Environmental News

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This file includes links to papers published by Eubios Ethics Institute, and some other organizations, in the first section. Next it includes topical extracts from EJAIB and EEIN between January 1994 - 2006 (older news items are in separate files). Last date of updating is referenced in the main News page. Latest news and papers is at the bottom of each of the two sections.

Abbreviations for journals

Eubios Ethics Institute home page

To the EPA home page, http://www.epa.gov/
To the Evangelical Environmental Network
To the Earth Council

Related Papers from Eubios Ethics Institute Publications

Macer, D.R.J. Shaping Genes: Ethics, Law, and Science of Using Genetic Technology in Medicine and Agriculture (Christchurch, N.Z.: Eubios Ethics Institute 1990).
Macer, Darryl (1992)
"General ethical concerns and environmental and regulatory issues", pp. 58-81 in Impacts of Biotechnology in Agriculture and Food in Developing Countries (International Council of Scientific Unions, COSTED: 1992).
Macer, Darryl (1994)
"Bioethics, water and the environment", La Mer 32, 103-6.
Leavitt, F.J.
A Legal Victory against Noise Pollution in Israel EEIN 4 (1994), 75.
Azariah, J.
The Book of Genesis and Environmental Ethics, Biodiversity and the Food Deficit EJAIB 5 (1995), 6.
Ors, Y.
The Colours of Peace: White, Blue and Green EJAIB 5 (1995), 123.
International Conference on Creativity and Innovation at Grassroots Level, December 20-23, 1996, INDIA EJAIB 5 (1995), 137.
Lock, M.
Cultural Responses to the Taming of Nature EJAIB 5 (1995), 3.
Hedlund, R.
Briefs: Stewardship EJAIB 5 (1995), 70.
Ramati, D.
The Road to Destruction: The Hulhoul by-pass road EJAIB 5 (1995), 156.
Bioethics as study for daily life - Kohji Yamada , EJAIB 6 (1996), 165.
Borders & environmental ethics - Simon Lawson , EJAIB 6 (1996), 165.
The environment in Slovakia and Biodiversity - M.Hajduch, A.Pretova , EJAIB 6 (1996), 165-6.
Japan / US Comparisons of Biotechnology Patents - M. Okada-Takagi , EJAIB 6 (1996), 166-8.
Historical Roots of our Ecological Crisis in East and West - Jayapaul Azariah, Darryl Macer , EJAIB 6 (1996), 125-8.
Ethical Problems in Research and Practice of Environmental Epidemiology - JR. Goldsmith, CL. Soskolne, and R Bertollini , EJAIB 6 (1996), 128-30.
Commentary on Azariah & Macer and Goldsmith - Frank J. Leavitt , EJAIB 6 (1996), 130-1.
Information on pesticides

Environmental Ethics of Water Pollution - Humitake Seki , EJAIB 6 (1996), 163-4.
Borders & environmental ethics - Simon Lawson , EJAIB 6 (1996), 165.
The environment in Slovakia and Biodiversity - M.Hajduch, A.Pretova , EJAIB 6 (1996), 165-6.
Biodiversity in India: Response to Hajduch & Pretova -Jayapaul Azariah , EJAIB 7 (1997), 10-11.
Environmental Perception of Textile Industrial Pollution in Tiruppur, India - C. Thomson Jacob, Jayapaul Azariah EJAIB 7 (1997), 178-80.
Does Noosphere Evolution relieve the Forthcoming Biosphere Crisis? - Humitake Seki EJAIB 8 (1998), 44-6.
Lessons from Japanese Religion and History for Bioethics - Karl Friday EJAIB 8 (1998), 46.
Sustenance Of Biodiversity: An Action Line Through Bhagavad Gita -Dua Kamal Kumar EJAIB 8 (1998), 46-9.
Bounty to Bust: Ethics of Irreversible Environmental Degradation - Richard S.J. Weisburd EJAIB 8 (1998), 49-51.
Right to Environment: Does it Reflect Environmental Ethics? - Nukhet Turgut EJAIB 8 (1998), 169-71.
Science, Ethics and Ecology - Hunay Evliya EJAIB 8 (1998), 171-2.
Environmental Responsibilities and a New Concept of Citizenship: An Intellectual Approach - Mahir Fisunoglu EJAIB 8 (1998), 172-3.
Assuring Quality In Higher Environmental Education: Med-Campus Project 349 - Ylkden Talay, Nilgul Karadenyz, Sukran Sahin EJAIB 8 (1998), 173-5.
Biological Diversity in Forest Ecosystems - Barbaros Cetyn EJAIB 9 (1999), 4-6.
Some Possible Impacts of Environmental Epidemiology on Ethical Aspects of Health Care - Ella A. Kordysh & John R. Goldsmith EJAIB 9 (1999), 6-7.
A Bioregional Perspective on Global Ethics - Richard Evanoff EJAIB 9 (1999), 60-2.
How to consider the balance between environmentalism and liberalism in the class -Kaneo Inoue EJAIB 10 (2000), 15.
A comparative study on the values represented in Japanese primary school songs -Shoichi Kuroda EJAIB 10 (2000), 16-17.
Ethical, Legal and Social Issues Facing Capture Fisheries - V. Gopalakrishnan EJAIB 10 (2000), 77-81.
Environmental Ethics of Chlorine in the Marine Biome - Jayapaul Azariah EJAIB 10 (2000), 81-82.
Macer, DRJ. (1999) Bioethics and sustainable development, pp. 112-114 in World Development: Aid and Foreign Direct Investment 1999/2000 , AJ. Fairclough, ed., (London: Kensington Publications 1999).
Bioethics and ecosustainability - Dipankar Saha, C.R. Hazra, D. Macer , EJAIB 10 (Nov 2000), 181-3.

Editorial: Limits on autonomy - Darryl Macer EJAIB 11 (March 2001), 33.
The ethics of the heart and transport choices in Japan - Hisanori Higurashi and Darryl Macer EJAIB 11 (March 2001), 34-41.
Commentary on Higurashi and Macer: Psychiatric Ethics and Transportation Ethics - Yeruham Frank Leavitt EJAIB 11 (March 2001), 42.
Teaching about the environment in Japan: a personal view - Michael Morris EJAIB 11 (March 2001), 42-44.
Corporations and the Cause of Environmental Protection - Napoleon M. Mabaquiao, Jr. EJAIB 12 (Jan. 2002), 11-15.
Commentary on Mabaquiao - Masahiro Morioka EJAIB 12 (Jan. 2002), 15.
Tradition and Conservation in Northeastern India: An Ethical Analysis - Abhik Gupta and Kamalesh Guha EJAIB 12 (Jan. 2002), 15-18.
Editorial: Water ethics and pharmacoethics - Darryl Macer EJAIB 12 (May 2002), 81.
Nature, Life and Water Ethics - Darryl R.J. Macer and Masaru Morita EJAIB 12 (May 2002), 82-88.
Extending the Concept of Informed Consent to Global Environmental Decision-making - Richard Evanoff EJAIB 12 (May 2002), 88-90.

