Cloning and Stem Cell News

This file includes links to papers published by Eubios Ethics Institute, and some other organizations, in the first section. Next it includes topical extracts from EJAIB and EEIN between January 1994 - 2006 (older news items are in separate files). Last date of updating is referenced in the main News page. Latest news and papers is at the bottom of each of the two sections.

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Abbreviations for journals
Eubios Ethics Institute home page

New - searchable Abstracts on assisted reproduction from Ken Daniels
Japanese human cloning law (effective from May 2001)


Related Papers from Eubios Ethics Institute Publications


Anees, M.Human Cloning: An Atlantean Odyssey? EJAIB 5 (1995), 36.

Editorial - Is bioethics about clones or relationships? - Darryl Macer EJAIB 7 (1997), 65-66.
Some ethical issues of cloning - Masahiro Morioka EJAIB 7 (1997), 67-8.
Commentary on Morioka - Munawar A. Anees EJAIB 7 (1997), 68.
The Successful Scottish Experiment on Cloning - A Great Event in Science - K. K. Verma and Rashmi Saxena EJAIB 7 (1997), 130.

Cloning Humans? The Chinese Debate and Why It Matters - Gerhold K. Becker EJAIB 7 (1997), 175-8.
Human Cloning - The Global Response - A.K. Tharien EJAIB 8 (1998), 9-10.
Israel Faces the Issue of Human Cloning: A Discussion of the Ethical and Social Implications - Yael Weiler EJAIB 8 (1998), 10-12.
Cloning and the New Ethic: Commentary on Yael Weiler - Frank J. Leavitt EJAIB 8 (1998), 12-3.
Human Cloning: Commentary on Tharien, Weiler, & Leavitt - Masahiro Morioka EJAIB 8 (1998), 13.
The Children Born from Human Cloning - Jean Kitahara-Frisch EJAIB 8 (1998), 83-4.
HUGO Ethics Committee - Statement on Cloning EJAIB 9 (1999), 70.
Cloning: Paradox, Paradigm and Ethics in Indian Society - Minakshi Bhardwaj & Jayapaul Azariah EJAIB 9 (1999), 71-3.
Legal and Ethical Aspects of Cloning - Jurgen Simon & Brigitte Jansen EJAIB 9 (1999), 98-99.
Human Cloning Legislation in Japan - Jiro Nudeshima > , EJAIB 11 (Jan 2001), 2.
Commentary on Nudeshima - Masahiro Morioka > , EJAIB 11 (Jan 2001), 2-3.
What is wrong about Human Reproductive Cloning? A Legal Perspective - Tade Matthias Spranger EJAIB 11 (July 2001), 101-102.

Legal Aspects of Human Cloning - A Reaction to Spranger - Verma EJAIB 12 (Jan. 2002), 30

Human Cloning : A Reaction to Verma - Tade Matthias Spranger EJAIB 12 (March 2002), 63.

German Parliament Paves the Way for ES Cell Research - Tade Matthias Spranger EJAIB 12 (March 2002), 63-64.

Cloning Bibliography updated March 1997

Human cloning in Singapore: Emergence of Asian bioethics - Tade Matthias Spranger EJAIB 12 (July 2002), 122.
ES Cells and the definition of an embryo - Richard M. Lebovitz EJAIB 12 (July 2002), 151-153.

EJAIB 13 (2003), 216-9 New Cloning Technologies and Bioethics Issues: The Legislative Process in Korea - Sung-Goo Han,Young Je Yoo, & Wha-Joon Rho
EJAIB 14 (2004), 97-99 The ethical challenge of stem cell research and tissue transplantation - Saeideh Ziaei and Mohsen Farokhi
Human Cloning & Embryonic Stem Cell Research: A View from Theravada Buddhist Morality - Somparn Promta, EJAIB 14 (2004), 197-199.
The German Stem Cell Law: Contents and Criticism - Brigitte Jansen / JŸrgen Simon , EJAIB 14 (2004), 213-214.
Religion and opinion about reproductive human cloning - Joakim Hagelin , EJAIB 14 (2004), 214-216. Luzitano B. Ferreira & ClŽa R. O. Ribeiro, Ethical issues about human reproductive cloningEJAIB 15 (March 2005), 63-7.
M.N.Jha, Cloning of Little 'Nikky': What Next? EJAIB 15 (May 2005), 90-92.
Karori Mbugua, Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer: Some Ethical Considerations EJAIB 16 (May 2006), 78-85.
Karori Mbuegua, Stem Cell Research: Science, Ethics and the Popular Media, EJAIB 17 (Jan. 2007), 5-10.


The reports from Washington of scientists who conducted experiments on embryo splitting has generated a range of opinions and comments. The European Parliament has unanimously adopted a resolution (B3-1519/93) to ban cloning. They say that any cloning for whatever purpose is "unethical, morally repugnant, contrary to respect for the person, and a grave violation of fundamental human rights which cannot under any circumstances be justified or accepted". They also note concern about eugenics and commercialisation of human genetics. They would like to call for a world conference to bring about an international agreement to ban the cloning of human beings. The resolution has a number of implications for bioethical debate, for example, why is the splitting of a human embryo (which happens in nature with twins) and the implantation of two embryos into a women to increase her chance of having a baby a violation of human rights?

It is apparent that we will see more discussion of this issue! A cover page article in Newsweek (8 Nov), 42-7, also looks at the topic, with a more mixed discussion. More comments are in BME 92 (Oct 1993), 1; (Nov), 2; Science 262 (1993), 652-3; New Scientist (30 Oct, 1993), 7. As I said in the last issue; EEIN 3: , this making of twins is not something so novel, and it is interesting to see all the attention. However, if it makes people think about these issues than that is good, but they should be more considered. If you want to see the abstract, it is number o-001 and a general prize paper in the abstracts in a November issue of Fertility & Sterility.

The UK has seen three topics come to broad press attention over the New Year, with much media attention. One is the issue of a black woman using a white egg donor; Times (1 Jan 1994), 1, 15; Washington Post (1 Jan 1994), A15, 24. This was claimed to be racial engineering, however, clinically it is indicated as no other donor is possible and the couple do not mind the colour. Another case was the birth of twins to a 59 year old English woman, given fertility treatment by Italian doctors. However, we should note that births of children to woman of this age do occur naturally, and were more common in the past. They are not to be generally recommended, or supported however. There is much less ethical support for the use of spare eggs from aborted fetuses, though it also needs discussion. In the UK Parliament it was called "womb robbing", Guardian (3 Jan 1994), 1, 16; Times (3 Jan), 1.

In the UK the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act of 1990 states that embryos should not be stored frozen for more than 5 years, and the potential problems are discussed in Despatches 4(1), 8-9. In the UK there was also a recent case of an implantation of 9 embryos, Lancet 342 (1993), 1231; see also BMJ 307 (1993), 1281-2. On the risks of new approaches to IVF see New Scientist (27 Nov, 1993), 13-4.

Reviews of interest include: H.W. Jones & J.P. Toner, "The infertile couple", NEJM 329 (1993), 1710-5; C. Mastroyannis, "Gamete intrafallopian transfer: ethical considerations, historical development of the procedure, and comparison with other advanced reproductive technologies", F&S 60 (1994), 389-402. The difficulties and need for accurate record keeping and data on assisted reproductive technology are made in F&S 60 (1994), 403-5, 759-63. The possibility of increased ovarian cancer being associated with use of fertility drugs is raised in F&S 60 (1994), 406-8.

An extensive discussion of the secrecy/openness debate in donor insemination is in Politics & Life Sciences 12 (1993), 155-203. It includes papers by authors from New Zealand, Canada, Poland, U.K., France, USA, following a leading article, K.R. Daniels & K. Taylor, "Secrecy and openness in donor insemination", p. 155-70. It calls for governments to make donors lists more open, and that this would be to the advantage of everybody involves. The views that secrecy is best for some are not supported by the data. A recent study in New Zealand found that 51% of parents were definitely, and 32% probably, going to tell their child of their status. In France a study on the families that used artificial insemination has been stopped, BMJ 307 (1993), 1026. In the UK changes in the adoption law will make the opinions of the child more important, BMJ 307 (1993), 1231. The psychological similarity of adoption and IVF is discussed in book reviews in JAMA 270 (1993), 2383-4.

The technology for sperm separation is progressing, and success for sex selection in animals is steadily increasing, BMJ 307 (1993), 1303. Letters reporting fertilisation using testicular sperm are in Lancet 342 (1993), 1237-8. A new book on the technical side is S.J. Behrman et al., Progress in Infertility, 4th edition (640 pp., £110, Churchill Livingstone 1993).

A discussion of recent uses of reproductive technology and the ethical issues they raise is in Newsweek (17 Jan 1994), 38-43; Nature 367 (1994), 2, 99-100; Lancet 343 (1994), 165-6; SSM 38 (1994), v-viii. A discussion document from the UK HFEA, Donated Ovarian Tissue in Embryo Research and Assisted Conception is summarised in BME (Dec 93), 5; BMJ 308 (1994), 153. Comments are requested before 1 June, 1994. A discussion of "clones" is is in JAMA 271 (1994), 331-2. A general discussion of advances in technology is in Scientific American (Feb 1994), 13-5. Sex selection and UK law = is discussed inDispatches 4(2), 1-4.

The final report of the Canadian Royal Commission on New Reproductive Technologies, titled Proceed with Care, is available for sale. They recommend prohibition of techniques which are against "Canadian ethical and social values", and the establishment of a Commission to examine whether reproductive technologies are being performed in the public interest. They also look at genetic screening by preimplantation diagnosis and gene therapy, and use of fetal tissue. For a report see BMJ 308 (1994), 154.

A paper on the social counseling desirable for infertile couples is K. Daniels, "Infertility counselling: The need for a psychosocial perspective", Br. J. Social Work 23 (1993), 501-15. A paper on how to develop selection policies for use of assisted reproduction is in SSM 37 (1993), 1473-80. A study of what factors lead people to withdraw from a donor insemination program in New Zealand is reported in H.V. Danesh-Meyer et al., "Withdrawal from a donor insemination programme", Aust NZ J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 33 (1993), 187-90. The major reasons were natural conception, adoption or medical and social reasons.

A survey on the use of fertility drugs in the USA from 1973 - 1991 is in F&S 60 (1993), 1096-8. The effect of such drugs and in vitro methods on 106 triplet pregnancies is reported in F&S 60 (1993), 1031-4.

The UK Human Embryology and Fertilisation Act does permit the offering or preferential service to women who agree to donate eggs to other parents at the clinic, despite recent controversy about this; BME 95 (Feb 1994),6. However, the donor of gametes should only receive £15 plus reasonable expenses. Also on the ethical issues of sex selection see Galton Institute Newsletter (March 1994), 6-8.

The UK Parliament has passed a ban on the use of embryos from aborted fetuses being used in fertility treatments, Nature 368 (1994), 674-6; New Scientist (15 Jan 1994), 7. At first a committee and the HFEA had been asked to consider it, and was going to seek public opinion, BMJ 308 (1994), 153-4; Lancet 343 (1994), 165; but politicians decided to enact a law quickly, within 4 months of the controversy being raised (see earlier issues). The idea of politicians adding on issues to other bills, has upset many observers. The development of universal guidelines for experiments using eggs from aborted fetuses is called for in GEN (15 March 1994), 4, 22.

Another research result which may raise eyebrows is the success of growing sperm from germ cells in vitro, BMJ 308 (1994), 156; Cell 75 (1993), 997-1006... As discussed in the section above, the embryo research debate is also hot in the USA, with both the US and Canada deciding to slow down human reproduction research, Hospital Ethics (Jan), 10-12; BMJ 308 (1994), 154-5. The Swedish regulations are discussed in J. Assisted Reproduction & Genetics 10 (1993), 243-5.

A new book is Gwynne Basen, Margrit Eichler & Abby Lippman, eds., Misconceptions: The Social Construction of Choice and the New Reproductive and Genetic Technologies, (C$14.95, Voyageur Publishing, 82 Frontenac Street, Hull, Quebec J8X 1Z5, Canada; Toll free 1-800-268-2946). Any profits will go to the National Action Committee on the Status of Women in Canada to support their work for the women. Volume 2 is expected soon. The final report of the Canadian Royal Commission on New Reproductive Technologies, Proceed with Care, is available for C$52, or US$67.60 overseas, for two volumes.

A paper reporting attitudes is S.J. Genuis et al., "Public attitudes in Edmonton toward assisted reproductive technology", CMAJ 149 (1993), 153-61. The study found two thirds would donate an egg or sperm to a sibling, and 40% would donate to a stranger. 74% agreed with surrogacy for medical reasons, but 85% opposed it for convenience only. 72% thought that assisted reproductive technology should be regulated. Australian attitudes are reported in M.C. Bowman & D.M. Saunders, "Community attitudes to maternal age and pregnancy after assisted reproductive technology: too old at 50 years?", Human Reproduction 9 (1994), 167-71. 64% accepted oocyte donation (very similar to Canada, above), 55% accepted use of own gametes after menopause, and 38% accepted donated gametes being used after menopause. These suggest reasonable public support, which is interesting given the cases debated earlier in the year (see earlier issues) for older mothers, New Scientist (8 Jan 1994), 3, (15 Jan), 3. In France, the health minister has said fertility treatment should not be available to postmenopausal women, BMJ 308 (1994), 154; Lancet 343 (1994), 166. Italy has also said it will control their use, BMJ 308 (1994), 155.

Psychological aspects of donor insemination are discussed in J.R. Moreno et al., "Personality characteristics analysis in couples undergoing artificial insemination", Human Reproduction 9 (1994), 172-5. L.R. Schover et al., "Psychological screening and the success of donor insemination", Human Reproduction 9 (1994), 176-8. The ethical and social impact of reproductive technology is debated in Search 25: 53-6, 60-2; F&S 61 (1994), 236-8. A kit for DIY sperm testing will be on sale in the Netherlands soon, New Scientist (8 Jan 1994), 9. Book reviews of interest for reproductive technology are in Bioethics 8 (1994), 171-7.

An interesting figure is that in 1991 there were more than 13000 human embryos in frozen storage in Australia; Australian Doctor (4 Feb), 29. Many states do not impose a limit time on storage, though the 1993 Western Australian law puts a 3 year limit on storage and a maximum of three embryos at any time per couple; while South Australia is 10 years and Queensland 15 years.

The new French law on bioethics includes tough restrictions on embryo research, which will halt some research. IVF is limited to heterosexual couples of child-bearing age. It forbids mixing sperm. An exception for families with a history of genetic disease to use embryo biopsy was included however, Science 264 (1994), 1655; BMJ 308 (1994), 1186. Preimplantation diagnosis is discussed in Lancet 343 (1994), 972-3. The survival of a human embryo after two micromanipulations is reported in F&S 170: 1199-203. Also in France, a judge has ordered the destruction of two frozen embryos from a widow, BMJ 308 (1994), 1319-20. The case may be appealed, as it is strange that the embryos are not the property of the woman!

In the UK, the legal moves to ban egg implants from fetuses for infertility treatment are discussed in New Scientist (23 April 1994), 8; Nature 369 (1994), 598. Two reports from a group of Japanese scholars seeking legal regulations for assisted reproductive technology have been published (largely in Japanese - but English summary is available). Contact: Prof. Kunihiko Shoji, Faculty of Law, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, kita 9, Nishi 6, Sapporo 060, JAPAN. The 1992 Brazilian general Medical Council's statement on death and artificial procreation is in IDHL 45: 100-2.

The question of the ethics of human cloning is debated is two papers, J.A. Robertson, "The question of human cloning", HCR 24(2): 6-14; R.A. McCormick, "Blastomere separation: some concerns", HCR 24(2): 14-6. Robertson argues it should be acceptable, as he sees no great risks from it. McCormack argues against it from the view of individuality being natural.

A discussion of ethical issues in post-menopausal pregnancy and birth is in IN/FIRE Ethics 3(1), 1-8; Monash Bioethics Review 13(2) (1994), 1-4. An editorial on oocyte donation to older women is in MJA 160 (1994), 244-5. Letters on age-related decline in fecundity are in F&S 170: 792-3. Another more general paper on the ethical issues of viewing the body as objects from a feminist outlook is R. Mykitiuk, "Fragmenting the body", Australian Feminist Law J. 2: 63-98. General letters on the infertile couple are in NEJM 330 (1994), 1154-5.

Papers on the counseling of couples receiving infertility treatment include K. Daniels & I. Stjerna, "Infertility: The Social Work Contribution", Socionomen 6 (1993), 41-6; K. Daniels, "Adoption and Donor Insemination: factors influencing couples' choices", Child Welfare LXXIII: 5-14. In a New Zealand study of insemination it was found that most couples had considered adoption. However, this may depend on the country, for example in Japan adoption is less common than in the West. An interesting topic. In a major long-term US study of adopted children released in June, it was found that parents of adopted children are less likely to divorce, and no negative factors were found in the children. A related book review is JAMA 271 (1994), 1212. Children of single parent families may be most affected by socioeconomic factors than parent number, BMJ 308 (1994), 114-5. Let us hope economic conditions are getting better, as in 1992 in the UK one out of three babies were born to unmarried women (31%; compared to 14% in 1982).

The Vatican has condemned artificial insemination of lesbians, following an Italian doctors report (Reuter News, 24 June). A review of the book, John Boswell, Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe, (Villard Books, 412pp., US$25), is in Newsweek (20 June), 47. He has studied the evidence that homosexual marriages have long been performed, and had church blessing in Medieval times.

A study of the techniques claimed to separate sperm by sex chromosome finds that they do not work as claimed; F&S 61 (1994), 720-6; New Scientist (4 June 1994), 8. The crystal structure of human chorionic gonadotropin is reported in Nature 369 (1994), 455+.

A third Indian state has banned the use of amniocentesis to chose fetal sex, now Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Gujurat ban the use; Reproductive Freedom News (10 June 1994), 8. The proposed national law has been held up for 3 years in Parliament.

There has been a claim at the annual meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology that estrogen given to postmenopausal women increases their thinking ability and memory, to add to the current data suggesting benefits from osteoporosis and cardiopulmonary disease; Japan Times (2 July 1994), 12. The use of thyroid hormone and estrogen, and positive effects on bone density are discussed in JAMA 271 (1994), 1245-9, 1283-4. Also on estrogen, JAMA 271 (1994), 1670-1.

A full review of the New Zealand Government Report into Assisted Human Reproduction, by BME 99 (July 1994), 8-11.

The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) has issued a report stating its views on ovarian tissue donation, BME 99 (July 1994), 4-6, 13-18. There were 8,946 responses to the HFEA document, that were not petitions or surveys. They were generally negative, and some analysis of ideas has been reported. The report is Donated Ovarian Tissue in Embryo Research & Assisted Conception, and it and the latest annual report are available from HFEA, Paxton House, 30 Artillery Lane, London E1 7LS, U.K. The text of the law amendment in the UK, clause 69 inserted into the Criminal Justice and Public Order Bill, which bans the use of human germ cells from females, is in BME 98 (May 1994),8-9. Fetal tissue can be used for research but not for treatment, a position supported by the BMA, BMJ 309 (1994), 200, 289-90; Nature 370 (1994), 236, 241; Lancet 344 (1994), 142; Science 265 (1994), 608. Public opinion is presented in Lancet 344 (1994), 204; and ethical issues are in Brit. J. O&G 101: 567-70.

The NIH Advisory panel on embryo research is likely to conclude that research should be permitted up to 14 days, Nature 370 (1994), 8. This is in contrast to the recent French law to ban embryo research, Science 264 (1994), 1655. UK attitudes to fetal tissue research were found to be very supportive (94%) in F. Anderson et al., "Attitudes of women to fetal tissue research", JME 20 (1994), 36-40.

A paper discussing sex selection in the UK, and the HFEA document on it, is in Dispatches 4(3), 1-4. Australian researchers claim they have disproved that sperm selection works, but the London Gender clinic is defending their method, New Scientist (4 June 1994), 8. Letters on the subject are in F&S 61 (1994), 1181-2. Babies for older woman using IVF are discussed in BME 98 (May 1994),19-24. A general book review is Lancet 343 (1994), 1416; also see O&G 84 (1994), 307-10.

A series of papers on interpretation of infertility in different cultures are in SSM 39 (1994), 459-518, 671-86. A call for examination of whether people are suitable as parents, as made in the book, Too Many People, is discussed in New Scientist (13 Aug 1994), 3; see also,Lancet 343 (1994), 1373-4; 344: 132-3. A survey on preferences towards being a genetic or social mother in the UK is JME 20 (1994), 87-92.

The French IVF program, FIVNAT, has released statistics for 1989-93, showing there were 8721 deliveries, 27% of these multiple; Lancet 343 (1994), 1421. Among the 11283 newborn babies, 1.07% had major deformities and 1.73% had minor deformities. Microinjection of oocytes was used 200 times last year in France. There were 7569 frozen embryos transferred. On Canada, Ikonomidis S & Lowy F. "Access to in Vitro Fertilization in Canada," Journal SOGC. (June 1994) 1831-1837.

A US paper on the costs of IVF found a range between US$44,000 to $211,940, per delivery, P.J. Neumann et al., "The cost of a successful delivery with in vitro fertilisation", NEJM 331 (1994), 239-43, 270-1. There are extra costs also posed by the incidence of multiple births, and efforts to reduce them could safe much money, T.L. Callahan et al., "The economic impact of multiple-gestation pregnancies and the contribution of assisted-reproduction techniques to their incidence", NEJM 331 (1994), 244-9; see also O&G (July); Science 265 (1994), 477. Transferring extra embryos increases the chances of heterotopic pregnancy also, F&S 61 (1994), 1065-7.

Preimplantation diagnosis of Tay Sachs and hemophilia A at the same time is reported in M.C. Snabes et al., "Preimplantation single-cell analysis of multiple genetic loci by whole-genome amplification", PNAS 91 (1994),, 6181-5. See also Lancet 343 (1994), 1569-70.

Declining sperm counts are rejected in BMJ 309 (1994), 1-2, 19-22, 131. A high sperm count was reported in members of the UK organic farmers association, Lancet 343 (1994), 1498. Male infertility treatment using sperm injection is discussed in Lancet 344 (1994), 191-2; see also Lancet 343 (1994), 1473-9; MJA 160 (1994), 545-52. A review of female infertility is in Lancet 343 (1994), 1539-44. Antisperm antibodies are discussed in F&S 61 (1994), 1001-13.

An advertisement in the UK Times newspaper for donor eggs is discussed in BME 100 (Aug 1994), 4. The advert read "Donor Egg - Immediate Availability". The Genetics and IVF Institute, an internationally respected center for infertility treatments using advanced reproductive technologies, has a large selection of donors available now for patients requiring donor oocytes. No waiting list. Suburban Washington D.C. location. We have extensive experience working with patients from throughout the world, and would welcome your enquiries." The address in Fairfax, Virginia was given. The use of oocytes from aborted fetuses as donors is debated in F&S 62 (1994), 449-51. Views on donated ovarian tissue in the UK are in Lancet 344 (1994), 824-5.

A further comment on the New Zealand report on assisted reproduction (see EEIN 4 (1994), 58-9) is in Otago Bioethics Report 3(3), 4-7; Lancet 344 (1994), 674. In France there is controversy over a report on assisted reproduction there, Lancet 344 (1994), 606. The question of payment for IVF is in Brit.J. O&G 101 (1994), 759-61. Israel is expected to legislate on surrogate motherhood following a report, BMJ 309 (1994), 359. Human cloning is discussed in Ethics & Medicine 19(6), (1995), 3-4.

A study suggesting only 2 embryos should be transferred each time is Vauthier-Brouzes, D. et al., "How many embryos should be transferred in in vitro fertilisation. A prospective randomized study", F&S 62 (1994), 339-42. The number for GIFT is discussed in a UK study, BMJ 309 (1994), 510-1.

Infertility linked to moderate alcohol consumption in women is reported in AJPH 84 (1994), 1429-32; and on frequency of intercourse and infertility in men, F&S 62 (1994), 370-5; Lancet 344 (1994), 766. Falling sperm counts are seen in sperm donor data from 1940-1969, BMJ 309 (1994), 476. A study finds some sub-fertility in men is familial, BMJ 309 (1994), 570-3. There is some possibility for ovarian cancer risk in long term use of the infertility drug clomiphene, NEJM 331 (1994), 771-6, 805-6. On breast cancer risk, Lancet 344 (1994), 610-1.

Laws against prenatal sex selection by abortion in India were reported last issue, see also, Lancet 344 (1994), 399; BMJ 309 (1994), 428. Female genital mutilation is called a child abuse in NEJM 331 (1994), 712-6, 739-40. On male circumcision, BMJ 309 (1994), 660-1.

A new report is from The Ethics Committee of the American Fertility Society, Ethical Considerations of Assisted Reproductive Technologies, Fertility & Sterility ++ Supplement 1, 125pp. It is available for US$20 from the American Fertility Society, Att: Ethics, 1209 Montgomery Highway, Birmingham, Alabama 35216-2809, USA. It goes through the general issues involved in an organised, but sometimes brief manner, then considers the various permutations of technology. They recommended continual monitoring and study to look at new technology, and widened discussion of the issues. A review of Florida's law on ART is O&G 84 (1994), 889-93.

A discussion of donated eggs and playing God is Stoffell, B. "Playing god?", Monash Bioethics Review 13(4) (1994), 14-9. Studies finding no difference between 30-50 years of age in capacity of women to implant oocytes, and there is no higher rate of aneuploidy, are Human Reproduction 9 (1994), 1981-2, 2160-3; Lancet 344 (1994), 1089-90, 1437; F&S 62 (1994), 1092-4. A report from a US court case were a child conceived with the late father's sperm seeks recognition as legal daughter and heir, Reproductive Freedom News (16 Dec 1994), 3. On posthumous reproduction, Human Reproduction 9 (1994), 2182-5. In Italy a man used a surrogate mother to carry a frozen embryo from him and his wife who deceased 2 years before: the surrogate was his sister-in-law and the baby was recently born.

A discussion on artificial insemination of single women or lesbian couples is Human Reproduction 9 (1994), 1969-77. Social studies on people seeking infertility treatment include, CJPH 85: 28+. Family values are discussed in a future prediction in New Scientist (15 Oct 1994), Supplement 29-31. Age limits are discussed in BMJ 309 (1994), 1515-6.

