.

A book review of Bioethics in High Schools in Australia, Japan and New Zealand is in JME 23(1997), 198. It is interesting to see the distaste of the reviewer for reading comments made by school teachers, a similar distaste expressed by some for the comments made by the public in Bioethics for the People by the People. Some academics do not appear to like to listen to the voices of non-academics. Also on education, Nature 389 (1997), 248-9. Japanese government reforms seem to be putting the STA into the Ministry of Education, Nature 388 (1997), 815.

There will soon be another referendum on biotechnology in Switzerland, and on asking why Germanic speaking peoples seem to be opposed see GEN 18 (Jan 1, 1998), 1, 22; Science 278 (1997), 1207. The Swiss Federal Council set June, 1997 as the date for the referendum, NatBio 15 (1997), 1340 The initiative proposes "a universal protection of life and environment against gene modification." On European attitudes to biotechnology and bioethical issues, Biotechnology & Development Monitor 32 (Sept 1997), 8-10. On the way public form attitudes, NS (18 Oct 1997), 55. The UK is planning nation-wide public consultation on biotechnology and genetic engineering, Nature 390 (1997), 328. The World Bank has released a report supporting funding of biotechnology, GenEthics News (Oct 1997), 4,9.

On 11 Nov. D. Macer participated in an International Symposium on Biotechnology. Current Status and Prospects, Inchon Memorial Hall, Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, organized by Prof. CC. Lee. A conference review on a meeting on Gene Technology: Benefits and Risks, at the Royal Society of New Zealand on 21 August, 1997, is in Otago Bioethics Report 6 (Nov 1997), 7-9; and on ethics of genetics, Nicholas, B. "Gene technology and ethics: New wine in old wineskins?", Otago Bioethics Report 6 (Nov 1997), 10-3; Lederberg, J. "Science and technology: Biology and biotechnology", Social Research 64 (1997),1157-61. On the attempted end to the ANZAAS, NS (11 Oct 1997), 3. Carl Feldbaum, the president of the US Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) believes that the greatest threat to biotechnology companies is not shortage of research funds, or new scientific methods, but from industry mishandling troubling ethical problems. NatBio 16 (1998), 6.

A book review of Aldridge, S., The Thread of Life: The Story of Genes and Genetic Engineering (Cambridge University Press, 1996, 258pp.) is in AJMG 73 (1997), 101; and on Reiss, MJ. & Straughan, R. Improving Nature? The Science and Ethics of Genetic Engineering (Cambridge University Press 1996, 288pp.), is AJMG 73 (1997), 236. New books include Dene-Drummond, C. Theology and Biotechnology. Implications for a New Science (London. Geoffrey Chapman, 1997, 162pp); Wheale, P. et al., eds., The Social Management of Genetic Engineering (Ashgate Publishing April 1997, 338pp, 42.50pds, ISBN 1-85972-686-0). On the language of risk, BMJ 315 (1997), 939-42: and a US survey, Tal, A. "Assessing the environmental movement's attitudes toward risk assessment", EST 31 (1997), 470-6A.

A series of papers on practicing and teaching ethics in engineering and computing is in Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (1997), 431-90. On nuclear issues, Stainer A. & Stainer L. "Young people's risk perception of nuclear power - a European viewpoint", Int. J. Global Energy Issues 7 (1995), 261-70. On biotechnology education at school in the UK, NatBio 16 (1998), 98+. On science in society, AJPH 87 (1997), 1603+; and science in the Jewish tradition, Nature 390 (1997), 354-5. A special issue of Social Research includes 27 papers on technology in society, Social Research 64 (No. 3, Fall 1997), 943-1336. A book review of Science in the Twentieth Century is Nature 390 (1997), 40; of The Religion of Technology: The Divinity of Man and the Spirit of Invention, in Nature 391 (1998), 244; of Beginnings Count, The Technological Imperative in American Health Care, is in Science 278 (1997), 1082; and of The Progress of Experiment, Science and Therapeutic Reform in the United States, in Lancet 350 (1997), 1183.

The level of trust in the USA with different professions is reported in Gallup Poll Monthly (Jan 1997), 25-7; with pharmacists most trusted. In general on trust of experts, NS (6 Dec 1997), 26-30. Methods to improve response rate in surveys of doctors are reported in BMJ 315 (1997), 1136.

A call for increased public education of biotechnology is in GEN 18 (15 Jan 1998), 6, 34. On politics of biotech, GEN 18 (1 Feb. 1998), 6, 31. On the future of biotechnology, NatBio 16 (1998), 239-42. Book reviews on fear are in Nature 391 (1998), 350; and on risk and benefit in Europe, Nature 391 (1998), 528. A report on the Manchester airport GeneShop is JAMA 279 (1998), 185. A book review of Wailoo, K., Drawing Blood: Technology and Disease Identity in Twentieth-Century America (John Hopkins Univ. Press, 1997) is NEJM 338 (1998), 68-70.

The Swiss government is discussing restrictions on transgenic animal experiments, that might prevent a ban being imposed by the forthcoming referendum, Nature 391 (1998), 312; see also, Science 279 (1998), 157, 966-7. The German Green party is slowly changing its attitude towards gene technology. According to its leading spokesman on science and technology in the Bundestag, the federal parliament, most party members have an open mind toward the use of gene technology in medicine and research. "I can see that gene technology will bring a certain advantage in diagnostics and therapy," he says. Attitudes toward the agricultural uses of biotechnology, however, have changed little, NatBio 16 (1998), 130.

A study of children's thinking is Imrie, D. & Dowker, A. "Aliens and policemen: the effects of external rules on children's moral judgements", MOSAIC Monograph #7, 30pp. On children's view of S&T in France when they enter university, J. Science, Education & Technology 6 (1997), 285-96. A survey finding more coverage in Germany is Peters, M. et al. "Selected bioethical issues in Japanese and German textbooks of biology for lower secondary schools", J. Moral Education 26 (1997), 473-89. On the science culture in Japan, Nature 391 (1998), 431; and Chinese history, Nature 391 (1998), 433-4.

The International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) at its 26th General Assembly held on 17-21 November 1997 in Taipei, adopted a Programme on Bioethics, with the statement "Bioethics. The Committee, after considering the documents "Bioethics and International Biology" and "Opportunities for New IUBS Activities" presented at the General Assembly, proposes the following: The IUBS shall set up a formal Bioethics Programme with a Steering Committee to be established by the Executive Committee. This Programme will be concerned with the ethical implications of biological research and its applications. The IUBS Bioethics Programme will promote awareness of Bioethics and variation in its concepts, will advise on ethical issues in IUBS activities, and will liaise with other relevant bodies and Programmes..." The background document is Younes, T. & Roberts, DF., Bioethics and International Biology. A Potential Role for IUBS (Biology International, Special Issue No. 35., 23pp, 1997).

The committee has been set up with Darryl Macer as Chair, and the other members include: Jayapaul Azariah, India; Heng Leng Chee, Malaysia; C.-H. Chou, Taiwan; F.J. Leavitt, Israel; Derek F. Roberts, UK; G.-F. de Stefano, Italy; Peter Wittacker, Ireland. One of the first activities will be a survey of IUBS members of views on bioethics, and the situations in the member countries. The IUBS Bioethics program will also cosponsor a roundtable on Bioethics Education on 1 Nov, 1998, at the TRT4 (see conference list).

A commentary on genetics by Jeremy Rifkin is in GEN 18 (1 April, 1998), 6, 41. A book review of Rikfin, Jeremy, The Biotech Century. Harnessing the gene and Remaking the World (Tarcher/Putman, 1998, ISBN 0-87477-909-X) is in NatMed 4 (1998), 361-2. An editorial criticizing the referendum that is forthcoming in Switzerland to ban research using some genetically modified animals and plants is Nature 392 (1998), 741. German Greens are softening their opposition to biotech, as they approach the idea of being part of a coalition government, Nature 392 (1998), 213. The summary of the study conducted by Eubios Ethics Institute in New Zealand (and Japan) in 1997 that earlier appeared in EJAIB has been extended and is on-line on the Eubios web site. It was released in the New Zealand press on 4 April, with some radio and newspaper coverage.

The concept of risk and chances of asteroids hitting the earth are discussed in Newsweek (23 March, 1998), 50-4. Scientific illiteracy is a problem for society, Science 279 (13 March 1998). A call for more than coursework in high school is Science 279 (1998), 1858-9. A book review of Student-Active Science is in Science 279 (1998), 1869. The affect of celebrities on public opinion is seen in a study of masectomies after Mrs Reagan had one, BMJ 316 (1998), 801. A paper looking at how doctors are portrayed in the media is Lupton, D. & McLean, J. "Representing doctors: Discourses and images on the Australian Press", SSM 46 (1998), 947-58. Methods to improve communication between scientists and the press are discussed in NatMed 4 (1998), 258; Science 279 (1998), 2036.

Switzerland rejected the ban on genetic engineering that was in the referendum, by 67%, a majority, and across all 26 cantons, voted on 7 June; discussed in Nature 393 (1998), 507; Science 280 (1998), 1685; NS (13 June 1997), 5; GenEthics News 24 (June/July 1998), 1. Switzerland will be developing new regulations, called Gen-Lax initiative, to outlaw the breeding of animals that feel pain. On discussion before the vote, BMJ 316 (1998), 1696; Nature 393 (1998), 205, 405; NS (6 June 1997), 61. On German support for genetic engineering, generally separate to other technology, Nature 393 (1998), 299. A report on the evaluation of the Gene Shop is Levitt, M. Evaluation of a Public Education Facility (ISBN 1-901922-06-5, June 1998, price 10 pounds including postage, available from Centre for professional Ethics, University of Central Lancashire, Vernon Building, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2HE, UK).

In Japan scientists are criticizing the media for exaggerated claims that endocrine disrupters are deadly or fatal, despite clear evidence, Nature 393 (1998), 613. On the power of the front page of the New York Times which recently overstated a cancer cure story (3 May 1998), Science 280 (1998), 996-7; Nature 393 (1998), 97, 104-5; and on journalism in general, JAMA 279 (1998), 1400; Lancet 351 (1998), 1726-7.

A call for popularization of science in developing countries is NS (20 June 1997), 52. On public difficulty in understanding scientists, Lancet 351 (1998), 1596; Science 280 (1998), 2054-5; despite many books attempting to make it popular, Economist (9 May 1998), 97-8; NS (27 June 1997), 43. A book review of Turney, J. Frankenstein's Footsteps (Yale University Press 1998) discusses fears people have, NS (23 May 1997), 48-9. On risk, BMJ 316 (1998), 1243. A book review of Polkinghorne, J. Belief in God in an Age of Science (Yale University Press 1998) is in NS (4 July 1997), 46. A book review on science in America is NS (28 March 1998), 54.

The US National Academy of Sciences is promoting teachers to teach evolution, Science 280 (1998), 194. A book review on evolution is Nature 393 (1998), 752. A policy debate on the interpretation of international school test scores is Science 280 (1998), 1030-1. A discussion of how religious reasoning influences moral reasoning in school students is J. Moral Education 27 (1998), 89-98. Students' perceptions of the moral atmosphere in secondary schools in the Netherlands is reported in J. Moral Education 27 (1998), 47-70. Perceptions of scientists in a US high school are reported in J. Science Education & Technology 7 (1998), 149-61. A book review of Jasper, JM. The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography and Creativity in Social Movements (University of Chicago press, 1998, 514pp.) is in Nature 393 (1998), 882-3.

A review of Brown, RH. Toward a Democratic Science (Yale University Press, 1998,) is in NS (11 July 1998), 50-1; and of Brin, D. The Transparent Society (Addison Wesley Longman 1998) in NS (8 August 1998), 47. The bestseller book, Wilson, EO. Consilence (Knopf 1998) is reviewed in NS (22 August 1998), 42-3; NEJM 339 (1998), 205. A critical review of a UK TV program Sacred Weeds, is BMJ 317 (1998), 547.