EJAIB 12 (2002), 224 Sand Mining: An Ecological Threat - A. Jospeh Thatheyus

EJAIB 13 (2003), 179-81 Globalisation and Environmental Health - A.Joseph Thatheyus and J. Delphine Prema Dhanaseeli
EJAIB 14 (2004), 2-3 The Muttukadu Statement on Our Common Bioethical Future in our Shared Environment with Technology
Fumi MAEKAWA and Darryl MACER, Anthropocentric, Ecocentric, and Biocentric Views among Students in Japan, pp. 327-30 in Editors: Song Sang-youg, Koo Young-Mo & Darryl R.J. Macer, Asian Bioethics in the 21st Century, Eubios Ethics Institute, 2003.

M.P. Bhattathiry, Bhagavad Gita and Management , EJAIB 14 (2004), 138-141.
S Murali, Green Whispers EJAIB 15 (Nov. 2005), 185-7.
Darryl Macer, Editorial: Environmental Ethics and Control, EJAIB 16 (Sept. 2006), 133.
Abhik Gupta, Altruism Beyond Con-specifics: The Role of Nature Religions, EJAIB 16 (Sept. 2006), 134-40.
Arieh Maoz, Tampering with Nature: An “Unended Quest”, EJAIB 16 (Sept. 2006), 140-4.
Arthur Saniotis and Amru Hydari Nazif, Agenda 21: Bioethics, Global Warming, and the Muslim World, EJAIB 16 (Sept. 2006), 144-8.
Arthur Saniotis, Towards an Embodiment of Environmental Bioethics, EJAIB 16 (Sept. 2006), 148-151.
Charlotte Kendra G. Castillo, Consequentialism and Climate Change Policy: An Exploratory Paper, EJAIB 16 (Nov. 2006), 182-92.
Shelan Jane C. Teh, The Ethical Responsibility of Adopting the Precautionary Principle in the Guimaras Situation, EJAIB 17 (March 2007),50-54.
Wardatul Akmam and Md. Fakrul Islam, Factors Affecting Awareness regarding Arsenic Poisoning in Bangladesh, EJAIB 17 (March 2007), 54-62.
Keller, F and Macer, DRJ (2006) “An Overview of Trends in Multilateral Environmental Agreements with an Impact on Biotechnology and Research in Asia and the Pacific”, Journal of Commercial Biotechnology, 12: 261-273.


A report from the Rio conference and from a meeting of Christian environmentalists looking for Biblical bases for environmental protection is in Science and Christian Belief 5 (1993), 139-45. A debate for and against free trade and its influence on the environment is in Scientific American (Nov 1993), 18-29. This issue is certainly more important as GATT has been reached and trade sanctions against environmental abuse may be judged unfair. Four book reviews on the politics of environmental protection are in Nature 366 (1993), 385-6; and one on incorporating science into policy, in Nature 365 (1993), 793-4.

A special issue of Ambio looking at water pollution is Ambio 22 (Nov 1993), 413-96. A discussion of the pollution problems associated with golf courses is in New Scientist (25 Sept, 1993), 30-5. A discussion of the ethical responsibilities of engineers and avoiding pollution is in New Scientist (25 Sept, 1993), 36-41.

Japan is to study the damage caused by the Russian dumping of nuclear waste into the Japan Sea, Nature 365 (1993), 777; New Scientist (6 Nov, 1993), 6-7. Japan may stop plans to dump its' own nuclear waste into the sea, after the experience. The increasing over consumption in Japan is challenging the earlier progress made in environmental protection laws in the 1970s, New Scientist (18 Dec, 1993), 9; on a Japanese view, New Scientist (2 Oct, 1993), 48-50. Finland is pursuing the development of bioenergy, and recently rejected plans to build a further nuclear reactor, Biotechnology 11 (Nov/Dec 1993), A special issue of Bioresouce Technology 46: 1-188 is on power production from biomass.

A record ozone hole is reported in Science 262 (1993), 501. The hole is about one third of its normal thickness. On the interpretation of the Antarctic ozone hole see Science 262 (1993), 990.

The possibility of human immune reaction being decreased by the increased UV radiation following ozone depletion needs further studies, Lancet 342 (1993), 1159-60. However, skin cancer clearly increases, Nature 366 (1993), 23. Another affect is the bleaching of coral, Nature 365 (1993),836-8. Human health and the environment is also discussed in a book review in NEJM 329 (1993), 1749-50.

The predictions of global warming are still relatively insensitive to unexpected changes in carbon dioxide emission according to a study in Nature 366 (1993), 251-3, see also p. 515-6, for a discussion of the missing carbon sink.

A comparison of how different countries participate in environmental treaties is in Nature 367 (1994), 405. A comparison of the environmental policies of industrialised countries suggests that Austria is the greenest of these, followed by Portugal and Japan. The United States was close to Canada as the worst; Science 262 (1993), 1815. A discussion of the EPA in the USA, and recent changes since the new political administration is Science 263 (1994), 312-5; 591. A critique of Clinton's environmental trad-policy is in Biotechnology 12 (1994), 26-7. The politics of a US ecological survey are discussed in Nature 367 (1994), 400. The UK is debating a sustainable development policy following the release of a series discussion documents, Sustainable Development: The UK Strategy; Sustainable Forestry: The UK Programme; Biodiversity: The UK Action Plan; Climate Change: The UK Programme, Nature 367 (1994), 395-6.

Methods to look at changes in the climate and signals of change are discussed in Science 263 (1994), 341-7. The ecological and putative evolutionary effects of the ice ages are discussed in Science 263 (1994), 173-5. A study from Hawaii suggesting declining carbon dioxide levels is discussed in Scientific American (Feb 1994), 12-3. The reason may be the eruption of Mt Pinatubo, because actual emissions have continued to increase. Other papers on the variability of climate patterns are in Nature 367 (1994), 634-6, 695, 723-6.

A review article of the carbon cycle is R.K. Dixon et al., "Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems", Science 263 (1994), 185-90. About two thirds of the carbon in forest ecosystems is actually in soils and peat deposits. The future possibility for reforestation to act as a carbon sink is encouraged.

Policy suggestions to include additional ozone-depleting chemicals in International agreements to protect ozone are made in Nature 367 (1994), 505-8. A series of papers and news on the use of military research after the cold war, and including discussion of how to dispose of plutonium is in Science 263 (1994), 619-34. A book review of S.D. Sagan, The Limits of Safety: Organization, Accidents and Nuclear Weapons (Princeton University Press 1993, 286pp, US$30) is in Nature 367 (1994), 30-1. A paper looking at the risk of a collision with a large asteriod is in Nature 367 (1994), 33-40.