A cheaper method for IVF has been developed in Australia, Time (14 Nov), 59. Letters on the economics of IVF are in NEJM 331 (1994), 1588-9; and Vekemans, M. et al. "Infertility treatment: luxury, desire or necessity", Reproductive Health Matters 4 (1994) 93-8. The number of centers could also be regulated to improve quality, CQHE 3 (1994), 383-90.

A debate on the techniques and ability to perform sex selection, including Ericsson, R.J. "Sex selection via albumin columns: 20 years of results", Human Reproduction 9 (1994), 1787-90. A debate over the risks and benefits of using immature oocytes for IVF is Human Reproduction 9 (1994) 1585-8.

A book in French on the ethics, law and religious views and implications of new reproductive technologies written by an Italian is Ventura, Marco, Procreer Hors la Loi. Loi civile, loi morale et loi canonique face a la nouvelle procreation (Cerdic Publications, Strasbourg, 380pp., ISBN 2-85097-052-2, 200FF). A summary of the Italian National Committee on Bioethics recommendations on infertility treatment is HCR 24(6), 3-4. In Italy it is estimated that an extra 500-600 multiple births have occurred because of IVF technology, Human Reproduction 9 (1994), 9. A review of the UK HFEA is in Human Reproduction 9 (1994), 1779-82. Also on the ethics of ARTs, NEJM 331 (1994), 1032--4; F&S 62 (1994), 893-5.

Reviews of the progress of ART include Chen, S.H. & Wallach, E.E. "Five decades of progress in management of the infertile couple", F&S 62 (1994), 665-85, 686-9. Also on technical aspects, Science 266 (1994), 1459; F&S 62 (1994), 781-5. Caution on the use of interferon to promote male fertility is voiced in Lancet 344 (1994), 1027. The reduction in male reproductive system this century is becoming clear, BMJ 309 (1994), 1316-7.

A special issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 4 (Sept 94), 187-289 is on ethics and the cloning of human embryos. It includes 8 papers of interest in the debate about using embryo splitting to clone human embryos, from the clinical, ethical and legal sides. See also the paper by Anees in this issue of EJAIB. Discussion of the NIH embryo research guidelines, previously discussed in the last few issues, is also in HCR 25: 36-46. The cloning experiments in George Washington University, were actually done without approval of the university, Science 266 (1994), 1949. There has also been a controversy in France about embryo freezing research, Nature 373 (1995), 553.

A New York Court has ruled that a divorced woman can have sole custody of 5 frozen embryos, Reproductive Freedom News (27 Jan 1995), 2. She wants to implant them, but the former husband wants to donate them to research. The Supreme Court judge rejected the Tennessee 1992 ruling in the Davis case.

A Jewish view of ART is Grazi, Richard V. Be Fruitful and Multiply: Fertility Therapy and the Jewish Tradition (Israel: Genesis Jerusalem Press, 1994, US$20). A general book is Dyson, Anthony, The Ethics of IVF (London: Mowbray, 1995, 132pp., £10), reviewed in BME 104 (Jan 1995), 24. The UK monitoring of IVF success is being more standardised, Lancet 345 (1995), 246. Male infertility is discussed in NEJM 332 (1995), 312-7; and falling sperm quality in Auger, J. et al. "Decline in sperm quality among fertile men in Paris during the past 20 years", NEJM 332 (1995), 281-5, 327-8.

The Pope has released another statement on life, Evangelium Vitae, The Gospel of Life. The responses of various bishops on the issues since 1991 are taken into account, and he says he is concerned about the "culture of death". It is 189 pages long, and reviewed in Time (10 April 1995), 46; Nature 374 (1995), 489. As expected he is against abortion and use of human embryos, assisted procreation, and prenatal diagnosis for eugenic purposes.

A Human Embryo and Fetus protection working group has been set up by the European Commission in Brussels, BME 105 (Feb), 7. The issue of embryo research is dividing Germany and several conservative countries from others, as also seen in the divisions over the Council of Europe Bioethics Convention. The Netherlands Health Council set up a committee to discuss the latest advances in assisted reproduction, which should report within 12 months; Network 9 (Feb), 3-5.

A review of different countries' guidelines on embryo research is Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 2, 5-6. Papers on cloning are Robertson, J.A. "The question of human cloning", Monash Bioethics Review 14 (1995), 15-29; McCormick, R.A., Blastomere separation:some concerns", Monash Bioethics Review 14 (1995), 29-33.

A letter on freezing of porcine embryos is Nature 374 (1995), 416; and on problems in mice embryos, Dulioust, E. et al. "Long-term effects of embryo freezing in mice", PNAS 92 (1995), 589-93; Science 267 (1995), 618-9; New Scientist (4 Feb, 1995), 14-5. These results suggest a reassessment of the use of freezing, and of the length of time frozen human embryos are kept is timely. Studies of embryos have found the centrosome is derived from the father's chromosomes, Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 19-20, 47-52.

In April, Israel's Supreme Court in a 4 to one decision reversed and earlier decision, ruling that the husband has a right to refuse the use of embryos fertilised with his sperm. The wife had previously been awarded the embryos, arguing that her husband's consent should not be revokable, and that this was her last chance to have genetic offspring. The husband's "right not to be a father" has been recognised, and the embryos' will be destroyed.

Philosophical papers include, Robertson, J. (1994), "Posthumous Reproduction", 76 Indiana Law Journal 1027-65; Kuhse, H. "New reproductive technologies: ethical conflict and the problem of consensus", Monash Bioethics Review 13(4) (1994), (Ethics Committee Supplement), 4-19; New Scientist (18 Feb, 1995), 43. Donor insemination is discused in Shenfield, F. & Steele, S.J. "Why gamete donors should not be paid", Human Reproduction 10 (1995), 253-5; Lui, S.C. et al. "A survey of semen donor attitudes", Human Reproduction 10 (1995), 234-8. In the UK study of potential donors, 82% did not mind giving non-identifying information to the recipients and offspring, but 89% of potential donors required confidentiality and anonymity.

The performance of a Canadian clinic over 5209 IVF cycles in 2391 couples at University Hospital, London, Ontario, found a 20% pregnancy rate per embryo transfer, and no higher incidence of abnormalities; Human Reproduction 10 (1995), 470-4.

In New Zealand, the public is against general free access to assisted reproductive technologies, despite what the recent law reform commission report recommended, NZ Listener survey 1995. Among the sample (N=1000), 86% agreed to use by infertile couples, but only 24% say so for lesbian couples, 17% for postmenopausal women, and 31% for single women.

A legal review of the progress in Australia since the 1991 decision to try to make uniform guidelines on surrogacy is Stuhmcke, A. "Surrogate motherhood: The legal position in Australia", J. Law & Med. 2 (1994), 116-24. The recent decisions of the UK HFEA on fetal oocytes are in Human Reproduction 10 (1995), 239-44.

Papers on information sharing in AID include Daniels, K. "Information sharing in donor insemination: A conflict of rights and needs", CQHE 4 (1995), 217-24; Daniels, K.R. et al. "Telling donor insemination offspring about their conception: The nature of couples' decision-making", SSM 40 (1995), 1213-20. The second paper is based on a study of 58 children and follow-up questionnaires in New Zealand. New Zealand is in the middle of a dispute following the privatisation of an Auckland fertility service which will mean the possible closure of the unit in the National Women's Hospital, which would also raise questions over patient services, and the fate of embryos, etc., Lancet 345 (1995), 1298. The move is challenged as the change was made without consultation which is required by the law. It should also be noted that a patient death for a women undergoing IVF was confirmed at the private clinic, Lancet 345 (1995), 849.

India is planning laws to regulate sperm donor banks, BMJ 310 (1995), 1224. On the safety and secrecy of AID, JAMA 273 (1995), 890-1. An administrative law judge in New Orleans ruled at the beginning of June that a girl who was conceived after her father's death is entitled to her father's Social Security benefits,The Dallas Morning News (3 June, 1995). About 65,000 artificial inseminations take place annually in the United States, but no one knows many occur after the death of a father. Under current policy, Social Security benefits go to only those dependent children conceived while their parents were alive. Lawyers for the Social Security Administration argue that the decision in favour of Judith Hart might force the government to change not only its definition of dependent but also the word conception.

Australia is considering law reform in ART, MJA 162 (1995), 501. A second volume of the book, Basen, G., Eichler, M. & Lippman, A. eds., Misconceptions. The Social Construction of Choice and the New Reproductive and Genetic Technologies, (ISBN 0-921842-37-6, C$15, 247pp., Voyageur Publishing 1995 (fax: +1-613-925-0029 ). It includes several papers assessing the Canadian Royal Commission on reproductive technologies. The English translation of the Norwegian law on biotechnology in humans is in IDHL 46 (1995), 51-5. The legal limbo on surrogacy in South Africa is debated in SAMJ 85 (1995), 29-30. Portugese advice on ethics of ART is reviewed in IJB 6 (1995), 76-8. In general on ART, BMJ 310 (1995), 1066-7; NEJM 332 (1995), 966-8; F&S 63 (1995), 701-2. On the regulation of IVF, Modern Law Review 58 (1995), 454-5.

Dutch police have begun an international investigation following allegations that young Polish women are being lured to Holland, Belgium and Germany to act as surrogate mothers for childless couples (The Independent, 4 June, 1995). According to police in the eastern Dutch town of Adeldoorn, the women are recruited through advertisements in Polish newspapers which promise "discretion" and "good fees" in return for their services as surrogate mothers. Fees are believed to be as high as 35,000 guilders (about pounds 14,000), the equivalent of around two years' salary for most Poles. Surrogate motherhood for commercial gain was banned in the Netherlands two years ago and carries a prison sentence of up to one year.

Applicants are told to contact an agent in the Polish harbour city of Szczecin who arranges for the women to undergo medical tests before organising their journey to the clients' homes. The operation was first revealed by two Dutch journalists who found that at least 12 Polish women (most under 25), had been brought to Holland as "au pairs". The women lived with a couple who wanted children, usually sleeping with the man to become pregnant, although in some cases it is believed that artificial insemination was used. Once the baby was born, the biological mother was expected to return to Poland, leaving the baby with her hosts. The organiser said he did not know it was illegal. He is believed to have made around a thousand guilders per transaction.

The Association of Italian Medical and Dental Surgeons has approved a new code of ethics to regulate ART until a future national law is implemented, Reproductive Freedom News (5 May 1995), 8; Lancet 345 (1995), 974-5. It would exclude physicians who broke the code. It forbids insemination for lesbians and post-menopausal women. A series of articles in the BMJ has challenged the idea that older women should not be helped to conceive. In the UK all hospitals have their own ethics committees, and most ban IVF treatment for women of 50 (The Independent, 3 June, 1995). In the Netherlands, a couple found a mistake in their twins, one was balack and one was white, The Daily Telegraph (20 June, 1995).

The total number of babies born in Japan by IVF is over 10,000, Japan Times (28 May 1995), 3. There are 237 hospitals offering services and the success rate is up to 15.7% live birth rate. A report on the preimplantation diagnosis research at Kagoshima University in Japan, discussed last issue, is Science 268 (1995), 1586.

Comments on cloning in the USA are in KIEJ 5 (1995), 57-60. The major conclusions of the NIH report on embryo research are in Ethics & Medicine 11 (1995), 20-3. There are allegations of improper conduct against personnel in the Fertility Clinic at UC-Irvine, American Medical News (l9 June l995). On the background to the German embryo protection law, Science & Engineering Ethics 1 (1995), 145-50.

A new method for IVF using sperm injection developed in Japan is discussed in Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 289; and another method is in F&S 63 (1995), 1231-40. On male infertility, Lancet 345 (1995), 1231. A fish study suggesting vitamin C improves sperm quality is Biol. Reproduction 52 (1995), 982-8. The risk of ovarian cancer after infertility treatment is discussed in NEJM 332 (1995), 1300-2. The production of fetuses from cryopreserved mouse gametes is reported in Mouse Genome (1995) 164-6. Circumcision is discussed in Lancet 345 (1995), 927.

Several papers on the subject of use of ART and cloning are in a special issue of Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 4 (1995), 263-366. They include papers on genetics, as listed below. Also on ARTs, Nelson, H.L. "Dethroning choice: analogy, personhood, and the new reproductive technologies", JLME 23 (1995), 129-35.

The English summary of the Health Council of the Netherlands report on sex-selection for non-medical reasons is in BME 109 (1995), 8-10. The Dutch sex selection clinic that was planned has faced much opposition, BMJ 311 (1995), 10-1. A letter on China's missing girls is Science 269 (1995), 147-8. On reproductive technologies in developing countries, see Bioethics 9 (1995), 276-82. On the Israel surrogacy law, BMJ 311 (1995), 347-8; and on the unusual decision in Israel to reconsider a law case in the Supreme Court on the ownership of eggs, Lancet 345 (1995), 1498. The health minister of Canada has called for a moratorium on new IVF technologies, Lancet 346 (1995), 367.

In the UK a woman was compensated £35000 for removing her ovaries without consent, BMJ 311 (1995), 212-3. Fortunately she has 3 children, but as a 36 year old, she was disturbed that the hysterectomy was expanded. As reported last issue a fertility clinic at UC Irvine is facing misconduct charges, Nature 376 (1995), 456. There appear to be misappropriations of eggs and embryos. An administrator who was fired last year, said that she was fired because she opposed the taking of eggs for donation without consent of the donor. The problem of twins being black and white due to a Dutch fertility clinic error, is in Newsweek (3 July, 1995), 33.

In general on social aspects of ARTs, SSM 41 (1995), 287-8; F&S 64 (1995), 10-2, 252-4; BMJ 310 (1995), 1476. On adoption across races, Time (4 August, 1995), 32-3. On complications of IVF, Br.J.O&G 102 (1995), 520-4.

A study showing similar pregnancy rates in older women as younger is Sauer, M.V. et al. "Pregnancy in women 50 or more years of age: outcomes of 22 consecutively established pregnancies from oocyte donation", F&S 64 (1995), 111-5. The ethics of offering older women IVF are debated in BMJ 310 (1995), 1455-8. However, there are limits on the number of oocytes that can be retrieved from older patients, which limits GIFT, F&S 64 (1995), 107-10. On freezing embryos from women who want to have children later, MJA 163 (1995), 623-4. A British study found Indian women had lower success than white women in IVF programs, Mahmud, G. et al. "A controlled assessment of the in vitro fertilisation performance of British women of Indian origin compared with white women", F&S 64 (1995), 103-6. The 1993 results of IVF in the USA and Canada are reviewed in F&S 64 (1995), 13-21. They include data from 267 programs, with overall results for IVF of 18% deliveries per retrieval. The results of Mt. Sinai clinic, NY for 100 women who had successful pregnancies are in F&S 64 (1995), 88-92. A study calling for special care in obstetrics for singleton pregnancies from IVF patients is O&G 86 (1995), 188-92.

An editorial looking at deletions of the Y chromosome which can cause infertility is Reijo, R. et al. "Diverse spermatogenic defects in humans caused by Y chromosome deletions encompassing a novel RNA-binding protein gene", Nature Genetics 10 (1995), 383-93, 367-8. On falling sperm counts, BMJ 311 (1995), 347; and on male infertility, NEJM 332 (1995), 1790-1. There are claims that the reduction in male fertility is linked to the insecticide DDT, BMJ 311 (1995), 11-2; Nature 376 (1995), 522.

The 1995 Victorian, Australia, Infertility Treatment Act ensures children identifying information about sperm donors, following the New Zealand and Swedish laws; The Bulletin (Newsweek Australia, 11 July, 1995), 30-1. On the Swedish law, Daniels, K. "The Swedish Insemination Act and its impact", Aust. NZ. J. Ob. & Gyn. 34 (1995), 437-9. A paper on ARTs in New Zealand is Daniels, K. "Assisted reproductive technology policy in New Zealand: Needs, rights and responsibilities", Public Sector 17 (No. 3, 1995), 22-5.

A review of interest for dreams of cloning is Surani, M.A. "Parthenogenesis in man", Nature Genetics 11 (1995), 111-3; and the paper reporting a parthenogenic chimeric boy, Strain, L. et al. "A human parthenogenetic chimera", Nature Genetics 11 (1995), 164-9. The boy had some facial abnormalities on one side of his face, but not the other - and the maternal X chromosome in the XX/XY genotype is the same in all cells, suggesting mosacism. Should the boy be fertile, they predict normal children.

Ethical issues of sex selection are discussed in Arda, B. "Ethics and the commercial use of gametes", BME 111 (Sept 1995), 19-22. Secrecy in AID is used in Cameroon, Politics & Life Sciences 14 (1995), 87-8. The issue of harvesting sperm is debated in Murphy, T.F. "Sperm harvesting and postmortem fatherhood", Bioethics 9 (1995), 380-98. On falling sperm counts, Lancet 346 (1995), 635.

Recent law cases in surrogacy are discussed in HCR 25 (5, 1995), 30-31. A paper looking at the marriage system is MacDonald, K. "The establishment and maintenance of socially imposed monogamy in Western Europe", Politics & Life Sciences 14 (1995), 3-23; which is followed by a series of commentaries, pp. 24-46. Infertility counseling is discussed in JAMA 274 (1995), 1159-64.

In Denmark there are concerns about the rapidity of development of assisted reproduction, Lancet 346 (1995), 629. A review is Levinson, G. et al. "Recent advances in reproductive genetic technologies", Biotechnology 13 (1995), 968-73. The case of misconduct in the USA is discussed in Biotechnology 13 (1995), 925; and variations in infertility clinics, BMJ 311 (1995), 1041. Also on IVF, Lancet 346 (1995), 901.

Cases of sex chromosome abnormalities have been suggested following intracytoplasmic sperm injection, Lancet 346 (1995), 773, 1095-7. The technique is causing controversy in France, a country with much use of ART, Nature 377 (1995), 277; BMJ 311 (1995), 896. It has been used on about 13500 ova, with 6065 embryos, 4030 were implanted, with 21% resulting in pregnancy.

On July 27, 1995 the federal Health Minister, Diane Marleau, announced her government's response to the report of the Royal Commission on the New Reproductive Technologies, which was released in November 1993 (Canadian Bioethics Report, Humane Medicine 10 (1994), 136-137). The Minister called for a voluntary moratorium on nine reproductive and genetic technologies and practices: sex selection for non-medical purposes; commercial pre-conception ("surrogacy") arrangements; buying and selling of eggs, sperm and embryos; egg donation in exchange for in vitro fertilization services; germ-line genetic alteration; ectogenesis (creation of an artificial womb); the cloning of human embryos; formation of animal-human hybrids by combining animal and human gametes; and the retrieval of eggs from cadavers and fetuses for donation, fertilization or research. The Minister established a panel to advise her department on whether and how the moratorium is being respected, how it should evolve and what issues are emerging in the field. Her long-term goal is to have a permanent management regime as part of a comprehensive approach to the health and safety issues associated with genetic and reproductive technologies.

There does not appear to be increased ovarian cancer in women who enrolled in IVF programs that stimulae egg production, nor breast cancer, Lancet 346 (1995), 995-1000.

A paper exploring feminism from a sociobiological perspective is Liesen, L.T. "Feminism and the politics of reproductive strategies", Politics & Life Sciences 14 (1995),145-62. A series of 12 commentaries exploring feminism, sociobiology, and reproduction follow, pp. 163-193. A cost estimate is made in Collins, J.A. et al. "An estimate of the cost of in vitro fertilization services in the United States in 1995", F&S 64 (1995), 538-45. In 1993 there were 31,718 IVF cycles with an average charge of US$6,233, making a total of US$198 million. If IVF services were added to health insurance schemes it would add less than $3 per annum for each employer, at that rate of use. See also, F&S 64 (1995), 470-3. Infertility and the NHS is discussed in BMJ 311 (1995), 1586-7.

The results of a survey on IVF to the general public in the Kinki region of Japan (Kansai area), with a 24% response rate of which only 26% answered all the questions (N=345), is Kozaki, N. et al. "Application of reproductive techniques in Japan and Japanese views on surrogate motherhood", F&S 64 (1995), 686-8. It suggested low familiarity with the terms, and they found 51% approved of surrogate motherhood. The reasoning was examined. A philosophical paper on motherhood is Apple, R.D. "Constructing mothers: Scientific motherhood in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries", Social History of Medicine 8 (1995), 161-78. A philosophical paper is Gibson, S. "Reasons for having children: Ends, means and "family values", J. Appl. Philosophy 12 (1995), 231-9. On older mothers, BMJ 311 (1995), 1585-6.

The UK Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority published their annual report together with a patients' guide to fertility treatment clinics. The live birth rates for IVF overall were 14.1%, but for donor insemination, 6.9%. A list of work loads and success rates was published allowing people and the Press to make comparisons, BME 112 (1995), 3-5. They also report on ethical issues. A study of couples undergoing their second or third pregnancy with IVF found increased success rates than the first attempt, F&S 64 (1995), 546-51. A general review of infertility treatment is F&S 64 (1995), 459-69.

The number of cases of switched embryos and gametes in infertility treatment is causing people to have doubts about the clinics, J.A. Robertson, "The case of the switched embryos", HCR 25 (6, 1995), 13-9. A discussion of the ethics of embryos for research is D. Davis, "Embryos created for research purposes", KIEJ 5 (1995),343-54; Robertson, J.A. "Ethical and legal issues in human embryo donation", F&S 64 (1995), 885-94; JAMA 274 (1995), 1344-5. The US Board on Ethics in Reproduction statements on embryo splitting and embryo research are in IJB 6 (1995), 263-65. The lessons for public policy bioethics are discussed in Green, R.M. "The human embryo research panel: lessons for public ethics", CQHE 4 (1995), 502-15. Counseling in reproductive medicine is being developed. F&S 64 (1995), 895-7.

A dismissal of European postcoital tests for infertility tests is Br.J.O&G 102 (1995), 621-4. Environmental effects on human reproduction are seen in the toxic compounds in Eastern Europe, and the WHO is supporting the research, SSM 41 (1995), 1479-86. Papers reporting the success of embryo freezing for IVF include: F&S 64 (1995), 647-50, 987-90. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection can also aid female-related infertility, F&S 64 (1995), 977-81, 982-6. An on-line site with issues of reproductive biotechnology is: http://Numbat.murdoch.edu.au/spermatology/spermhp.html

A discussion of where childbirth should occur is NEJM 333 (1995), 1635-7. Pregnancies attended by certified nurse midwives are 50% less likely to end in cesarean sections in the USA, BMJ 311 (1995), 1387.

A paper reporting a 2% annual fall in sperm quality in the UK is Irvine S et al. "Evidence of deteriorating semen quality in the United Kingdom: birth cohort study in 577 men in Scotland over 11 years", BMJ 312 (1996), 467-70; but a smaller French study with no change is Bujan L, Mansart A, Ponteonnier F, Mieusset, "A Time series analysis of sperm in concentration in fertile men in Toulouse, France, between 1977 and 1992", BMJ 312 (1996), 471-2; see also pp. 457-8, 506; which discusses possible causes and reviews the debate over pollutants as a cause. Adverse effects of chemicals are also discussed in AJHG 57 (1996), 245. Techniques to overcome male infertility are discussed in O&G 87 (1996), 22-6; and sex chromosomal abnormalities and intracytoplasmic sperm injection may be related to a compound used, PVP, Lancet 347 (1996), 1566. Fertilization without sperm is discussed Nature 379 (1996), 493-5.

A new law is being submitted to the Danish parliament to cover ART, EBN 215 (1996), 2-3. It will allow insemination of single women, will allow fertile women to undergo IVF, and allow preimplantation diagnosis for "serious diseases", and embryo storage for three years instead of the current one year is suggested. A comment against laws forbidding ARTs is Dickens B. "Do Not Criminalize New Reproductive Technologies," Policy Options 17(1996), 11-14; also 15-7. On legal issues in ART, F&S 65 (1996), 11-2; and microinjection of nuclei in France is being criticized for alleged avoidance of guidelines, Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 16.

A 48pp summary in English of the Health Council of the Netherlands Report, Sex selection for non-medical reasons, 1995/11E, is a good review of the issues involved (ISBN 90-5549-102-0). Sex determination and informing the sex of a fetus are criminal in India, since 1 January, Nature 379 (1996), 201. On reproductive technology, AJHG 57 (1996), 245-7. Israel no longer has a ban on surrogacy, Lancet 347 (1996), 113. Oocyte donation success in older women is reported in F&S 65 (1996), 94-7, 103-8.

A paper advising that IVF is cost effective if it avoids multiple pregnancies is Goldfarb JM et al. "Cost effectiveness of in vitro fertilization", O&G 87 (1996), 18-21. They calculate costs of US$39,000 per pregnancy for single or twin pregnancies. A paper which examines whether infertile couples should adopt children given an overpopulated world is Munthie, C. "The argument from transfer", Bioethics 10 (1996), 27-42. Letters on evaluation of the infertile couple are in JAMA 275 (1996), 185-6.

The second revision of the UK HFEA Code of Practice for storage of gametes or embryos for cancer patients is in BME 115 (1996), 8-10. The BMA has changed its opinions on surrogacy to one of cautious acceptance, see the text excerpt from BMA, Changing Conceptions of Motherhood: The practice of surrogacy in Britain, London, 1996; in BME 115 (1996), 10-11. A discussion of contracts in surrogacy is Watson, B. "Linguistic analysis of pre-conception contracts: Towards a model for Canada", Health Law Review 4 (2, 1995/1996), 26-31. Israel has legalized surrogacy by a new law, provided it is not commercial and the ovum is donated, Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 372-3; BMJ 312 (1996), 729-30. A survey of attitudes towards artificial insemination among lesbian, heterosexual couples and single women in the USA is F&S 65 (1996), 764-70.

On April 2, 1996 the B.C. Supreme Court rendered its judgment on the appeal of Dr. Gerald Korn against a decision of the B.C. Council of Human Rights that he had wrongfully discriminated against Tracy Potter and Sandra Benson because of their sexual orientation, Canadian Bioethics Report (April 1996). Dr. Korn had refused to provide artificial insemination to the couple, who are lesbians. The Court found that the Member Designate of the Council of Human Rights who heard the case had not erred in law in finding that Dr. Korn denied A.I. to the couple, that the Member Designate did have jurisdiction to consider questions relating to the matters complained of, and that he did not err in law by finding that Dr. Korn did not have a reasonable justification for refusing to accept the couple as patients. The Court therefore dismissed the appeal and awarded costs to the respondents, Potter and Benson.