A review is Johnson, T. "Medicine and the media", NEJM 339 (1998), 87-92. A study of the mad cow affair in Italian newspapers is in JAMA 280 (1998), 292-5. On media portrayals of genetics, AJHG 63 (1998), 662-3; NatGen 19 (1998), 305-6. The British government is trying to increase public understanding of science, NatMed 4 (1998), 875. US scientific literacy is also being reviewed for decision-making, Science 281 (1998), 917; as in France, Science 281 (1998), 515; and in Japan, Science 281 (7 August 1998). The US public supports science compared to many countries but has less understanding, Nature 394 (1998), 107.

A discussion of Jeremy Rifkin, Harnessing the Gene and Remaking the World, The Biotech Century, is NatBio 16 (1998), 695. On biotechnology and politics, Chemistry & Industry (2 Feb. 1998), 28. A call for 24-hour access to health care information, by telephone advice at hospital is MJA 169 (1998), 125-6. A study of cognitive assessment and health education in children in India and Columbia is SSM 47 (1998), 697-712. Risks and earthquake fear are discussed in a New Zealand context in Science 281 (14 August 1998).

A series of 8 papers on pantheism are in The Monist 80 (April 1997), 191-336; and a book review in Science 281 (1998), 927. A discussion of why some scientists are considering evidence for God's existence is SA (August 1998), 20-2. A survey of scientists finds many ranked in higher terms do not believe in God, Nature 394 (1998), 313. Further study of some UFO reports is called for in Science 281 (1998), 21, 819 <http://www.jse.com/ufo_reports/Sturrock/toc.html>. A critical review of the film, X-Files is NatGen 19 (1998), 316-7. It calls for better science in film-making. A discussion that popular culture may threaten rational inquiry is Science 281 (1998), 512-3.

A series of 23 papers in English or German from a 1997 Loccum conference is published, Fritsch-Oppermann, Sybille, ed., Genes the world over (No. 59 from Loccum Evangelische Akademie, ISBN 3-8172-5997-2, 190pp.). A discussion of the Swiss vote on gene technology is Science 281 (1998), 1810-1. In a French survey of attitudes to GMOs only 9% expressed a positive image, and half expressed negative feelings, Nature 395 (1998), 736. 71% of Finns believe biotechnology will improve standards of living within 20 years, according to a survey of the Finnish public's opinions on science, commissioned by Finnish Bioindustries (Helsinki, Finland), NatBio16 (1998), 991. Around half the population sees genetically modified foodstuffs as risky, and 93% would like genetically modified food products to carry labels identifying the technology used during production.

A description of the court case against the NIH (Japan) building in Shinjuku Tokyo is Science 282 (1998), 213-4. Book reviews on the history of molecular biology are in Nature 395 (1998), 762; and on technology in general, Nature 396 (1998), 39-40.

On the way media portrays science, NS (24 Oct. 1998), 52. A paper in Italian on ethics of the mass media is Bioetica e Cultura 13 (1998), 63-82. Papers in English on media ethics are in Science & Engineering Ethics 4 (1998), 395-400. Claims by four Vietnam veterans that sarin gas was used in an operation called tailwind in Laos in 1970, were later retracted by CNN (after their 7 June story release), is discussed in Probe 7 (1 Oct. 1998), 1-10. A discussion of science exhibits in museums is Science News 154 (1998), 184-6. A letter on popular reaction against science and X-Files is Nature 395 (1998), 740.

Letters on science education reform are in Science 282 (1998), 240-2. Internet can be a good alternative for classroom education in university, NS (26 Sept. 1998), 21. In the US less black and Hispanic students entered graduate school in 1997, Science 281 (1998), 1778. On science and religion, Science 281 (1998), 1969. On women, science and society, Science 281 (1998), 1599-600. A critique of postmodernism is Nature 396 (1998), 31-3; and a discussion of positivism is BMJ 317 (1998), 1007-10. Seven south Asian states have united in plans to popularize science, Nature 395 (1998), 6. On bullying in schools, BMJ 317 (1998), 924-5.

A new book on the ethics of genetic engineering is Bruce, D. & Bruce, A., eds., Engineering Genesis. The Ethics of Genetic Engineering (Society, Religion and Technology Project, published by Earthscan 1998; ISBN 1-85383-570-6, 336pp.). It covers a range of topics from cloning to the impact of biotechnology on developing countries, and is recommended. A monograph on science and technology studies is Miller, JD., Pardo, R. & Niwa, F. Public Perceptions of Science and Technology. A Comparative Study of the United States, Japan, and Canada (Fundacion BBV, Plaza de San Nicolas, 4, 48005, Bilbao, Spain - ISBN 84-88562-85-3 - copies available on request).

On the social aspects of biotechnology, GEN (Jan 1999), 6, 26. A book review of Thompson, Paul Agricultural Ethics: Research, Teaching and Public Policy (Iowa State University Press, 1998, 240pp., ISBN 0813828066) is Currents in Science, Technology, Policy, Ethics 2 (No.1, Fall 1998), 5-7. A letter on GMO policy and biotechnology opposition is Nature 397 (1999), 201; and on the impact of society on science, Science 282 (1998), 1411-2. A book review of Turney, Jon, Frankenstein's Footsteps. Science, Genetics and Popular Culture (Yale University Press, 1998, 288pp.) is Lancet 352 (1998), 1944.

UK societies are lobbying against reducing the amount of science in the school curriculum, Nature 397 (1999), 12. A review of results of TIMSS is Science 282 (1998), 1830-1. A mixed reaction to the US NSF reform of US education is Science 282 (1998), 1238-9, 1800-5. On the rise of science shops, Science News 154 (1998), 298-300. A report from the Tech Museum of Innovation of San Jose California is NS (7 Nov. 1998), 61. Education is also discussed in JAMA 280 (1998), 1878-80. Racism and limits of teaching materials is debated in Newsweek (14 Dec. 1998), 52-3.

More medical practitioners are seeing religion as a help to those who are sick, JAMA 280 (1998), 1896-7; and a book review on medical history of 19th century UK and using electricity in therapy is Nature 396 (1998), 425-6. A discussion of science and religion is in Science 282 (1998), 1985-6. On portrayals of animals in museum sculptures, Nature 396 (1998), 727. Further book review of Consilence, JAMA 280 (1998), 1455. On the media headlines of science, Lancet 352 (1998), siv23. The use of the Internet in protest is reviewed in SA (Jan. 1999), 21-22. Passion in science is discussed in Science 282 (1998), 182, 873-4, 1037-8. A book review of Moser, S. Ancestral Images: The Iconography of Human Origins (Sutton, 1998, 200pp.) is Nature 396 (1998), 639.

A paper on ethics is Macer, D. "Biotechnology in agriculture: Ethical aspects and public acceptance", pp. 661-90 in A. Altman, Agricultural Biotechnology (Marcel Dekker Inc. 1998, ISBN 0-8247-9439-7). A paper on US scientist attitudes is Rabino, I. "Ethical debates in genetic engineering: US scientists' attitudes on patenting, germ-line research, food labeling, and agri-biotech issues", Politics & the Life Sciences 17 (1998), 147-64.

On reductionist ethics and biotechnology, Ram's Horn 167 (March 1999), 1-4. Ethical issues and genetic modification are in Splice 5 (Feb. 1999), 4-11; Nature 398 (1999), 91; NS (23 Jan. 1999), 44. A book review of Mae-Wan Ho, Genetic Engineering: Dream or Nightmare? (Gateway Books, 1998, 277pp.) is in GeneWatch 11 (Jan 1999), 18-9. A new book is O'Mahony, P., ed., Nature, Risk and Responsibility. Discourses of Biotechnology (1999). A paper saying that the major beneficiaries of GMO crops are farmers is GEN 19 (15 April 1999), 1, 12, 29; also pp. 4, 32. On women and farming, Biotech & Development Monitor 37 (March 1999), 2-9.

There has been wide concern in the USA over a proposal that all data be made open if it is federally funded, Science 283 (1999), 914-5, 1114. In general on public and science, NS (6 Feb. 1999), 46-7; (20 March 1999), 44-5; Science 283 (1999), 1461-3; and a book review on how US scientists were politically loyal in the Cold War is Nature 398 (1999), 763-4. New Zealand scientists are also upset by the trend to include more social goals in research, Nature 398 (1999), 450. Eubios Ethics Institute notes with regret the ending of the Texas A&M University Center for Science and Technology Policy and Ethics, and the final issue of their newsletter, Currents in Science, Technology, Policy, Ethics 2 (Spring 1999), discusses responsible science and biotechnology.

A commentary is Wolpert, L. "Is science dangerous?", Nature 398 (1999), 281-2. A book on risk is Hardaker, JB. et al. Coping with Risk in Agriculture (CAB International, 1997, 274pp., ISBN 0-85199-119-X). On the burden of proof for harm as judged by courtrooms, AJPH 89 (1999), 490-3. On medical risk, JAMA 281 (1999), 1037-41; and on risk and responsibility, Modern Law Review 62 (1999), 1-10. A book review on scientific revolutions is Nature 398 (1999), 770-1.

A review of education and agricultural sciences is J. Animal Science 76 (1998), 2991-4. The use of videos to improve classroom teaching was part of TIMSS, Science 283 (1999), 1616-7. There are two papers on education in this issue of EJAIB 9 (3). Interdisciplinary science is discussed in Science 283 (1999), 642-3.A book review of The Science of Aliens is NS (20 Feb. 1999), 46.

The European Commission has released a catalogue of contracts on the Ethical, legal and social aspects of the life sciences and technologies programmes of the fourth framework programme (European Commission, EUR 18309 EN, 329pp., ISBN 92-828-5379-9). The proceedings of a 1996 International Symposium have been published, Gunergun, F. & Kuriyama, S, ed., The Introduction of Modern Science and Technology to Turkey and Japan (International Research Center for Japanese Studies, No. 10, 1998, 257pp.). On science policy, Science 284 (1999), 259; Nature & Resources 34 (No.4, Oct. 1998), 48-53; Nature 399 (1999), 219; and education, Science 284 (1999), 1447, 1473-4. Germany is promoting efforts to increase public understanding of science, Nature 399 (1999), 514. A general call for science academies to encourage ethics debate is Nature 399 (1999), 516.

A new book is Walter P. von Wartburg & Julian Liew, Gene Technology and Social Acceptance (University Press of America, 1999, ISBN 0-7618-1325-X, 338pp.). It includes a chapter on patents, and several on the roles and acceptance of technology in society, and looks at how society can make decisions on controversial issues. A collection of summaries of public opinion surveys of biotechnology is Hamstra, IA. Public Opinion about Biotechnology: a Survey of Surveys (EFB Task group on Public perceptions of Biotechnology, 1999).

A new report is EFB Task Group on Public Perceptions of Biotechnology, Ethical Aspects of Agricultural Biotechnology. Bioethical Aspects of Biotechnology in the Agrofood Sector (BABAS) (Cambridge Biomedical Consultants 1999, 63pp.). It has chapters on food, environment, medicine, developing countries, and industry. The UK is opening biotech regulation to greater public involvement, Nature 399 (1999), 287-8; 188. The USDA is setting up a biotechnology advisory committee to help allay public fears of biotechnology, Nature 399 (1999), 508. The NRC Panel on genetically modified pesticide-producing plants has been attacked at being slanted to industry by opponents, Nature 399 (1999), 7. The EPA is softening its stance on such plants, Science 284 (1999), 249.