A review is R.J. Charlson & T.M.L. Wigley, "Sulfate aerosol and climatic change", Scientific American (Jan 1994), 28-35. The neutralisation of acid rain is discussed in Nature 367 (1994), 321, 351-4. While sulfur dioxide emissions have fallen, the acidity of rain has remained high in polluted areas, due to reduction in the basic cations in the atmosphere that neutralise acid rain. There still needs to be further reduction in pollution if acid rain is to be avoided. A US panel from the National Academy of Sciences has recommended a global body be established to control civil plutonium use; Nature 367 (1994), 307.

A review of environmental agents associated with breast cancer is in The Ecologist 23 (1993), 192-3; with a discussion of estrogenic agents in JAMA 271 (1994), 414. A link between climatic warming and increased malaria incidence in Rwanda is made in Lancet 343 (1994), 714-8. In their study 80% of the variability in incidence of malaria could be explained by temperature. Deaths caused by dust are discussed in New Scientist (12 March 1994), 12-3.

Evidence of pre-industrial lead pollution in Swedish lake sediments is in Nature 368 (1994), 323-6. The mercury cycle in fish in lakes is described in EST 28 (1994), 136-43. Deformities in birds caused by pollution in the Great Lakes is discussed in EST 28 (1994), 128-35. Studies linking excess phosphorus with coral death in the Great Barrier reef in Australia are reported in Science 263 (1994), 1086; and radiation and coral bleaching is discussed in Nature 368 (1994), 697.

The experiment to fertilise 8km square of Pacific ocean with 480kg of iron resulted in increased phytoplankton growth (which converts more carbon dioxide into fixed carbon for deposit naturally in the bottom of the ocean, however, the iron sank too quickly for it to stimulate the general growth significantly over a long period; Science 263 (1994), 1089-90; Nature 368 (1994), 295-6. It was a large experiment, to test the idea that fertilising the ocean with iron could help reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Reductions in some greenhouse gases, including methane have been observed, which may be due to Mt Pinatubo, as well as sealing links in the Russian and CIS natural gas pipelines; Science 263 (1994), 1562. A discussion of methane sources and sinks is Nature 368 (1994), 19-20; and on the missing carbon sink, New Scientist (8 Jan 1994), 30-3. Effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide on C4 plants over history are reported in Nature 343: 533-6; and in general, Ambio 23 (1994), 74-6. A commentary on the IPCC and climate change analysis is Nature 368 (1994), 94; and a series of policy papers is in Ambio 23 (1994), Issue 1, 4-103.

Environmental regulation in the USA is discussed in Science 263 (1994), 591; EST 28 (1994), 64-8. Clinton has backed the call to end the use of chlorine in industry; New Scientist (12 Feb 1994), 10. UK policies are discussed in New Scientist (5 Feb 1994), 6-7.

The reductions in sulfate emissions from burning fossil fuels may be reducing the amount of sulfate deposited by acid rain onto farms, meaning some farmers will have to buy sulfate fertiliser; Science 263 (1994), 1220. The fertiliser may come from the ammonium sulfate formed from the cleaning devices in the factories! A discussion of the process, called SNOX, to reduce emissions is EST 28 (1994), 88-9. A world-wide view of urban pollution is W.L. Chameides et al., "Growth of continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, regional ozone pollution, and world food pollution", Science 264 (1994), 74-7.

The continued use of HCFCs as a replacement to CFCs will delay the recovery of the ozone layer, which is prompting some countries (including the EU) to phase them out earlier, EST 28 (1994), 111; though this is debated, New Scientist (5 Feb 1994), 15. A discussion of the roles of fires in affecting the ozone layer (by releasing bromide especially) is Science 263 (1994), 1243-4. A study of amphibians, such as frogs, suggests that they may be damaged by increased UV resulting from the thinning ozone layer.

A book review of S.R. Kellert & E.O. Wilson, The Biophilia Hypothesis (Washington DC, Island Press, 1993, 484pp, US$27.50) is in Science 263 (1994), 1161-2. The idea is that human beings appreciate nature because of genes - part of sociobiology. This is especially interesting when considering the results of comments of the International Bioethics Survey question on nature, which found very positive feelings towards nature - and which should allow analysis of which parts of nature are most attractive. A variety of papers on ethical aspects of environmental studies are in Environmental Ethics (published quarterly by the Environmental Philosophy Inc., Chestnut Hall, Suite 14, 1926 Chestnut Street, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203-6496, USA).

Book reviews of F.B. Golley, A History of the Ecosystem Concept in Ecology, Yale University Press, 254pp., US$30, are in New Scientist (21 May 1994), 38-9; Science 264 (1994), 726-7. Book reviews of M. Oelschlaeger, Caring for Creation: An Ecumenical Approach to the Environmental Crisis, Yale University Press 1994, 285pp., US$35; and C.A. Russell, The Earth, Humanity and God, UCL Press 1994, 193pp., £10 (Pbk), are in Nature 369 (1994), 619-20.

There are at least 47 major environmental treaties in the world, and a year book is being published to keep track of them, New Scientist (21 May 1994), 43. The latest is on desertification. Ecofeminism is discussed in Science & Christian Belief 6 (1994), 21-40. The fallacy of the ecological fallacy is discussed in AJPH 84 (1994), 819-24.

The global problem of overfishing is discussed in Newsweek (25 April), 30-5; Science 264 (1994), 1252-3. Ocean pollution and health risk for swimmers is discussed in Lancet 343 (1994), 990-1, 1033, 1238-9. A description of two new types of bleaches that may have some environmental benefit (thought they use manganese) are scientifically reviewed in Nature 369 (1994), 609-10, 637-9, 511.

The plans to elevate the EPA to a Department are expected to return to Congress in the USA, Science 264 (1994), 763. The American Chemical Society's federal policy agenda on the environment is discussed in EST 28 (1994), 209. The pollution liability debate raised by the European Parliament moves to make companies absolutely liable for damage is raising industry fears, EST 28 (1994), 215.

A study of the likely affects of climatic warming on frost damage to tree species in Europe, finds that there should be less spring frost damage, Plant, Cell & Environment 17: 367-77. Sea-level change that may result from future warming is discussed in Nature 369 (1994), 615-6; and from past changes, Nature 369 (1994), 518.

A new international agreement to cut sulfur dioxide emission is open for signing in Oslo, EST 28 (1994), 210. It uses 1980 as a base year, and requires different reductions by the year 2000, e.g. 50% in the UK and the USA. The affects of particles in the air on climate change are reviewed in Nature 369 (1994), 709-10, 734-7. Air pollution and death is discussed in NEJM 330 (1994), 1237-8. An editorial on the need for limits to cities is Lancet 343 (1994), 1303-4. Comments on electric cars, and regulations to ensure some electric cars are sold in US cities is in Nature 369 (1994), 175; and on lithium batteries, Science 264 (1994), 1084.