In general, McCall, M. "Pursuing conception: a physician's experience with in-vitro fertilization", CMAJ 154 (1996), 1075-1079. Parks, JA. "A closer look at reproductive technology and postmenopausal motherhood", CMAJ 154 (1996), 1189-1191.

In mid-1996 an Infertility Treatment Authority will be set up in Victoria, Australia as the committee established by the new Infertility Treatment Act, Lancet 347 (1996), 684. There has been debate in Denmark over whether infertility treatment should be included under health insurance, Lancet 347 (1996), 462. In general on infertility and ethics, JAMA 275 (1996), 566-7; JME 22 (1996), 57. A survey of attitudes of persons in IVF programs found them willing to have multiple pregnancies but also more willing than general to use multiple pregnancy reduction, Goldfarb, J. et al. "Attitudes of in vitro fertilization and intrauterine insemination couples toward multiple gestation pregnancy and multifetal pregnancy reduction", F&S 65 (1996), 815-20.

Researchers in Wisconsin say they were using embryos for experiments given from a University of California at Irvine clinic, only because they thought consent had been given, in fact it had not, Nature 380 (1996), 756. A survey of costs of IVF in the UK is in Brit. J. O&G 103 (1996), 198-201. The incidence of multiple pregnancies after IVF is dependent upon maternal age and number of embryos, F&S 65 (1996), 561-5. Antisperm antibodies in infertile men are discussed in JAMA 275 (1996), 885-6. On the safety of cryopreservation of embryos, following the extension to ten years of the period in the UK that embryos may be preserved, Nature 380 (1996), 194. A study suggesting that average pregnancy rates per natural menstrual cycle are 30% is F&S 65 (1996), 503-9.

The 1995 report of the Danish Council of Ethics includes a report, Assisted Reproduction - A Report, translated into English 82pp. Available from the Danish Council of Ethics, 2-4 Ravnsborggade, DK 2200, Copenhagen N, DENMARK (also available on Internet . In most of the conclusions a majority supports the techniques, with a minority view also expressed. They all recommend a general law be introduced to clarify the legal situation. A general review on the demand for children and ART is HCR 26 (March/April 1996), 19-29.

An English summary of the Health Council of the Netherlands June 1995 report on sex selection for non-medical criteria is Network 10 (March 1996), 12-3. The Dutch Medical Association has opened the way for IVF in older women in a report, IVF in Later Life, BMJ 312 (1996), 1319. A call for allowing more embryos to be implanted in older women due to lower implantation rate is Lancet 347 (1996), 1032. Canada is going to limit some ARTs, Lancet 347 (1996), 1110. A call for guidelines and surveillance on ART in the USA is F&S 65 (1996), 1090-2. A debate on whether ART are playing God is in J.Med.&Phil. 21 (1996), 419-438.

A letter on safeguards for embryo donation is F&S 65 (1996), 1262-3; and discussion, NEJM 334 (1996), 1329-32; Freeman, JS. "Arguing along the slippery slope of human embryo research", J.Med.&Phil. 21 (1996), 61-81. Research on spare embryos is discussed in Lancet 347 (1996), 983, 1488-9. Economics of infertility are reviewed in AJO&G 174 (1996), 1200-7.

A study of giving sperm is Daniels, KR. & Lewis, GM. "Donor insemination: The gifting and selling of semen", SSM 42 (1996), 1521-36. On the ethics of surrogacy and labour, JME 21 (1995), 345-9.

A call for monitoring of the safety and harm to babies born from ART is AJO&G 174 (1996), 1208-17; Lancet 347 (1996), 1277. Most cases of male infertility appear to result from absence of a protein that allows sperm to grip on the egg, Biology of Reproduction 54 (1996), 1018+; NS (8 June 1996), 16; in general, Lancet 347 (1996), 1028. A US study suggests that there may be no decline in sperm counts, Lancet 347 (1996), 1319; NS (11 May 1996), 10; see also Disease Risks section above on environmental estrogens. There is lower fertility in the UK compared to Finland, Lancet 347 (1996), 1519-22. One possibility is to bank spermatogonial stem Cells, Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 638-9.

The Health Council of the Netherlands has released its interim report (in English) on Assisted Fertilization: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) (No. 1996/06E, The Hague, 19 June 1996), 45pp. They recommend that some conditions be required for the continued practice of ICSI, and that 20 year follow up studies be conducted. There are some doubts about the technique which may introduce microdeletions into the sons DNA, see Lancet 348 (1996), 59, 332; JAMA 275 (1996), 1829-30; NS (17 August 1996), 18. In studies of sperm quality, diet appears not to have effect, but tight-fitting underwear does decrease sperm, Lancet 347 (1996), 1844-5. Also on sperm insemination, O&G 88 (1996), 93-8; Biology of Reproduction 55 (1996), 709-14; and on transplants of spermatogonia, SA (Aug. 1996), 26-8.

Canada is criminalising some ARTs (e.g. commercial surrogacy and commerce in gametes) in the new law, Lancet 347 (1996), 1758; Science 273 (1996), 191. The embryo research ban would be after 14 days.

A perspective from New Zealand on ARTs is Nicholas, B. "Community and justice: The challenges of bicultural partnership to policy on assisted reproductive technology", Bioethics 10 (1996), 212-21. A discussion on the topic of access by older women to IVF is in Monash Bioethics Review 15 (1996), 13-9. A book review of Marsh, M. & Ronner, W. The Empty Cradle: Infertility in America from Colonial Times to the Present (John Hopkins University Press 1996) is in NEJM 335 (1996), 441. On ethics of ARTs, NS (31 August 1996), 43; Baird, PA "Ethical issues of fertility and reproduction", Ann. Rev. Med. 47 (1996), 107-16; J. Assisted Reproduction & Genetics 12 (1995), 473-6, 477-83, 484-90, 509-16, 531-6, 543-51.

An opinion survey conducted by Kyodo News Service in Japan in 1996 (N+1995) finds that in response to the question what people think about IVF, 1.7% said it should be actively encouraged, 60.1% approved its use for a married couple, 24.6% said we should avoid it, 10.5% said we should not do at all, and 3.1% said don't know (Nikkei Kasei Shimbun). Since 1991 when a US surrogacy agency was established in Tokyo, there have been over 50 babies born from surrogacy arrangements in the USA, with average costs over 10 million Yen.

4000 frozen embryos that had expired 5 year time limits under UK law were destroyed, BMJ 313 (1996), 1-2, 189; Lancet 348 (1996), 399; NS (13 July 1996), 3. Attitudes are reported in Corrigan, E. et al. "Posthumous storage and use of sperm and embryos: survey of opinion of treatment centres," BMJ 313 (1996), 24. Debate on manipulation of embryos has been occurring in the Italian Bioethics Committee, Science 273 (1996), 177. On the issues of embryos, Lancet 348 (1996), 198.

The executive summary of the Health Council of the Netherlands report on Sex Selection is in BME 119 (1996), 8-10; and there is controversy over use of preimplantation diagnosis for sex selection in disease, in Japan, Lancet 348 (1996), 198-9.

Two papers on adoption ethics are in CQHE 5 (1996), 430-9. On single mothers in Australia, Lancet 348 (1996), 531. In general on infertility treatment, BMJ 313 (1996), 444; F&S 66 (1996), 202-4, 205-9. Infertility patients have a high drop out rate, O&G 88 (1996), 289-93; and on insurance protection in the USA, Harvard Law Review 109 (1996), 2092-2109.

On 11 Sept, 1996, the US Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit upheld a finding that a woman whose health plan does not cover costs for fertility treatment can not sue for discrimination under the US Americans with Disabilities Act, Reproductive Freedom News (16 Oct 1996), 2. The case, Krauel v. Iowa Methodist Medical Center. A paper examining the issue is Millsap, D. "Sex, lies, and health insurance: Employer-provider health insurance coverage of abortion and infertility services and the ADA", AJLM XXII (1996), 51-84.

A discussion of the ethical issues raised by the business nature of obstetrics and gynecology is AJO&G 175 (1996), 523-7; and Human Reproduction 11 (1996), Natl. Supplement 71-7. A guide to IVF and AID is in Human Reproduction 11 (1996), 1363-70; and on 1996 guidelines of the ESHRE following a Capri meeting, Human Reproduction 11 (1996), 1775-807.

In the UK so far about 3,300 stored embryos from 30 clinics have been destroyed as the time period expired, causing controversy, Nature Genetics 14 (1996), 13. A discussion of various ethical debates in the UK regarding the use of embryos, and abortion, is BME 120 (1996), 3-5; and the 1996 regulations on embryo storage in the UK are in BME 120 (1996), 8-10. The On storage of sperm and embryos, BMJ 313 (1996), 1078-9. The chance of pregnancy after preimplantation appears to increase if the embryos are grown in groups, F&S 66 (1996), 394-7. A paper looking at experiments is Heyd, D. "Experimenting with embryos: Can philosophy help?", Bioethics 10 (1996), 292-309.

A widow's fight for her husband's sperm is discussed in BMJ 313 (1996), 837, 899. The summary of the Dutch Health Council report on ICSI (see last issue), is reproduced in BME 121 (1996), 8-9. Several papers on giving semen are by one of our new editorial board members, Daniels, KR & Lewis, GM, "Donor insemination: The gifting and selling of semen", SSM 42 (1996), 1521-36; Daniels, KR et al. "Semen donor recruitment: a study of donors in two clinics", Human Reproduction 11 (1996), 746-51; Daniels, KR et al. "Families formed as a result of donor insemination: the views of semen donors", Child & Family Social Work 1 (1996), 97-106; Daniels, KR & Lewis, GM, "Openness of information in the use of donor gametes: developments in New Zealand", J. Reproductive & Infant Psychology 14 (1996), 57-68. Canadian guidelines on semen distribution are in IDHL 47 (1996), 342-5. Comparisons between fertility in the UK and Finland are Lancet 348 (1996), 616.

A survey suggesting that the pregnancy outcome of women after 45 years of age is generally good, but that there were more complications, is AJO&G 175 (1996), 668-74. On infertility counseling, some abstracts of papers from the American Fertility Society meeting are in F&S 66 (1996), Supplement, S215-8. On ovulation induction and ovarian cancer, F&S 66 (1996), 499-507. Letters on the health care needs of transgendered patients are in JAMA 276 (1996), 874.

A review is Reubinoff, BE & Schenker, JG., "New advances in sex preselection", F&S 66 (1996), 343-50. The only reliable methods they report are preimplantation diagnosis or sperm separation by flow cytometry and IVF. The sequential use of PCR and FISH on the same blastomere can be used as a check for sex determination, F&S 66 (1996), 490-2. On sperm selection in lizards, Nature 383 (1996), 585. Data on human male-female ratios in Denmark since 1851 are in Lancet 348 (1996), 828-9; and a review across the world is Human Reproduction 11 (1996), Supplement, p. 5+. A review of environmental estrogens is American Scientist 84 (1996), 452-62; and on US guidelines, EST 30 (1996), 385A, 429-30A; NS (14 Sept. 1996), 7.

In the UK there have been a list three requests from women for sperm removal from dead husband's, or boyfriends, for them to use to become pregnant, Guardian (24 Oct 1996). The Dianne Blood case which the High Court rejected the end of October, has been called the widow's fight for her husband's sperm, BMJ 313 (1996), 1477; Lancet 348 (1996), 1164. The UK HFEA is also rejected the export of the sperm to other countries for her to use, despite its discretionary powers to do so. Lord Winston, a well-known clinician has suggested to UK doctors that export of testicular tissue is not regulated and could be conducted. In a US survey of 300 fertility clinics it was found that more than a dozen clinics have admitted harvesting sperm from cadavers and storing it for later use, NS (30 Nov 1996), 5. Three times more said they had been asked to do so.

On the social aspects of AID, Gillett, WR et al. "Feelings of couples who have had a child by donor insemination: the degree of congruence", J. Psychosom. Obstet. Gynecol. 17 (1996), 135-42; which found that the man and women's feelings did not correlate with their perceived view of their partner's feelings. However the relationships usually improved, Daniels, KR et al. "Successful donor insemination and its impact on recipients", J. Psychosom. Obstet. Gynecol. 17 (1996), 129-34. In the UK there is a shortage of eggs donated by ethnic minority groups, BMJ 313 (1996), 1145. Donation of frozen embryos after IVF is uncommon in the USA, with four times more couples destroying embryos after a successful birth than donating, F&S 66 (1996), 837-8. In general on ethics of assisted reproduction, Otago Bioethics Report 5 (1996), 3-9,

The Israeli High Court has ruled after a long case that a woman can use her embryo's to get pregnant despite the ex-husband's objection, Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 1164-5; Lancet 348 (1996), 1024. There is still some doubt whether she may need permission if she uses them in surrogacy arrangements. A book review of Crouch, M. & Manderson, L. New Motherhood: Cultural and Personal Transitions in the 1980s (Gordon & Breach Science, 1993, 214pp.) is in SSM 43 (1996), 1427-8. The Council of Europe Bioethics Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine allows use of embryos for research but not there specific creation for it, Nature 384 (1996), 298; and on views against this, BME 122 (1996), 9-11. A report on the Visible Embryo project on the Internet is in NS (26 Oct 1996), 6. A report on Hong Kong's Gender Choice Centre that opened in November 1993 is Chinese Bioethics Newsletter (Winter 1995), 3. It charges HK$28,000 for couples who want to choose the sex of their offspring using sperm separation, with a claimed 75% success rate.

A call for papers on new reproductive technologies: social, clinical and ethical issues is being made by the Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, by 1 May 1997; contact Dr Robert J. Edelmann (Email: R.Edelmann@surrey.ac.uk), Dept of Psychology, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU7 1UF, UK. On the technique of IVF an analysis of the UK data since 1991 found live birth rate was 13.9%, Templeton, A. et al. "Factors that affect outcome of in vitro fertilization treatment", Lancet 348 (1996), 1402-6, 1394. The North American registry data for USA in 1994 are in F&S 66 (1996), 697-705.

A discussion of surrogacy in Australia is Krohn, A. "Surrogacy arrangements in the Australian Capital Territory: What happened to uniform Australian policy?", Bioethics Research Notes 8 (1996), 37-8. It reviews the varying policy in different states. On surrogacy, Watson Janu, P. "The case for discouragement of surrogacy arrangements", J. Law & Med. 4 (1996), 72-81. The Supreme Court of Tasmania gave inheritance rights to embryos which were conceived in vitro before the death of the biological father although implanted in the mother after the father's death, Australian Law J. 70 (1996), 972-3. In the UK a 29 year old surrogate decided to keep the child, BMJ 314 (1997), 250. On the growing number of single women in Europe, Newsweek (20 Jan 1997), 41-5.

A US scientist Mark R. Hughes, who has been researching preimplantation diagnosis has been forced to resign from Georgetown Medical Center, and fired from the NIH, Probe V (No.10, 1997), 3, 8; Washington Post (15 Jan 1997); Nature 385 (1997), 190, 570. The reason for this is claimed to be religious groups opposing his work and research on embryos. More on preimplantation diagnosis in Germany (see Mueller in EJAIB 7 (1997)), is NatMed 3 (1997), 13.

The annual number of triplets and higher number multiple births in the USA rose from 1337 in 1980 to 4594 in 1994, Vital Health Statistics Series 1997; 21(55). About one-third of the increase in the triplet births can be explained by more women bearing children at a later age. The use of fertility-enhancing drugs and techniques may be responsible for the rest of the increase. On infertility treatment in general, FDA Consumer (Jan/Feb 1997), 18-21; and costs, F&S 66 (1996), 885-6, 896-903. Ring chromosome 14 has been detected after intracytoplasmic sperm injection, F&S 67 (1997), 164-5.

Dutch have tightened up embryo storage rules, BMJ 314 (1997), 537. An Israeli court has overturned the IVF regulations, BMJ 314 (1997), 538. A widow has won the battle over her husband's sperm, to allow her to go to Belgium to be inseminated with it, BMJ 314 (1997), 143, 461; Nature 385 (1997), 563; F&S 66 (1996), 889-95. On information sharing in semen donation, SSM 44 (1997), 673-80. On the discovery of sperm, F&S 67 (1997), 16-7. Criticism of the UK HFEA: Lancet 348 (1996), 1739.

Bill C-47, an Act respecting human reproductive technologies and commercial transactions relating to human reproduction, was introduced into the Canadian Parliament on June 14, 1996 (Canadian Bioethics Report, July 1996) and received its second reading in November 1996. It was then referred to the Standing Committee on Health for detailed study. For further information contact Pierre Rodrique, Clerk of the Sub-Committee on Bill C-47, Room 604, Wellington Bldg., House of Commons, Ottawa, ON K1A 0A6, Canada.

A number of reports on cloning continue: Geneletter 1(5) (March 1997); Nature Biotechnology 15 (1997), 293-4, 306; Nature 385 (1997), 769, 771; 386 (1997), 1, 8-9, 97-8, 119, 204; Science 275 (1997), 1271, 1733; Nature Medicine 3 (1997), 370-1; Nature Genetics 15 (1997), 323; Economist (1 March 1997), 16; Lancet 349 (1997), 705, 785; BMJ 314 (1997), 697; GEN (1 April 1997), 4, 35; Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (1997), 106-8; BME 126 (1997), 4-6, 8; NS (1 March 1997), 3, 4-5; (15 March 1997), 3, 4; (22 March 1997), 49; Time (10 March 1997), 28-41. (see also newspaper reports in section on Biotechnology and the Public). On philosophical issues, Roberts, M.A. "Human Cloning: A Case of No Harm Done? J. Med. Phil 21 (1996), 537-554. An editorial asking why the UK Ministry of Agriculture or Animal procedures Committee did not start discussion of the issues of cloning earlier, since they knew the state of the research, is BME 125 (1997), 1. A case study on cloning for education is on the Access Excellence site . A discussion of how science reporters also become moralizers is Probe V (11, April 1997), 1, 4. On 26 March The Japanese Ministry of Education issued a statement to stop human cloning research in its facilities, in case anyone was doing such research, following a statement of 21 March by the Science Council.

The best approach may be a moratorium rather than a ban on human cloning, but there will be much discussion. The European Parliament has called for a world ban on cloning, BMJ 314 (1997), 847; and the issue may get specifically included in the UNESCO Genome Declaration, to be discussed and adopted later this year. See also papers by Morioka, and Anees in EJAIB 7 ( May 1997), and the editorial.

Background on how the Council of Europe may regulate embryos is Byk, C. "A proposed draft protocol for the European Convention on Biomedicine relating to research on the human embryo and fetus", JME 23 (1997), 32-7. The European Bioethics Convention has been signed, see Medical law section below. On philosophical status of the human embryo, Howsepian, AA. "Lockwood on human identity and the primitive streak", JME 23 (1997), 38-41.

The UK lady, Mrs. Blood, who sought to take her dead husband's sperm to Belgium so she could implant it was awarded the sperm and is undergoing infertility treatment there, BME 125 (1997), 5. On the issue in general, Peng, FC. "Post-mortem insemination: Taking sperm from the dead", Health Law Review 5 (3) (1997), 18-24; Capen, K. "Lesbians, artificial insemination and human-rights laws: Can doctors place limits on their medical practices?", CMAJ 156 (1997), 839-40. In Australian three women in a defacto relationship have won a case against Victorian IVF legislation on the grounds it is discrimination, Lancet 349 (1997), 860. A book review is JME 23 (1997), 61-2. On the psychology of infertility, Lloyd, M. "Condemned to be meaningful: Non-response in studies of men and infertility", Sociol. Health & Illness 18 (1996), 433-54; Gillet, WR et al. "Feelings of couples who have had a child by donor insemination: the degree of congruence", J. Psychosom. Obstet. Gynecol. 17 (1996), 135-42; Daniels, KR. et al. "Families and donor insemination: the views of semen donors", Scand. J. Soc. Welfare 5 (1996), 229-37.

The Canadian Bill C-47 on reproduction has been scrapped since the government has called for an election (see EJAIB 7 (1997), 59. A Canadian study found single mothers were significantly more likely than the mothers in 2-parent families to be poor, to be 25 years of age or less, to have mental health problems (dissatisfaction with multiple aspects of life, affective disorder ever and 1 or more psychiatric disorders in the past year or ever) and to use mental health services; Lipman, EL. et al. "Single mothers in Ontario: sociodemographic, physical and mental health characteristics", CMAJ 156 (1997), 639-45; Avison, WR. "Single motherhood and mental health: implications for primary prevention", CMAJ 156 (1997), 661-3.

A change in male proportion among newborn infants in Europe is debated in Lancet 349 (1997), 804-6. A study showing the great increase in multiple birth pregnancies for a small group of women using ARTs is BMJ 314 (1997), 775-9. The letter by Verma in EJAIB 7 (1997), 67, explains the fate of the doctor who conducted the first Indian case of IVF, Hindustan Times (20 Feb 1997).

New members of the UK HFEA are listed in BME 125 (1997), 7. A method for injecting ooplasmic round spermatids is reported in J. Assisted Reprod. & Genetics 14 (1997), 55+; F&S 67 (1997), 559-61; and on male infertility, Lancet 349 (1997), 787-90; NEJM 336 (1997), 994+; JAMA 277 (1997), 963-4. There is continued debate in South Africa over cross-racial adoption, Newsweek (14 April 1997), 20-1.

A number of reports on cloning continue: Geneletter 1(5) (March 1997); Nature Biotechnology 15 (1997), 293-4, 306; Nature 385 (1997), 769, 771; 386 (1997), 1, 8-9, 97-8, 119, 204; Science 275 (1997), 1271, 1733; Nature Medicine 3 (1997), 370-1; Nature Genetics 15 (1997), 323; Economist (1 March 1997), 16; Lancet 349 (1997), 705, 785; BMJ 314 (1997), 697; GEN (1 April 1997), 4, 35; Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (1997), 106-8; BME 126 (1997), 4-6, 8; NS (1 March 1997), 3, 4-5; (15 March 1997), 3, 4; (22 March 1997), 49; Time (10 March 1997), 28-41. (see also newspaper reports in section on Biotechnology and the Public). On philosophical issues, Roberts, M.A. "Human Cloning: A Case of No Harm Done? J. Med. Phil 21 (1996), 537-554. An editorial asking why the UK Ministry of Agriculture or Animal procedures Committee did not start discussion of the issues of cloning earlier, since they knew the state of the research, is BME 125 (1997), 1. A case study on cloning for education is on the Access Excellence site . A discussion of how science reporters also become moralizers is Probe V (11, April 1997), 1, 4. On 26 March The Japanese Ministry of Education issued a statement to stop human cloning research in its facilities, in case anyone was doing such research, following a statement of 21 March by the Science Council.

The best approach may be a moratorium rather than a ban on human cloning, but there will be much discussion. The European Parliament has called for a world ban on cloning, BMJ 314 (1997), 847; and the issue may get specifically included in the UNESCO Genome Declaration, to be discussed and adopted later this year. See also papers by Morioka, and Anees in EJAIB 7 ( May 1997), and the editorial.

Background on how the Council of Europe may regulate embryos is Byk, C. "A proposed draft protocol for the European Convention on Biomedicine relating to research on the human embryo and fetus", JME 23 (1997), 32-7. The European Bioethics Convention has been signed, see Medical law section below. On philosophical status of the human embryo, Howsepian, AA. "Lockwood on human identity and the primitive streak", JME 23 (1997), 38-41.

The UK lady, Mrs. Blood, who sought to take her dead husband's sperm to Belgium so she could implant it was awarded the sperm and is undergoing infertility treatment there, BME 125 (1997), 5. On the issue in general, Peng, FC. "Post-mortem insemination: Taking sperm from the dead", Health Law Review 5 (3) (1997), 18-24; Capen, K. "Lesbians, artificial insemination and human-rights laws: Can doctors place limits on their medical practices?", CMAJ 156 (1997), 839-40. In Australian three women in a defacto relationship have won a case against Victorian IVF legislation on the grounds it is discrimination, Lancet 349 (1997), 860. A book review is JME 23 (1997), 61-2. On the psychology of infertility, Lloyd, M. "Condemned to be meaningful: Non-response in studies of men and infertility", Sociol. Health & Illness 18 (1996), 433-54; Gillet, WR et al. "Feelings of couples who have had a child by donor insemination: the degree of congruence", J. Psychosom. Obstet. Gynecol. 17 (1996), 135-42; Daniels, KR. et al. "Families and donor insemination: the views of semen donors", Scand. J. Soc. Welfare 5 (1996), 229-37.

The Canadian Bill C-47 on reproduction has been scrapped since the government has called for an election (see EJAIB 7 (1997), 59. A Canadian study found single mothers were significantly more likely than the mothers in 2-parent families to be poor, to be 25 years of age or less, to have mental health problems (dissatisfaction with multiple aspects of life, affective disorder ever and 1 or more psychiatric disorders in the past year or ever) and to use mental health services; Lipman, EL. et al. "Single mothers in Ontario: sociodemographic, physical and mental health characteristics", CMAJ 156 (1997), 639-45; Avison, WR. "Single motherhood and mental health: implications for primary prevention", CMAJ 156 (1997), 661-3.

A change in male proportion among newborn infants in Europe is debated in Lancet 349 (1997), 804-6. A study showing the great increase in multiple birth pregnancies for a small group of women using ARTs is BMJ 314 (1997), 775-9. The letter by Verma in EJAIB 7 (1997), 67, explains the fate of the doctor who conducted the first Indian case of IVF, Hindustan Times (20 Feb 1997).

New members of the UK HFEA are listed in BME 125 (1997), 7. A method for injecting ooplasmic round spermatids is reported in J. Assisted Reprod. & Genetics 14 (1997), 55+; F&S 67 (1997), 559-61; and on male infertility, Lancet 349 (1997), 787-90; NEJM 336 (1997), 994+; JAMA 277 (1997), 963-4. There is continued debate in South Africa over cross-racial adoption, Newsweek (14 April 1997), 20-1.