There continues to be much GM food debate, NatBio 17 (1999), 630-1. The fear of biotechnology should be faced and a panel is being created in the US to help allay fears, Nature 399 (1999), 508; Science 284 (1999), 335; NS (26 June 1999), 54-5. A case study review of the socio-economic impact of banana biotech is Qaim, Matin, Assessing the impact of banana biotechnology in Kenya (Ithaca, NY: ISAAA, No. 10-1999, ISBN 1-892456-12-5, 38pp.). It predicts benefits from the removal of disease losses and improved pest resistance. A paper on how to restore public trust in science is Nature 400 (1999), 499. The precautionary principle can stifle science if abused, Nature 399 (1999), 728; 400 (1999), 398. On the philosophy of science, Science 284 (1999), 205-6; and the limits of growth, Science 284 (1999), 1622-3. On the Apollo project, NS (17 July 1999), 46-8.

A new book that is a comprehensive review of international aspects is Sasson, Albert, Biotechnologies in developing countries: present and future. Volume 2: International co-operation (UNESCO Publishing, 1998, ISBN 92-3-103460-X, 806pp). It includes a review of various UN agencies, FAO, UNESCO, UNIDO, WHO, WIPO, ILO, UNDP, World bank, UN Conference on Environment and Development, CGIAR, and other regional aid from Europe and America. A paper reporting negative NGO views on transgenic rice is Aerni, P. et al. "An indication of public acceptance of transgenic rice in the Philippines", Biotechnology & Development Monitor 38 (June 1999), 18-21.

The World Conference on Science was held at the end of June in Budapest, Science 284 (1999), 174-5, 529; Nature 399 (1999), 726. On Bayesian methods in health technology assessment, BMJ 319 (1999), 508-12. A series of papers on how science affected policy is SSM 49 (No. 9, 1999), 1133-1255. On misuse of science, BMJ 319 (1999), 448-9. Gender and science is discussed in JAMA 282 (1999), 698-9. Foreign born scientists are more successful in US science, raising questions on future policy, Science 284 (1999), 1213-4. A comment that people who are paid well behave is NS (19 June 1999), 51.


A new collection of references on public surveys is in the second edition of the European Federation Biotechnology Task Group on Public Perceptions of Biotechnology handbook, Biotechnology for non-specialists (July 1999). It includes a list of references to biotech information and a directory of organizations and contact details. Contact: Dr. Ana Maria Bravo-Angel, EFB. The conference proceedings of the IX International Congress on Plant Tissue and Cell Culture (IAPTAC, Jerusalem, Israel, 14-19 June 1998) have been published as A. Sasson, Plant Biotechnology-derived Products: Market-value Estimates and Public Acceptance (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, UNESCO, 1999). The two major parts of the book are pp. 17-86 on transgenic crops, and pp. 87-154 on public acceptance. A book review of Deane-Drummond, C. Theology and Biotechnology: Implication for a New Science, by D. Macer is in Science & Christian Belief 11 (1999), 188-9. Fear of biotechnology is debated in Science 286 (1999), 1091. The proceedings of the Asahi Newspaper symposium on GMOs on 3 Sept. 1999, are on-line and published in a book, in Japanese at (spin.asahi.com) site. The English proceedings will be on-line at Euvios site in January 2000.

A commentary on public decision making by experts only is Nature 401 (1999), 531. On the question of how scientists think, Nicholas, B. "Molecular geneticsts and moral responsibility: "maybe if we were working on the atom bomb I would have a different argument", Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (1999), 515-30. Knowledge of genes and heredity among Finns is reported in New Genetics and Society 18 (1999), 101-10. The debate on biotech in the UK is discussed in New Genetics and Society 18 (1999), 47-64, 79-100. A comment by MS. Swaminathan on how the gene revolution may help feed the world is Int. Herald Tribune (23 Oct. 1998), 6. Sweden and France top the list of countries that spend the most on education, Nature 401 (1999), 420. Also on education, Science 285 (1999), 2073-4; SA (Oct. 1999), 86-93. Agricultural higher education is transforming Central and Eastern Europe, Agricultural Economics 21 (1999), 109-20. Scientific communication and vanity are discussed in Science 285 (1999), 53-4.

A paper on risk is Thompson, PB. "The ethics of truth-telling and the problem of risk", Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (1999), 489-510; with a commentary on pp. 511-4. On risk management, Renn, O. "A model for an analytic-deliberative process in risk management", EST 33 (1999), 3049-55; Finch, V. "Security, insolvency and risk: Who pays the price?", Modern Law Review 62 (1999), 633-70 (on business risk). Several books on risk include: Beck, Ulrich, World Risk Society (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1999, 184pp.); Culpitt, Ian, Social Policy and Risk (London: SAGE Publications 1999, 180pp.); Margolis, Howard, Dealing with Risk. Why the public and the experts disagree on environmental issues (University of Chicago Press, 1996, 227pp.). A paper looking at the speed of adoption of technology in Kenyan agriculture, Agricultural Economics 21 (1999), 121-30.

The Vatican Pontifical Academy for Life has decided that the altering of the genes of animals and plants is theologically acceptable, Japan Times (29 Nov. 1999), 10; Observer (Nov. 1999). Science and religion are discussed in Science & Christian Belief 11 (1999), 151-8; Science 286 (1999), 907-8; Nature 401 (1999), 211-2. Comments on the Kansas teaching ban on evolution include Nature 401 (1999), 200; Science 285 (1999), 1849; 356 (1999), 411, 659; SA (Nov. 1999), 22, 24.

The concept of science in human culture is discussed in Garruto, RM. Et al. "Natural experimental models: The global search for biomedical paradigms among traditional, modernizing, and modern populations", PNAS 96 (1999), 10536-43. A book review on Gieryn, TR. Cultural Boundaries of Science: Credibility on the Line (Univ. Chicago Press 1999, 398pp.) is Nature 401 (1999), 328; and on theories of biology, Science 285 (1999), 1856-7. On science education, Science 286 (1999), 237.

The use of technology in medicine is discussed in Marck, PB. "Recovering ethics after 'technics': developing critical text on technology", Nursing Ethics 7 (2000), 5-14. Farmers attitudes to technical innovation are surveyed from Quebec in Can. J. Agricultural Economics 47 (1999), 31-43. In general on technology, Nature 402 (1999), 350.

The danger of the US governments clamp down on scientific freedom following the allegations of spying at Los Alamos are in Newsweek (11 Oct. 1999), 8. In general on loss of interest in science, Science 286 (1999), 2072-8. Ethics should aid research, Nature 402 (1999), 576. Religion and science are discussed in a book review in Nature 402 (1999), 579-80.

Several papers on risk and the philosophy of risk are in Ambio 28 (1999), 538-49. An essay on Frankenstein is Science 286 (1999), 1859-74. The risks of Mount Vesuvius erupting are discussed in Science 286 (26 Nov. 1999).

The first part including abstracts and report from the proceedings of the Oviedo conference 16-19 May, 1999, have been published in booklet form, "International Conference of the Council of Europe on Ethical Issues Arising from the Application of Biotechnology" (Council of Europe, 1999, 95pp. ISBN 92-871-4157-6). The Swiss TA Programme organized a consensus conference (locally named PubliForum) on the theme "Genetic engineering and Food" in June 1999. The report containing the conclusions of the lay panel is now translated in English and is available on our web site as pdf file at the following address: http://www.admin.ch/swr/e/swr.html. You can also directly order it: Brigitta Walpen, TA Programme, Swiss Science Council, Inselgasse 1, 3003 Bern, Switzerland. On the agbiotech revolution, GEN 20 (1 Jan. 2000), 1, 14, 16, 47.

Culture affects technology, MJA 171 (1999), 508-9. In November 1999 Japan had to destroy one of its H-II rockets soon after takeoff in a failed rocket launch, Nature 402 (1999), 336. Science education is discussed in Science 286 (1999), 2056. Science and higher education in Russia is discussed in Science 286 (1999), 1303-4. On creativity, Science 286 (1999), 2272

For discussion of the global biosafety protocol see Regulation of GMOs section. A report on the results of biotechnology surveys in the Philippines with international comparisons is Phan-huy, SA., Nachfrageseitige Akzeptanz von Technologien imErnahrungsbereich (vdf, 1998, ISBN 3-7281-2652-7, 241pp.).

The Danish Ministry of Trade and Industry has released a report in English, An ethical foundation for genetic engineering choices (Ministry of Trade and Industry, 1999, 60pp.). It was the result of a Biotik group on biotechnology and ethics which was largely academic in composition. The focus includes an opinion to regulate genetic engineering on animals and to not allow engineering of human beings, beyond somatic cell gene therapy. Risk assessment is open to public interpretation, BMJ 320 (2000), 315; and they often fear commercial links to regulators, Nature 403 (2000), 6-7.

An International Academy Council has been formed in Switzerland to bring together international scientific bodies, Science 287 (2000), 943-4. Science is playing a larger role in decision making, Nature 403 (2000), 357-9. On the social responsibility of scientists, Science 287 (2000), 425, 427-8. On the history of science, Science 287 (2000), 253-61. Ways to encourage creativity are discussed in Nature 403 (2000), 1, 23. There are few generalists left, Nature 403 (2000), 483. Feminism and science is discussed in JAMA 283 (2000), 807-8.

The ethics of biotechnology communication are discussed in Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (2000), 265-87. The 1999 Environment and Social Annual Report of Novo Nordisk (Denmark) includes environment, bioethics and social responsibility under the theme of sustainable development (68pp.). A recent book in Spanish is Casabona , Carlos Maria Carlos. Biotechnologia y Derecho, Perspectives en Derecho Comparado, Fundacion BBV, Bilbao Granada 1998, 5 chapters , 407pp. Other recent books include Naisbitt John et. al, High Tech High Touch, Broadway books 1999, 2 parts, 274pp; Wingerson, Lois. Unnatural Selection, Bantam book 1998, 18 chapters, 399pp. A book review on Science and Technology in World History is in Nature 404 (2000), 17-8. A review of Sex and Death is JAMA 283 (2000), 2038. A review of George Gamov who thought of the Big Bang and the genetic code first is Nature 404 (2000), 437. The honouring of Mendel is discussed in Science 288 (2000), 37-9.

;The program of work and information on the Canadian Biotechnology Advisory Committee are on-line (http://cbac.gc.ca). A call for something like the Asilomar process for new biotechnology issues is called for in Science 287 (2000), 1584-5. The politics of biotech is discussed in Science 287 (2000), 1201. The need to be open to gain public trust is stressed in NS (18 March 2000), 3. The UK parliament and public opinion on science are discussed in Lancet 355 (2000), 941. The future of biotechnology is discussed in TIBTECH 18 (2000), 6-7; NatBio 18 (2000), 357. A review on the ethics is Polkinghorne, JC. "Ethical issues in biotechnology", TIBTECH 18 (2000), 8-10. The GM controversy has had adverse affects on UK science research, NatMed. 6 (2000), 364.

;A report from Craig County, Virginia where citizens oppose a new transgenic animal facility is GeneWatch 13 (Feb. 2000), 12-3.

;Crowded universities may inhibit study in Japan, Nature 404 (2000), 13. In the USA the brightest students are avoiding science, Science 288 (2000), 43. Making old biologists capable for the new biology is discussed in NatBio 18 (2000), 359. The UNESCO director has said it was worse than he thought and calls for reform of UNESCO, Nature 404 (2000), 113. The science-religion debate is discussed in Nature 403 (2000), 831; Science 287 (2000), 1587.

A report from a science, ethics and education project in the UK is Fullick, P. & Ratcliffe, Teaching Ethical Aspects of Science (Bassett Press, 1996, ICSU - 150pp.). A series of views after ten years of "Education for All" is in UNESCO Sources 122 (April 2000), 1-19. A review is Moynihan, R. et al. "Coverage by the news media of the benefits and risks of medications", NEJM 342 (2000), 1645-50. A review of a museum display on life is Lancet 355 (2000), 2081.