The controversial Biosphere 2 project in the Arizona desert has now been placed under the protection of federal police as the alliance and financers appear to be breaking up; Newsweek (18 April), 42-3.

A scheme to repair the ozone hole is described in New Scientist (21 May 1994),9. The possibility of banning stratospheric flights of jumbo jets on the grounds of the damage to the ozone layer that they make, is discussed in New Scientist (30 April 1994), 14-5. The plan involves drawing up flight plans to lessen the risk of damage. An analysis of the trends in UV-B radiation, which is increasing over Toronto, presumably because of ozone depletion, is Science 264 (1994), 1341-3.

An analysis of the ecological merits of disposable cups, based on energy use, is Nature 369 (1994), 107. The moulded polystyrene foam cup was found to use less energy, with the uncoated paper cup the least fossil-fuel energy. The green label and economics is discussed in Scientific American (May 1995), 115. A review is J. Karliner, "The environment industry. profiting from pollution", The Ecologist 24: 59-63. A discussion of sustainable development as healthy development is World Health Forum 15 (1994), 193-5.

A letter assessing the effects of climate on food supply is in Nature 371 (1994), 25. A paper showing that the effects of the El Nino effect can last over a decade is in Nature 370 (1994), 326-7, 360-3.

An interesting aside is the opposition by some in India to the import of 6 million tons of cow dung (value $420 million) from the Netherlands; The Ram's Horn (July 1994), 3. There is also discussion of the issues of animal agriculture. A book review of Renewable energy from the Ocean is Science 265 (1994), 419-20; and on other energy books, Nature 370 (1994), 27-8.

In Thailand golf courses are being criticised by environmental groups for the water pollution, Scientific American (Aug 1995), 86-7, as is the case in Japan. A strategy for hazard assessment of organics in water is in EST 28 (1994), 278-88; and the use of plants is called for in J. Lovett Doust et al., "Biological assessment of aquatic pollution: A review, with emphasis on plants as biomonitors", Biol. Reviews 69: 147-86. On North Sea pollution, EST 28 (1994), 257. A review of toxic algae blooms, or "Red Tides", is Scientific American (Aug 1995), 62-8.

The natural production of chlorinated products is increasingly being documented, EST 28 (1994), 310-8. A chlorine rule from the US EPA is debated in Science 264 (1994), 1835; and also on US policy, Nature 370 (1994), 239. A discussion of the radioactive compounds left in the environment from bomb tests is Nature 370 (1994), 181-2.

Ozone regulations in Germany (Hessen) are being implemented to control the speed of cars, Nature 370 (1994), 321. Japanese environmental regulations may still be insufficient to meet the goals of carbon consumption, Nature 370 (1994), 405. Carbon emissions and the environment are also discussed in Nature 370 (1994), 420-1.

A review is T.J. Wallington et al., "The environmental impact of CFC replacements - HFCs and HCFs", EST 28 (1994), 320-6. CFCs and inhalers are discussed in Lancet 344 (1994), 18-3. Ozone depletion in the Arctic in the 1992-3 winter is reported in Nature 370 (1994), 429-34.

The mutations induced by UV in ras genes in cultured cells are analysed in PNAS 91 (1994),, 7189-93. The effects of UV appear to be bad for insect larvae but good for algae, Science 265 (1994), 30; M.L. Bothwell et al., "Ecosystem response to solar ultraviolet-B radiation: Influence of trophic-level interactions", Science 265 (1994), 97-100; A. McMinn et al., "Minimal effects of UVB radiation on Antarctic diatoms over the past 20 years", Nature 370 (1994), 547-9. Health and the environment are discussed in BMJ 309 (1994), 141-2; JAMA 272 (1994), 405.

Environmental education is discussed in EST 28 (1994), 249. Biodiversity and lack of scientific awareness is discussed in School Science Review 75: 29-40. On the problems of economy and environment, New Scientist (11 June 1994), 46; Scientific American (July 1995), 102; Science 265 (1994), 11.

A book review of F.B. Golley, A History of the Ecosystem Concept in Ecology: More than the Sum of Parts, Yale University Press, 1993, US$30, is in Nature 370 (1994), 188. The perceptions of environmental hazards in China are reported in Risk Analysis 14: 163-7; and a special issue of Environmental Impact Assessment Review 14 (2,3), 75-210+, is on environmental decision-making in Europe.

The EPA is releasing a report on dioxin effects, and the debate in the US is growing again, Science 265 (1994), 1023. On pesticides in the North Sea, Ambio 23 (1994), 288+. On lead, EST 28 (1994), 402-3. The health effects of coke pollution are addressed in Lancet 344 (1994), 632; and in general, on health, BMJ 309 (1994), 548, 619-20.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has reaffirmed its insistence on the need for reduced carbon dioxide emissions to lessen climate warming; Nature 371 (1994), 269, 274; Science 265 (1994), 1526. However, US emissions are still high, Scientific American (Sept 1995), 20-1. On past climate change, Nature 371 (1994), 282, 380-1. The paper reporting a minimal effect of iron fertilisation on sea-surface carbon dioxide concentrations is Nature 371 (1994), 143-9. On the Arctic greenhouse effect, Nature 371 (1994), 383, 472-3; and sea-level change, Nature 371 (1994), 481. The effects of temperature change on reptiles are discussed in Janzen, F.J. "Climate change and temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles", PNAS 91 (1994),, 7487-90; and on ecology, Vitousek, P.M. "Beyond global warming: Ecology and global change", Ecology 75: 1861-76. The El Nino effect may be linked to an African drought, Newsweek (31 Oct), 46-7. See also, Science 265 (1994), 2006; Naturwissenschaften 81: 237-42.

A study finding 20% increased UV light under cumulus clouds is Nature 371 (1994), 291. On ozone depletion, Nature 371 (1994), 595-7; Science 265 (1994), 1806, 1831-8.

The possibility for commercial help to save the environment is reviewed in Nature 371 (1994), 117; Wee, L.C.W. "Debt-for-nature swaps, a reassessment of their significance in International environment law", J. Environmental Law 6: 57-72.

Research issues in environmental education are in Studies in Science Education 21: 21-48. On environmental politics, Nature 371 (1994), 486; and the European Environmental Agency, EST 28 (1994), 411A. A review of Rifkin, J. Beyond Beef, is in Nature 371 (1994), 570. A review is Kates, R.W. "Sustaining life on the earth", Scientific American (Oct 1995), 114-20.

Ethics and the global nature of concern is discussed in Wapner, P. "On the global dimension of environmental challenges", Politics & Life Science 13 (Feb 1994),173-81. A book review of Bramwell, A., The Fading of the Greens: The Decline of Environmental Politics in the West (Yale University Press, 224pp., £19) is in New Scientist (5 Nov 1994), 43. Several papers on Christian environmental ethics are in Studies in Christian Ethics 7 (1994), 11-6, 117-31, 132-51.