The ethics of cloning is discussed in numerous papers and letters, Lancet 349 (1997), 1401; NS (31 May 1997), 3, 12; SA (May 1997), 15-6; JAMA 277 (1997), 1023-6, 1102-3; Nature 388 (1997), 15; Dispatches 7 (2, Spring 1997), 1-6; Monash Bioethics Review 16 (2, April 1997), 1-5; Biomedical Ethics 2 (1, 1997); CSTPE Newsletter 6 (6, May/June 1997), 1-3; SRT Bulletin 13 (May 1997); The Sciences 37 (3, May/June 1997), 10-1; Univ. Pennsylvania Center for Bioethics Newsletter 2 (3, Spring 1997), 1, 5. the EU Group of Advisors on the Ethical Implications of Biotechnology has said in a statement of 28 May 1997, that the cloning of humans is ethically unacceptable, but animal cloning is acceptable if welfare is considered, Nature 387 (1997), 536. The 12 March 1997 resolution of the European Parliament is in BME 128 (May 1997), 10-11. The UK House of Commons Science and Technology Committee has called to modify the UK law to ban cloning, GenEthics News 17 (April/May 1997), 1-2. RAFI made a statement on 8 May against cloning and the patents that have been applied for, NS (26 April 1997), 25. The International Publication Numbers on the patents are WO 97/07668 and 97/07669, and include the method for nuclear transfer cloning. President Clinton announced on 6 June that he would send legislation to Congress to outlaw the use of cloning techniques to make a human child, following recommendations of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, Lancet 349 (1997), 1752; Science 276 (1997), 1185-6, 1640; NatGen 15 (1997), 323-4; Nature 387 (1997), 217, 323, 644, 748, 754; USA Today (6 June 1997), 1. The Director of WHO has also called it unacceptable, JAMA 277 (1997), 1105.

In Japan a survey by Yomiuri Shimbun found 54% want to have some type of law to prevent cloned humans, Yomiuri Shimbun (9 May 1997), 2. In the USA in June there was debate over how a researcher conducted embryo research inspite of a US law against it using federal funds, Nature 387 (1997), 833. Some animals (18 species) use polyembrony for reproduction, such as Armedillo. A group of scientists from the International Academy of Humanism signed a letter in Defense of Cloning and the Integrity of Scientific Research, rejecting those who are attempting to outlaw it, Science 276 (1997), 1341. Other scientists defend cloning in animals only, Nature 387 (1997), 324; 388 (1997), 6.

On the decrease in sperm levels see papers in Environment & Health News 2 (No.3, March 1997), 12. Chemotherapy induces transient aneuploidy in human sperm, NatGen 16 (1997), 74-8. The UK GMC has issued guidelines on male circumcision, BMJ 314 (1997), 1573; and a study suggests it has little affect on health, JAMA 277 (1997), 1052-7. Others suggest it has bad psychological affects, Lancet 349 (1997), 1257-8. The ethics are discussed in Denniston, GC. "Circumcision: An ethical and human rights impact assessment", CQHE 6 (1997), 89-92; Price, C. "Male circumcision: an ethical and legal affront", BME 128 (May 1997), 13-9.. On analgesia for it, NEJM 336 (1997), 1197-201, 1244-5. Ritual female circumcision is reported in Asali, A. et al. "Ritual female genital surgery among Bedouin in Israel", Archives Sexual Behaviour 24 (1995), 573-7. A study on European noble families suggests daughters of older fathers may die earlier, Science 276 (1997), 1503. Cattle breeders can now buy sex-specific sperm from XY Inc, Fort Collins, Colorado, Science 276 (1997), 1503.

A special report is Ethics Committee, American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Ethical Considerations of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (May 1997), F&S Supplement 9S. The duties of ethical committees are discussed in J. Assisted Reproduction & Genetics 13 (1996), 689-97. Also on the ethics, Baird, P. "Individual interests, societal interests, and reproductive technologies", Persp. Biol. & Med. 40 (1997), 440-51. A number of abstracts from the 16th World Congress on IVF and Assisted Reproduction are in J. Assisted Reproduction & Genetics 14 (1997), 7S, 38-9S, 46-9S. Also on ethics, CQHE 6 (1997), 148-56; Humane Health Care International 13 (1997), 6-7, 29-31.

On IVF in Singapore, J. Assisted Reproduction & Genetics 14 (1997), 527-35; in Victoria, Australia, J. Assisted Reproduction & Genetics 13 (1996), 5-8; Western Australia, pp. 197-200; Germany, pp. 193-5; Czech, pp. 195-6; and an overview, J. Assisted Reproduction & Genetics 14 (1997), 69-72. On the ethics in Islam see, Begum, H. "Issues related to implementation of reproduction technology in Islamic societies", Bioethics 11 (1997), 341-7. A report on the Hong Kong bill is Becker, GK. "Hong Kong's human reproductive technology bill", Ethics and Society Newsletter (Centre for Applied Ethics, Hong Kong Baptist University), 5 (May 1997), 2-7. A survey of the world found 29 jurisdictions have relevant statutory legislation on IVF, IAB News 5 (Spring 1997), 2-4.

A debate on whether egg donors should be paid is in BMJ 314 (1997), 1400-3; and on surrogacy, Lancet 349 (1997), 1487. Oocyte donation can have increased rates of conception for some infertile couples, F&S 67 (1997), 717-23; but sisters may not be ideal donors, F&S 67 (1997), 912-6. A review on guidelines for sperm donation is Meirow, D. & Schenker, JG. "The current status of sperm donation in assisted reproduction technology: Ethical and legal considerations", J. Assisted Reproduction & Genetics 14 (1997), 133-8; and on anonymity, Bioethics 11 (1997), 336-40. A 63 year old first time mother gave birth to a baby transferred after IVF, Paulson, RJ. et al. "Successful pregnancy in a 63-year old woman", F&S 67 (1997), 949-51; Newsweek (5 May 1997), 37; Guardian (5 June 1997), 4. Age effects are discussed in F&S 67 (1997), 702-10. The question whether infertility treatment should be offered to couples at high genetic risk is in Biomedical Ethics 2 (1, 1997). On the need for counseling, J. Assisted Reproduction & Genetics 14 (1997), 181-91. The success rate of IVF and safety seem similar to natural conception, F&S 67 (1997), 1077-83. The auditing of success rate is discussed in F&S 67 (1997), 830-6; J. Assisted Reproduction & Genetics 13 (1996), 1-5. A paper on the results for women is Purdy, LM. "What can progress in reproductive technology mean for women", J. Med. & Phil. 21 (1996), 499-514. On the relationship between fetus and mother, J. Med. & Phil. 21 (1996),515-35.

UK doctors can not use law to force cesarean sections on unwilling mothers, Lancet 349 (1997), 1006;and the details of Re "MB" on 18 Feb. 1997 are in BME 127 (April 1997), 21-4. Delivery after one cesarean is successful 50-60% of the time, AJOG 176 (1997), 741-4. Letters on the right number of cesarean sections are in Lancet 349 (1997), 1557.

Reappraisal of postmenopausal hormone therapy is called for in NEJM 336 (1997), 1821-2. On sexual dysfunction, BMJ 314 (1997), 1432; NEJM 336 (1997), 1766. The most important factor for success for cryoimplantation was embryo quality, J. Assisted Reproduction & Genetics 14 (1997), 201+; and on ethical issues, J. Assisted Reproduction & Genetics 13 (1996), 755-61.

The Committee of government experts to UNESCO met in 22-25 July, 1997, in Paris and added several items to the UNESCO IBC Declaration on the Human Genome. A revised draft has been released. Perhaps the most talked about addition is Article 11 is modified to read "Practices which are contrary to human dignity, such as reproductive cloning of human beings, shall not be permitted. States and competent international organizations are invited to cooperate in identifying such practices and in determining, nationally or internationally, appropriate measures to be taken to ensure that the principles set out in this Declaration are respected". This has been criticized, Nature 388 (1997), 501, 508; as it has by some members of the IBC who had tried to make the Declaration not to mention any techniques. It is difficult to see how splitting an embryo into to, as a twin clone, to help the chances of a successful pregnancy for infertility treatment is contrary to human dignity. However strong pressure from Germany and Canada pushed the inclusion of the phrase. The Declaration is to be adopted in Oct/Nov at the General Assembly of UNESCO, and we can hope that there will be more discussion of the consequences of inclusion of a ban which is not universally seen as logical.

On the five year ban on human cloning in the USA, Shapiro, HT, "Ethical and policy issues of human cloning", Science 277 (1997), 195-6; NS (14 June 1997), 7; JAMA 278 (1997), 13-4; GenEthics News 18 (June/July 1997), 3. Also on ethics of cloning (see previous issue), Nature 388 (1997), 505, 611; NatMed 3 (1997), 710; BioScience 47 (1997), 340; HCR 27 (1997), 5; KIEJ 7 (1997), 171-80; Otago Bioethics Report 6 (2, 1997), 11-5; CSTPE Newsletter 7 (1, 1997), 2-3; GEN 17 (August 1997), 1, 6, 50; NatBio 15 (1997), 406, 488, 600, 609, 705. The French Bioethics Committee report on the cloning is in Les Cahiers 12 (July 1997), 17-39. Human stem cells from embryos can be grown, and have been used for research for some time, NS (19 July 1997), 3, 4. However to prove that they are ES cells requires mixing into embryos which is outlawed in many countries. On animal models see the section on animal genetic engineering above, for example nuclear transfer in cows (Biology of Reproduction 57 (1997), 204-13) and sheep is known to work.

The ethics and policy of surrogacy in New Zealand is discussed in Otago Bioethics Report 6 (2, 1997), 1-4. There are also several other papers on embryos and regulation of research in the same issue. A call to think rationally about surrogacy is NS (12 July 1997), 46; and the UK policy is being reviewed, BMJ 314 (1997), 1782. The Victorian (Australia) Infertility Treatment Act 1995 is in IDHL 48 (1997), 24-33. The director of the NIH in the USA faced tough questions over the embryo experiments of Mark Hughes in 1996, and said that they would be more careful in the future, Science 276 (1997), 1963.

A study in the USA suggests the perinatal outcome of twins after IVF is the same as in vivo fertilization and pregnancy, O&G 89 (1997), 368-72; however those receiving oocyte donations have complications due to multiple gestation, O&G 89 (1997), 519-23. Egg donors over 33 years are recommended to be generally excluded from donation programs, F&S 68 (1997), 370-2; and age related decline in fertility is thought to be related to degenerative oocytes rather than aneuploidy, F&S 68 (1997), 265-71. A report on the birth of a baby girl after transfer of anucleate donor oocyte cytoplasm into recipient eggs is Lancet 350 (1997), 186-7. On the loss of fertility, BMJ 315 (1997), 66.

On 24 June, 1997, a judge in Cairo overturned a ban on the practice of female genital mutilation, Reproductive Freedom News VI (12 July 1997), 12; Lancet 350 (1997), 41.

Discussions of the bans on cloning and whether it is a cause for concern include a series of papers in The Sciences 37 (5, 14-64; Ass. Politics & Life Sciences News 2 (1, 1997), 1-3; Nature Genetics 16 (1997), 317-8; Klotzko, AJ. "The debate about Dolly", Bioethics 11 (1997), 427-38; iii-v; Nature 389 (1997), 433. The Council of Europe added a clause banning human reproductive cloning in October, 1997, to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, Nature 389 (1997), 656. The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology announced approval of a moratorium on human reproductive cloning by nuclear transfer, Nature 389 (1997), 319.

The Health Council of the Netherlands has released an English report, Committee on In vitro fertilization (IVF), 138+41pp, No 1997/03E, 1997 (ISBN 90-5549-171-3). There considered there were enough IVF centers already established and modeled the projected demand for such services. A number of guidelines on the practice and the roles of lawyers and medics are given, as well as for research. A review is in BME 130 (1997), 3-4. Whether the Canadian government will eventually enact a reproductive technology Act like C-47 is not sure, the views of the National Council on Bioethics (NCBHR) are in NCBHR Communique 8 (1, 1997), 8-10.

The ethics of prohibiting sex-selection is in Dickens, BM. "Conflicts between protecting and respecting women: The prohibition of sex-selected birth", Humane Health Care International 13 (2, 1997), 14-5. A suggestion to exclude egg donor's under 33 years is made in a paper in F&S 68 (1997), 370-2. Genetic counseling before ICSI is recommended in Lancet 350 (1997), 490. On access to ART by minority groups, Aust.NZ. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 37 (1997), 79-85.

The 12 March 1997 European Parliament resolution against cloning is in IDHL 48 (1997), 440-1; and the Council of Europe Bioethics Convention was modified to outlaw reproductive cloning, Lancet 350 (1997), 1012. The UK expressed concern over the extent of a ban, Lancet 350 (1997), 1151. The report of the European Group of Advisors on the Ethical Aspects of Biotechnology, "Ethical aspects of cloning techniques", is Politics and the Life Sciences 16 (1997), 309-12; and commentaries from policies made on cloning, pp. 299-308. Papers responding to the US NBAC report and the summary of that report (pp. 7-8) are Childress, JF. "The challenges of public ethics: reflections on NBAC's report", HCR 27 (Sept. 1997), 9-11; Wolf, SM. "Ban cloning? Why NBAC is wrong", HCR 27 (Sept. 1997), 12-5; Campbell, CS, "Prophecy and policy", HCR 27 (Sept. 1997), 15-7; Callahan, D. "Cloning: The work not done", HCR 27 (Sept. 1997), 18-20; Parens, E. "Tools from and for democratic deliberations", HCR 27 (Sept. 1997), 20-4. The recommendations are also in BME 131 (1997), 8-9; and from the CRG, BME 131 (1997), 10-11. The report in French from the French National Ethics Committee is in Les Cahiers 15 (Oct 1997), 3-19. Also on cloning, an Editorial, and a report from 26-27 June, 1997 Washington DC meeting on cloning, in Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (1997), 355-6, 491-8; EuroScreen 8 (Autumn 1997), 1-4. The Council for Responsible Genetics and RAFI called for a stronger ban on cloning, GeneWatch 10 (Dec 1997), 3-5; European Journal of Health Law 4 (June 1997), 189-93. As is the UK Genetics Forum, Splice of Life 4 (No. 3, Jan 1998), 1-2.

In January, 1998, Richard Seed in the USA announced that he would help several couples obtain a human clone, from a Chicago clinic, Time (19 Jan 1998), 34; Nature 391 (1998), 211, 218-9. This has led more to work for a law to ban cloning, but it could be challenged. The UNESCO Declaration passed by 186 countries of UNESCO is not legally binding. A review of new techniques in assisted reproduction is Time (1 Dec 1997), 48-54.

A new company, RightBaby is marketing a new gender selection technique, BMJ 315 (1997), 1386. On sex-specific antigens in cows, J. Reprod. & Fertility 110 (1997), 195-204. Results of a 1994 study of genetic counselors are in Wertz, DC. & Fletcher, JC, "Ethical and social issues in prenatal sex selection: A survey of geneticists in 37 nations", SSM 46 (1998), 255-73. Of 2903 geneticists, 29% would perform prenatal diagnosis for a couple with 4 girls who want a boy and would abort a female fetus, while 20% would offer a referral. On female infanticide in India, George, SM. "Female infanticide in Tamil Nadu, India: from recognition back to denial?", Reproductive Health Matters 10 (1997), 124-32. It is spreading to new areas, Hindu (7 January, 1998), 4. On gender inequality in China, SSM 45 (1997), 1885-98.

The recommendations on ethical issues from the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) are in BME 133 (1997), 8-9; IDHL 48 (1997), 446-7; and from the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, on heterologous assisted fertilization, BME 133 (1997), 10-1. On the rapidity of integration of IVF into clinics above other alternatives, Blank, RH. "Assisted reproduction and reproductive rights: The case of in vitro fertilization", Politics and the Life Sciences 16 (1997), 279-88. On a Catholic view, Doerfler, JF. "Is GIFT compatible with the teaching of Donum Vitae?", Linacre Quarterly 64 (Feb 1997), 16-29. Consent in assisted procreation in the UK is reviewed in BME 131 (1997), 3-4. A review is Greil, AL. "Infertility and psychological distress: A critical review of the literature", SSM 45 (1997), 1679-704.

On surrogacy, a review, BME 132 (1997), 3-4. In the past decade it is reported that 28 Australian couples used the California-based Center for Surrogate Parenting and Egg Donation service, paying about US$55,000 to have a baby, and another 4 pregnancies are reported underway, The Australian (10 Sept. 1997), quoted in Monash Bioethics Review 16 (October 1997), 4. A surrogate mother in Italy gave birth to twins, one for each for two unrelated couples, Lancet 350 (1997), 1307. The recommendations for a new planning decree in the Netherlands are in Network 12 (Oct 1997), 3-4. In New Jersey gay couples have been given the same status for adoption as heterosexual couples, Time (29 Dec 1997), 69. Adoption decisions are often unpredictable, Family Law Quarterly 31 (1997), 169-214. Foster care can be racist in New York City, AJPH 87 (1997), 1844-9.

The New American Association of Tissue Banks standards for semen banking are in F&S 68 (1997), 597-600. A legal opinion on the Blood case of posthumous reproduction is Morgan, D. & Lee, RG. "In the name of the father? Ex parte Blood: Dealing with novelty and anomaly", Modern Law Review 60 (1997), 840-56. The UK government is reviewing the law of such cases, BMJ 315 (1997), 834. A book review on ethical issues is JAMA 278 (1997), 1202-3. There are growing numbers of births from donor eggs, with questions on what to tell children, New York Times (18 Jan 1998).The number of embryos should be regulated, F&S 68 (1997), 784-6. The report of the Ethics Committee of the Amer. Soc. Reprod. Med. "Informed consent and the use of gametes and embryos for research", F&S 68 (1997), 780-1.

There is debate over intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) risks, BMJ 315 (1997), 1245-6, 1260-6; NS (22 Nov 1997), 5; F&S 68 (1997), 892-7. Also on techniques, Lancet 350 (1997), 1559-60. On use of anucleate donor oocyte cytoplasm in recipient eggs, Lancet 350 (1997), 961-2. The use of individual implantation rate may be a better index for success of results, F&S 68 (1997), 816-9. The roles of estrogens in males is discussed in Nature 390 (1997), 447-8, 509-12. They raise concerns over environmental estrogen exposure. A report on 100 consecutive cases of selective termination of an abnormal fetus in multifetal gestation is O&G 90 (1997), 606-10.

The US federal government has been considering a number of bills outlawing cloning, spurred by the plans of Richard Seed (though this may also be now unlikely even without any legal ban), GenEthics News 21 (Jan 1998), 1, 5; Science 279 (1998), 315; NS (17 Jan. 1998), 3-5. There has been opposition from scientific organizations to the proposed laws, Nature 391 (1998), 526-7, 623, 730. The FDA has said it has the power to police cloning, Nature 391 (1998), 318. The US in general does not regulate ARTs, NatMed 4 (1998), 137-8; despite the birth of 16,520 babies from ARTs in 1995 alone. A paper on legal issues is Wrobel, K. "Cloning technology and the human species: Issues of compatibility", Health Law Review 6 (1998), 3-13. Also on cloning, BMJ 316 (1998), 167, 485; Nature 391 (1998), 549-50; Lancet 351 (1998), 151; NS (24 Jan. 1998), 41. The UK has started public consultation, BMJ 316 (1998), 411; Nature 391 (1998), 523; Lancet 351 (1998), 427. Japan's Council for Science and Technology is considering the need for a legal ban, Nature 391 (1998), 313.

A philosophical paper on the use of genetic screening is Stein, E. "Choosing the sexual orientation of children", Bioethics 12 (1998), 1-24. It argues that selection would contribute to discrimination. A commentary is Ten, CL. "The use of reproductive technologies in selecting the sexual orientation, the race, and the sex of children", Bioethics 12 (1998), 45-8. Against sex selection and racism is Berkowitz, JM. & Snyder, JW. "Racism and sexism in medically assisted conception", Bioethics 12 (1998), 25-44.

On the role of doctors and the ethics of ART, MJA 167 (1997), 318-20. In Los Angeles a 4kg baby boy was born after transfer of an embryo frozen for 7 years (Associated Press 18 Feb. 1998). A true hermaphrodite chimera has been reported after ART, NEJM 338 (1998), 166-9. Technology may soon allow reliable freezing of oocytes, F&S 69 (1998), 1-7. The boy is fraternal twins to the couples' first child born 8 years ago. On mass embryo adoption, CQHE 7 (1998), 101-3. An Australian study found most parents did not plan to tell their children of use of donor insemination, Durna, EM. et al. "Donor insemination: attitudes of parents towards disclosure", MJA 167 (1998), 256-9. Mice may be used to grow human sperm, NS (31 Jan. 1998), 3-4. In general on ART, F&S 69 (1998), 170; NEJM 338 (1998), 194-5. The use of preimplantation diagnosis is discussed in Human Genetics 102 (1998), 117-23.

Israeli geneticists are most willing to reveal the sex of the fetus in the Wertz and Fletcher survey of geneticists, Ha'aretz (10 Feb. 1998). On infertility in the Bible, F&S 69 (1998), 8-10; and the social state of childlessness today, MJA 167 (1997), 321-3.

The USA is reconsidering a ban on human cloning, Lancet 351 (1998), 506, 578; NEJM 337 (1998), 905-6; BMJ 316 (1998), 573; though some laws have been halted by biomedical researchers, Science 279 (1998), 1123-4. A series of 13 papers on ethics and cloning humans are in CQHE 7 (1998), 115-205, 218-222; also Harris, J., "Goodbye Dolly? The ethics of human cloning", JME 23 (1997), 353-60; also pp. 349-52; NS (7 Feb. 1998), 46. On crafting guidelines for cloning, Bonnicksen, AL. "Procreation by cloning: Crafting anticipatory guidelines", JLME 25 (1997), 273-82; Casabona, CM. "Legal limitations on research and its results? The cloning paradigm", Law & the Human Genome Review 6 (Jan-June 1997), 21-41. On Christian views on cloning, Ethics in Medicine 14 (1998), 8-30. The UK government has been seeking public consultation on cloning, BME 135 (1998), 3-4. A book review of Silver, LM. Remaking Eden: Cloning and Beyond in a Brave New World (Avon/Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1998, 315pp.) is Nature 392 (1998), 771.

Guidelines on gamete donation from the Corsendonk consensus document for the EU are in Human Reproduction 13 (1998), 500-1. On sperm donation from a comatose man, CQHE 7 (1998), 209-17; and on embryo donation, F&S 69 (1998), 350-2. Age limits for egg donation are debated in F&S 69 (1998), 187+. The New York Supreme Court is considering an embryo custody case, Time (6 April 1998), 56. Most of the effect of age on fertilization in ICSI is from maternal age, Human Reproduction 13 (1998), 334-8. ICSI can be used by men with nonmosaic Klinefelter's syndrome, NEJM 337 (1998), 588-90; and on the safety of ICSI, F&S 69 (1998), 605-6.

The success of ART is reviewed in USA in F&S 69 (1998), 389-98; and in Holland in Human Reproduction 13 (1998), 339-41. In the USA and Canada in 1995 from 281 programs there were 23% deliveries per retrieval procedure of oocytes. Reducing multiple pregnancy from embryo transfer is the most important improvement required in safety, F&S 69 (1998), 210-5. Social aspects of infertility are reviewed in Human Reproduction 13 (1998), 232-41; Lancet 351 (1998), 841; and in Gambia, SSM 46 (1998), 891-9. On regulations for IVF programs, JLME 25 (1997), 283-291. Sex selection is discussed in Marti, FP. "Sex selection: legal aspects and critical appraisal", Law & the Human Genome Review 6 (Jan-June 1997), 85-100.

A paper defending surrogacy is McLachlan, HV. "Defending commercial surrogate motherhood against Van Niekerk and Van Zyl", JME 23 (1997), 344-8. Embryo research regulations in the USA are reviewed in Human Reproduction 13 (1998), 1-4.

A number of papers discuss cloning, Science 280 (1998), 509; NatMed 4 (1998), 736-7; NEJM 337 (1998), 1770-1; NS (21 Feb. 1998), 8; (9 May 1998), 26-37); (13 June 1998), 51. Safety is one of the key issues at the moment, NatMed 4 (1998), 644. A paper arguing that the press has done a bad job in reporting cloning is Hopkins, PD. "How popular media represent cloning as an ethical problem", HCR 28 (March-April 1998), 6-13. The summary of a report from the Health Council of the Netherlands on research with human embryonic stem cells is Network 13 (May 1998), 11. Two new books on clones are Harris, John, Clones, Genes and Immortality. Ethics and the Genetic Revolution (Oxford University Press 1998, 328pp); Russo, Giovanni, La Clonazione di Soggetti Umani (Instituto Teologico S. Tommaso (Italy) ISBN 88-86212-01-1, 79pp.) Cloning may help IVF efficiency, NS (9 May 1998), 6.

A paper followed by many commentaries is Bonnicksen, AL. "Transplanting nuclei between human eggs: Implications for germ-line genetics", Politics & Life Sciences 17 (1998), 3-10, commentaries pp.11-38. The New York State task Force on Life and the Law recommendations on ART are in BME 138 (May 1998), 8-9. A critique is Munzarova, M. "A critique of the FIGO recommendations", BME 137 (April 1998), 13-6.

Two papers on semen donation are Daniels, K. "The controversy regarding privacy versus disclosure among patients using donor gametes in assisted reproductive technology", J. Assisted Reproduction & Genetics 14 (1997), 373-5; Daniels, KR. & Hall, DJ. "Semen donor recruitment strategies - a non-payment based approach", Human Reproduction 12 (1997), 2330-5. The second paper argues for a social marketing in terms of esteem rather than payment. A new book on the issue is Daniels, K. & Haimes, E., eds, Donor Insemination: International Social Science Perspectives (Cambridge University Press, 1998, 208pp., US$30). A discussion of a gamete registry is F&S 69 (1998), 809-11, 812-3. Discussion of cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is in F&S 69 (1998), 996-8, 999-1000. Zygotes that were frozen after ICSI appear to have less ability to implant, F&S 69 (1998), 630-5. There may also be some impact of ICSI on mild delays in development around one year of age, Lancet 351 (1998), 1524-5, 1529-34. Chromosomal abnormalities are also reported, F&S 69 (1998), 904-8. A comparison of 36 French research committees on ICSI finds variation, Lancet 351 (1998), 1121-3. While Viagra pill for male impotence was been approved in the USA in March several deaths (as discussed above) have made many question its use, Lancet 351 (1998), 1037; BMJ 316 (1998), 1112. A law is being developed in new York to stop sperm harvesting from corpses, so that only the partner may request sperm, NS (21 March 1998), 23.