In general on the roles of science in culture, Nature 404 (2000), 811-2. A book review on Kuhn is Science 288 (2000), 1755-6. A call for scientists to be more involved in controversial public debates is Nature 405 (2000), 509. A book review on fossil collecting is Nature 405 (2000), 121-2. The debate between religion and science is discussed in NS (22 April 2000), 3, 44-47; (17 June 2000), 54; NatMed. 6 (2000), 613; Science 288 (2000), 813-4. Also see the website www. reasons.org.

The Council for Responsible Genetics has launched a Genetic Bill of Rights, GeneWatch 13 (2000), 1-3. Book reviews of Watson, JD. A Passion for DNA: Genes, Genomes and Society (Oxford Univ. Press 2000, 250pp., US$25) are Nature 405 (2000), 511-2; NatGen. 25 (2000), 23-4. A book review of French DNA is JAMA 283 (2000), 2306. The European Commission has set up a new 11 member panel to advise it on social controversies of biotechnology, Nature 405 (2000), 5. Australia is creating a biomedical lobby group, NatMed. 6 (2000), 613. The benefits of public participation are discussed in Nature 405 (2000), 259. A report on a recent speech by Prince Charles saying biotechnology invaded the territory of God is criticized in NS (27 May 2000), 3; also Daily Telegraph (20 May 2000), 24. The Danish Ministry of Trade and Industry proposed guidelines for ethical genetic engineering are reproduced in BME 156 (2000), 8-9.

Results of the 1999 Eurobarometer survey on biotechnology in Europe are on-line at the EC www site, Nature 405 (2000), 5. Trends can be examined, and these compared to the trends in Macer's studies in Japan, see Ng et al. In this issue of EJAIB 10 (1999), 106-113. They show public scepticism has increased in the past three years, and confidence in information sources has also fallen in Europe.

A report from a science, ethics and education project in the UK is Fullick, P. & Ratcliffe, Teaching Ethical Aspects of Science (Bassett Press, 1996, ICSU - 150pp.). A series of views after ten years of "Education for All" is in UNESCO Sources 122 (April 2000), 1-19. A review is Moynihan, R. et al. "Coverage by the news media of the benefits and risks of medications", NEJM 342 (2000), 1645-50. A review of a museum display on life is Lancet 355 (2000), 2081.

In general on the roles of science in culture, Nature 404 (2000), 811-2. A book review on Kuhn is Science 288 (2000), 1755-6. A call for scientists to be more involved in controversial public debates is Nature 405 (2000), 509. A book review on fossil collecting is Nature 405 (2000), 121-2. The debate between religion and science is discussed in NS (22 April 2000), 3, 44-47; (17 June 2000), 54; NatMed. 6 (2000), 613; Science 288 (2000), 813-4. Also see the website www. reasons.org.

The Council for Responsible Genetics has launched a Genetic Bill of Rights, GeneWatch 13 (2000), 1-3. Book reviews of Watson, JD. A Passion for DNA: Genes, Genomes and Society (Oxford Univ. Press 2000, 250pp., US$25) are Nature 405 (2000), 511-2; NatGen. 25 (2000), 23-4. A book review of French DNA is JAMA 283 (2000), 2306. The European Commission has set up a new 11 member panel to advise it on social controversies of biotechnology, Nature 405 (2000), 5. Australia is creating a biomedical lobby group, NatMed. 6 (2000), 613. The benefits of public participation are discussed in Nature 405 (2000), 259. A report on a recent speech by Prince Charles saying biotechnology invaded the territory of God is criticized in NS (27 May 2000), 3; also Daily Telegraph (20 May 2000), 24. The Danish Ministry of Trade and Industry proposed guidelines for ethical genetic engineering are reproduced in BME 156 (2000), 8-9.

Results of the 1999 Eurobarometer survey on biotechnology in Europe are on-line at the EC www site, Nature 405 (2000), 5. Trends can be examined, and these compared to the trends in Macer's studies in Japan, see Ng et al. In this issue of EJAIB 10 (1999), 106-113. They show public scepticism has increased in the past three years, and confidence in information sources has also fallen in Europe.

Papers on trends in public attitudes include Gaskell, G. et al. "Biotechnology and the European public", NatBio 18 (2000), 935-8; Priest, SH. "US public opinion divided over biotechnology?". pp.939-42; Einsiedel, EF. "Cloning and its discontents? a Canadian perspective", pp.943-4. Macer, D. & Chen Ng., M. "Changing attitudes to biotechnology in Japan", pp. 945-7. Support for biotech. remains higher in Japan the US or Europe in general. See EJAIB 10 (2000), 106-13. On future potential of science, Australasian Science (April 2000), 26-7.

A review of the New Zealand Royal Commission on Genetic Modification is Australasian Science (June 2000), 32-3.A movie review of Doctors in the Movies: Boil the Water and Just Say Aah is JAMA 284 (2000), 368-9. A book is Tropp, M. Images of Fear. How Horror Stories Shape Modern Culture (McFarland Classics 1999). A new movie called X-men features genetic mutants with special powers. A letter pointing out that scientists have not been silent to raise the awareness of society to the prospects of biotechnology is Science 289 (2000), 392-3. Comments on Queensland's draft code of conduct for ethics of biotechnology are in Australasian Science (June 2000), 17-8. Factors in risk perception are discussed in Risk Analysis 20 (2000), 1-11.

Several reports on teaching include: Johansen CK & Harris DE., "Teaching the ethics of biology", Amer. Biology Teacher 62 (2000), 352-8; Olsher, G. & Dreyfus, A. "The ostension-teaching approach as a means to develop junior school student attitudes towards biotechnologies", J. Biol. Edu. 34 (1999), 25-31; and on public education of biotech., TIBTECH 18 (2000), 329-33; Australasian Science (Jan. 2000), 36-7. In Taiwan and the UK more than half the senior high school students aged 17-18 years old could give examples of genetic engineering, J. Biol. Edu. 34 (1999), 17-23. Results of an UK school survey of understanding of genetics is J.Biol. Edu. 34 (2000), 74-9; also pp. 134-41. The emergence of the concept of living in young children is described in J. Biol. Edu. 34 (1999), 13-6. On the limits of learning in biology classrooms, Amer. Biology Teacher 62 (2000), 359-61. A review of using cats to teach genetics is Genetics 155 (2000), 999-1004.

A review of the Wellcome Wing at the Science Museum in London is Lancet 356 (2000), 259; NS 22 (July 2000), 50. In general on philosophy of science, Nature 406 (2000), 564; NS (15 July 2000), 46-7. Campaigns from scientists have ousted anti-evolution school board members in Kansas, Nature 406 (2000), 552-3. On religion in the science classroom, Science Education 84 (2000), 445-68. Science communication is discussed in Science 289 (2000), 259-64; Australasian Science (Jan. 2000), 17-20; (March 2000), 17, 39-40; (April 2000), 40-2. How scientists communicate to school teachers is insufficient, Science Education 84 (2000), 469-85. Scientists should stop isolating themselves in jargon, Nature 406 (2000), 461; Science 289 (2000), 59, 61. A book review on the issues of employment and technology is Nature 406 (2000), 125-6. The first issue of a new journal Int. J. Risk Assessment and Management 1 (2000), 1-180, includes papers on nuclear .risk perceptions, and on different technologies. On agriculture, Huirne, RBM. et al. "Risk and risk management in agriculture: an Overview and empirical results", IJRAM 1 (2000), 125-36. A book review of Risk Communication and Public Health is BMJ 321 (2000), 1026. The UK is planning to spend 25 million pounds on a shield from space objects, Sunday Times (17 Sept. 2000), 3. In the UK there is discussion on how to make for better government inquiries, BMJ 321 (2000), 715-6.

A review of how better decisions may be made through science is SA (Oct. 2000), 82-7. A series of papers from the BioEd 2000 conference held in Paris in May 2000 are in Biology International 39 (July 2000), 1-55. A report from teaching bioscience ethics in India is Pollard, I. "Bioscience ethics - Australian and Indian students are of like mind", AIBA Newslink 3 (No. 5, 2000), 1-2. A project to improve bioethics literacy in Argentina is Alphaciencia, contact: Email: infor@alphaciencia.org. Education of science teachers is discussed in Science 289 (2000), 1454-5, 290 (2000), 273; and on science education, Science 289 (2000), 713; Nature 407 (2000), 287-90; Newsweek (9 Oct. 2000), 54. Evolution in schools is discussed in Science 289 (2000), 869-71.

Two papers on biotechnology and ethics are Midgley, M. "Biotechnology and monstrosity. Why we should pay attention to the "Yuk Factor"", HCR 30 (Sept. 2000), 7-15; Kaebnick, GE. "On the sanctity of nature", HCR 30 (Sept. 2000), 16-23. They both argue in support of the popular belief that people have that genetic engineering may go too far. The use of genetic engineering or technology for art is discussed in Nature 407 (2000), 668-70. Public opinion is discussed in NatBio 18 (2000), 905.

A book review of Voodoo Science is Nature 407 (2000), 17-8. A book review of Kuhn, T. A Philosophical History of Our Times (University of Chicago Press 2000), is SA (Sept. 2000), 104-5. See also BMJ 321 (2000), 1027.
New Book: Comstock, Gary. Vexing Nature? On the ethical case against agricultural biotechnology. (Kluwer Academic, 2000, ISBN 0-7923-7987-X, 297pp.).;

; This book examines the arguments against biotechnology, and reviews a broad range of literature and writings who express a variety of emotions and arguments against biotechnology. He also wants to protect family farms, and the author is known for the Bioethics Institutes held in Iowa State University.; The 6 main chapters of the book deal with the topics in an orderly and systemic way, the case against bGH, against herbicide resistance, transgenic animals, Ag Biotech in general.; Then the Intrinsic objections and then the extrinsic objections are raised.;

The conclusions are that some Ag Biotech can be supported, and that it can accommodate the fears that people have raised.; Some cases, like bovine growth hormone to aid milk production are argued against, as are some genetic engineering of animals.; The book should be considered by all those who seek to persuade opponents of biotechnology of what are the real issues in the debate.; As he writes, there are few who can really argue that some plant applications will not help starving people in the world.


A book review of Risk Communication and Public Health is Lancet 356 (2000), 1615. Papers on the theme of communicating science beyond the scientific community are in Science & Engineering Ethics 6 (2000), 499-559. There are also papers on science communication inside the scientific community, Science & Engineering Ethics 6 (2000), 443-98. There is little doubt that the public has lost faith in scientists over recent issues like BSE, NatMed. 6 (2000), 1307-8; Nature 408 (2000), 402. A debate on communicating statistical data is Science 289 (2000), 2261-2.

A book review of Voodoo Science is Lancet 356 (2000), 2203. On the Sokal Hoax, Science 290 (2000), 1703-4. A book review on the impact of Jewish scientists exiled from Germany, Hitler’s Gift: Scientists who fled Nazi Germany, is Nature 408 (2000), 907-8. The future of S&T is discussed in articles in Nature 408 (2000), 385-435. Science and politics are discussed in NatMed. 6 (2000), 1295; Science 290 (2000), 1501. On human creativity, Nature 409 (2001), 284; and the birth of scientific reading in 1500, Nature 409 (2001), 287. Brain drain from civilizations is discussed in Nature 408 (2000), 409.