A review is French, H.F. "Making environmental treaties work", Scientific American (Dec 1994), 94-7. A critique of the global environmental policy of IPCC is Boehmer-Christiansen, S.A. "A scientific agenda for climate policy?", Nature 372 (1995), 400-2. The 1994 European Parliament Recommendation 1233 on environmental policy is in IDHL 45 (1994), 402-4. The EU is expected to become more environmental with the addition of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Austria. Russia may save Lake Baikal by ecological zoning, SA (Dec 1994), 14-6. The Clinton environmental policy is discussed in Biotechnology 12 (1994), 1067-8. A discussion of the huge Yangtze river dam project in China is Time (9 Dec 1994), 34-5.

Norway is planning to put frozen carbon dioxide extracted from natural gas back into the oil fields, to avoid atmospheric release (and the European penalty on such releases), New Scientist (5 Nov 1994), 8-9. On global warming, New Scientist (3 Sept 1994), 7, (26 Nov), 6. Further results from the experiments that pumped iron into the Pacific to attempt to increase fixation of carbon dioxide (see earlier issues of EEIN) are discussed in New Scientist (3 Dec 1994), 32-5. A review that suggests movement of icebergs from Canada marked the end of past climatic periods is Broecker, W.S. "Massive iceberg discharges as triggers for global climate change", Nature 372 (1995), 421-4; see also Nature 373 (1995), 18-9. On the role of the tropical Pacific in climate changes this century, Science 266 (1994), 544-5, 634-7; and of the solar cycle, Science 266: 1072-3.

Electric cars and fuel cells as alternatives to petroleum are being introduced in several countries, New Scientist (3 Dec 1994),14-5; Nature 372 (1994), 115-6, 121. New diesel filters are being tested in Europe to reduce particulate emissions, New Scientist (26 Nov 1994), 22. Also on traffic pollution, New Scientist (20 Aug 1994),; Science 266 (1994), 347. Control of nitrogen oxides is discussed in EST 28 (1994), 559A. Methods for determining atmospheric mercury are reviewed in EST 28 (1994), 2233-41. Medical doctors are called to do more to prevent climatic change and warn of the consequences for health, BMJ 309 (1994), 1384-5.

India has found that its paddy fields do not produce so much methane, and make about 4.3 million tonnes annually, not 37 million as some have claimed; New Scientist (27 Aug 1994), 6.

The Antarctic ozone hole has failed to recover, continuing a 15 year worsening cycle, Science 266 (1994), 217. On the chemistry of depletion, Science 266 (1994), 398-404; Nature 372 (1995), 322-3. The use of CFCs in developing fingerprints is not exempt from the Montreal protocol which banned the production of trichlorofluoroethane from this January, but alternatives exist; New Scientist (29 Oct 1994), 5; maybe DNA fingerprints!

A commentary on the ways to keep a climate treaty relevant is Nature 373 (1995), 280-2. It suggests that setting targets may not be the best way; which would be good as it is unlikely new targets will be agreed upon, Nature 373 (1995), 462! Of the 15 countries who said they would set levels of greenhouse gas emissions at the year 2000 to those of 1990, only 5 appear able to do so. An impasse has been reached in Europe on carbon taxes, with the mid-December agreement by the environment ministers to let each country make their own targets, EST 29 (1995), 21A; Science 266 (1994), 1939. The new Republican Congress in the USA reduces the chance of more environmental legislation, EST 29 (1995), 69A. A discussion of free market environmentalism is in AgBioethics Forum 6 (Nov 1994), 2-7. On commercial profits from the "green" industry, EST 29 (1995), 19A, 47A.

Results of a survey of US student concerns about the environment found that half of them were "very worried" about the environment, along with AIDS and kidnapping; EST 29 (1995), 75A. Environmental aesthetics and models for ecosystem and landscape patterns are discussed in Nature 373 (1995), 299-302.

The eruption of Mt. Pinatubo was the largest perturbation this century to the particulate content of the stratosphere, causing an end to several years of globally warm surface temperatures, McCormick, M.P. et al. "Atmospheric effects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption", Nature 373 (1995), 399-404. The effects of the El Nino are reported in Nature 373 (1995), 230-3. A comparison of ice samples in Greenland and Antarctica over the last 100,000 years finds some differences, Nature 372 (1994), 663-6, 621-2. On carbon dioxide effects and vegetation, Nature 372 (1994), 625-6.

A book review of Bullard, R.D. Environmental justice and communities of color (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 392pp., US$25) is in Lancet 344 (1994), 1624. Also on environmental justice, EST 29 (1995), 22A. In a test case, the Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg has ruled that damage to health arising from environmental pollution can be construed as an infringement of human rights; Lancet 344 (1994), 1695.

A series of reports debating the EPA's study on dioxin are in EST 29 (1995), 26A-35A. An analysis of PCB levels and the equilibrium levels in the Great Lakes in North America is EST 29 (1995), 42-6. Ecological concerns in Russia are the subject of a book review in EST 29 (1995), 91A.

Efforts to fight urban ozone by cleaner automobile fuel are being tried in the USA, Reichhardt, T. "A new formula for fighting urban ozone", EST 29 (1995), 36A-41A. Advances are being made in battery technology, Nature 373 (1995), 556-8. A way to reduce the production cost ethanol fuel is reported in Science 267 (1995), 171, 240+.

UV-B radiation is increasing at the Earth's surface, and a UNEP report predicts substantial human health effects, EST 29 (1995), 71A; a general discussion is Scientific American (Jan 1995), 26-7. A study showing that it is not practical to use negative ion chemistry to reduce the destruction of ozone by chlorine is Science 267 (1995), 82-4.

A new network for Christians interested in the environment has been set up, the UK Evangelical Environmental Network which has published its first newsletter; Contact: Dr R.C.J. Carling, UK Evangelical Environmental Network, Christian Impact, St Peter's Church, Vere Street, London, W1M 9HP, UK; Email: Christian Impact@ecunet.org or home page at , http://www.tcp.co.uk/~carling/eenhome.html.

Sustainable development is discussed in Insights on Global Ethics 5 (April), 1, 4-5; Winter, P. (1994) "Planning and sustainibility: An examination of the role of the planning system as an instrument for the delivery of sustainable development", J. Planning & Environment Law p. 883-900; and the ethics of economic expansion in China is discussed in Insights on Global Ethics 5 (March), 1, 4-5. A report on the planned Three Gorges hydroelectric project is in New Scientist (28 Jan, 1995), 25-9. A realistic view of the extent of sustainibility is Maddox, J. "Sustainable development unsustainable", Nature 374 (1995), 305; which reviews Beckerman, W.,Small is Stupid (Duckworth, 1995).