A discussion of infertility, is CMAJ 158 (1998), 1345-8; F&S 69 (1998), 617-23, 627-9; BMJ 316 (1998), 1438-41. A table comparing analysis of live birth rates in different UK IVF clinics is BMJ 316 (1998), 1701-5, with a range from 5-24% in success. Success rates for multiple cycles of IVF do not reduce much, F&S 69 (1998), 1005-9. A claim that the HFEA discriminates against children is BMJ 316 (1998), 1094-5. Italy is introducing a law to regulate ART, Lancet 351 (1998), 1796. On European regulation in ART, Oxford J. Legal Studies 18 (1998), 207-33. A paper on predicting the probabilities of pregnancy from IVF is O&G 91 (1998), 696-700.

Genetic causes of female infertility are analyzed by mutant mice in AJHG 62 (1998), 1282-7; and male infertility, AJHG 62 (1998), 1274-81; BMJ 316 (1998), 1405-6. A paper on postnatal growth and health in children born after cryopreservation as embryos is Lancet 351 (1998), 1085-90. Letters on the upper age for IVF are in F&S 69 (1998), 976.

A report from the Health Council of the Netherlands has suggested that the Dutch government reconsider the current ban on fetal cell transplants Network 13 (May 1998), 11-2. On sexuality, Nature 393 (1998), 131-2, 323

There is increased cesarean section rates with insurance in Shanghai, AJPH 88 (1998), 777-80. A UK study suggests the threshold to perform a cesarean has lowered, Br. J. O&G 105 (1998), 621-6. There is still variation between hospitals, JAMA 279 (1998), 1968-72. A UK woman with pre-eclampsia was given the right to refuse a caesarean, Lancet 351 (1998), 1499. health Trusts that force women to have caesareans face damages, BMJ 316 (1998), 1480. On hormone replacement therapies risk, Brit. J. O&G 105 (1998), 376-9; BMJ 316 (1998), 1842-4.

The Science Council of Japan proposed a ban on human cloning research, on social, moral and scientific grounds, Lancet 352 (1998), 465. They will be official guidelines, and followed the death of a cloned calf and the surrogate mother in Japan. Papers on the challenges of regulating human cloning are in NEJM 339 (1998), 119-25; "Human cloning and substantive due process", Harvard Law Review 111 (1998), 2348-65; Strong, C. "Cloning and infertility", CQHE 7 (1998), 279-93. Book reviews on cloning are NEJM 339 (1998), 134-5. A paper on ethics of cloning by A. Sutton is Ethics & Medicine 14 (1998), 33+. A discussion of mouse cloning and freezing sperm is Science 281 (21 August 1998). Cloning is also an issue that has benefited science, see Bioethics Research Notes 10 (1998), 13-5. On natural selection for twinning, Nature 394 (1998), 533.

A review is Marshall, LA. "Intergenerational gamete donation: Ethical and societal implications", AJOG 178 (1998), 1171-6. A book review of Daniels, K. & Haimes, E., eds, Donor insemination: International Social Science Perspectives (Cambridge University Press 1998) is NS (18 July 1998), 48. On regulation of ART, Science 281 (1998), 651-2; BMJ 317 (1998), 543. Discussion of the future role of ovarian autotransplantation are F&S 70 (1998), 20-1. A simple technique allows sperm to be extracted from recently killed men and some cases have been used to produce children, NS (18 July 1998), 5; Lancet 352 (1998), 382. On the reducing sperm counts over time, Lancet 352 (1998), 552. A series of papers on the ethics of new IVF techniques are in JLME 26 (1998), 1-37.

An ethical analysis of the birth of 7 children is Klotzko, AJ. "Medical miracle or medical mischief? The saga of the McCaughey septuplets" is HCR 28 (May 1998), 5-8. The possible harms to children born by frozen embryos or ICSI are discussed in Lancet 352 (1998), 452-5, 578. Genetic screening of prospective oocyte donors can identify donors without history of genetic disease, F&S 70 (1998), 52-5. The access of older women to ART is discussed in Dispatches 8 (2, Spring 1998), 1-6.

The Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology approved preimplantation diagnosis for prevention of genetic disorders, Nature 394 (1998), 110. Two embryo transfer may be the preferred option for IVF, NEJM 339 (1998), 573-7, 624-5. Mandated coverage of health insurance for IVF services in Massachusetts led to increased use but not excessive cost, F&S 70 (1998), 22-9. The summary of the report of the Health Council of the Netherlands on IVF-related research is in BME 139 (1998), 9-11. The full report in English is 98pp., and discusses preimplantation diagnosis, research with improving IVF, on embryos and evaluation methods. The health Council also has a compilation of 1997 report executive summaries, Email: order@gr.nl

There are expectations that more people will have infertility problems in the future, F&S 70 (1998), 30-4. A discussion of reproductive aging is F&S 70 (1998), 204-6. Alcohol decreases fertility, BMJ 317 (1998), 505-10. On activation of oocytes, and fertility treatment in general, F&S 70 (1998), 170-2; BMJ 317 (1998), 289. Increased use of a post coital test is not associated with pregnancy rate, BMJ 317 (1998), 502-5. A discussion of love chemistry is NS (25 July 1998), 26-9; and the clitoris has a larger structure than previously thought probably because of reluctance of 19th century anatomists to carefully examine it, NS (1 August 1998), 34-5; J. Urology 159 (1998), 1892+. A discussion of animal mating and who will father more offspring is Perspectives in Biology & Medicine 41 (1998), 439+. On female circumcision, Health Care Analysis 6 (1998), 14-55.

Human cloning is debated further in J. Assisted Reproduction & Genetics 15 (1998), 1-8; NatBio16 (1998), 798; Science 281 (1998), 413. Japan has imposed stricter measures to stop human cloning research after a STA report said it was "ethically unacceptable", NatMed 4 (1998), 993. A discussion of organ tissue development from stem cells is Newsweek (16 Nov. 1998), 60.

In a legal battle in Australia for 15 months, a child born in a surrogacy arrangement has been returned to her birth mother following a High Court ruling on 11 Sept. 1998; Monash Bioethics Review 17 (Oct. 1998), 3. The other couple can have access 4 days a month and during school holidays! The UK HFEA is imposing tougher controls on surrogacy, BME 141 (1998), 3-5. A comment why children should not be sold is NY Times (27 Oct. 1998).

The Genetics and IVF Institute in Virginia, USA is offering parents sex preference choices, BMJ 317 (1998), 768. On the issues of consent for disposal of excess embryos made through IVF, HCR 28 (July 1998), 22-23. Legal aspects of AID and parental claims are discussed in HCR 28 (Sept. 1998), 22-4. WHO standards for semen quality may not be high enough to ensure that all men in the normal range are fertile, Lancet 352 (1998), 1172-7. In general on law and ethics of ART, NEJM 339 (1998), 935-9.

Hormone replacement therapy is discussed in Lancet 352 (1998), 836. Designer estrogens are reviewed in SA (Oct. 1998), 60-7. A UK study found lawyers are treated the same way as the general public for cesareans, Lancet 352 (1998), 1038.

In mid-December, 1998, South Korean researchers announced the destruction of a early preembryo they claimed had been made by nuclear transfer (cloned) from an adult somatic cell, at Kyunghee University, Nature 396 (1998), 713. South Korean law bans the implantation of genetically engineered human embryos, and a draft bill on cloning is expected in 1999. There have been a number of books discussing cloning. One that is positive towards it is Pence, GE. Who's Afraid of Human Cloning? (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1998, 181pp., US$10.95); a review is JAMA 280 (25 Nov. 1998). More papers on cloning include: NEJM 339 (1998), 1558-9; University of Illinois at Chicago Dept. Medical Education Bulletin 5 (no.2, Jan 1999), 2; and on selling eggs, pp.3-4. See also <www.uic.edu/com/mcme/ethics/>. Richard Seed announced plans to make a clinic for cloning in Japan, but the Ministry of Health and Welfare would not issue a license for such a clinic, Lancet 352 (1998), 1917; NS (12 Dec. 1998), 26. There have also been calls to strengthen UK law to protect against reproductive clones. The World Medical Association (WMA) resolution of 10 Nov. 1997 on cloning is in IDHL 49 (1998), 554-5; and the French Bioethics Committee statement is IDHL 49 (1998), 543-9.

Two research groups have reported isolating and immortalizing human pluripotent stem cells, Thomson, JA. et al. "Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts", Science 282 (1998), 1145-7; Shamblott, MJ. et al. "Derivation of pluripotent stem cells from cultured human primordial germ cells", PNAS 95 (1998), 13726-31; BMJ 317 (1998), 1337; GEN (15 Nov. 1998), 1, 13; NS (12 Dec. 1998), 5; Science News 154 (1998), 293; Lancet 352 (1998), 1605; NatBio 17 (1999), 9, 11, 23-4. A paper on promoting trophoblast stem cell production is Science 282 (1998), 2072-5. In another report Advanced Cell technology of Worcester, MA, USA claimed it had made a hybrid cell by inserting a human cell nucleus into an enucleated cow cell; Science 282 (1998), 1390-1. There are a variety of comments made, GenEthics News 26 (Oct/Nov 1998), 1, 3; Science 282 (1998), 1014-5, 1061-2, 1824-5, 1962-3, 2161. The US DHHS issued a legal opinion saying that research on human embryonic stem cells does not fall under the ban on federal funding for human embryo research because the cells are not an organism as in the ban on embryo research, Nature 396 (1998), 506; 397 (1999), 185-6. An editorial in Nature called for the research ban to be lifted, Nature 396 (1998), 97, 104-5. President Clinton issued a letter on the subject on 14 Nov. 1998, with an immediate response from the Bioethics Advisory Commission, see <http://www.bioethics.giv/clinton_letter.html>, Nature 396 (1998), 208.

The report of the UK HFEA on the Statutory Storage Period for Embryos is in IJB 9 (No. 3, 1998), 127-30. A press dossier of the European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies, Adoption of an Opinion on Human Embryo Research that was issued on 23 Nov. 1998 has been prepared (contact: Email: isabelle.arnal@sg.cec.be). They opposed funding bans for research on embryos, Nature 396 (1998), 301. They attempt to find a way forward for a common European position, given the range of laws already seen in the EU. On the creation of that group of 9 experts, IDHL 49 (1998), 560. The report of a Spanish Constitutional Court Ruling (19 Dec 1996) on Law 42/1998 on the donation of human embryos is Law and the Human Genome Review 8 (1998), 119-36. A call for postal communication with parents of cryopreserved embryos is made given problems to contact the embryo "parents", F&S 70 (1998), 949-51.

A UK HFEA report has recommended that cloning could be allowed in some embryo research, Nature 396 (1998), 503; BMJ 317 (1998), 1613; Science 282 (1998), 2167; Newsweek (16 Nov. 1998), 60. Swiss are going to vote on whether to ban IVF, Nature 396 (1998), 105. A paper in Italian on theological aspects of assisted reproduction is Bioetica e Cultura 7 (No. 2, 1998), 197-222. Diane Blood, the lady who requested sperm from her dead husband but was refused until eventually the export to Belgium was allowed, has given birth to her baby, BME 143 (1998), 1. Commentaries on the ethics are in BMJ 317 (1998), 1583-5. Oocyte donors who use known donors differ from those who use unknown donors, Greenfeld, DA. et al. "Do attitudes toward disclosure in donor oocyte recipients predict the use of anonymous versus directed donation?", F&S 70 (1998), 1009-14. The Danish Order No. 728 of 17 Sept. 1997 on artificial fertilization is in IDHL 49 (1998), 489-91; and on the French law on preimplantation diagnosis, IDHL 49 (1998), 491-2; and the Israeli Surrogate Motherhood Agreements, IDHL 49 (1998), 492-3.

On general progress in reproductive technology, JAMA 280 (1998), 1893-5; F&S 70 (1998), 601, 623-4, 982; Van Voorhis, BJ. et al. "Cost-effective treatment of the infertile couple", F&S 70 (1998), 995-1005; Lancet 352 (1998), 1952-3; NS (2 Jan. 1999), 36-9. Chromosomal problems in ICSI are reported in Johnson, M. "Genetic risks of intracytoplasmic sperm injection in the treatment of male infertility: recommendations for genetic counseling and screening", F&S 70 (1998), 397-400; also pp. 933-7; and successes in Kartagener's syndrome in males, F&S 70 (1998), 643-6. The probabilities of multiple births from IVF are discussed in F&S 70 (1998), 478-81; Newsweek (11 Jan. 1999), 48. IVF may result in more back pain in women who use it, NS (12 Dec. 1998), 11.

IVF is considered a reasonable treatment for women under 45 years of age with their own gametes, F&S 70 (1998), 1030-4. The question of refunds for IVF programs that do not deliver a baby is discussed in, F&S 70 (1998), 414-5; Andereck, WS. et al. "The ethics of guaranteeing patient outcomes", F&S 70 (1998), 416-421; 1006-8; and Scott, RT. & Silverberg, K. "Ethics of guaranteeing patient outcomes: a complex issue whose time has not come", F&S 70 (1998), 422-4. The Israeli government guarantees the costs of ART for the first two children, Lancet 352 (1998), 1998. Genetic counseling may accompany the ART, F&S 70 (1998), 412-3.

Spain has been criticized for high tech births by the WHO, BMJ 317 (1998), 1406. A study on the affect of institution upon primary cesarean rate is AJOG 179 (1998), 841-5. Also on cesareans, Brit. J.O&G 105 (1998), 1052-5. The perceptions of women and clinicians can vary after pregnancy, O&G 92 (1998), 842-8.

Calls for better debate on cloning are in SRT Bulletin 18 (Jan. 1999), 1; Lancet 353 (1999), 81, 1103; NS (27 Feb. 1999), 52. On the Korean reports of cloning from last year, GenEthics News 27 (Jan. 1999), 5; Science 283 (1999), 16-7, 617. The WHO has also been debating the issues and has made a statement on medical genetics and biotechnology. Australia has released a report (see Genetic Engineering of Animals section above) which suggests human cloning could be used for therapeutic purposes, Lancet 353 (1999), 1076, Monash Bioethics Review 18 (No. 2, April 1999), 1-4; http://www.science.org.au/policy/statmen/ cloning.htm>; Nature 398 (1999), 552. The Roslin Institute has denied it is doing any human cloning research, NatMed 5 (1999), 253. The Israel 5 year cloning research moratorium has been supported by scientists there, Lancet 353 (1999), 218.

A series of papers on human cloning are in Science & Engineering Ethics 5 (1999), 3-54; Monash Bioethics Review 18 (No. 1 1999), 10-62; also CQHE 8 (1999), 241-5; BME 144 (Jan. 1999), 2, 5-6, 9, 20-1; NatBio 17 (1999), 119. On Jewish views, Assia 3 (No. 2, 1998), 3-19. Public perceptions on human cloning in the UK have been found to be negative by a Wellcome Trust focus group study, BME 146 (March 1999), 6-7; also on-line <www.wellcome.ac.uk>. A case of identical twins who have different hair colour and eye shape shows clones may not be the same even in appearance, Lancet 353 (1999), 562. On the biology of human cloning, NEJM 340 (1999), 471-5.

A discussion of the benefits of ES stem cell research is NatMed 5 (1999), 151-2. Funding of human embryo research and stem cells in the US is discussed in NatBio 17 (1999), 312; NatMed 5 (1999), 6, 366; JAMA 281 (1999), 692-3; Nature 397 (1999), 279, 550, 639; 398 (1999), 94, 551. On business and stem cell technology, GEN (1 April 1999), 1, 8, 36; NatBio 17 (1999), 139-42; and recent patents in stem cell research, NatBio 17 (1999), 396. Stem cell transformations proliferate, NatBio 17 (1999), 215; Science 283 (1999), 1432-5; and on brain and mesenchymal stem cells, NatMed 5 (1999), 260-4; NS (6 Feb. 1999), 23; (10 April 1999), 8: Pittenger, MF. et al. "Multilineage potential of adult mesenchymal stem cells", Science 283 (1999), 143-6. Adult neural stem cells can be redefined, BMJ 318 (1999), 282; Science 283 (1999), 471. Immortalized cells seem to remain cancer free to date, Science 283 (1999), 154-5.

The UK HFEA comments to the Health Minister on revising the statutory storage period for embryos are in IJB 9 (1999), 127-30. A French report by the Parliamentary Office on Evaluation of Scientific and Technological Choices leaves open the question of whether the French ban on research using human embryos should be lifted, Nature 397 (1999), 642. Germany is not relaxing its embryo research law, Nature 398 (1999), 275. Zygote splitting after assisted reproduction is discussed in NEJM 340 (1999), 738-9. On moral personhood of embryos, Philosophical Studies 93 (1999), 299-316. Israel has recommended that IVF should not be denied to any woman who asks for it up to the age of 45 years (or 51 with donated ova), Lancet 353 (1999), 570; BMJ 318 (1999), 688; however because of tough restrictions on egg donation, overseas donors are being used, Lancet 353 (1999), 736. On oocyte donation, F&S 71 (1999), 15-21, 219-21. A New York Task Force is proposing a number of regulations on the practice of IVF, Science 283 (1999), 178-9. In Japan several doctors have recently broken the voluntary guidelines of the Japan Society for Obstetrics and Gynecology, making some call for legal guidelines, Lancet 353 (1999), 303. Ovarian lifespan can be extended by Bax-deficiency, NatGen 21 (1999), 200-3.

Discussion of the ethical issues of selecting good gamete donors is Bioethics Examiner 3 (No. 1 Spring 1999), 1-2, 4-5. There have been reports of the first baby born after sperm were collected from a dead man, and from sperm grown in the testes of rodents, NS (27 March 1999), 5. On the use of rodents to nurture human sperm, NS (13 Feb. 1999), 4. A US survey found that a number of clinics do not follow well established guidelines for gamete screening, F&S 71 (1999), 278-81. A review of Sheila Mclean's review of the HFEA on consent and use of gametes in UK common law is BME 144 (Jan. 1999), 13-5. On the selection of race and other characters in gametes, F&S 71 (1999), 418-9. On sex selection, Science News 154 (1998), 350-1. A debate on the price for an oocyte donor is F&S 71 (1999), 7-10. A Dutch study found recent couples were more open to others about donor insemination, Berkel, DV. et al. "Differences in the attitudes of couples whose children were conceived through artificial insemination by donor in 1980 and in 1996", F&S 71 (1999), 226-31. However, secrecy to the child stayed similar.

There are some concerns over whether IVF and cloning produce larger and more abnormal fetuses, NS (23 Jan. 1999), 15. Tubal factor infertility may be the most prominent risk factor for ectopic pregnancy after IVF, F&S 71 (1999), 282-6. The use of a choline freezing solution may allow freezing of eggs, NS (16 Jan. 1999), 10. On ICSI, NatMed 5 (1998), 377-8, 431-3; BMJ 318 (1999), 704-5. On ethics in general, McCullough, LB. & Chervenak, FA. "Ethical challenges in the managed practice of obstetrics and gynecology", O&G 93 (1999), 304-7; BMJ 318 (1999), 948; Houmard, BS. & Seifer, DB. "Infertility treatment and informed consent: Current practices of reproductive endocrinologists", O&G 93 (19989), 252-7. On assisted procreation and ethics in Italian, Bioetica e Cultura 7 (No. 2, 1998), 197-222.

In the USA there was a 60% spontaneous conception rate after the birth of infants conceived through IVF, F&S 71 (1999), 35-9. A discussion of sexual problems associated with infertility is BMJ 318 (1999), 587-9; and disability, BMJ 318 (1999), 518-21. In general on infertility, NEJM 340 (1999), 224-5. On sexual variations, BMJ 318 (1999), 654-6; and the intersexed, AJPH 89 (1999), 350-2. A book review on homosexuality in animals is Nature 397 (1999), 402-3; and in people, BMJ 318 (1999), 452-5; and heterosexuality, Nature 398 (1999), 768-9. UK guidance on Viagra has been criticized and is being revised, BMJ 318 (1999), 279. On sexual behaviour in human males, NEJM 340 (1999), 571-2.

Papers from a symposium on human primordial stem cells are included in Geron Ethics Advisory Board, "Research with human embryonic stem cells: Ethical considerations", with 5 commentaries, HCR 29 (No. 2, March 1999), 30-48. The NIH plans ethics review of research proposals including research on human stem cells, Science 284 (1999), 413-5. The US Presidential Commission on Bioethics controversially recommended that federal funds be used for extraction of embryo cells not only fund research on stem cells, Nature 399 (1999), 292, 402. The HUGO Ethics Committee Statement on Cloning is reproduced in EJAIB 9 (1999), 70-1; BME 147 (1999), 3-4.

The 1996 results of 300 ART programs in the USA are in Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology, The American Society for reproductive Medicine, "Assisted reproductive technology in the United States: 1996 results generated from the American Society for Reproductive Medicine/Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Registry", F&S 71 (1999), 798-807. Unfortunately not all outcomes from clinics are reported, Lancet 353 (1999), 1774. A report from a program using anonymous oocyte donation from embryos cryopreserved at the pronuclear stage is F&S 71 (1999), 830-5. A review of international developments and laws in ART is in F&S 71 (May 1999), Supplement 2, 32pp. Multiple embryo pregnancies present difficult ethical issues in selective fetal reduction, JAMA 281 (1999), 1480. On infertility in general, Lancet 353 (1999), 1724-5.

Fetal Environment & Neonates

On the use of folic acid in the USA, JAMA 281 (1999), 1883-4. The effect of folic acid fortification of food upon plasma folate in adults is positive, NEJM 340 (1999), 1449-54. Alcohol-related risks of breast cancer can be reduced by folate, JAMA 281 (1999), 1632-7. Fetal growth rate is discussed in Lancet 353 (1999), 1460. Prothrombotic mutations may be a risk factor for preterm birth, Lancet 353 (1999), 1411-2.

Pregnancy discrimination is discussed in Modern Law Review 62 (1999), 435-47; and safe motherhood in Bulletin WHO 77 (1999), 399-406. A program to allow pregnant mothers with phenylketonuria to seek advice from others with experience benefits the outcome of pregnancy, AJPH 89 (1999), 762-4. The semiconductor industry is associated with toxic chemicals, some of which are now blamed for birth defects, NS (15 May 1999), 18-9. A paper on the mother-to-child transmission of toxoplasmosis is Lancet 353 (1999), 1829-33.

On infant learning, Science 284 (1999), 434-7; Science News 155 (1999), 184-6. Preterm babies have increased chance of abnormal MRI brain scans, not only neurocognitive problems, Lancet 353 (1999), 1653-7. Low birthweight is also associated with diabetes, Lancet 353 (1999), 1789-92. Two paternal genes, Mest and Peg3 may alter a daughter's maternal instincts, NS (17 April 1999), 17. On rights in law for children, Modern Law Review 62 (1999), 350-70.

A report in Spanish on human cloning is Committee of Experts on Bioethics and Cloning, Informe sobre clonacion. En las fronteras de la vida (Fundacion de Ciensias de la Salud, 1999, ISBN 84-89796-46-7, 1999, 413pp.). The Institute is a private group, and the study is a result of work since January 1998. The conclusion is available in English, and it includes that an absolute condemnation or approval of animal or human cloning should be avoided. While non-manipulation of the embryo is an ideal it cannot be elevated to the ranks of collective duty. The report considers also animal cloning, and has balanced conclusions presented with a thorough multidisciplinary analysis. A paper on cloning of humans is Gordijn, B. "Professional opinion. The cloning of human beings. The Dutch debate in an international context", Occasional paper Number 5 from the Centre for Professional Ethics, University of Central Lancashire, UK, 37pp. July 1999).

Papers on ethics of cloning include: CQHE 8 (1999), 364-8; Cohen, JR. "In God's garden. Creation and cloning in Jewish thought", HCR 29 (July-August 1999), 7-12; Lipschutz, JH. "To clone or not to clone - A Jewish perspective", JME 25 (1999), 105-7; Harris, J. "Human cloning and child welfare", JME 25 (1999), 108-13; Bioethics Research Notes 11 (June 1999), 1-2. A series of papers against human cloning are in GeneWatch 12 (August 1999), 1-9, 14-5. On human stem cells, GeneLetter 3 (Feb. 1999), 1-8.

A letter on the effects of somatic cloning is Lancet 354 (1999), 255. A photograph review of a show on identical twins is Lancet 354 (1999), 522. The deal between Roslin BioMed and Geron that made a major cloning company is discussed in NatMed 5 (1998), 595. The company Clonaid is still advertising for persons who wish to be cloned or for pets, Science 284 (1999), 2083. The UK government has confirmed it bans human reproductive cloning, BMJ 319 (1999), 8; Nature 400 (1999), 4; NS (3 July 1999), 3-4. The Council for Science and Technology in Japan has called for a ban on human cloning, and that embryo research up to 14 days should be regulated by guidelines, Nature 399 (1999), 724. On the US debate on stem cell research funding, recommended by the AAAS and NBAC, Nature 400 (1999), 301; 401 (1999), 8; Science 285 (1999), 502-3; SA (July 1999), 30-1. Catholics have boycotted the idea, Nature 400 (1999), 493. On the use of ES cells as a source of myelinating transplants, Science 285 (1999), 650-1, 754-6.

On ethics of preimplantation diagnosis, JME 25 (1999), 114-20. The Indian Medical Association and ICMR have asked doctors to stop performing sex selection, BMJ 319 (1999), 401. A book review of Gosen, L. Designing Babies (WH. Freeman 320pp., ISBN 0-716-73299-8, 1999) is in NatMed 5 (1998), 605-6. A call for men using IVF to screen for cystic fibrosis is made in BMJ 318 (1999), 1720.