On 17 January 2001 the temporary committee on bioethics of the European Parliament met for the first time in Strasbourg, Bulletin Quotidien Europe 7883 (18 Jan. 2001), 18.; A book on GE is Babel’s Shadow, NS (2 Dec. 2000), 49. On the fears of GM products, NatBio 18 (2000), 1225. The EU has opened a debate on the impact of genetic engineering on society, Lancet 356 (2000), 1748.; On science in Europe, Science 289 (2000), 1099-101. A paper on compromise as a basic idea in contemporary thought is Nature 409 (2001), 137. Monsanto has made a series of principles for their policy in the use of agricultural biotechnology, Plant Biotech Week (25 Nov. 2000), 1-2. The UK prime mister criticizes antiscience protestors over GM battles, Nature 408 (2000), 397. A survey by the UK Human Genetics Commission suggests that 70% think the government cannot keep up with science, The Guardian (27 Nov. 2000); Nature 408 (2000), 508.

On biotechnology in the 21st century, TIBTECH 18 (2000), 6-7. A European Commission funded study in Europe (PABE) suggests that the public has been responding to the way it was treated by the governments, rather than misunderstanding biotechnology, NatBio< 19 (2001), 15; Ram’s Horn< 187 (Jan. 2001), 6.; This study also included focus groups.; The results suggest that the public is neither for nor against GMOs. Against genetic reductionism is Wyatt, J. "Unravelling life" EG (London Institute of Contemporary Christianity (Nov. 200), 6-8.

A book review of The Implications of Genetics for Health Professional Education< is JAMA 284 (2000), 3061-2. Asia has stayed on the top of science and maths teaching in middle school, Science 290 (2000), 1866. US biologists are campaigning to teach evolution, Nature 409 (2001), 125. An article on the astronomical orientation of the pyramids within 5 years is useful for calibrating old Egyptian history, Nature 408 (2000), 320-4.

A discussion of the precautionary principle is SA (Jan. 2001), 12-3. A study on risk and uncertainty in health issues among First Nation people in Ontario, Canada is SSM 52 (2001), 635-50. The risks of death from volcanoes are reviewed in Science 291 (2001), 255. One additional cause of death is from toxic gasses, Nature 409 (2001), 554-5.

A review is Polkinghorne, JC. "Ethical issues in biotechnology", TIBTECH 18 (2000), 8-10. A French public opinion study suggests two thirds of consumers would not be against buying GM food if they were clearly labeled, AgBiotech Reporter (Jan, 2001), 18. A UK study of farmers suggests alternatives to GM are being tried, NS (3 Feb. 2001), 3. The EC PABE study using focus groups in several countries suggests an informed public in Europe, NatBio 19 (2001), 16-7. On the future of human inventiveness, NS (20 Jan. 2001), 26-9; Nature 409 (2001), 563. On the future of biotech regulation in the USA, NatBio 19 (2001), 91.

Evolution is now being taught again in Kansas schools, Nature 409 (2001), 975. On US math education, Science 291 (2001), 808.

The proceedings of the International Conference on Biotechnology in the Global Economy, held at Harvard University, 2-3 Sept. 1999, have been published in Int. J. Biotechnology 2 (2000), 1-273. It includes 18 papers on topics in biosafety, economy, and the paper Aerni, P. & Rieder, P. "Acceptance of modern biotechnology in developing countries: a case study of the Philippines", pp. 115-31. A critique of the precautionary principle is NatBio 19 (2001), 302-3. A paper on GMOs is Tait, J. & Chataway, J. "Technological foresight and environmental precaution _€ Genetically modified crops", pp. 829-37 in Foresight and Precaution, ed. Cottam et al. (Balkema, 2000).

A historical review of chimeric creatures in Greek mythology is AJMG 100 (2001), 66-80. A review of Paleolithic technology and human evolution is Science 291 (2001), 1748-53. Preliterate societies rely on wisdom of elders in spoken word, Nature 410 (2001), 521. The social impact of disease on newspaper coverage in the USA is analyzed in J. Health & Social Behavior (2001), 347-66.

A paper on further discussion of the International Bioethics Survey is Macer, DRJ. et al. "Attitudes to biotechnology in Asia", Int. J. Biotechnology 2 (2000), 313-32. A UK survey by the Human Genetics Commission has found that 88% of 1000 persons interviewed were confident that new genetic developments will bring cures for many diseases, NatMed 1 (2001), 391. However one third also agreed with the statement that research on human genetics is tampering with nature and is therefore unethical. Three quarters supported the idea that even genetic information gathered by commercial organizations should be publicly owned and available to all for use at no charge. See http://www. Australians are growing more accepting of GM food according to a new survey which found 44% believed GM food would be more widely accepted and less risky over the next few years, AgBiotech Reporter (March 2001), 23. Swiss opinion surveys suggest the proportion expressing disapproval of GM technology has fallen since 1996 to 1999 from 62% to 46%, AgraFood Biotech 51 (March 2001), 23. A study in Ireland is Morris, SH. & Adley, CC. "Irish public perceptions and attitudes to modern biotechnology: an overview with a focus on GM foods", TIBTECH 19 (2001), 43-8.

Papers on the risks of biotechnology include Lomax, GP. "From breeder reactors to butterflies: Risk, culture and biotechnology", Risk Analysis 20 (2000), 747-53; Nature 410 (2001), 408. A media study from Australia is Petersen, A. "Biofantasies: genetics and medicine in the print news media", SSM 52 (2001), 1255-68. In a US media study it was found that scientist voices are seldom reported, AgraFood Biotech 49 (21 Feb. 2001), 13. The issue of global risk is discussed in Tait, J. & Bruce, A. "Globalisation and transboundary risk regulation: pesticides and genetically modified crops", Health, Risk and Society 3 (2001), 99-112. On the Frankensteinian image of biotechnology, TIBTECH 19 (2001), 130-1; Human Life Review 26 (Winter 2000), 76-87. Against GMOs is GenEthics News 30/31 (2000), 1, 4-7.

A series of papers on technology and risk are in Int. J. Risk Assessment and Management 2 (2001), 1-210. Ecological risk and fairness and justice are modeled in Risk Analysis 20 (2000), 905+. The importation of technological hazards by semiperipheral countries is reviewed in Int. J. Health Services 30 (2000), 681-97. The privatization of risk has resulted in some criticism of epidemiology, AJPH 91 (2001), 365-8. On the complexity of risk assessment studies of GM plants, TIBTECH 19 (2001), 124-5. In general on perceptions of knowledge, Nature 410 (2001), 21. On legal aspects of risk assessment, Medical Law Review 8 (2000), 69-84. A series of papers on intergenerational justice are in Risk Analysis 20 (2000), 759-922.

A study from the USA on 5 views from the public on what is good public participation is Environmental Management 27 (2001), 435-50. A review of the Pontifical Academy of Life Sciences is Science 291 (2001), 1472-4. On creation science, Australasian Science (Jan 2001), 1, 36-7; J. History of Biology 33 (2000), 349-70.

An editorial in Science 292 (2001), 1021 by Sir Robert May, President of the Royal Society, is on science and society. A discussion of how to overcome the gyukh factor is in NatBio 19 (2001), 491. The uncertainty of science is discussed in Nature 411 (2001), 891. A comparison of risk between USA and Japan is Rosa, EA. Et al. gThe cognitive architecture of risk: Pancultural unity or cultural shaping?h, pp. 185-210 in Renn, O. and Rohrmann, B. Cross-Cultural Risk Perception. A survey of empirical studies (Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000). On a forum for agbiotech debates, see www.nationalacademies.org/agbiotech. A general paper on bioethics and policy is Macer, D. "Bioethics: perceptions of biotechnology and policy implications", Int. J. Biotechnology 3 (2001), 116-33.

A new US survey found 46% of consumers do not know what to think about the safety of GM foods, 29% saying GM foods are safe and 25% saying they are unsafe Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology, AgraFood Biotech (4 April 2001), 3-4. In January 2001, 70% said they were willing to buy GM potatoes and tomatoes, up 7% from January 2000. A paper presenting results from German studies is Hampel, J. et al. gAttitudes towards genetic engineeringh, New Genetics and Society 19 (2000), 233-49; 221-31, 383-8. In general medical applications are supported whereas agricultural applications are not. An Australian survey finds that few persons are able to name a specific risk or benefit of GM foods, AgraFood Biotech 53 (18 April 2001), 6-7. The Australian Biotechnology Association has a site for information, www.biotechnology.gov.au. A UK survey has found a 10% decrease in the number of persons who think GM foods are unsafe. In a survey, 48% of people said that they would eat GM food and 44% would not, AgraFood Biotech 53 (2001), 3. A Quebec survey found 75% would rather pay more for food than eat GM food, Ramfs Horn 190 (May 2001), 5.

There are calls in the US for a bipartisan OTA, Nature 411 (2001), 117. The role of academies of science in a global world are debated with regard to the need to stop global warming in Ambio 30 (2001), 71. The FAO panel of eminent experts in science report from their first meeting, and the two first reports from the FAO Ethics in Food and Agriculture Series have been published in multiple languages, and are available on the FAO www site. A discussion of a citizenfs alternative to the Canadian CBAC is Ramfs Horn 189 (April 2001), 5. The New Zealand Royal Commission on Genetic Modification will deliver its report at the end of July. Comments are on its web site. See also, Splice 7 (May 2001), 8-9.

On the revolution in the twentieth century science caused by statistics, see a book review in Nature 411 (31 May 2001). The role of rivalry in advancement of science is discussed in Nature 411 (2001), 523-4. A history of James Watt is in Science 292 (2001), 55-6. The coevolution of printing and written representation of language is discussed in Nature 411 (2001), 997. On the need for better scientific writing, Nature 411 (2001), 243. A book review on The Origins of Creativity is Nature 410 (2001), 1029.

Book reviews on science and God are in Nature 411 (2001), 239-40. In Turkey there is a strong creationalism movement (see earlier papers from the Eubios-coorganised Turkey conference), Science 292 (2001), 1286-7. A series of papers on creationism are in NS (22 April 2000), 34-48. The difference between science and religion is discussed in NS (22 April 2000), 3. On science, religion and cooperation, BioScience 51 (2001), 171. Astrology is also popular, Time (25 June 2001), 49. A discussion of the book Real Science is Nature 411 (2001), 134-5.

The New Zealand Royal Commission on Genetic Modification has released its final reports and recommendations [www.gmcommission.govt.nz]. The recommendations include keeping all options open, creating a national bioethics council, and a special section to deal with biotechnology in the government. Given the conclusions, the opponents of genetic engineering are now criticizing the commission, Splice 7 (No. 5 2001), 3. A collection of papers against genetic engineering are in the June 2001 issue of Pacific World 60 (June 2001), 1-76. For copies at NZ$15 please contact Email: pirmeditor@paradise.net.nz. It includes papers by a number of world campaigners against genetic engineering, as well as issues topical to New Zealand. An editorial on the need for genetic engineering is Science 292 (2001), 2217.

The question of making genetically modified cows with human genes for medical research is debated in New Zealand Listener (11 August 2001), 18-22. Another popular magazine report on the promise of biotechnology is Pacific Friend 29 (No. 7, July 2001), 18-27. The question of language as a barrier between science and the public is discussed in Croatian Medical J. 42 (2001), 353-5. A paper discussing whether public consensus is possible is Groth, E. "The debate over food biotechnology in the United States: Is a societal consensus achievable?", Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (2001), 327-46. A forum for debate is on-line at www.nat.academies.org/agbiotech; Science 292 (2001), 2252.

A survey in the Philippines by Pulse Asia conducted for Greenpeace in March 2001 of 1,200 respondents found that only 11% had heard of genetically modified or engineered food or GMOs, AgBiotech Reporter (May 2001), 14. Only half of these said that they thought GMOs re likely to be bad for people, and 47% said that they would not eat foods containing GMOs. A US survey conducted by BIGresearch in 2001 of 5638 consumers found 30% said that they would not eat genetically modified food products, while 23% said yes, and 47% were undecided, AgraFood Biotech 56 (29 May 2001), 7. 22% said that they did not think genetically engineered food is safe to eat, while 24% said it was, and 55% were undecided.