The environmental destruction is likely to result in increasing human health effects. Many of these may be infectious diseases, Science 267 (1995), 957-8; Epstein, P.R. "Emerging diseases and ecosystem instability: New threats to public health", AJPH 85 (1995), 168-72. One way to measure the impact of chemicals is the study of DNA adducts, Enviro 18 (dec 1994), 23-4.

The claim that the environmental movement is beginning to suffer from a lack of public support as less people are motivated by the concerns is discussed in, New Scientist (4 March, 1995), 38-41. People may be evaluating decisions in a more logical way, though there is still a long way to go. A report on environmental destruction in Ancient Greece is Scientific American (March 1995), 96-9.

The UK Environment agency plans have been criticised from different groups, Nature 374 (1995), 490. The US EPA research on methods to monitor the environment by a national report card are still to yield a method acceptable to the US politicians and it is likely to have its funding cut, Nature 374 (1995), 486. Also on the EPA, EST 29 (1995), 112-3A. In general on pollution, Nature 374 (1995), 117-8. The drugs dropped from drug traffickers boats are suspected of killing many sea mammals in the Gulf of California, Time (10 April), 46. A review on soil erosion in general is Pimentel, D. et al. "Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits", Science 267 (1995), 1117-23.

A study from ATT Bell Laboratories in the USA confirms that global warming is likely due to carbon dioxide rather than a hotter sun; and on the variability of temperature records, Science 267 (1995), 612. A method to measure the interaction between ozone and climate on trees is in Nature 374 (1995), 252-5. On the role of aerosols in global warming, Nature 374 (1995), 487.

International efforts to reduce carbon dioxide and politics are discussed in Nature 374 (1995), 208, 300; Naturwissenschaften 82: 83-6; New Scientist (25 Feb, 1995), 38 and the Berlin meeting of the treaty members of those who signed the Rio Declaration on Climate Change, Nature 374 (1995), 199-200. The meeting suggested some progress in the thinking of politicians to agree to work on the issues, though there are many practical issues left, Nature 374 (1995), 483. European ministers have agreed to seek new climate targets for reduced emissions by the year 2000, Nature 374 (1995), 203. They want to seek agreements for other gases, and for levels beyond the year 2000. Air travel will still be excluded however, New Scientist (7 Jan, 1995), 4. A review that suggests 40% of the total carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere is from biomass burning is Levine, J.R. et al. "Biomass burning. A driver for global change", EST 29 (1995), 120-5A.

Efforts to tax carbon are discussed in New Scientist (21 Jan, 1995), 4; (4 Feb), 47. In the USA some power companies are trying to maintain and protect forests in other countries as good public relations for adding to carbon emissions; Time (3 April), 46. Such efforts can bring cynicism, but if forests are protected it is of benefit for biodiversity.

A commentary on Earth Day and environmentalism is Time (24 April, 1995), 50-55; and a book review of Beckerman, W. Small is Stupid: Blowing the Whistle on the Greens, is Nature 375 (1995), 114-5; see also p. 115-6, 825-6. A Christian view of the environment is Berry, R.J. "Creation and the Environment", Science and Christian Belief 7 (1995), 21-44. The US government "Contract with America" will mean less regulations, but it may not always favour the environment, as discussed in Insights on Global Ethics 5 (June 1995), 1, 4-5. The results of the ISSP 1993 survey find that the public in the USA has a relatively poor knowledge of environmental issues, with Canada first and New Zealand second; Science 268 (1995), 647; NS (29 April 1995).

The costs of environmentalism are discussed in Martinez-Alier, J. "The environment as a luxury good or "too poor to be green", Ecological Economics 13 (1995), 1-10; Arrow, K. et al. "Economic growth, carrying capacity, and the environment", Science 268 (1995), 520-1. German Green politics is discussed in Newsweek (29 May 1995), 30. Papers on sustainability include Dovers, S.R. & Handmer, J.W. "Ignorance, the precautionary principle, and sustainability", Ambio 24 (1995), 92-7. Amir, S. "The environmental cost of sustainable welfare", Ecological Economics 13 (1995), 27-41; also pp. 11-26 on economics and environment. Environmental research budgets are likely to be reduced in the USA, EST 29 (1995), 180-2A; Nature 375 (1995), 347. The esthetics of forest clearing are discussed in J. Forestry (May 1995), 37-42; and forest policy in Science 268 (1995), 823-4.

EU efforts against the greenhouse effect are discussed in BMJ 310 (1995), 758; NS (6 May 1995), 14-5. The 116 Rio signatories are negotiating the new goals for emissions, since the Berlin conference, Science 268 (1995), 197; Nature 375 (1995), 176, 749-50; NS (18 March), 4; (25 March), 14; (8 April), 4; (15 April), 3. A Pan-Asian network for data-sharing is reported in Science 267 (1995), 1902. The UN Conference on Trade and Development has suggested international trading in carbon dioxide emissions, EST 29 (1995), 29: 208A; NS (29 April 1995), 50-1. A study suggesting that the pollution emissions of smoke may be blocking the sun and masking the effects of greenhouse warming is Science 268 (1995), 802; NS (1 April 1995), 5. However, a study has shown that the 0.5 degrees Celsius rise in temperature is not due to a hotter sun, thus it appears to be due to greenhouse gases, Science 268 (1995), 28-9, 363-4; NS (22 April 1995).

A titanium dioxide catalyst and sunlight can be used to convert carbon dioxide and water to methane, which could recycle the greenhouse gases, NS (1 April 1995), 22. Methods to reduce pollution by EPA enforcement agreements is a method available in US policy, EST 29 (1995), 220-6A. The National Research Council has applauded the EPA, Science 267 (1995), 1903. A review of the natural cycles since 1659 is Thomson, D.J. "The seasons, global temperature, and precession", Science 268 (1995), 59-68. On renewable liquid fuels, Science 268 (1995), 955; and on a car equipped with a catalyst to destroy ozone and carbon monoxide in the air itself, Science 268 (1995), 979. A cost study is Beaton, S.P. et al. "On-road vehicle emissions: regulations, costs and benefits", Science 268 (1995), 991-3, with a paper on electric cars, pp. 993-5. The debate over how ecosystems will respond to higher carbon dioxide despite plants faster growth is in Science 268 (1995), 654-6; and there is data to suggest some forests are wilting under the rise in temperature, Science 267 (1995), 1595; and Pacific plankton are falling, NS (8 April 1995), 5. Methods to reduce atmospheric releases of the greenhouse gas methyl bromide that is used to fumigate soil are described in Science 267 (1995), 1979-80.

A paper looking at the production of hydrocarbons by plants, which make haze, is Science 268 (1995), 641-2. The use of medical dose inhalers without CFCs is called for in BMJ 310 (1995), 684-5. A call for including fully fluorinated compounds in the ozone depleting chemical restrictions because of their long half life (up to 50,000) years is NS (8 April), 5. The effects of increased UV-B radiation on the growth of different subarctic plants is reported in Ambio 24 (1995), 106+. A review of methods to measure hazardous air pollutants is EST 29 (1995), 183-7A.