An essay on the future of ART is Djerassi, C. gSex in an age of mechanical reproductionh, Science 285 (1999), 53-4. The use of ART could be expected to make some impact on the image of couples who use it, Daniels, KR. gControversies in assisted reproduction and genetics. Does assisted reproduction make an impact on the identity and self-image of infertile couples?h, J.Ass.Rep. & Genetics 16 (1999), 57-9. A series of 12 papers on living without children in different cultures are in Reproductive Health Matters 7 (1999), 7-102.

Letters on the selling of oocytes are in F&S 72 (1999), 182-4. Views of semen donors on anonymity are discussed in Daniels, KR. et al. gThe views of semen donors regarding the Swedish Insemination Act 1984h, Medical Law International 3 (1998), 117-34. People who provide gametes have social responsibility, Daniels, KR. gThe social responsibility of gamete providersh, J. Com. & Appl. Soc. Psychology 8 (1998), 261-71. A paper arguing against planned orphanhood is Landau, R. gPlanned orphanhoodh, SSM 49 (1999), 185-96. A report on the use of stored semen found that only 2% of men returned to use sperm after their vasectomy, and 7% after chemotherapy/radiotherapy, Audrins, P. et al. gSemen storage for special purposes at Monash IVF from 1977 to 1997h, F&S 72 (1999), 179-81. The use of the term child versus an adult is discussed in Schapiro, T. gWhat is a child?h, Ethics 109 (1999), 715-38. The safety of ICSI is debated in BMJ 319 (1999), 52; Lancet 354 (1999), 611-2; NatMed 5 (1998), 593. On the use of blastocyst transfer, F&S 72 (1999), 216-20. Possible link between ovarian cancer and infertility is discussed in Lancet 354 (1999), 649; and for males, Dowsing, AT. et al. gLinkage between male infertility and trinucleotide repeat expansion in the androgen-receptor geneh, Lancet 354 (1999), 640-3, 611-2. IVF in Israel is discussed in Lancet 353 (1999), 2163. On infertility among squatter settlement women in Pakistan, SSM 49 (1999), 637-49. A book review of Molecular Biology in Reproductive Medicine is NEJM 341 (1999), 610-20.


Fetal The fourth report of the US NBAC has been released, Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research (Washington DC., National Bioethics Advisory Commission, 1999, Vol. 1 111pp.; also on-line www.bioethics.gov). It calls for funding of embryo research, Lancet 354 (1999), 1105; Nature 402 (1999), 112; Science 285 (1999), 2065; 286 (1999), 31. Three papers on the subject are published in Robertson, JA. "Ethics and policy in embryonic stem cell research", KIEJ 9 (1999), 109-36; Doerflinger, RM. "The ethics of funding embryonic stem cell research: A Catholic viewpoint", KIEJ 9 (1999), 137-50; and McGee, G. & Caplan, A. "The ethics and politics of small sacrifices in stem cell research", KIEJ 9 (1999), 151-8.

Japan is preparing a law that may ban human reproductive cloning, Nature Medicine 5 (1999), 1221. Australia is also considering the subject, Nature Medicine 5 (1999), 1098. The BMA is opening discussion on reproductive cloning, BMJ 319 (1999), 1023. Two papers on the use of human cloning are Franklin, S. "What we know and what we don't know about cloning and society", New Genetics and Society 18 (1999), 111-20; van Dijck, J. "Cloning humans, cloning literature: Genetics and the imagination deficit", New Genetics and Society 18 (1999), 9-22. The identity issue is discussed in Kathinka, E. "The identity of clones", J. Med. & Phil. 24 (1999), 67-76. A biological argument against is Verma, KK. & Saxena, R. "Human cloning: A biological objection to it", Resonance (Sept. 1999), 38-43. The use of nuclear transplants is called for in Roberts, RM., "Prevention of human mitochondrial (mtDNA) disease by nucleus transplantation into an enucleated donor oocyte", AJMG 87 (1999), 265-6. The genotypes of cloned sheep are reported in Nature Genetics 23 (1999), 90-3. The replicas are not identical at the DNA level, NS (4 Sept. 1999), 5. A review is McKinnell, RG. & Berarding, MAD., "The biology of cloning: History and rationale", BioScience 49 (1999), 875-85. Papers in French on cloning from Tunisia are in Les Cahiers du Medecin (Tunisia) 1 (No. 3, July-August 1997), 7-32; and on ART . Les Cahiers du Medecin (Tunisia) 2 (No. 16, January 1999), 7-28.

Controlling career/family choices for infertility is discussed in SSM 49 (1999), 1615-22. In general on ART, JAMA 282 (1999), 1415; BMJ 319 (1999), 1011. The proceedings of a 1998 conference on assisted reproduction (including 2 papers from Ken Daniels, and 1 from Yasuko Shirai, 1 from Darryl Macer) is Fritsch-Oppermann, S. Neue Technologien der Reproductionsmedizin (Assisted Reproduction) aus interkultureller Sicht (Loccumer Protokolle 58/98, ISBN 3-8172-5898-4, 177pp., 1999). A University of Iowa study found the cost of IVF to be small compared to the total budget, F&S 72 (1999), 778-84. Those who wish to sell their eggs or buy eggs from donors with particular characters can visit the www site, ronsangel.com. On embryo donation, F&S 72 (1999), 940-1; and the question whether unilateral use of frozen embryos should be allowed is F&S 72 (1999), 952-3. A proposal to use the term prefertilization diagnosis is in F&S 72 (1999), 946-7. Eggs with Fragile X syndrome may be sturdier than normal eggs, NS (30 Oct. 1999), 7. Smoking disguises abnormalities in embryos and eggs, NS (9 Oct. 1999).

Sex selection and preimplantation diagnosis is discussed in F&S 72 (1999), 595+. A study of IVF in Sweden 1982-1995 found multiple births were the main cause of adverse outcomes, Lancet 354 (1999), 1572-3, 1579-85. It recommends two embryos in each transfer. The risk of cancer after use of fertility drugs is discussed in Lancet 354 (1999), 1573, 1586-90. The science of male infertility is discussed in JAMA 282 (1999), 1414; Lancet 354 (1999), 1713-8; F&S 72 (1999), 702-6. A study finding intrauterine delivery of frozen sperm is of higher success rate is F&S 72 (1999), 792-5. Birth of a baby from round spermatids isolated from frozen testicular tissue is reported in F&S 72 (1999), 539-41; and on extraction of sperm from frozen tissues, F&S 72 (1999), 785-91. Sperm freezing survival may be species specific, F&S 72 (1999), 747-8. Extending in vitro embryo growth to 5-6 days may improve IVF success rates, F&S 72 (1999), 418-22. The question why we are limiting choices for infertile couples? Is asked in CMAJ 161 (1999), 1411-2; Pinheiro, RC. Et al. "Effectiveness of in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection for severe male infertility", CMAJ 161 (1999), 1397-1401.On difficulties in reversing menopause, NS (2 Oct. 1999), 3, 5.

A paper on the impact of cloning is Solter, D. "Cloning and embryonic stem cells: Anew era in human biology and medicine", Croatian Medical J, 40 (1999), 309-18; and on laws, Hsu, MB. "Banning human cloning: An acceptable limit to scientific inquiry or an unconstitutional restriction of symbolic speech", Georgetown Law J. 87 (1999), 2399-430. Also on cloning, Nature Genetics 23 (1999), 395. In Japan researchers who fused nuclei of human cells with bovine egg cells in cancer research have broken rules designed to stop human cloning, Lancet 354 (1999), 1801. Japan may outlaw human reproductive cloning, Lancet 354 (1999), 1885; BMJ 319 (1999), 1390.

France may be lifting its ban on human embryo experiments, following the recommendation of the Conseil d'Etat, Nature 402 (1999), 563, 565. The NIH has set rules that allow funding of some embryonic stem cell research, Science 286 (1999), 2050-1; BMJ 319 (1999), 1517. Rat spinal cord function has been restored in experiments using stem cells, Science 286 (1999), 1826-7. Also on stem cells, Science 286 (1999), 2238-9; BMJ 319 (1999), 1308.

The case of three identical boys, triplets has been reported in Spain, Lancet 354 (1999), 1882. Multiple pregnancies are discussed in F&S 72 (1999), 970-2; JAMA 282 (1999), 1832-8. The possibility that humans will no longer procreate by sex is discussed in Time (8 Nov. 1999), 46-9; MJA 171 (1999), 659, 660-4; NS (25 Dec. 1999), 54-5. The possibility that sex surveys to survey behaviour actually shape our behaviour is discussed in Christchurch Star (29 Dec. 1999), B1; The Independent (Dec. 1999). There is some concern in the UK on where to limit the use of preimplantation diagnosis, BME 152 (1999), 5-6. Some parents use it to help sick siblings by providing a tissue matching embryo (and child), NS (11 Dec. 1999), 18-9. On the use of IVF, Plomer, AL. Et al. "Rationing policies on access to in vitro fertilization in the National Health Service, UK", Reproductive Health Matters 7 (1999), 60-70; Waller, L. "The costs of treating infertility", J. Law & Med. 7 (1999), 183-90.

The Donor Conception Support Group of Australia Inc is a self-funding organization run by volunteers that has been in existence since 1993. Starting with a membership of 20 adults, we have now grown to approximately 600 adults and 300 children with members in the USA, Canada, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Sweden, U.K. ,Germany and Indonesia. The membership is made up of people considering or using donor sperm, egg or embryo, those who already have children conceived on donor programmes, adult donor offspring and donors. We also have Social Workers, Doctors, clinic staff as members of the group. Their Aims Are 1) To provide support to People considering or currently on donor sperm, egg or embryo programs, donors and recipient families- parents and most importantly the children themselves. 2) To increase public awareness of the use of donor gametes. To contact the DCSG the address is Donor Conception Support Group of Australia Inc, P.O.Box 53, Georges Hall 2198, NSW Australia.

A report from Ron's angels and buying eggs is Newsweek (8 Nov. 1999), 54-5; and on the future prospects, Nature 402 (1999), 585. The psychological profile of oocyte donors is reported in F&S 72 (1999), 1066-72. Two papers on surrogacy and law are in Medical Law Review 7 (1999), 1-20, 38-57. The protection of liberty is discussed in Daar, JF. "Assisted reproductive technologies and the pregnancy process: Developing an equality model to protect reproductive liberties", AJLM 25 (1999), 455-78. Reproduction after death is discussed in Bennett, B. "Posthumous reproduction and the meanings of autonomy", Melbourne University Law Review 23 (1999), 286-307. DALYs are applied to reproductive health in Reproductive Health Matters 7 (1999), 118-29. ART is discussed in Roberts JH. "Coalition building and public opinion: new reproductive technologies and Canadian society", Intl J of Technology Assessment in Health Care 15 (1999), 15-21.

There have been some recent cases of sex determination cases in India being investigated by the Medical Council, Lancet 354 (1999), 1981. A philosophical defense is Savulescu, J. "Sex selection: the case for", MJA 171 (1999), 373-5. A study on three sex prediction methods, fetal heart rate test, the Chinese calendar test and the Draino test, is Ostler, S. & Sun, A. "Fetal sex determination: the predictive value of 3 common myths", CMAJ 162 (2000), 1525-6.

Safety is reviewed in Loft A. et al. "A Danish national cohort of 730 infants born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) 1994-1997." Human Reproduction14 (1999): 2143-8. Letters on male infertility and the risk of diseases in future generations are Lancet 354 (1999), 1906-8. IVF pregnancies may have increased early rate of pregnancy loss, F&S 72 (1999), 1061-5. The question of whether there are marker loci for fertility is discussed in F&S 72 (1999), 1148-50. In general on the science, Science 286 (1999), 2265; F&S 72 (1999), 1035-40; BMJ 319 (1999), 1388; MJA 171 (1999), 342-3, 353-7.

Human rights and transexualism is discussed in Health & Human Rights 4 (1999), 134-64. Transexualism is discussed in Lancet 354 (1999), 1828-9. Social factors can make gay men suicidal, Science News 156 (1999), 261.

Part of the US National Commission on Bioethics report on ethical issues in stem cell research is included in BME 153 (1999), 8-10. Researchers can use human stem cells with strict guidelines, JAMA 283 (2000), 325. Japan will allow stem cell research, Nature 403 (2000), 470; NatBio 18 (2000), 246. University of Wisconsin has announced it will distribute ES cell lines, Science 287 (2000), 948-9. A discussion of some of the issues is Annas, GJ. Et al. "Stem cell politics, ethics and medical progress", NatMed. 6 (2000), 1339-41. A call for therapeutic cloning research to progress is NS (29 Jan. 2000), 3. A review is Fiddler, M. et al. "The role of preimplantation geneticist in human cloning", Prenatal Diagnosis 19 (1999), 1200-4.

Cloning of monkeys is reported in Chan, AWS. Et al. "Clonal propagation of primate offspring by embryo splitting", Science 287 (2000), 317-8. It may be possible to regenerate fertile mice, Ogawa, T. et al. "Transplantation of male germ line stem cells has restored fertility in infertile mice", NatMed. 6 (2000), 29-34; 16-7; Lancet 355 (2000), 205. Nuclear transfer into mouse zygotes is reported in Nature Genetics 24 (2000), 108-9. Some animals may be unclonable, NS (5 Feb. 2000), 4; Nature Genetics 24 (2000), 109. A reliable, noninvasive technique for spindle imaging and enucleation of mammalian oocytes is described in NatBio 18 (2000), 223-5.

An Internet site offering parents choice for DNA tests and estimating the costs of the testing is www.genochoice.com. A general comment on IVF and the Internet is Politics & Life Sciences 18 (1999), 119-22. Papers on ethics and ART are in Otago Bioethics Report 9 (No.1 Feb. 2000), 1, 8-20. The UK has allowed frozen eggs to be used for fertility treatment, Lancet 355 (2000), 387; BMJ 320 (2000), 334. A report on a New York State Task Force on Life and the Law, F&S 73 (2000), 21-23. A UK report, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, The Management of Infertility in Tertiary Care (2000) has recommended a maximum of 2 embryos be implanted at one time, BMJ 320 (2000), 271. A study suggesting transfer at 5 days rather than 3 days is the same is F&S 73 (2000), 117-22. A UK case where a woman is suing that she can use her stored eggs is Lancet 355 (2000), 50.

The Ethics Committee of the Japan Obstetrics and Gynecology committee made a decision against allowing preimplantation diagnosis for a family who had one child with muscular dystrophy who requested sex selection to avoid the birth of a further child with muscular dystrophy, Asahi Shinbun (27 Feb. 2000), 3. The argument given was that there was still a risk of a child, suggesting if the gene probe was used it would be OK. There have been other cases approved in Japan.

A review is Fidler, AT. & Bernstein, J. "Infertility: From a personal to a public health problem", Public Health Reports 114 (1999), 494-511. A report on a case in the UK where Nottingham University has sued a former employee for foreign earnings is BMJ 320 (2000), 268. On the cost effectiveness of treatment for infertility, and interuterine insemination versus IVF, Lancet 355 (2000), 2, 13-8. During fertilization a sperm's mitochondria are labeled with ubiquitin for destruction, Science News 157 (2000), 5. The failure to do this results in abnormal embryos, Lancet 355 (2000), 200.

;A series of papers on the ethical and scientific issues of stem cell research are in Science 287 (2000), 1397, 1417-46; NatMed. 6 (2000), 231. Patient voices are a powerful voice in promoting research. A book review on human cloning is SSM 50 (2000), 1167-8. Scientists are urged to be careful, Young, FE. "A time for restraint", Science 287 (2000), 1424. European views on the ethics are discussed in Lenoir, N. "Europe confronts the embryonic stem cell research challenge", Science 287 (2000), 1425-6. Stem cells may be useful against brain cancer, NS (15 April 2000), 5. Also see the section on Organ Transplants. A discussion of the protein that may determine if a cell will be a stem cell is NS (8 April 2000), 4; Nature Genetics 24 (2000), 372-6. A review of cells for tissue engineering is TIBTECH 18 (2000), 17-9; and for research, Thomson, JA. & Odorico, JS. gHuman embryonic stem cell and embryonic germ cell linesh, TIBTECH 18 (2000), 53-7.

;Japan introduced a bill to make a 5 year ban on human cloning, but to still allow stem cell research, Nature 404 (2000), 321; NatMed. 6 (2000), 239. However it did not have majority support in the Parliament so may not proceed, UK ethicists supported stem cell research, Nature 404 (2000), 697.

;A review is Garrison, M. "The technological family: What's new and what's not", Family Law Quarterly 33 (1999), 691-704. A paper on the questions faced by children born from ART is Woodward, S. "Whose child am I anyway?", Cambridge Alumini Magazine 29 (Lent Term 2000), 26-9. The gathering of sperm from the dead is discussed in Strong, C. "Ethical and legal aspects of sperm retrieval after death or persistent vegetative state", JLME 27 (Winter 1999), 347-58; plus pp. 359-65. Ethics of ovarian transplants are discussed in F&S 73 (2000), 443-6. A survey of embryo donation in the USA found it more often contemplated than performed, F&S 73 (2000), 215-20. Discussion of use of ICSI by a person with HIV is in HCR 30 (Jan. 2000), 23-5. Viagra can also help women conceive, NS (8 April 2000), 6.

;Results of the survey of Japanese IVF clinics has found that 40% implanted 4 or more embryos, and some clinics routinely use fetal reduction to overcome the problem of multiple pregnancies, Mainichi Newspaper (3 May 2000), 3, 23. Letters on limiting multiple births are in Lancet 355 (2000), 1103-4. The German Chamber of Physicians has called for a relaxation on the rules that govern preimplantation diagnosis, Nature 404 (2000), 118. The Swiss population turned down a referendum that would have outlawed IVF by 75%, Nature 404 (2000), 221. In general on ethics and law of ART, F&S 73 (2000), 447-52.

;A call for more research into the effects of IVF in the UK has been made, BMJ 320 (2000), 960. Letters on a Swedish IVF, Lancet 355 (2000), 844-7. Commercial surrogacy is being debated again in the UK, Brinsden, PR et al. "Treatment by in vitro fertilization with surrogacy: experience of one British centre", BMJ 320 (2000), 924-8, 928-9. The Italian Medical Association is challenging a court ruling that permitted a surrogate pregnancy to be overseen by a doctor, Lancet 355 (2000), 996. Sperm donors in the Netherlands will remain anonymous for a further two years, Lancet 355 (2000), 1249. Israel is investigating claims of illegal ova sales, Lancet 355 (2000), 633. The results of a Canadian and Japanese study of the role of fathers is SSM 50 (2000), 1257-72. A study on the increased mortality risk for lone mothers is Lancet 355 (2000), 1203, 1215-9.

;An Australian sued a London IVF clinic alleging that they used his sperm without permission, BMJ 320 (2000), 464. The case has been settled. The dispute in Nottingham over IVF services has come to discussion of reimbursement of medical service fees, Lancet 355 (2000), 817. A US physician was fired over an embryo mixup, Nature 404 (2000), 326.

;Poor oocyte quality is an indication for ICSI, F&S 73 (2000), 465-9. Use of frozen sperm allows better timing for ICSI, F&S 73 (2000), 453-8. On male infertility, F&S 73 (2000), 435-42.

The ethics of reproductive and therapeutic cloning is discussed in Monash Bioethics Review 19 (2000), 33-44; JME 26 (2000), 166-70, 222; BME 156 (2000),11. On the stem cell funding debate in the USA, Nature 405 (2000), 1, 6; Science 288 (2000), 1442; NatMed. 6 (2000), 614; GeneWatch 13 (April 2000), 4-5. Celera and Geron Corp. are combining research on genes involved in differentiation, Nature 405 (2000), 726. A call to make the number of implanted embryos flexible is BMJ 320 (2000), 1672. Ovarian function from stored and transplanted tissue is reported in NEJM 342 (2000), 1919.

Debate on preimplantation diagnosis is continuing in Germany, Lancet 355 (2000), 1980. Israel may supervise fertility treatments more but also liberalize oocyte donations, Lancet 355 (2000), 1979; and there has been a case reported of oocyte selling in Israel, BMJ 320 (2000), 1425. On giving or selling gametes, Daniels, KR. "To give or sell human gametes \ the interplay between pragmatics, policy and ethics", JME 26 (2000), 206-11; Parker, M. "Public deliberation and private choice in genetics and reproduction", JME 26 (2000), 160-65. A new method for preserving eggs by incubating them in mice is expected, NS (1 July 2000), 7. The question of whether paternal mtDNA can be inherited depends on recombination between mtDNA from the sperm and mtDNA in the oocyte, Lancet 355 (2000), 1290-1.

Ethics of surrogacy is discussed in KEIJ 10 (2000), 39-58. A paper in general is Nelson, JL. "Reproductive ethics and the family", New Zealand Bioethics J. 1 (2000), 4-10; pp. 11-8 commentaries; Agard, ES. & Wallach, EE. "The limits of reproductive technology: Who decides?", J. Clinical Ethics 10 (2000), 329-32. The ethics of ART for persons with HIV is discussed in NEJM 342 (2000), 1748-50. A report from the French Bioethics Committee on medicalisatiuon de la sexualite is Cahiers 23 (2000), 21-6. Sildenafil to improve erectile dysfunction is discussed in BMJ 320 (2000), 1156-7, 1165. A book review of Dreger, AD. Intersex in the Age of Ethics (Hagerstown Univ. Pub. 1999) is NEJM 342 (2000), 1457.

The UK has announced it will allow embryo cloning (Observer, 30 July 2000). A paper on cloning in Italian is Itinerarium 8 (2000), 73-8. Reviews include Nature 406 (2000), 361-4; Edwards, BE. Et al. "The human pluripotent stem cell: impact on medicine and society", F&S 74 (2000), 1-7; NatBio 18 (2000), 827-8. The third volume from the US NBAC Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research has been published, on religious perspectives (June 2000). A paper against cloning is Kass, LR. "The wisdom of repugnance", The New Republic (2 June 1997), 17-26. Papers in Chinese on human cloning are in Chinese Bioethics Newsletter 3 (Spring 1998), 1-4. Humans can grow hepatocytes from bone marrow stem cells, Nature 406 (2000), 257; Lancet 356 (2000), 48. Diabetes research is helping fund stem cell research, Nature 406 (2000), 224. European ethicists have been discussing ES cell research, but in some countries like Sweden research on embryos until 14 days age is already permitted, NatMed. 6 (2000), 845. On the fate of frozen embryos, NEJM 343 (2000), 373-6.

A study on the psychological status of IVF patients during pregnancy is reported from USA in F&S 74 (2000), 1159-64. On the success of IVF, Lancet 356 (2000), 257-8. IVF can be preferable to fertility drugs, BMJ 321 (2000), 134; F&S 74 (2000), 8-9. Obstetric interventions among private and public patients are discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 125-6; and insurance, F&S 73 (2000), 1267-8; Am. J.O&G. 182 (2000), 891-5. Social benefits from oocyte donation and shared embryos include higher overall success rate, F&S 74 (2000), 1165-9. Issues for lesbian families in management of donor insemination are discussed in Sociology Health & Illness 22 (2000), 477-99.

Pregnancy rates depend on the provider at embryo transfer, F&S 74 (2000), 80-6. Higher rate of pregnancy comes from first time transfers and more embryos, Am. J.O&G. 182 (2000), 1001-4. However more embryos leads to multiple births, JAMA 284 (2000), 299-300; but gonadotropins may reduce the risk of higher order multiple pregnancy, NEJM 343 (2000), 2-7, 58-9. In the USA black women have poorer outcomes from IVF programs, F&S 73 (2000), 1170-3. The Internet is being used by many couples to seek advice, from all economic levels, F&S 74 (2000), 1179-82. Mutations in an oocyte-derived growth factor gene cause infertility, NatGen. 25 (2000), 279-83; NS (July 2000), 16. On the consequences of infertility for the offspring, The Economist (10 June 2000), 95-6. UK will allow research on embryonic stem cells, NatBio 18 (2000), 1034; NS (19 Aug. 2000), 3; NatMed. 6 (2000), 950; Lancet 356 (2000), 693; BMJ 321 (2000), 527; Nature 406 (2000), 813, 815; 407 (2000), 559; and the NIH offers guidelines for stem cell research amid broader debate, NatBio 18 (2000), 1035; NS (19 Aug. 2000), 4-5, 14-5; (2 Sept. 2000], 6; Science 289 (2000), 1269-70, 1442-3, 1469, 1877-8; JAMA 284 (2000), 1773-4; Nature 406 (2000), 925. The US NIH will fund human stem cell research, BMJ 321 (2000), 527. The Netherlands may impose a 3 year ban on cloning of human embryos for research, BMJ 321 (2000), 852. The Holy See has made a statement, Pontificia Academia Pro Vita, Declaration on the Production and Scientific and Therapeutic Use of Human Embryonic Stem Cells, (25 August 2000, 18pp.) which calls on the use of adult stem cells instead. The Nuffield Council on Bioethics published a discussion paper in April 2000. A Spanish comment on research into totipotent stem cells is Eidon 5 (Oct 2000), 1-7. Different countries use the progress in other countries to call for liberalization of research policies on stem cells, Bioethics Examiner 4 (Fall 2000), 1, 4; BME 160 (2000), 9-11. On the option of adult stem cells, Bioethics Research Notes 12 (2000), 25-6; NS (19 Aug. 2000), 16. Also on the pros and cons of stem cell research, JAMA 284 (2000), 681-2. Bioengineering with stem cells is reported in Lancet 356 (2000), 1500 (see also Organ Transplants section). Flk1-positive cells from ES cells can serve as vascular progenitors, Nature 408 (2000), 92-6. Also on stem cell development, Nature 407 (2000), 750-4.

The US company Clonaid has said it has US$500,000 from a couple who wants it to clone their dead child, Science 289 (2000), 2271. Europeans asked British members of Parliament to reject allowing cloning by nuclear transfer, NatMed. 6 (2000), 1068; Nature 407 (2000), 122. The possibility of using nuclear transfer to make a male egg, and then fertilization after that, will allow gay couples to have their own genetically related children, Times (25 Sept. 2000), 1, 4.