Comments that the growth in the organic movement represents a shift in the social position of science as more people doubt scientists after the BSE incident is in Nature 412 (2001), 677; and on lack of trust in science and AIDS, NatMed. 7 (2001), 871. Also on the poor image of biotechnology, Nature 412 (2001), 275-6; Australasian Science (August 2001), 36-8; TIBTECH 19 (2001), 130-1; NatBio 19 (2001), 609. A discussion of what science should be is BioScience 51 (2001), 423. Communication of science to the public is discussed in BioScience 51 (2001), 487-95; Australasian Science (July 2001), 42-3; Nature 412 (2001), 585-6; F&S 76 (2001), 11-2. Science on television is often edited for impact rather than accuracy, Nature 412 (2001), 277. The objectivity of science and human values are debated in BioScience 51 (2001), 433-6. The difficulties in scientific terms that have different definitions is discussed in Nature 412 (2001), 485.

The Kennedy Institute of Ethics is having a one day meeting on high school bioethics education on 3 Nov. 2001, and has a website: bioethics.georgetown.edu/hsbioethics, which shares curriculum. A report on the lies taught in Asian schools about history is in Newsweek (27 August 2001), 8-13. The UN human rights committee has instructed Japan to make its textbooks fair in a report issued on 31 August, 2001.

The Queensland Government , Dept. of Innovation and Information Economy, has released a booklet with its "Code of Ethical Practice for Biotechnology in Queensland. Advancement through Safe and Ethical Science", 24pp. Also see their web site, www.biotech.qld.gov.au. An earlier, draft, version was published in EJAIB. Agricultural biotechnology and regulation is discussed in Italian in Notizie di Politeia XVI (No. 60; 2000), 7-108. A summary of some questions being asked the UK public on food attitudes and enhancement is in Science 293 (2001), 1043. A critique of the UNDP view that biotechnology will help the poor is The Ecologist 31 (Sept. 2001), 48-9. A discussion of Frankenstein and its meaning is Nature 412 (2001), 861.

Risk is discussed in Checkland D., "On risk and decisional capacity", J Med. Philosophy 26 (2001), 35-59. Modern society often calls bad luck negligence, to blame people, NS (25 Aug. 2001), 48-9. The quality and safety in health informatics is not always clear, BMJ 323 (2001), 552-6. Public perception of big science is discussed in Nature 413 (2001), 551. Results from UK surveys on the fears of the public to science is in The Ecologist 31 (Sept. 2001), 30-3. Use of the media by scientists is suggested in Nature 413 (2001), 113; BMJ 323 (2001), 639. A discussion of how the media dealt with cloning is BMJ 323 (2001), 406. The point that there is not always a great gap between public and scientists is made in Nature 413 (2001), 365. A series of papers on Eastern philosophical views of Technology is in Philosophy East and West 51 (2001), 301-418. On biology and technology, PNAS 98 (2001), 10051-4.

Cosmology and 21st century culture is discussed in Science 293 (2001), 1769-70. Science and religion is discussed in Nature 413 (2001), 363-4; Science 293 (2001), 2400. A book review on ethics and science is Nature 413 (2001), 355-6.

Japan has announced its plans to reform the teaching of science in schools to try to make more students take up science as a career, Nature 413 (2001), 8. A series of papers on student education are in Science 293 (2001), 1607-27. On US maths education, SA (Oct. 2001), 15. A policy forum on improving political advice on science is Science 293 (2001), 1999-2000, 2394.

A new book detailing the debate over Herman the transgenic calf in the Netherlands is Theune, Elmar, A Calf is Born: A reconstruction of the public debate on animal biotechnology (Dissertation Wageningen University, ISBN 90-5808-512-0; 184pp.).Papers on public perceptions of biotechnology in developing countries including Brazil, USA, Zambia and Europe are in Biotechnology and Development Monitor 47 (Sept. 2001), 2-19. On the ethics of biotechnology, Biotechnology and Development Monitor 47 (Sept. 2001), 22-24. The media and the genome project is discussed in GeneWatch 14 (Nov. 2001),11-3. A series of papers on bioethics, biotechnology and the public, in English are in Notize di Politeia XVII (No. 63, 2001), 3-116. The complexity of bioethics is discussed in NatBio 19 (2001), 1007. A general discussion is Condit, C. gWhat is public opinion about geneticsh, Nature Reviews (Genetics) 2 (2001), 811-5.

The results of Eurobarometer 55.2 from December, 2001, are that 95% of Europeans say they have a right to decide about GM foods, and 80% say they do not want this type of food, and 59% say that GMOs could have bad effects on the environment. Efforts to improve on the image of biotechnology are discussed in Lancet 358 (2001), 1664. A book review on the controversy over rDNA is NEJM 345 (2001), 1431; JAMA 286 (2001), 2331-2.

A discussion in Italian on the prospects of global bioethics for biotechnology is Itinerarium 9 (Sept. 2001), 115-22. The cofounder of Greenpeace, Patrick Moore, was recently excluded from speaking at a meeting because of Greenpeace protestors, who do not like his support for the Golden Rice project, AgraFood Biotech 67 (30 Oct. 2001), 3. Science is above religious differences as discussed in Nature 414 (2001), 249; NS (8 Dec 2001), 3. On evolution and religion, BioScience 51 (2001), 995.

Science fiction is sometimes an inspiration for scientists, Nature 414 (2001), 399. A book review of a new autobiography of James Watson is Nature 413 (2001), 775-6. On the use of action research methods for health services, Qualitative Health Research 11 (2001), 436-49. A shift to cost-benefit analysis for regulations is Science 294 (2001), 2277-8. Education of scientists is discussed in Nature 414 (2001), 673.

The European Commission has called for more social issues to be considered in biotechnology, in their document, Life Sciences and biotechnology \ A strategy for Europe, COM (2002) 27 final of 23 January, 2002. A series of 10 papers on bioethics, biotechnology and the public from Europe is published in Notizie di Politeia XVII, N.63 (2001), 3-116. Educating the public about bioethics and science is discussed in Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (2002), 43-58. Bioethics and the media is discussed in HCR 32 (Jan. 2002), 32-9.

A discussion of bioethics and dilemmas faced by a company is in the 2001 Annual report of Novo Nordisk, Reporting on the Triple Bottom Line 2001, Dealing with Dilemmas, 67pp. The third volume of a major series is Sasson, Albert. Biotechnologies in developing countries: present and future. Volume 3: Regional and subregional co-operation, and joint ventures (UNESCO Publishing, 2000, 1103pp. )
The attitudes to genetics of 36 medical officers in Sri Lanka are reported in Dissanayake, VHW. Et al. "Attitudes towards the new genetic and assisted reproductive technologies in Sri Lanka: a preliminary report", New Genetics and Society 21 (2002), 65-74. A series of 11 papers on German attitudes to genetic engineering are in New Genetics and Society 19 (Dec. 2000), 221-388. Distrust of science in the UK is discussed in Current Biology 12 (2002), R229; Nature 416 (2002), 117. A book review on Von Wartburg, WP. & Liew, J., Gene Technology and Social Acceptance (University Press of America, 1999) is JME 28 (2002), 56. A discussion of how the biotechnology debat of the 1970s could be repeated again in this decade is Science 295 (2002), 975.

A report from the breaking of a press embargo of a story on the risks of the contraceptive pill that led to headlines in the UK that the pill doubles the risk of cervical cancer is discussed in Lancet 359 (2002), 1079; NS (13 April, 2002), 3. Press coverage of the environmental causation of breast cancer is reviewed in Sociology of Heath & Illness 23 (2001), 747-75. Media studies might help scientists, Nature 416 (2002), 461, 475; JAMA 287 (2002), 776. A paper on public understanding of biotechnology and on animal biotechnology is New Genetics and Society 20 (2001), 205-24. French teaching of agricultural biotechnology is reviewed in New Genetics and Society 20 (2001), 23-48. A report from a UK experiment is Levitt, M. "The gene shop at Manchester airport", New Genetics and Society 20 (2001), 77-88.

Italian research on public attitudes to biotechnology finds people who are more informed dislike biotechnology more, Nature 416 (2002), 261. A book review of Public Intellectuals is NS (20 April 2002), 50. A book review on Francis Bacon is in Lancet 359 (2002), 1075. Reductionism is discussed in Nature 416 (2002), 583-4. The concept of risk in science is discussed in Nature 416 (2002), 123, 481; BMJ 324 (2002), 827-30; O&G 99 (2002), 371-2, 527-8; NEJM 346 (2002), 1099-100; Science 295 (2002), 281. A 1km diameter asteroid has a 1 in 300 chance of hitting Earth on 16 March 2880, Science 296 (2002), 27; NS (2 Feb. 2002), 13. Fear of the number 4 in Japanese and Chinese is discussed in Science 295 (2002), 267. Tsunami risk is discussed in Nature 415 (2002), 369.

Religion and science is discussed in Lancet 359 (2002), 806-7; Current Biology 12 (2002), R265-6; SA (March 2002), 20. A survey in Southeastern USA on the doctor as God"s mechanic is SSM 54 (2002), 399-409. School science education is not the only way that students are taught to deal with technology, Time (15 April 2002), 52. Also on education, Lancet 359 (2002), 1165; Nature 416 (2002), 1. Art involving DNArt is discussed in Science 296 (2002), 43.

An interview and discussion with Francis Fukuyama on biotechnology is EuroBusiness (July 2002), 68-71. A book review of From Certainty to Uncertainty is NS (1 June 2002), 54. A new report from European Commission is, Public Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnologies in Europe (www.pabe.net) summarizes the results from 55 focus groups in Europe and interviews with different members in society and it finds the general public can consider many issues of biotechnology well, Nature 417 (2002), 368. A New Zealand study on GM apples suggests that knowledge is linked to attitude, AgraFood Biotech. 82 (4 June 2002), 7. Ways to increase confidence of people in biotechnology are discussed in AgraFood Biotech. 83 (18 June 2002), 7. The Pontifical Academy of Sciences has endorsed use of GM crops, AgraFood Biotech. 82 (4 June 2002), 7.

A report on the recent history of biotechnology in Europe is Cantley, M. "Biotechnology in Europe - 20 years' experience and current strategy", Asian Biotechnology and Development Review (May 2002), 17-26. A report showing some improved perception in GM research in new Zealand is reported in AgraFood Biotech 82 (4 June 2002), 7. A discussion by Hans Jonas about his perspective on bioethics is in HCR 32(4) (2002), 27-43. Canadian experience with lay representation on regional health authorities is reported in SSM 54 (2002), 1471-80. Community participation in Indonesia is reported in SSM 54 (2002), 1199-214. A book review on the debate between Creationalism and Evolution is Science 297 (2002), 1479.

Filming of patient care activities in hospitals is debated in JAMA 288 (2002), 373-9. A study of the reaction of science writers to medical breakthrough stories is SSM 54 (2002), 1887-96. How the media has made people worried about the environment, BMJ 325 (2002), 343. Children are targeted in a research awareness campaign, Lancet 359 (2002), 2174. Health literacy reduces adverse diabetes outcomes, JAMA 287 (2002), 475-82. Commercial speech and advertising of drugs is discussed in JAMA 287 (2002), 36; and in the Business section. A call for more radio journalists in Africa is Science 297 (2002), 1570.

  A paper on the new biology is Mittelstrass, J. "The impact of the new biology on ethics", Law and the Human Genome Review 16 (Jan. 2002), 25-36.  Discussion of science and religion is made in a series of papers in Science & Christian Belief 14 (2002), 98-42; also, NS (28 Sept., 2002), 3. A local school board in Georgia , USA, opened its teaching to creationism, Science 298 (2002), 35. On academic astrology, Nature 420 (2002), 359.