The link between foreign debts and environmental damage is discussed in SA (June 1995), 52-6. A discussion of the Three Gorges dam project in China is Ambio 24 (1995), 98-102.

A report on the blood mercury concentrations of fish eating villagers in Brazil (mercury comes from gold mining) found their levels higher than most people in industrialised countries, Ambio 24 (1995), 103-5. Bioconcentration of heavy metals in sewage ponds is reported in Bioresource Technology 51 (1995), 193-7. The various hormonal affects of PCBs are discussed in a conference review in Science 268 (1995), 1770-1.

A review is Bloom, D.E. "International public opinion on the environment", Science 269 (1995), 354-60. There is concern in all countries that have been surveyed and perceptions that the quality of the environment is dropping. A book review of Soule, M.E. & Lease, G., Reinventing Nature? Responses to Postmodern Deconstruction (Island Press, Washington, 1995, 189pp., US$18) is in Science 269 (1995), 422-3. A book review of Grove, R.H., Green Imperalism: Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens and the Origins of Environmentalism, 1600-1860 (Cambridge University Press, 1995, 540pp., US$65) is in Nature 376 (1995), 652-3. He argues that global environmentalism was associated with the European colonisation of the world, and may therefore have some Eurocentric ideas. Environmental ethics is discussed in Otago Bioethics Report 4 (July 1995), 3-4.

In general on ecology and concerns, Science 269 (1995), 283. The effects of population on the local environment are discussed in AgBioethics Forum 7 (June 1995), 1-5 (they are now on-line, http://www.public.iastate.edu/~grad college/bioethics.

The most noisy environmental issue over the past two months has been the French decision to have a further series of nuclear bomb tests underground at Mururoa atoll in the South Pacific (South of Tahiti); Nature 376 (1995), 199, 283-4, 540, 625; BMJ 311 (1995), 147. The first test was exploded on 6 September, as this issue went to Press. The environmental risks appear to be low, based on data-to-date, but the major unknown is how long the radioactive materials will remain inside the rock core of the atoll. The Pacific nations have been most focal, with diplomatic relations with France and Japan, and New Zealand, are strained, and other nations including Australia have also boycotts. One of the unknowns is whether France will accept all future damages caused by the testing, in the event of eventual leakage. A description of GreenPeace is Newsweek (24 July, 1995), 52-3.

The area around Chernobyl is now occupied with many wild animals since the people moved, but they are suffering higher mutation rates, Science 269 (1995), 304. There will be international funding needed for the construction of a "permanent", On low level radioactive waste storage, EST 29 (1995), 308A; Science 268 (1995), 1547, 1836-9. The French nuclear waste programme is being criticised also, Nature 376 (1995), 204; and Japanese plutonium could also be involved in the French tests, Nature 376 (1995), 718.

A review of how land reclamation should be increased is Daily, G.C. "Restoring value to the world's degraded lands", Science 269 (1995), 269 (1995), 350-4. On mineral uses of the environment and economics, Science 268 (1995), 1305-12; 1549-51; Ecological Economics 13 (1995), 185-201; EST 29 (1995), 309A. The use of polluter-pays principle in China is reported in EST 29 (1995), 268-73A. The public opposition in Germany to a new open cast coal mine are winning over industrial interests, but with consequences for energy use, Time (10 July, 1995), 37. On mining issues, EST 29 (1995), 275A. Urban ozone control is discussed in Science 269 (1995), 491+.

A series of papers on UV-B radiation and the ozone layer is in Ambio 24 (May 1995), 137-196. Discussion of CFC alternatives and possible environmental problems some may cause is Nature 376 (1995), 297-8; Ambio 24 (1995), 156-7; as trifluoroacetate is found to accumulate from the decomposition of hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons, Tromp, T.K. et al. "Potential accumulation of a CFC-replacement degradation product in seasonal wetlands", Nature 376 (1995), 327-30. Continual decline of total ozone over Antarctica since 1985 is documented in Nature 376 (1995), 409-11. The atmospheric lifetime of trichloroethane is estimated to be about 5 years, which is lower than previous estimates, Science 269 (1995), 187-92. The effects of methyl bromide are examined in Nature 376 (1995), 469-70.

A biochemical study of the causes of cell death after UV exposure is Nature 376 (1995), 358-62. A morning after cream to reduce the UV damage is being developed, GEN (15 June 1995), 1, 14, 26. Included in the US budget cuts are a halfing of the money spend on environmental health research in two major programs, EST 29 (1995), 307A. A book review of Wildavsky, A. But is it True? A Citizen's Guide to Environmental Health and Safety Issues (Harvard University Press, 1995, 574pp., US$35), is in Nature 376 (1995), 30-1.

Japan has promised to loosen the criteria that has restricted compensation claims for victims of Minamata disease, Nature 375 (1995), 711. On environmental health, Bulletin of WHO 73 (1995), 387-96; JAMA 274 (1995), 15; Lancet 346 (1995), 129-30; BMJ 311 (1995), 401-2 . A description of the EPA procedure for determining lead toxicity in soil is in Renner, R. "When is lead a health risk?", EST 29 (1995), 256-61A.

A method to rank the dangers of pesticides is in Newman, A. "Ranking pesticides by environmental impact", EST 29 (1995), 324-6A. On Rachel Carson, Science 268 (1995), 1203-5. Letters on estimating costs of soil erosion are in Science 269 (1995), 461-5.

The use of sewage-fed fish farms, and the accumulation of heavy metals in the fish, from Madurai, India, is reported in BioResource Technology 52 (1995), 41-3, 145-50. The contamination with MTBE in ground water in the USA is surveyed in EST 29 (1995), 305A; and on the clean water act, EST 29 (1995), 246-7A. Air pollution is discussed in EST 29 (1995), 262-7A; SA (July 1995), 29-30.

Although the effects of clouds on the amount of solar radiation are very complex, these effects should be able to be included into models, Nature 376 (1995), 486-90. A model suggesting an average 0.3K degree increase per decade temperature increase due to greenhouse warming, which is reduced to 0.2K by the effects of increased sulphur emissions in pollution (sulphate aerosol forcing), Mitchell, J.F.B. et al. "Climate response to increasing levels of greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols", Nature 376 (1995), 501-4; 463-4; 212-3; 645-6. On climate warming in North America, Science 269 (1995), 1576-7; 1567-8. On climate convention targets, EST 29 (1995), 251A.