There was controversy in Japan over the use of a fathers-in-law sperm to fertilize a womanfs egg, which is against the guidelines of the Japan Society of Obstetrics & Gynecology, NS (Sept. 2000), 5. Changes in the UK Human and Fertilization and Embryology Act include permission for the fatherfs name to appear in a birth certificate when his sperm were used after his death, Lancet 356 (2000), 840. There is a test case of a legal demand for details of genetic fathers, BMJ 321 (2000), 654. Also on donor insemination, Daniels, K. gDonor insemination New Zealand: from Early Beginnings to the Millenniumh, Pathways (NZ Infertility Society) (Summer 1999), 6-9; F&S 74 (2000), 607-8; Kalfoglou, AL. & Geller, G. gA follow-up study with oocyte donors exploring their experiences, knowledge, and attitudes about the use of their oocytes and the outcome of the donationh, F&S 74 (2000), 660-7. Screening gametes for CF status is discussed in MJA 173 (2000), 380-1. A letter on infertility As a symptom not a disease is F&S 74 (2000), 398. A US Ethics Committee Report on financial incentives for oocyte donors is in F&S 74 (2000), 216-20.

The 1997 results of ART in the USA found an increase in success rate to 40% delivery per transfer, and a total of 25,000 babies born, F&S 74 (2000), 641-53. Chromosome analysis might improve the success rate, Lancet 356 (2000), 1497. A discussion of the Netherlands policy to give IVF for unmarried women is Lancet 356 (2000), 1512-3. In Australian the issue of discrimination against unmarried couples is being debated, Lancet 356 (2000), 746. An Italian women is attempting to give birth to octuplets that were conceived after fertility treatment, Sunday Times (17 Sept. 2000), 21. It may be good to give advice to couples to use contraception before IVF down-regulation, F&S 74 (2000), 655-9. On risks of multiple births, F&S 74 (2000), 617-23. On the psychological issues, Daniels, K. gThe psychology of assisted reproduction \ or Psychology assisting its reproduction? A responseh, Australian Psychologist 34 (1999), 211-5; Daneisl, K. gA biopsychosocial perspectiveh, Orgyn 3 (2000), 11-14. On ovarian transplantation, F&S 74 (2000),423-4. The relationship of embryo cryopreservation to cost effectiveness of ART is discussed in F&S 74 (2000), 613-4. However then the issue is disposition of extra embryos, F&S 74 (2000), 213-5.

Blastocyst culture increases efficiency of oocyte donation, F&S 74 (2000), 482-6. Male sperm mobility is dictated by motherfs mtDNA, AJHG 67 (2000), 543-8. The question of whether storing cord blood cells is a private matter is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 1417. The use of immunologic tests is discussed in F&S 74 (2000), 439-41. A possible link between testicular cancer and infertility is discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 781-2, 789-92.

A study on sex selection is Cohen, A. gExcess female mortality in India: The case of Himchal Pradeshh, AJPH 90 (2000), 1369-71. In Japan there is the reverse trend, a decline in laes, Lancet 356 (2000), 738-9. The sex ratio in Austrian chloracne cohort is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 1271-2.

The UK Parliament has authorised the use of stem cells and embryos for medical research, Nature 409 (2001), 5; Lancet 356 (2000), 2162; BMJ 321 (2000), 1427-8; Lancet 356 (2000), 1825. France and Italy are authorizing the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer for human embryo research, Nature 408 (2000), 629. On the debate on the use of ES cells, NS (18 Nov. 2000), 10-2; (16 Dec. 2000), 20; NatMed. 6 (2000), 1303; Nature 408 (2000), 773, 897-8; PNAS 97 (2000), 13473-5; Science 290 (2000), 1672-4. Papers on the ethics include: Lanza, RP. Et al. “The ethical validity of using nuclear transfer in human transplantation”, JAMA 284 (2000), 3175-9; Juengst, E. & Fossel, M. “The ethics of embryonic stem cells – Now and forever, cells without end”, JAMA 284 (2000), 3180-3, 3175 Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, “Human somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning)”, F&S 74 (2000), 873-6; Nature 408 (2000), 275, 277. The US position has been changed to negative, Nature 408 (2000), 887-8. There are differences in the sources of ES cells for each application, Nature 408 (2000), 513; The Scientist (27 Nov. 2000), 20-4. The Greek origin of the word cloning is discussed in Nature 408 (2000), 905.

In Japan HIV positive men have been offered use of IVF to have children without HIV, Nature408 (2000), 633. Doctors at Tottori University Hospital in Yonago, Tottori Prefecture, have conducted in vitro fertilization with sperm taken from an HIV-positive man using, for the fifth time, a technique that reduces the risk of infecting the wife and unborn baby to almost zero (Japan Times 9 Jan., 2001). Brit. J. Health Psychology 5 (2000), 365-75. On the genetics of male infertility, TIG (2000), 565-73. The nuclear receptor co-repressor Nrip1 is essential for female fertility, NatMed<. 6 (2000), 1368-73. A region on chromosome 3 is linked to dizygotic twinning, NatGen 26 (2000), 398-9. Genetic chimerism is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 2156-7. On mosaicism, Science News 158 (2000), 276.

The future of IVF may have no limits, Lancet Perspectives356 (2000), s52; NS(11 Nov. 2000), 20; (2 Dec. 2000), 40-5. On IVF in Italian, Itinerarium 8 (Sept. 2000), 109-24. Access for gay and lesbian couples is discussed in GeneWatch 14 (Jan. 2001), 8-9. F&S 74 (2000), 1057-8. In the UK a couple who had triplets through IVF won damages< from a clinic that implanted 3 embryos instead of 2 embryos, BMJ 321 (2000), 1306. Double consecutive transfer does not offer advantages over transfer of two embryos a the same time, F&S 74 (2000), 936-40. Having sexual intercourse can increase the chance of becoming pregnant after IVF, NS (9 Dec. 2000), 6. On race and reproduction, GeneWatch 14 (Jan. 2001), 10-3.

Further on the UK positive support for stem cell research, Lancet 356 (2000), 329-30; BMJ 322 (2001), 7, 189; Science 291 (2001), 23. An international group of scientists has announced a cloning clinic in the USA, BMJ 322 (2001), 315; Science 291 (2 Feb. 2001). As reported in EJAIB 11 (2001), 2; the Japanese law on cloning bans implantation for pregnancy but allows research, Science 291 (2001), 1872-3. The situation in the USA is unclear, NS (20 Jan. 2001), 17. In general on cloning, NatGen 27 (2001), 15

Presentation of IVF results is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 397. The future of reproductive technology is discussed in NS (3 Feb. 2001), 48; JAMA 285 (2001), 656-7. Discussion of the problem of multiple pregnancies is in F&S 75 (2001), 11-7. The birth of infants from HIV-1 seropositive men after ICSI is reported in F&S 75 (2001), 210-2. On ICSI in general, F&S 75 (2001), 342-7. Natural cycle IVF should be used more frequently, BMJ 322 (2001), 318.

The structure of the Y chromosome may be related to why male infertility occurs, SA (Feb. 2001), 42-7. There is a need for further research, MJA 174 (2001), 116-7. There is a possible link between blastocyst transfer and monozygotic twinning, F&S 75 (2001), 217-9. A review on the maturation of human oocytes in vitro is Reproduction 121 (2001), 51-75. Male age may not affect sperm concentration but volume and sperm motility, F&S 75 (2001), 237-48. On sex ratio and donor insemination, F&S 75 (2001), 219-21. Health of children born after controlled ovarian stimulation is reviewed in F&S 75 (2001), 18-22. Methods to treat menorrhagia are discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 273-7.

Criticism of the groups that claim they will make cloned human babies is in Nature 410 (2001), 293, 617; Science 291 (2001), 2552; NS (17 March 2001), 3; NatMed. 7 (2001), 257. Italy has ratified a human ban on human cloning, in mid-March 2001, in response to the proposals to clone a human there. On discussion of the ethics of cloning, CQHE 10 (2001), 194-208.

Discussion of stem cell research is in NatMed 1 (2001), 393-9, 412-3; JME 26 (2000), 166-70; Wisconsin Law Review (2000), 855-884; JAMA 285 (2001), 1439-40; Splice 7 (Jan 2001), 12-3; HCR 31 (Jan. 2001), 9-23. The opinion of the European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies to the European Commission of Nov. 2000 on ethics of stem cell research is in BME 165 (Feb. 2001), 20-22. A Canadian Institute of Health Research Panel has backed stem cell research, Nature 410 (2001), 620; as has the French National Ethics Committee, SCRIP 2617 (14 Feb. 2001), 3; and the Danish Council of Ethics, Lancet 357 (2001), 780. On US policy, NatMed. 7 (2001), 263; NS (24 Feb. 2001), 4-5. a At least 20 Australians have said they want their bodies to be cloned again, Christchurch Press (17 March 2001), 19. New Zealand does not have laws against cloning, Christchurch Press (13 March 2001), 1, 11; (14 March 2001), 5.

There have been reports of the use of ART to implant the Japanese crown princess with a embryo in the reported pregnancy of March 2001, in overseas newspapers, Independent (22 April 2001), 1, 19; however the mainstream Japanese media is avoiding the story for now. A discussion of Spain's Constititional court and assisted reproduction is Law and Human Genome Review 11 (1999), 15-24. Access to ART by lesbian and single women in Australia is reviewed in Skene, L> "Voices in the ART access debate", Monash Bioethics Review 20 (2001), 9-23; Australasian Science (Sept. 2000), 1, 15; Sydney Law Review 22 (2000), 625-35. Israel is allowing any women to donate eggs, under a new law, BMJ 322 (2001), 816. A study of the use of sperm from high IQ persons is discussed in the free online magazine Slate, Science 291 (2001), 1893. The question of sex selective abortion is discussed in New Zealand Bioethics J. 2 (2001), 9-16. On the German embryo protection act, Social & Legal Studies 9 (2000), 220-26.

The question of whether ICSI is an indicator for preimplantation diagnosis is reviewed in Ludwig, M. et al. "Is Intracytoplasmic sperm injection itself an indication to perform preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)?", Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy 16 (2001), 68-83. Survival of males with birth defects and the increased rate of recurrence of defects in children is reported in JAMA 285 (2001), 75-60. Mutations in the follicle stimulating hormone receptor may not be a common cause of familial dizygotic twinning, Lancet 357 (2001), 773-4; 735. The use of 2 over 3 embryos for a transfer and oocyte donation is recommended in F&S 75 (2001), 510-3. On the ethics of IVF for older women, Nursing Ethics 8 (2001), 152-8. Poor embryo quality may be mainly due to the egg, F&S 75 (2001), 466-7. Embryo score is a better predictor of pregnancy than the number of transferred embryos, F&S 75 (2001), 525-31.

Papers discussing the ethics of cloning include: Itinerarium 9 (18 May 2001), 89-92 (in Italian); on regulation in Australia, Bioethics Research Notes 13 (2001), 1-3; France may continue to ban human cloning even for therapeutic purposes, Nature 411 (2001), 878-9. The UK Royal Society called for a global ban on human reproductive cloning, Independent (20 June 2001). On human cloning efforts, Current Biology 11 (2001), R247; Science 292 (2001), 639; F&S 75 (2001), 1057-8; NS (19 May 2001), 14-5.

The ethics of embryonic stem cell research is discussed in Science 292 (2001), 1299; NatGen 28 (2001), 99-100; BioCentury (23 April 2001), A10-11; (21 May 2001), A8; NatMed. 7 (2001), 396-8; JAMA 285 (2001), 1895. UNESCO IBC report on stem cells is discussed in SCRIP 2645 (23 May 2001), 18. On the German debate, which like Switzerland, is in the position that import of stem cells for research is legal although creation in the country is not: Nature 411 (2001), 117, 119-20, 875; 412 (2001), 4; Science 292 (2001), 60, 415-6, 1036-8, 1811-3. On the USA, NatMed. 7 (2001), 518; NS (30 June 2001), 5; Nature 411 (2001), 979; 412 (2001), 107; Science 292 (2001), 1463. President Bush has said they support a bill that would also forbid cloning human embryos for research, Nature 411 (2001), 3; Science 292 (6 April 2001); Int. Herald Tribune (22 June 2001). Canada may seek middle ground, Science 292 (2001), 31, 33; Current Biology 11 (2001), R413-5. Europe has put stem cell patents on hold until the end of 2001, until the European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies makes an opinion on them, Nature 412 (2001), 110. On the moral status of human embryos, GEN 21 (15 June 2001), 6, 68; Lancet 357 (2001), 1368; Time (25 June 2001), 64.

See the Gene Therapy section for the mitochondrial transfer and babies. On medical uses and research on ES cells, NatMed. 7 (2001), 393-5, 412-3; Science 292 (2001), 429, 438-40, 615-7, 1389-91. On human ES cells, Current Biology 11 (2001), 514-8. The question of whether adult stem cells are sufficient is discussed in Science 292 (2001), 740-3, 1820-2. On progenitor cells from human brain after death, Nature 411 (2001), 42-3.

On the ironies of a lack of control over ART in USA and the efforts to control cloning, NS (30 June 2001), 3. A criticism of the Quebec cult for genetic determinism in its goal for cloning is made in NatBio 19 (2001), 403. A survey of what Finnish women want from ART is SSM 53 (2001), 123-33. On the psychology of IVF patients, F&S 75 (2001), 119-25. Book reviews on ART include JAMA 285 (2001), 2650-1.

Preimplantation diagnosis for Li-Fraumeni syndrome, an adult syndrome, has been reported, BMJ 322 (2001), 1505. A baby has been born in Japan after vitrification of human blastocysts, F&S 75 (2001), 1027-9. An automated IVF chip should speed the production of human embryos, NS (26 May 2001), 4-5. Prenatal diagnosis after ICSI is discussed in F&S 75 (2001), 1240-1.

A survey of clinical practice is Wong, SF. & Ho, LC. "Sex selection in practice among Hong Kong Chinese", SSM 53 (2001), 393-7. Also on sex selection ethics, F&S 75 (2001), 861-4. A court decision from India on female infanticide and sex selection is reported in Issues in Medical Ethics 9 (2001), 97-8.

On the race and economics of couples using ART in the USA, Am. J. O&G 184 (2001), 1080-2.A survey of why patients chose private IVF found that they chose excellent records, F&S 75 (2001), 893-7. Access to ART services varies in the USA widely, Am. J. O&G 184 (2001), 591-7. On IVF for cancer patients and survivors, F&S 75 (2001), 647-53, 705-10. On laparoscopic transplantation of frozen-banked ovarian tissue, F&S 75 (2001), 1049-56, 1212-6. On anonymous oocyte donation, F&S 75 (2001), 1034-6.

Male infertility is discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 1310; Lancet 357 (2001), 1223-4; NEJM 344 (2001),1172-3. The MUC 1 and genetic susceptibility to infertility is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 1336-7. A study found little evidence to link leatherwork with male infertility, Occup. Environ. Med. 58 (2001), 217-24. Intrauterine insemination with frozen donor sperm is more effective than intracervical insemination, F&S 75 (2001), 656-60. A comparison of day 5 and day 6 blastocyst transfers is F&S 75 (2001), 1126-30. Mitochondria and gamete quality are discussed in AJHG 68 (2001), 1535-7.

Book review: R.G. Lee and D. Morgan, Human Fertilisation and Embryology. Regulating the Reproductive Revolution, (Blackstone Press Ltd. 2001, ISBN 1-84174-119-1, 401pp.).

This is a timely subject given the revival in the discussion of human embryo experiments and assisted reproductive technology (ART). The focus of the book is on the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act of the UK, the discussion that led to its formulation through the embryo research debates of the late 1980s, and how the Act has been interpreted to guide the practices of assisted reproductive technology in the 1990s.

The book is a comprehensive guide to the legislation in the UK. The UK regulatory system is one of the world models for regulating assisted reproductive technology, so the book is useful for a wide spectrum of academic readers. The book looks at the debate since the Warnock Report of 1984. The recent areas of cloning and stem cell research are discussed, including analysis of the government report in the UK that lead to the parliamentary acceptance of research using embryonic stem cells. The authors also examine the ethical issues and debates relating to the law.

There are a number of legal cases that are also discussed, as they relate to the access by persons to ART. One area that the authors acknowledge is not dealt with deeply is the introduction into UK law of the European Convention on Human Rights by the Human Rights Act of 1998. The right to reproduce would seem to be one of the basic human rights that has often been discussed in the debates of the twentieth century on reproduction and eugenics. The difficult issues like surrogacy ad posthumous children are discussed.

The book focuses on the UK situation, with only the last and eleventh chapter looking in detail at the situation in other countries as the international experience, specifically, Scandinavia, Mainland Europe, North America, Australasia, The Middle East and Far East. There is a comparison with other European states in the embryo research chapter as well, so an international scholar can use the index to find references to the countries of interest. In international bioethics a book is needed that deals with the issues for each culture as deeply as the authors have done so for the UK. The information was gathered with the help of some other colleagues, and reflects that in its variable quality. The book is most reliable for the UK situation, and the only errors I was able to note were statements saying that gamete donation of any kind is not permitted in Japan, and Japanese doctors do not have a disciplinary body like the General Medical Council. In fact the there is a disciplinary body. In a following page the authors say that there are no guidelines on gamete donation, but in fact there are Professional guidelines of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology on gamete donation. However, the experience in the UK the authors describe shows that a committee with a statutory basis can regulate assisted reproduction flexibly.

There is a need for books from other authors around the world describing the experiences in their culture to the same degree as this book does for the UK. The book is a basic reference book for bioethics researchers who want to work in the field of ART. There are still a number of countries that do not have laws to regulate ART, and learning from the UK experience will aid policy makers, members of ethics committees, providers and users (providing that they have a good educational background).

Calls against human reproductive cloning for now include F&S 76 (2001), 232-4. The International Congress of Development Biology has called for a worldwide moratorium on cloning for reproductive purposes at the Tokyo meeting in 2001. The New Zealand Independent Biotechnology Advisory Council (www.ibac.org.nz) has released a 16 pp. Report, Cloning and Stem Cell Research, with some questions to consider (2001). It called for comment from New Zealanders on this question which is being debated there. There is currently an absence of a law regulating cloning. The USA has attempted to ban human reproductive cloning, BMJ 323 (2001), 302. In general on the cloning debate, Nature 412 (2001), 583, 667. Developments in removal of nuclei and cytoplasm from human eggs is discussed as a type of cloning, NS (7 July 2001), 5; (14 July 2001), 3; (21 July 2001), 11; Australasian Science (June 2001), 1.

Most cell biologists in the USA have not welcomed the compromise position from President Bush that existing stem cell lines can be used for federally funded research, but creation of new ones cannot be funded, Nature 412 (2001), 107, 665. In an opinion survey of 1022 adults by ABC news and beliefnet.com between 20-24 June, 2001, 58% said that they supported research using cells from human embryos and 60% said the federal government should fund it, Lancet 358 (2001), 46. There is confusion over how many cell lines are eligible, Nature 412 (2001), 753-4. The stem cell debate in the USA is discussed in HCR 31 (July 2001), 9; Nature 412 (2001), 255, 368; NatMed. 7 (2001), 876; Science 292 (2001), 2409-10; 293 (2001), 47-8, 186-7, 211-2, 413; NS (30 June 2001), 5; SCRIP 2657 (4 July 2001), 13; JAMA 286 (2001), 293; BMJ 323 (2001), 252; Lancet 358 (2001), 163, 217; and in other countries including Germany, Current Biology 11 (2001), R581-2; BMJ 323 (2001), 8. Fat stem cells may be important for medical treatment. In general on stem cells, JAMA 286 (2001), 33-4; Cell 105 (2001), 829-41; Nature 412 (2001), 380-1; Current Biology 11 (2001), R503-5. There is some cloning research making stem cells from embryos in the USA, NS (21 July 2001), 10; and some is using embryos specifically created for research, BMJ 323 (2001), 127. Japan has rules on stem cell research that allow human embryo research, Science 293 (2001), 775.

In the UK doctors can screen for Down syndrome during IVF procedures using preimplantation diagnosis, BMJ 323 (2001), 67. On embryo fragmentation in vitro, F&S 76 (2001), 281-5. Sperm free fertilization in mice is reported in Science 293 (2001), 423. The Catholic position on human embryo research is discussed in Science 293 (2001), 211. Brain stem cells have been obtained from adult mice, Nature 412 (2001), 690-1, 736-9. There may be two populations of stem cells in brain, Lancet 358 (2001), 303. Stem cells have been converted to heart tissue in a trial, Lancet 358 (2001), 475.

Paid ova donation is debated in HCR 31 (July 2001), 12-4; F&S 76 (2001), 75-9. The decision when to have children, and bearing children at advanced maternal age is discussed in Newsweek (27 August 2001), 40-5; NS (30 June 2001), 38-43. A study in the USA found a significantly higher pregnancy rate in IVF among African-Americans than white women using ART, F&S 76 (2001), 80-4. Indications for storage of ovarian tissue are discussed in F&S 76 (2001), 414-5. A lack of influence of male age on fertility is reported in AJOG 184 (2001), 818-24. On angiogenesis and reproduction, Brit. J.O&G 108 (2001), 777-83.

Frozen embryo controversies are discussed in JLME 29 (Summer 2001), 197-202. Questions over the effectiveness of sex selection are in BMJ 323 (2001), 67. A study of neighbourhood and family influences on the cognitive ability of children in the UK is SSM 53 (2001), 423-40, 579-91. Use of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin is reviewed in F&S 76 (2001), 67-74. HIV-free fertilization has been achieved in IVF clinics in Japan, Nature 412 (2001), 758. IVF is still leading to multiple births, especially in developing countries, NS (14 July 2001), 14-5. The genetics of infertility are discussed in NatMed. 7 (2001), 873; Science 293 (2001), 809-10.

Stem cells has been a hot debate recently. The question of the lack of black personfs embryos among the 64 stem cells approved by President Bush in the USA is discussed in Washington Post (9 Sept. 2001); see also, Science 293 (2001), 1025, 1242-5, 1433-4, 1953, 1966-7, 1567; Nature 412 (2001), 843; 413 (2001), 99; Lancet 358 (2001), 568, 899; BMJ 323 (2001), 357; NS (18 August 2001), 3, 11; (6 Oct. 2001), 14-5. In general on the prospects of using stem cells, NatMed. 7 (2001), 975, 981-2; SCRIP Magazine (Sept. 2001), 11-17; Nature 413 (2001), 5, 345-6, 453; Bioethics Examiner 5 (Fall 2001), 1, 4; NS (6 Oct. 2001), 14-5; NatGen 28 (2001), 312; Current Biology 11 (2001), R677-9. Theological support of stem cell research is discussed in The Scientist (3 Sept. 2001), 15, 17. Spain is considering using stem cells, Lancet 358 (2001), 482. An Australian Parliamentary Committee has recommended a ban on reproductive cloning and creating human embryos specifically for research, but supports therapeutic cloning, NS (29 Sept. 2001), 11; Nature 412 (2001), 340. China plans to make hybrid ES stem cells, Nature 413 (2001), 339. Israel has also supported making stem cells, Science 293 (2001), 2367-8. India has tightened rules on human ES cell research, BMJ 323 (2001), 530. The relationship between IVF and stem cells is discussed in Nature 413 (2001), 349-51.

A paper on cloning in Italian is Notizie di Politeia XVI (No. 60; 2000), 3-6. On a cloning debate, JAMA 286 (2001), 1437-8; Lancet 358 (2001), 519; NS (22 Sept. 2001), 15.

On law and reproduction, Honke D. "Reproductive technologies and human experimentation: a Jewish perspective", Health Law in Canada 21 (2001), 103-16. On ethics of assisted reproductive technologies, CMAJ 164 (2001), 1589-94. A report of a couple requesting embryo selection for donor compatibility is BMJ 323 (2001), 767. On IVF and the history of stem cells, Nature 413 (2001), 349-51. On funding of IVF in USA, F&S 76 (2001), 431-42. A call for public debate over mitochondrial germ line and IVF is made in Nature 413 (2001), 347.

The announcement of human cloning to embryonic stage in November, 2001, by Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, USA, has led to renewed debates, Cibelli, JB. Et al. "The first human cloned embryo", SA (Jan. 2002), 42-9; Science 294 (2001), 1802-3; Bioethics Examiner 5 (Winter 2002), 1, 6; Nature 414 (2001), 477; BMJ 323 (2001), 1267; Lancet 358 (2001), 1877; NS (1 Dec. 2001), 4-6. Scientific criticism of the announcement has led to the resignation of 3 editors of the journal, stating that it failed to prove the embryos were cloned; Nature 415 (2002), 109. A discussion in Italian on the ethics of cloning is Itinerarium 9 (Sept. 2001), 77-94; and in Bioetica e Cultura X (2001), 141-68. On the US stem cell debate, GeneWatch 14 (Nov. 2001), 5-10; Science 294 (2001), 745; SA (Oct. 2001), 3, 17; NatBio 19 (2001), 893-4; Lancet 358 (2001), 1706; Science News 160 (2001), 105 and in general, Greenhealthwatch 5.3 (June 2001), 1-2; Current Biology 11 (2001), 581-2; Nature 413 (2001), 241; 414 (2001), 567; BMJ 323 (2001), 1313; Lancet 358 (2001), 1375, 2078; F&S 76 (2001), 660-1. In general on human embryo research, Nature 414 (2001), 585-6.

Because of a loophole in UK law that could allow human cloning a specific law is being considered, BMJ 323 (2001), 1203; Financial Times (16 Nov. 2001), 11; NS (24 Nov. 2001), 3; (1 Dec. 2001), 3; Nature 414 (2001), 381. The European Parliament voted to reject a draft report which called for a ban on stem cell research, Lancet 358 (2001), 1974. Germany has been faced with conflicting advice from commissions, Science 294 (2001), 2262; Nature 414 (2001), 238, 574. Sweden is supporting stem cell research. Spain has voted against stem cell harvesting from spare human embryos, Lancet 358 (2001), 1351. A paper on the Japanese law is Spranger, TM. "The Japanese approach to regulation of human cloning", Biotechnology Law Report 20 (October 2001), 700-6. A UN general assembly legal committee has supported an initiative to ban human cloning, Lancet 358 (2001), 1785.