  A useful CD on the education of bioethics and genetics is available from www.twistedladdermedia.com for US$60. Use of theatre for activism is in GeneWatch 15 (May 2002), 3-5. Commercial filming of patient-physician encounters is discussed in JAMA 288 (2002), 1718-9. Artistic creations of DNA are reported in JAMA 288 (2002), 1458-9. Governance is discussed in Nature 418 (2002), 821. Cancer Research UK is asking the public to be more involved in decision making about cancer research priorities, Lancet 360 (2002), 1487. A discussion of biotechnology regulation in Canada and connection to industry is Ram's Horn 201 (May 2002), 1-5. Misuse of science is a concern of all scientists, NS (21 Sept., 2002), 25. A book review on gender and science in Rosalind Franklin, Science 298 (2002), 1177-8. Communication skills are discussed in BMJ 325 (2002), 672.

  US consumers continue to support GM products, AgraFood Biotech. 60 (1 Oct. 2002), 4; while the UK consumers remain negative, AgraFood Biotech. 91 (14 Oct. 2002), 7. Asian countries continue to support GM food more in surveys, Food Chemical News (4 Nov. 2002), 7-8. A book review related to an opponent of genetic engineering Jon Beckwith is Nature 420 (2002), 363-4; also NS (12 Oct., 2002), 46-9.

  There is a story on the future of genetics and cloning in Newsweek (16-23 Sept. 2002), 74-7.In that story there is a misquote of Darryl Macer. A book review on the rDNA controversy is Gene Therapy 8 (2001), 1752. A book review of The Precautionary Principle in the 20th Century is Nature 419 (2002), 433-4. The question of genetic engineering and intrinsic value is discussed in TIBTECH 20 (2002), 488-9.

A new book on agricultural ethics is Keulartz, J. et al., eds., Pragmatist Ethics for a Technological Culture (Kluwer Academic, 2002, ISBN 1-4020-0987-9, 264pp.).   The declining public trust in the UK is discussed in Nature 420 (2002), 719.

Public attitudes against GM in Germany have affected GM crop development, The Scientist (30 Sept. 2002), 58-9. The GMO debate in New Zealand is discussed in Lincoln Outlook (Oct. 2002), 8-11. GM food labeling lacks widespread support in Argentina as it might raise food prices, Food Chemical News (25 Nov. 2002), 5-6. A paper on ethics is Jansen, B. "Modern medicine and biotechnology: An ethical conflict of interest?", Science & Engineering Ethics 8 (2002), 319-25. A paper arguing that biotechnology is under-used in the fight for global health and security is in J. Commercial Biotechnology 9 (2002), 11-3.

A book review of Peat, D., From Certainty to Uncertainty, is in JAMA 288 (2002), 2477-8. A book review of Lost Discoveries is in Science 298 (2002), 1895-6. On the risks of life, BMJ 325 (2002), 1426.

Discussion of limitations on research and public health due to bioterrorism threats are in JAMA 288 (2002), 2685-7; Lancet 360 (2002), 1901-2; Science 298 (2002), 2091, 2129-30; Nature 420 (2002), 605. A DNA style committee may be a model for bioterrorism debate, Nature 420 (2002), 462.

Public understanding of genetics is discussed in New Genetics and Society 21 (2002), 315-26. The media discourse over the genome project is reviewed in New Genetics and Society 21 (2002), 327-38. Papers on biotechnology and the public include: J. Biolaw & Biobusiness Special Supplement (2000),  107-10, 120-4. On the ethics of biotechnology,  Technology in Society 23 (2001), 241-64; J. Biolaw & Biobusiness Special Supplement (2000), 111-5. A book review of Fukuyama, F., Our Posthuman Future is JAMA 289(2003), 488-90.

Papers on risks of genetic engineering include Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 1 (1998), 61-4. A series of papers on the 25th anniversary of the Asilomar Conference are in Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 44 (Spring 2001), 159-247. Papers on the 50th anniversary of the paper on DNA structure are in Nature 421 (2003), 310-2, Nature Special Supplement The double helix - 50 years, pp. 396-450. Book reviews of Watson and DNA are in Nature 421 (2003), 315-6; and on Rosalind Franklin, BMJ 326 (2003), 289. Perceptions of science are affected by the portraits of scientists,  Science 299 (2003), 831-2.

The importance of medical knowledge for health is made in Lancet 361 (2003), 716. Communicating health risks is discussed in Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 3 (2000), 239-40, 241-9; NEJM 348 (2003), 88-9. The space shuttle Columbia breakup reveals the risks of space travel, Nature 421 (2003), 559.

Religion and science in USA is discussed in  Science 299 (2003), 664; SA (Feb. 2003), 15. Spirituality affects health care, BMJ 326 (2003), 1434-5; AJPH 93 (2003), 185.  Politics and science is discussed in  Science 299 (2003), 625, 977. The interface between security and science is discussed in  Science 299 (2003), 1148.

ISO is considering making an ISO standard for social responsibility, EST 37 (2003), 171-2A. The risks of technology and the loss of the space shuttle Columbia are discussed in Lancet 361 (2003), 936-7; NS (19 April 2003), 11; SA (April 2003), 8-9. The safety of nanotech is discussed in NS (29 March 2003), 14-5. Attitudes towards science in Croatian students are surveyed in Croatian Medical J. 44 (2003), 75-9. Technology may help us reduce our impact on the planet, Nature 423 (2003), 115. A book review on Risk and Reason is Nature 422 (2003), 263. A book review of Fabulous Science is Nature 422 (2003), 19-20. On the gap between science and humanities, Nature 422 (2003), 810-1.

Discussion of the follow-up to the New Zealand Royal Commission on Genetic Modification, and the formation of the Bioethics Council, are in ERMA Perspective 18 (March 2003), 6-7. Agbiotech issues are becoming more important in US politics, NatBio 20 (2002), 1179-80; CMAJ 167 (2003), 289. Reflections on the history of debate over biotechnology are in Biotechnology & Development Monitor 50 (March 2003), 2-4. The responsibilities of Japan in biotechnology are discussed in: Macer, DRJ. and Bhardwaj, M. (2003) "How well does Japan meet its challenges and responsibilities in biotechnology and development for Asia?", Asian Biotechnology and Development Review 5 (2): 23-36. On biotechnology and development there are also papers in that issue, Asian Biotechnology and Development Review 5 (2): 1-70. Also on genetics, Macer, DRJ. (2003) "Genetic engineering: Cross species and cross cultural perspectives", pp. 159-80 in Dialog der Kulturen , ed. S. Fritsch-Oppermann (Evangelische Akademie Loccum, 2003).

The images of DNA as a symbol are discussed in Nature 422 (2003), 380; Science 300 (2003), 255-6; NEJM 348 (2003), 1712-4. Also on the 50th Anniversary of the Watson and Crick paper, see the HGP section below. The use of genetics in society is discussed in NEJM 348 (2003), 1825-6; JME 29 (2003), 59-62. Evolution as a secular religion is discussed in Science 299 (2003), 1523-4; and on fundamentalism, SA (April 2003), 17.  On Islamic science, NS (26 April 2003), 27; Nature 422 (2003), 101-2.

A paper on the precautionary principle is Environmental Ethics 24 (2003), 263+. Fears of GM food in Africa are discussed in NatBio 20 (2002), 957. The UK will debate the future of GM food in May 2003, AgraFood Biotech 99 (4 March 2003), 1-2; BMJ 326 (2003), 732. A summary of the results of the 2002 Eurobarometer poll is in AgraFood Biotech 101 (1 April 2003), 7-8. In the UK 75% of persons now support GM crops, up from 63% in 1999. For comparisons to Japan see the paper by Inaba and Macer in EJAIB (May 2003). Also on the public understanding of biotechnology, Public Understanding of Science 11 (2002), 87-196; and in Switzerland, 113-30; in Netherlands, 131-42; in Germany, 143-54; in Norway, 213-24; and in the UK, 273-91.

Education of GM technology through the www is discussed in Public Understanding of Science 11 (2002), 293-304. Biotechnology may have been overexposed, NatBio 20 (2002), 335. Use of metaphors to create public representations of biotechnology are discussed in Public Understanding of Science 11 (2002), 5-32. Media relations are discussed in NatBio 20 (2002), supplement, BE67-9. Public communication is a normal part of science, Nature 422 (2003), 470; Science 300 (2003), 586. Health promotion in schools is discussed in SSM 56 (2003), 1209-20.

A review of some of the data from FAO studies and setting up their ethics in agriculture program see Bhardwaj M., Maekawa F., Niimura Y. and Macer DRJ. (2003) "Ethics in Food and Agriculture: Views from FAO", International Journal of Food Science and Technology 38(5): 565-588. On knowledge and science in the UN system. Nature 422 (2003), 471-2.

              A series of papers on evolution, religion, ethics and bioethics are in National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2003), 441-572. Also on evolution, Science 301 (2003), 1051; Nature 424 (2003), 726-7.

            Questioning the central importance of DNA in our era and the way the 50th anniversary of the structure of DNA is celebrated are articles in GeneWatch 16 (May 2003), 2-7; (July 2003), 2-7; Nature 424 (2003), 127, 876-8. On genes and social issues, NatMed. 9 (2003), 988-9; JAMA 290 (2003), 3309. A discussion of European risks and traditional ways of life is Modern Law Review 66 (2003), 532-62. A conference report on Islamic approaches to biotechnology and ethics (Lebanon, 1-2 March 2003) is in BME 188 (May 2003), 23-4. A book review on history of medicine and science in early China and Greece is in Science 301 (2003), 464-5. On the gap between elite and popular culture in China, European Review 11 (2003), 183-92. On custom and human nature in China, Philosophy East and West 53 (2003), 308-22, 323+.

            The ethical issues of nanotechnology are discussed in Nature 424 (2003), 237, 246-8; Science 301 (2003), 27; NS (5 July 2003), 22. On space exploration, Science 301 (2003), 771; NS (19 July 2003), 6. A call for greater availability of science on the media is Science 301 (2003), 601. Pilotless aircraft are being considered from ordinary airports, NS (28 June 2003), 4-5.

A UK survey involving 650 public meetings and 37,000 persons responses to surveys on the question of GM crops found 54% of people do not wish GM crops to be grown in the UK, and a further 18% said they would only approve if there was no risk of cross-contamination, Guardian (25 Sept. 2003); Nature 425 (2003), 329, 331; AgraFood Biotech114 (29 Sept. 2003), 2-3; Science 300 (2003), 1637-8. Only 8% said they were happy to eat GM food.  Most people in the USA do not know they have eaten GM food, AgraFood Biotech 114 (29 Sept. 2003), 8; 116 (2003), 11. Suggestions from the European group (Empire team) on the use of empirical data in bioethics and the regulation of biotechnology are in BME 190 (2003), 8-11. The public has its own view of risk, Nature 425 (2003), 343.

On ethics of biotechnology, Law and the Human Genome Review 18 (2003), 165-74; and 11 papers in CQHE 12 (2003), 329-446; Solomon, RC. "Fate and fatalism", Philosophy East & West 53 (2003), 435-54. On the discovery of DNA structure, CAM 38 (2003), 10-3; Nature 425 (2003), 901; Science 302 (2003), 231. Public representations of cloning in Canada are summarized in Health Law Review 11 (3, 2003), 22-4. Papers on the media and popular culture are in Harvard Educational Review 73 (2003), 253-465. Claims by a company that its smallpox vaccine could enhance immunity against AIDS in the media were criticized as hype in Nature 425 (2003), 332.