A paper on the interplay between different parties in deciding the best interests of the child after ART is Daniels, KR. Et al. "The best interests of the child in assisted human reproduction: The interplay between the state, professionals, and parents", Politics and Life Sciences 19 (2000), 33-44. A report on theater images of the family is Nagata, ML. "Images of the family on stage in early modern Japan", Japan Review 13 (2001), 93-105. A study of the history of sex education in Japan (in Japanese) is in J. Practical Education in Biology 33 (Jan. 2002), 46-53.

As reported in the previous EJAIB, the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, has ruled that sex selection for non-medical reasons is acceptable for preimplantation diagnosis, BMJ 323 (2001), 828. There is some gender bias in the decisions persons make on disposition of their embryos, F&S 76 (2001), 1181-4. First trimester screening for Down syndrome in IVF pregnancies needs to take account of the higher false positive rate from serum screening as b-hCG is higher, F&S 76 (2001), 1282-3. A paper on the choice of race of donor sperm is Fogg-Davis, H. "Navigating race in the market for human gametes", HCR 31 (Sept. 2001), 13-21. Secrecy in Israeli DI donors is discussed in Politics and Life Sciences 19 (2000), 69-76. Live birth after sperm was retrieved from a moribund man is reported in F&S 76 (2001), 841-3. On donor sperm for ICSI, Lancet 358 (2001), 1373. Stress among women undergoing ICSI is discussed in F&S 76 (2001), 525-31.

The future of international registries for ART is discussed in F&S 76 (2001), 871+. A 34pp. supplement to Fertility and Sterility 76 (Nov. 2001), considers ART fro ma range of cultures. Comments on legislation for ART in Canada is in Health Law Review 10 (2001), 3-7. Preserving fertility in children treated for cancer is possible, BMJ 323 (2001), 1201. Opinions of practitioners on access to IVF for persons with HIV in the UK are surveyed in, BMJ 323 (2001), 1285. There are ways to eliminate HIV from semen, AIDS 14 (2000), 1611-6. On the growing range of ways to have children, NS (22 Dec. 2001), 24-5.

Female feticide in India is discussed in Issues in Medical Ethics 9 (2001), 123-6; Time (17 Dec. 2001), 34.

Two papers on the issue of a woman cloning herself are in CQHE 11 (2002), 76-86. The ethics of creating and selecting preimplantation embryos to produce tissue donors as discussed from the HFEA Ethics Committee in the UK, BME 173 (2001), 8-11. A discussion that frequent sex could increase chances of conception is NS (9 Feb. 2002), 32-5.

The cases when sex selection may not be morally wrong are discussed in HCR 32 (Jan. 2002), 23-31. A general discussion of ethics of ART is AIBA Newslink 5 (2002), 5-7. A review of the ethics of ARTs in Brazil is Bioethics 15 (2001), 218+.


Australia reached a compromise solution on the use of embryos for making ES cells, Science 296 (2002), 238; NatMed. 8 (2002), 430; BioCentury (8April 2002), A13; Nature 416 (2002), 574. Pro-life groups in Canada were upset at the positive guidelines for research, Nature 416 (2002), 116; Science 295 (2002), 1816. A paper on ethics is Hansen, JES. "Embryonic stem cell production through therapeutic cloning has fewer ethical problems than stem cell harvest from surplus IVF embryos", JME 28 (2002), 86-8.

European views on therapeutic cloning are discussed in NEJM 346 (2002), 1579-82; Lancet 359 (2002), 796. Germany has decided to allow import of ES cell lines if they were from spare embryos and judged ethical by a new committee, Lancet 359 (2002), 506; BioCentury (29 April 2002), A11; Nature 415 (2002), 566; 417 (2002), 8; Science 295 (8 Feb. 2002), 296 (2002), 265-6. German researchers cannot work on new ES cell lines if they go to other countries. A paper in Spanish on cloning is Revista Latinoamericana de Bioetica 2 (2002), 116-49. The French position is still unsure despite a decision to allow import of ES cells, BioCentury (14 Jan. 2002), A14. On Israeli ES research, Science 295 (2002), 1818-9.

A discussion of therapeutic cloning is in Law and the Human Genome Review 15 (2001), 15-7; Science 295 (2002), 1237. The question of whether a common legal framework for ES cell research is needed in Europe is debated in Law and the Human Genome Review 15 (2001), 121-38. Laws on cloning are discussed in NatGen 30 (2002), 1-2. The UK model for ES cell research is reviewed in Health Law Review 10 (No.2, 2002), 14-24; also, BME 175 (Feb. 2002), 5-7; BMJ 324 (2002), 503; Nature 416 (2002), 3-4. There were conflicting legal judgments in the UK on cloning, BMJ 324 (2002), 190, 562. On US anti-cloning movements and stem cell policy, Nature 415 (2002), 349, 351-2, 722; 416 (2002), 109, 669; 417 (2002), 103; BioCentury (15 April 2002), A18; Science 295 (2002), 601-2 296 (2002), 465.

Rumours of human cloning and a pregnancy of a human clone are discussed in NS (2 Feb. 2002), 4-5; (13 April, 2002), 4; Nature 416 (2002), 570; Lancet 359 (2002), 1; BMJ 324 (2002), 868; SA (Feb. 2002), 10-1. Ethical issues of cloning are discussed in Science 296 (2002), 314-6 Access to cloning technology and equity are important issues in whether it should be allowed, CQHE 11 (2002), 169-79. Also on cloning, Splice 8 (March 2002), 14-5. A review of legal attitudes is in J. Assisted Reproduction & Genetics 18 (2001), 442-50; J. Law & Medicine 9 (2001), 14-7. Some persons contain cells from two individuals as chimeras in what is called genetic mosaicism, Nature 417 (2002), 10-11. The question of pluripotency of somatic stem cells is discussed in NatMed. 8 (2002), 213-4; NS (16 March 2002), 12; PNAS 99 (2002), 3586-90; BMJ 324 (2002), 696; Lancet 359 (2002), 1047-54; Nature 416 (2002), 485-6; NEJM 346 (2002), 770-2.

The US continues to be a country with no law to regulate human cloning, NS (29 June 2002), 10. The 2001 Annual Report of the Danish Council of Ethics comes together with their report on Cloning (51pp.). A new book on cloning is Ethical Eye \ Cloning (Council of Europe, 2002, 92-871-4702-7, US$23, 150pp., A5). A human stem cell project is called for in Nature 418 (2002), 1. Jewish reflections on ES cell research are in KIEJ 12 (2002), 65-94. Australia is investing money into stem cell research, Science 296 (2002), 1779-81. The science of stem cells is advancing, NatBio 20 (2002), 426-7; Lancet 359 (2002), 2171.

A paper on regulating cloning is Annas, GJ. Et al. "Protecting the endangered human: Toward an international treaty prohibiting cloning and inheritable alterations", AJLM 28 (2002), 151-78. The US may now be working for a moratorium rather than a ban on cloning, Science 296 (2002), 2117; Lancet 359 (2002), 2091; NatMed. 8 (2002), 771. The US President's Council on Bioethics recommended against a permanent ban on cloning, Lancet 360 (2002), 231. A paper in Spanish on the responsibility of humans for cloning is Revista Latinoamericana de Bioetica 2 (2002), 116-49. Statements on cloning from the Danish Council of Ethics are published with their 2001 annual report (2002). In general on ethics of cloning, Lancet 359 (2002), 1621; NS (20 July 2002), 25. A call for better terminology than cloning is Science 297 (2002), 51-2. Stem cell policy is discussed in Outka, G. "The ethics of human stem cell research", KIEJ 12 (2002), 175-215. The European Group on Ethics has warned against issuing patents on stem cell line research, Lancet 359 (2002), 1839.

A Singapore group has successfully started a new line of ES cells free of any mouse helper cells, which may be thus clean for future development as transplant donors, Science 297 (16 Aug. 2002). General hopes from ES cells are described in Science 297 (2002), 500-2; NatMed. 8 (2002), 775-7; NS (13 Aug. 2002), 18. The potential of adult stem cells is discussed in BMJ 325 (2002), 372-6; Lancet 359 (2002), 2171.

  A paper on control and cloning is Jones, D.G. "Human cloning: Unwarranted control or legitimate stewardship?", Science & Christian Belief 14 (2002), 159-80. Papers of cloning are in Genewatch 15 (Sept. 2002), 8-12. Discussion of the Danish Council of Ethics report on cloning is in BME 180 (2002), 10-1.

  A discussion of stem cell research policy and legal challenges in the UK is Law and the Human Genome Review 16 (Jan. 2002), 181-98. A paper looking at the testimonies in the USA on stem cells is Itinerarium 10 (No. 22, Sept. 2002), 81-8.

The media has reported several claims of cloned human babies being born, but these babies are awaiting a chance for scientists to verify they are really clones.  The announcements have led to renewed efforts to ban cloning in the USA, Nature 421 (2003), 3; NS (21 Dec., 2002), 21; Science 297 (2002), 1951. California has passed  a law allowing stem cell research from embryos and those made by nuclear transplant, HCR 32 (Nov. 2002), 7. Jeremy Rifkin has warned scientists that he will sue them if they make mice-human chimeras, Nature 421 (2003), 4; see also, Nature 420 (2002), 255. Sources of adult stem cells are discussed in The Scientist (16 Sept. 2002), 30; Nature 420 (2002), 734-5; NatGen 32 (2002), 557-8; SA (June 2002), 16-7 There have been efforts for greater international cooperation to research stem cells, Nature 421 (2003), 102. Stem cells can still be attacked from the immune system, Science 297 (2002), 175-7. In general on stem cell research, Science 297 (2002), 923-5; 298 (2002), 37-8; Nature 418 (2002), 903; 419 (2002), 583-5; NatGen 32 (2002), 90-1; Lancet 360 (2002), 1226; Current Biology 12 (2002), R705-6.

Australia voted to allow research to make stem cells on spare embryos, Nature 420 (2002), 599; on background see Nature 419 (2002), 4; NS (21 Sept., 2002), 9; NatMed. 8 (2002), 430. Discussion of stem cell policy is in NatGen 32 (2002), 567; NEJM 347 (2002), 1576-82, 1619-22; Lancet 360 (2002), 1080; Gene Therapy 9 (2002), 674-8; Science 297 (2002), 1477. The views of the Catholic church are discussed in JME 28 (2002), 228; Lancet 359 (2002), 2036-7. The UN is split over the convention to ban human cloning, Science 298 (2002), 1316; NS (28 Sept., 2002), 11; Lancet 360 (2002), 1574. In the USA still most private labs are not regulated for ART, Nature 420 (2002), 1. Korea has tightened its law after claims of cloning, Nature 419 (2002), 424.  India has stopped exports of embryos, Nature 419 (2002), 238. On stem cells in East Asia, Nature 419 (2002), 334-6; and Saudi Arabia, Science 296 (2002), 2331. Maturation of mouse germ cells in vitro is reported in Nature 418 (2002), 497.

Discussion of the claims of human cloning by Raelians is in BME 184 (Jan. 2003), 5; Science 299 (2003), 343-4; Associated Press (30 Jan. 2003); NS (11 Jan., 2003), 3, 8-11; Economist (4 Jan. 2003), 61-2. There is a dilemma for journals about publishing results of human cloning experiments, Nature 421 (2003), 199. US scientific panels and politics are discussed in NatMed. 9 (2003), 153. On cloning debates, see the journal Cloning. A two year process to gain approval for research on stem cells in Germany is reported in Science 299 (2003), 31. There can be different interpretations of the same results about the promise of stem cell research, Science 299 (2003), 324. On stem cell research, Bioethics 16(Nov. 2002), special issue; NatMed. 9 (2003), 156-7; Nature 421 (2003), 102; Science 299 (2003), 1009. Attempts to stop research on human-animal chimeras  have been made in the USA by legal means of patent protection, Nature 421 (2003), 4. The US House of representatives passed a law banning all types of cloning, Science 299 (2003), 799.

           Discussion of the ethics of stem cell and cloning research is in Alpha Omega V (No. 3, 2002), 391-6; Nature 422 (2003), 654; SA (April 2003), 21; Bioethics 16 (2002), 493-567; Lancet 361 (2003), 1354. Asian nations may be close to a consensus on cloning, NatMed. 9 (2003), 248. The outcome from a 1999 Korean consensus conference on cloning are in Developing World Bioethics 2 (2002), 159+. On Indian guidelines, APBN 7 (2003), 49. Sweden is allowing therapeutic cloning, Research Europe (6 Feb. 2003), 7. The US House of representatives passed an anitcloning law but the Senate is not expected to approve it, SCRIP 2830 (7 March 2003), 18. On the Californian ES cell law, NatBio 20 (2002), 1073. The US bioethics council was split on cloning, NatBio 20 (2002), 765. Stem cell research debates include TIBTECH 21 (2003), 109-13; Nature 422 (2003), 787; Science 299 (2003), 1509, 1661, 1830-1; NS (26 April 2003), 17; BMJ 326 (2003), 838.

The role of FDA in regulation of human cloning is discussed in HCR 33 (May 2003), 7-8. On the ethics of cloning, Dinc, L. "Ethical issues regarding human cloning: a nursing perspective", Nursing Ethics 10 (2003), 238-54; Nature 424 (2003), 14; SA (April 2003), 21; Science 300 (2003), 2031-2; NatMed. 9 (2003), 502; Itinerarium 11 (2003), 71-106. Also on the confusion over the definition of cloning, HCR 33 (May 2003), 11-18. The question of how many zygotes and embryos that are useful for ES research is discussed in Science 300 (2003), 1083; Nature 423 (2003), 213. Stem cell politics are discussed in Science 300 (2003), 865; NatBio 21 (2003), 588-9; SA (July 2003), 24-5. Germany is pushing for a ban on all cloning, Nature 423 (2003), 373. Canada is considering approving some research, Nature 423 (2003), 374. The AMA has supported research on stem cells, Nature 423 (2003), 911. An international website to collate data on stem cells is being made, Nature 423 (2003), 578, 911-2. Standards for stem cells are called for in Science 300 (2003), 913-6; also NS (17 May 2003), 12-3. A Japanese research team has made embryonic stem cells Nature 423 (2003), 577-8.

Human embryo research is discussed in Um, Y-R. "South Korea: Human embryo research", CQHE 12 (2003), 268-78; National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2003), 111-38; NatBio 21 (2003), 482-3. A paper on use of embryos is Fitzpatrick, W. "Surplus embryos, nonreproductive cloning, and the intend/forsee distinction", HCR 33 (May 2003), 29-36.

            A nursing perspective on cloning is in Nursing Ethics 10 (2003), 238-54. Three articles on cloning in Italian are in Itinerarium 11 (2003), No. 24; pp. 71-106. Interspecies hybrids between rabbits and humans have been used to make stem cells in China, and there is controversy about the plan, Nature 424 (2003), 711: NS (23 Aug. 2003), 14. Reasons for making chimeric embryos are discussed in NS (12 July 2003), 3. On ethics of cloning, Nature 424 (2003), 14; SA (July 2003), 24-5. The diversity of views on use of ES cells in Europe is discussed in Science 301 (2003), 289, 1017. Laws and ES cells are discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 300. The AMA has approved ES cell research, BMJ 326 (2003), 1417. Alan Trounson has resigned as director of the Australian stem cell centre, Nature 424 (2003), 716. A cautious note on stem cell research with comparisons to gene therapy is NS (19 July 2003), 24; see a conference report from BIO2003 in NS (5 July 2003), 19.

            Ethics of ICSI are discussed in Cahiers (CCNE, France) 35 (April 2003), 15-23. The UN has delayed a vote on human cloning. European allies and dozens of Islamic states that support therapeutic cloning blocked consideration of the cloning ban at the United Nations until the end of 2005 (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A8840-2003Nov6.html) There was scientific lobbying on both sides, Current Biology 13 (2003), R785-6. A technique to combine 2-3 cloned embryos into one increases the chance of making a live animal, NS (18 Oct. 2003), 19. Even if they do not want to clone babies, researchers must to learn how to produce duplicate human cells safely. That is the conclusion of experts who have outlined a program to identify and solve the problems that currently plague cloning (http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99994334) The law over somatic cell nuclear transfer is not keeping up with technology, NatBio 21 (2003), 969-70. The UK has licensed Roslin Institute to create embryos for research, JAMA 290 (2003), 449-50.

On ethics of ES cell research, Law and the Human Genome Review 18 (2003), 43-54; Catholic Medical Quarterly 54 (2003), 8-11. A critical analysis of ES cell research in Australia is in J. Law & Medicine 10 (2003), 514-30. Scientists in China have used interspecies hybrids of rabbi and human to make ES cells, NS (23 Aug. 2003), 14. On ES cells, NEJM 349 (2003), 267-74, 275-86, 1480-2; Science 301 (2003), 1017; 302 (2003), 371; PNAS 100 (2003), 11817-926; Nature 425 (2003), 778-9; Cell 113 (2003), 551-7; Current Biology 13 (2003), R375-6. Visiting German professors who work on ES cells might face jail upon return, Science 301 (2003), 577. The ethics of cloning are discussed in Bioethics 17 (2003), 447-59, 503-525; CQHE 12 (2003), 353-410. The issue of consent for use of spare embryos and stem cell research is discussed in Health Law Review 11 (3, 2003), 3-12; Science 301 (2003), 927.

The UN has left the debate on human cloning on hold, ready to resume later in the year, HCR 34 (Jan. 2004), 5-6; Current Biology 13 (2003), R937-9. Those who have comments on this should send to the editor who is working on a report for United NatioNS University on the issues for consideration when the UN General Assembly revisits the issue. On ethics and cloning stem cells, Monash Bioethics Review 22 (Jan. 2003), 8-24; New Zealand Bioethics J. 5 (2004), 22-8, 29-30; JME 29 (2003), 207; Sociology of Health & Illness 25 (2003), 793-814; Nature 426 (2003), 603; 428 (2004), 587; NS (21 Feb. 2004), 3. A paper in Italian on cloning ethics is in Bioetica e Cultura 12 (No. 2, 2003), 283-8. Against reproductive cloning, NS (22 Nov. 2003), 23; (24 Jan. 2004), 4; BMJ 328 (2004), 185; Lancet 363 (2004), 827-8. The use of pluripotent adult germ cells in treatment is discussed in Ford, NM. "Using pluripotent germ cells in regenerative medicine. An ethical alternative", National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2003), 697-706.

There was controversy over the departure of two members of the US President's Bioethics Council who were positive towards stem cell research, Science 303 (2004), 1447. Harvard University is setting up a privately funded US$100 million institute for stem cell research, Science 303 (2004), 1453; Nature 428 (2004), 8. Stem cell research might be a ballot issue in California, Science 303 (2004), 293; NS (20 March 2004), 7. New Jersey also has backed use of stem cells, NatBio 22 (2004), 142.

European Parliament members approved the funding of stem cell research using human embryos, in countries that do not outlaw it, BMJ 327 (2003), 1248. On EU regulation of stem cell research, JME 29 (2003), 203-8; NatBio 22 (2004), 157-8. Spain will support stem cell research, Nature 428 (2004), 247. On policy in China, Nature 427 (2004), 278.

Researchers in Korea have published results of making human ES cells from a cloned human embryo, Woo Suk Hwang et al., "Evidence of a pluripotent human embryonic stem cell line derived from a cloned blastocyst", Science 303 (2004), 1669-74, 937-9, 1581; Nature 427 (2004), 664; NatBio 22 (2004), 361; JAMA 291 (2004), 1185-6. This type of experiment could be legally performed in some countries but not in others. More ES cell lines are needed, NEJM 350 (2004), 1275-6, 1351-2; NatBio 22 (2004), 159-63, 399-400. On the potential for stem cell therapy, NatBio 22 (2004), 283-5; NS (21 Feb. 2004), 6-7, 16-7; BMJ 328 (2004), 484; Lancet 363 (2004), 581. Making stem cells is discussed in Nature 426 (2003), 490-1. Embryonic germ cells and male gametes can be made from ES cell lines in mice, Nature 427 (2004), 106-7, 148-54.

ES stem cell research is debated in Law and the Human Genome Review 19 (July 2003), 91-108. A review paper on the ethics is Walters, L., "Human embryonic stem cell research: An intercultural perspective", KIEJ 14 (2004), 3-38; see also, pp. 55-114; HCR 34 (March 2004), 49; SSM 58 (2004), 401-9; Nature 429 (2004), 1. The ethical guidelines for HESC research from Shanghai are in KIEJ 14 (2004), 47-54. UN politics and cloning is discussed in NatMed. 12 (2003), 1437; Current Biology 13 (2003), R937-9; NS (21 Feb. 2004), 16-7. A paper on the ethics of transplanting human stem cells into nonhuman embryos is NatMed. 10 (2004), 331-5.
Despite accusatioNS of unethical behaviour the Korean scientists who made the first cloned human ES cells defend their work, Science 304 (2004), 945; Nature 429 (2004), 3, 12-4; and more on the discovery, Lancet 363 (2004), 623; NatBio 22 (2004), 361; BMJ 328 (2004), 415-6, 421; and another report, NEJM 350 (2004), 1353-5. On US stem cell politics, Science 304 (2004), 820; NatBio 22 (2004), 509-10; NatMed. 10 (2004), 317; Current Biology 13 (2004), R253-4; Nature 428 (2004), 4, 587; NEJM 350 (2004), 1275-6, 1351-2. Private funding is expected to fill in the gap left from the absence of US federal funds, JAMA 291 (2004), 2059-60; NatMed. 10 (2004), 320. Brazil may pass a law to ban therapeutic cloning, Lancet 363 (2004), 1125. On Canadian regulation, Lancet 363 (2004), 955; Chinese, Nature 427 (2004), 278; and in Europe, NatMed. 12 (2003), 1440.
Use of stem cells in diabetes is discussed in Nature 429 (2004), 30-1. In general on stem cell research, Economist (3 Jan. 2004), 53-5; NatMed. 10 (2004), 23, 224-5; Nature 428 (2004), 607-9. The implicatioNS of parthenogenesis in mice for humaNS is discussed in NS (24 April 2004), 5. A possible human chimera is reported in Prenatal Diagnosis 23 (2003), 935-7.

           A Christian ethics debate on cloning is in Science & Christian Belief 16 (2004), 45-55. Discussion of cloning ethics in Italian is in Bioetica e Cultura XIII (2004), 23-44. On the US political views on stem cell research,  Science 304 (2004), 1088; BMJ 328 (2004), 1094. Discussion of the ethics of the Korean cloning results and experiments are in Nature 428 (2004), 490; Newsweek (1 March 2004), 44-5; Science 304 (2004), 945.

           A review of stem cell research is SA (June 2004), 3, 60-7. The genes that control human ES cell growth and differentiation are identified in NatBio 22 (2004), 707-16. The UK has decided to spend a further US$30 million for stem cell research, Nature 428 (2004), 495. The UK has opened a public repository for stem cells, Nature 428 (2004), 333; Science 304 (2004), 1239. Nancy Reagan endorses human stem cell research, Nature 428 (2004), 116. Male germline stem cells have been regenerated by spermatogonial dedifferentiatiation in vivo, Science 304 (2004), 1331-4.

      The UK has approved the licensing of their first trial for nuclear transfer therapeutic cloning involving use of spare eggs from an infertility centre in Newcastle, BMJ 329 (2004), 417; NS (21 Aug. 2004), 8-9; Science 305 (2004), 1102; Nature 430 (2004), 817. The UK is funding more research, Current Biology 14 (2004), R493, R592-3. The Bioethics committee of the Council for Science and Technology Policy, and the Ministry of Health Ethics Committee have approved plans to allow therapeutic cloning research in Japan, but the guidelines may take another year to develop, Nature 430 (2004), 5; NatMed. 10 (2004), 763; Science 304 (2004), 1729; NatBio 22 (2004), 937. Mexico has reversed a ban on stem cell research, NatMed. 10 (2004), 656. France has banned reproductive and therapeutic cloning, BMJ 329 (2004), 130. Arab states may also be preparing to ban cloning, Lancet 363 (2004), 2061. A discussion of California Proposition 71 that will be on the election ballot in November in the USA to promote therapeutic cloning research is Science 305 (2004), 1544-5; Nature 430 (2004), 125. There may be a US repository for stem cells, Nature 429 (2004), 691, 430 (2004), 389. On the US debates, Science 305 (2004), 760; NS (29 May 2004), 49; JAMA 292 (2004), 163. The lobbying of scientists supported by the Genetics Policy Institute and others to the UN to allow therapeutic cloning research is discussed in Lancet 363 (2004), 1962; NatGen 36 (2004), 781.

      Papers on cloning bans in Italian are in Bioetica e Cultura 13 (2004, No. 1), 23-66.  Laws against reproductive cloning are discussed in  J. Law & Medicine 11 (Feb. 2004), 351-72. Problems of stem cell research are reviewed in National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 4 (2004), 289-302. On 2 September, 2004, Singapore banned reproductive cloning but permitted therapeutic cloning, Nature 431 (2004), 119. Canada has banned human reproductive cloning, HCR 34 (May 2004), 5. Australian debates on human ES cell research are reviewed in Health Law Review 12 (No.2, 2004), 27-33. Child welfare and human cloning is discussed in Keough, W. "All in the family: A child welfare perspective on human reproductive cloning", Health law Journal 11 (2003), 71-88.  Also on ethics of stem cell research, Science 305 (2004), 1402; JAMA 292 (2004), 791-2; BMJ 329 (2004), 466.

      Comments on the ethics of the creation of the human ES cell line in Korea are in Science 305 (2004), 944-5. The Korean Ministry of health & Welfare has funded Catholic University of Korea medical school US$12 million for research into use of adult stem cells, Zenit.org, 18 June 2004. In general on stem cell research prospects, Science 305 (2004), 27, 929; TIBTECH 22 (2004), 155-6; NS (19 June 2004), 12; NatBio 22 (2004), 804-5, 863-6; JAMA 292 (2004), 75, 81, 104-5. Derivation of midbrain dopamine neurons from human ES cells is reported in PNAS 101 (2004), 12543-8. There has been criticism of an alleged "pre-mature" paper on adult stem cells published in an on-line physics journal, Nature 429 (2004), 590; Applied Physics A (doi:10.1007/s00339-004-2816-6; 2004). Stem cell research will extend to space with NASA, NS (21 Aug. 2004), 4. There is discussion of a claim that Panos Zavos had made cloned embryos from dead humans and cow eggs, Nature 431 (2004), 118.


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