Description of a bioethics course in the UK is in J. Biol. Education 37 (2003), 91-95; and from Korea, Choi, K. & Cho, HH., "Effects of teaching ethical issues on Korean school students' attitudes towards science", J. Biol. Education 37 (2002), 26-9. A survey of education in Taiwan is Hu, R. et al. "Science curriculum components favoured by high school students in Taiwan", J. Biological Education 37 (2003), 171-55. Bioethics was popular. Methods for health information in Africa in the Ptolemy project are discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 790-3. On science education, Science 301 (2003), 1443, 1485; 302 (2003), 232-3; Nature 425 (2003), 234-6.

Human freedom and divine action is debated in Science & Christian Belief 15 (2003), 101-16, 195-6. Teaching evolution is discussed in TREE 18 (2003), 499-502. On science policy, Nature 425 (2003), 663-4.

The first Chinese rocket to carry an astronaut into space   is discussed in NS (25 Oct. 2003), 6-8. NASA and the space shuttle are discussed in Nature 425 (2003), 1. The risks of an asteroid hitting the earth are discussed in NS (20 Sept. 2003), 12. Researchers have tried to market ideas to get others to accept them, Lancet 362 (2003), 1204-5. On nanomedicine, Lancet 362 (2003), 673; NS (30 Aug. 2003), 16. On ethical issues of nanotechnology, Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 23 (2003), 236-45.

A report on how technology could help people in developing countries is Daar, AS. et al. Top 10 Biotechnologies for Improving Health in Developing Countries (Canadian Program on Genomics and Global Health, 2003, 117pp.).

Results of a survey by University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) has found Southeast Asians are positive to biotechnology and have a lot of trust in university scientists and research institute, Crop Biotech Update (Special Edition, 20 May 2003). On Canadian attitudes to biotechnology, AgraFood Biotech 104 (12 May 2003), 28. A review paper is Bonny, S. "Why are most Europeans opposed to GMOs? Factors explaining rejection in France and Europe", Electronic J. Biotechnology 6 (15 April 2003). The consumer fear has restricted science, Scientist (5 May 2003), 52-3. The Danish government is attempting to increase acceptance of biotechnology, Food Chemical News (7 April 2003), 25-6. A discussion of human nature to trust is NS (10 May 2003), 32-7. A review paper is Kalaitzandonakes, N. & Bijman, J. "Who is driving biotechnology acceptance?", NatBio 21 (2003), 366-9. It looks at retailers and their roles. A book review of Making Genes, Making Waves is JAMA 289 (2003), 1998. The UK is attempting to have more input from the public on GMOs, Nature 423 (2003), 672.

On the media and science, NatBio 21 (2003), 353-6. Science cafes are being developed in Cambridge, Science 300 (2003), 2026. The impact of a television documentary in New Zealand and images of doctors is analysed in SSM 57 (2003), 113-24. A web exhibit on genetics is . There is declining popularity in science magazines in Japan, Science 300 (2003), 1873. On the DNA structure anniversary, Science 300 (2003), 255-7; Lancet 361 (2003), 1835. A critique of the dominance of DNA in determining life is GeneWatch 16 (May 2003), 3-7. A book review of Democracy by Disclosure: The Rise of Technopopulism is NEJM 348 (2003), 1935-6. The risks of radon and science are discussed in NS (7 June 2003), 27.

There have been protests growing about nanotechnology, NS (21 June 2003), 10. The precautionary principle is discussed in NS (17 May 2003), 23. The prebiotic soup and the Miller experiment are revisited in Science 300 (2003), 745-6. On the purpose of evolution, Nature 423 (2003), 686-7.

A study of terror risk communication is in Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 1 (2003), 255-8; and on risk communication in general, BMJ 327 (2003), 1162-5, 1368, 1403-4; Public Understanding of Science 12 (2003), 203-9; Science 303 (2004), 630-2. The ethics of crossing species boundaries is discussed in Amer. J. Bioethics 3 (Summer 2003), 1-13, 20-1. Monsanto is spending much money to promote the image of biotech in Brazil, Ram's Horn 217 (Jan. 2004), 3-4. There is a trend in Australia for increased risk perception but not an increase in concern about biotechnology according to a new survey (Media release 11 Feb. 2004, contact Craig Cormick, Biotechnology Australia, 0418-963914).

Medical research sometimes raises media circuses, HCR 34 (Jan. 2004), 3; Morreim, EH. "High-profile research and the media", HCR 34 (Jan. 2004), 11-24. Media ethics is also discussed in Scientist (1 Dec. 2003), 53-4; Sociology of Health & Illness 25 (Sept. 2003), 513-640; Public Understanding of Science 12 (2003), 123-45; Nature 426 (2003), 222-3; BMJ 327 (2003), 1174; 328 (2004), 294; Lancet 363 (2004), 491. The high profile of Japanese Nobel Prize winners is discussed in Nature 427 (2004), 282-3. The Japanese Science Council is being changed, Nature 428 (2004), 357.

The ethics of public consultation is discussed in Health Care Analysis 11 (2003), 15-25. An interesting series of public meetings is being held in New Zealand to seek public opinion over whether human genes should be placed in other organisms by the Bioethics Council, www.bioethics.org.nz. Participatory research ethics in public housing is discussed in Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (2003), 485-502. On biotechnology and bioethics, CQHE 13 (2004), 185-92; NatBio 21 (2003), 1282; 22 (2004), 269-70; Science 303 (2004), 1142; NS (28 Feb. 2004), 44-7. On the ethics of technology, a book review of Kass, LR., Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity is HCR 34 (Jan. 2004), 44-5. Technological mastery is discussed in Science 303 (2004), 629-30; Nature 426 (2003),385-6. Discussion of useful biotechnology for the global society is in NatBio 21 (2003), 1434-6. On the age of DNA, Nature 426 (2003), 229-30; NatMed. 10 (2004), 15; Genome 46 (2003), 925-973. Phobias of nature are discussed in Sociology of Health & Illness 25 (2003), 644-61.

Fears of nanotechnology are debated in Nature 426 (2003), 750; Economist (20 March 2004), 87-8. Methods to integrate ethics in the engineering curriculum are discussed in Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (2003), 543-68. Religion and science with the teaching of creationism are discussed in BioScience 54 (2004), 3, 6-7; Science 303 (2004), 1268; Nature 428 (2004), 595.

The abuse of genetics in sport is discussed in Guardian (17 Feb. 2004). New steroids are difficult to detect, SA (Feb. 2004), 12-3; NS (1 Nov. 2003), 3, 8-9; Lancet 362 (2003), 1466. There are also genetic tests for athletic performance, see www.gtg.com.au. Memory enhancing drugs are discussed in Science 304 (2004), 36-8. Cosmetic surgery is discussed in BMJ 328 (2004), 590; Lancet 362 (2003), 1560; 363 (2004), 958. On breast implants, Lancet 363 (2004), 218, 379, 664.

A review of the precautionary principle as a legal principle is J. International Biotechnology Law 1 (2004), 11-9. Legal and ethical obstacles to biotechnology in Africa are discussed in J. International Biotechnology Law 1 (2004), 67-9.
A paper on the extended analysis of the 2003 public survey conducted in Japan by Eubios Ethics Institute is Inaba, M. & Macer, D., "Policy, regulation and attitudes towards agricultural biotechnology in Japan", J. International Biotechnology Law 1 (2004), 45-53. A basic discussion document from New Zealand is New Zealand Bioethics Council (2004), Human genes in other organisms: Discussion booklet (http://www.bioethics.org.nz/publications/human-genes-discussion-jan04/index.html)

The science and art of assessing risk is discussed in Science & Christian Belief 16 (2004), 27-44. On risks of biotech. NatBio 22 (2004), 511. Terror may be the best remedy for phobias, NS (10 April 2004), 16. A discussion of biotechnology as religion is in NatBio 22 (2004), 659-60; NS (17 April 2004), 19. Religious objections to biotechnology are discussed in Newsweek (5 April 2004), 34-8. Vatican debates on biotechnology are discussed in NatBio 22 (2004), 15.A book review of Enough: Staying Human in an Engineered Age is Science 302 (2003), 1155-6.  The UK plans for an ethical code to prevent misuse of bioresearch, Lancet 362 (2003), 1634. A book review of Promethean Ambitions is Nature 429 (2004), 245-6; and of Human-Built World is Nature 429 (2004), 348-9. Technology has affected healthcare ethics, SSM 58 (2004), 879.

Despite the US acceptance of biotechnology many lack concrete knowledge of genetics and GE, Food Chemical News (20 Oct. 2003), 20-1. Europeans are moderating their views against biotechnology, AgraFood Biotech 120 (19 Jan. 2004), 9; AgraEurope (12 Dec. 2003), 7-8. On public participation in healthcare, SSM 58 (2004), 321-30. A book review of Pandora's Breeches and women in science is in Nature 429 (2004), 503-4. The dangers of nanotechnology are discussed in NS (3 April 2004).

Teaching of evolution in science is discussed in Science 302 (2003), 1130; 304 (2004), 657, 825-6; Nature 428 (2004), 595; 429 (2004), 8-9. An autobiography of Maurice Wilkins is reviewed in Science 302 (2003), 2071-2.

Discussion of popular culture, movies and biotechnology images is in GeneWatch 17 (July 2004), 3-5; Nature 431 (2004), 720-2. Also on media and biotechnology hype, Health Law Review 12 (No.2, 2004), 53-61; CMAJ 170 (2004), 1399-407, 1415-6; and on media and medicine, Croatian Medical Journal 45 (2004), 396-401. A website that analyzes media articles is www.mediadoctor.org.au; BMJ 329 (2004), 178. Democracy in science is discussed in Science 305 (2004), 1241-2. An article on the importance of public trust in the UK Biobank is TIBTECH 22 (2004), 284-5. The way the WHO uses the media for mass communication is discussed in Int. J. Health Services 34 (2004), 15-24.

An article discussing why persons are hostile to biotechnology is in Science 304 (2004), 1749; also, AgraFood Biotech 124 (15 March 2004), 103; 125 (29 March 2004), 5-7. However still in the USA only 1% of consumers said their concerns about food safety related to biotechnology, AgraFood Biotech 125 (29 March 2004),8. A farmer's group positive to GM wheat is called Growers for Wheat Biotechnology Inc., AgraFood Biotech 129 (24 May 2004), 4. Risks and biotechnology are discussed in Health law Journal 11 (2003),119-36; and on technophobes, NatBio 22 (2004), 945. The balancing of research risks against benefits are discussed in NatMed. 10 (2004), 570-3; and in medicine, BMJ 329 (2004), 6-7; Nursing Forum 39 (2004), 11-7. On social threats and the evolution of paranoia, Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Reviews 28 (2004), 333-42. Obituaries of Francis Crick include Lancet 364 (2004), 576; Nature 430 (2004), 597, 845-7. On biotechnology as a religion, NatBio 22 (2004), 659-60. Public policy and biotechnology is discussed in Current Opinion in Biotechnology 15 (2004), 237-40, 258-63.

A paper on nanotechnology and humanity is in National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 4 (2004), 335-66. The dangers of nanotechnology are discussed in Nature 430 (2004), 599; NS (7 Aug. 2004), 5. The UK Royal Academy released a report on 29 July 2004.  A book review of Human-Built World is Science 305 (2004), 1568-9.

The role of science postdocs in teaching is discussed in Nature 430 (2004), 286-7. A report from a UNESCO science education conference in the USA is in Science 304 (2004), 1921. A report from a European science festival is in Science 305 (2004), 1387. A study on the ethics of medical students is JME 30 (2004), 221-6. There are few studies evaluating the impact of education, Science 304 (2004), 1583. A review of the Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences in Washington DC is in Science 305 (2004), 1108-9. Art in the scientific revolution is discussed in Science 304 (2004), 1600-1.

A computer model has supported ideas of Noah's flood, Nature 430 (2004), 718-9. A paper defending intelligent design is in Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington117 (2004), 2139-39; Nature 431 (2004), 114.


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