The World Bank had a conference 2-3 October on "Ethical and spiritual values and the promotion of environmentally sustainable development", with the above title in an address by the new President, J. Wolfensohn. It is encouraging to see ethics enter the sphere of economic, but it is essential. On environmental policy, EST 29 (1995), 391A. The US EPA budget has been cut, EST 29 (1995), 403A. A review of interest for policy formation is Morgan, M.G. & Keith, D.W. "Subjective judgements by climate experts", EST 29 (1995), 468-6A. The journal Environmental Science and Technology (EST) will be on-line from 1996, EST 29 (1995), 439-41A.

A review of the pollution in the Caspian Sea is Nature 377 (1995), 673-4. A study on the major sources of nutrient water pollution is EST 29 (1995), 408-14A. Leakage of LPG in Mexico city is a major pollution source, Science 270 (1995), 950+; on ozone pollution in US cities, EST 29 (1995), 453A. A discussion of the concerns of livestock producers: J. Animal Science 73 (1995), 2733-40.

A review of how the ocean works as a temperature conveyer is Nature 378 (1995), 135-6, 383-4. Modeling of past climate is discussed in Nature 377 (1995), 12, 485-6; SA (Nov 1995), 62-8. Warming is seen more at night than in day times, Nature 377 (1995), 15-6; also Nature 377 (1995), 472. The chances of a cooling of the sun to save us from increased temperature are considered low in Nature 377 (1995), 193. At last the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has included a recognition of man-made temperature change in a report, SA (Nov 1995), 32; and a report by the US National Academy of Sciences also does, Science 269 (1995), 1665, 1667. At Mammoth Mountain in California, the concentration of carbon dioxide that has killed some trees is 60%, because of volcanic gases escaping through the sides of a mountain!, Science 269 (1995), 1223.

Bart, J.L. & Bourque, D.A., "Acknowledging the weather-health link", CMAJ 153 (1995), 941-944; argue that in the absence of clearly demonstrable causal connections, statistical associations between weather phenomena and health problems should be enough to influence clinical practice. Also, BMJ 311 (1995), 769; JAMA 274 (1995), 595-7; Lancet 346 (1995), 835; AJPH 85 (1995), 1343-5.

Ozone depletion is already resulting in more UV on some land areas than the variability caused by the presence or absence of clouds, Nature 377 (1995), 682-3, 710-3. There is a large black market in CFCs, despite the Montreal Protocol, which will delay the removal of CFCs, SA (Sept 1995), 18-9. We may expect a 50 year recovery of the hole, Science 270 (1995), 376. Ecological effects of the increased UV are discussed in Science 270 (1995), 1201-5.

France has agreed under pressure from the EU to allow an international expert panel to monitor the environmental damage at Mururoa, Nature 377 (1995), 91-2. On the protests see, Science 269 (1995), 1519; Lancet 346 (1995), 576. In a recent UN debate 10 EU countries voted against France's tests. At the Commonwealth Head's of Government meeting, the first week of November, 1995, the UK blocked a move to pass a resolution against the French tests. A positive comment on the future because of the commitments now made by nuclear powers to a zero-yield ban on future nuclear tests (i.e. no tests of any size) is Nature 377 (1995), 89, 186. However, there are concerns that other nuclear powers may want to perfect their technology before signing. A review from the US Hanford Environmental Dose project in radiation studies is Till, J.E. "Building credibility in public studies", American Scientist 83 (1995), 468-73.

A series of papers on energy and the environment are in SA (Sept 1995), 170-91; Science 269 (1995), 1058-9; and the issue of lead pollution and electric cars in Science 270 (1995), 741-5. A method for economy-wide review of discharges of pollution is EST 29 (1995), 420-6A. A review of the methods to develop an ecological economy in Germany is SA (Sept 1995), 188.

The well known French oceanographer, J.Y. Cousteau is involved in a legal battle of use of the family name in an EcoResort in Fiji, Newsweek (16 Oct, 1995), 50-1.

A new pesticide law (Plant protection law) has been passed in Poland which bans 48 active ingredients and made additional restrictions on substances to be used near reservoirs, EBN 214 (1995), 2. The use of transgenic maize which is herbicide-tolerant or insect resistant is expected to cause major changes and reduction in the number of pesticides used. In the USA the annual amount of pesticides is equal to US$2700 million, EBN 214 (1995), 3. Computer modeling is one attempt to model chemical risks, EST 29 (1995), 556-9A; and on chemical safety, Environmental Health Perspectives 103 (1995), 886-8. US-Vietnamese studies on dioxin seem set to continue, Science 270 (1995), 741; also on dioxin, EST 29 (1995), 492-3A.

There is much debate in the US over the retroactive liability for Superfund cleanups, EST 29 (1995), 498-9A. Economics and the environment are discussed in Search 26 (1995), 233-5, 304-8: Natural Resources Forum 19 (1995), 249-52. Incentives are needed to help consumers become more green, NS (2 Dec 1995), 7.

A series of papers reviewing the EPA in the USA are: EST 29 (1995), 486A, 496-7A, 504-21A. The UN may develop a scheme to phase out a dozen persistent organic water pollutants, EST 29 (1995), 546A. There was opposition by Dutch farmers to plans to limit pig production in attempts to control the large manure production, which is threatening nitrate and phosphate pollution in water. Pollution in the Aral Sea is causing most women in some areas to have anemia, NS (21 Oct 1995), 29-33.

A claim that Australian ecologists are censored by Paul Ehrlich is reported in NS (18 Nov 1995), 4. A survey of scientists involvement in environmental affairs is Search 26 (1995), 270-3. A review of a book, James Kohen, Aboriginal Environmental Impact (UNSW Press, 1995, 150pp., A$25) is Search 26 (1995), 316.

France has allegedly stopped EU scientists from inspecting equipment and data from their nuclear bomb tests, NS (21 Oct 1995), 6. Also on radiation damage, Nature 378 (1995), 230. In Japan there has been further debate over the safety of the fast breeder reactor in Fukui, called Monju, following the leakage of a cubic metre of sodium coolant inside the reactor, which is still in its warming up phase, Nature 378 (1995), 654. The French fast breeder has operated at full rate for 6 months in 9 years, NS (4 Nov 1995), 10; and the value of plutonium is now accounted at zero, not positive, NS (18 Nov 1995), 12. On nuclear weapons and the health effects of their production, Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 1208-9. There is European concern over the restarting of an old nuclear reactor in Bulgaria, NS (4 Oct 1995), 4. Nuclear storage at Yucca mountain in the USA is being criticized for its lack of peer review, Nature 378 (1995), 526, 755.

The IPCC has at last recognised the human role in global warming, EST 29 (1995), 494-5A; Science 270 (1995), 731, 1565-7; NS (9 Dec 1995), 6; Nature 378 (1995), 322, 329, 524. The latest report suggests that the global warming could be mitigated at a low cost compared to the cost of not altering our behaviour. A commentary arguing that the UN Climate Convention is unattainable or irrelevant, Science 270 (1995), 1454. Models on economic methods for controlling emissions are discussed in Neto, F. "Market-based mechanisms for controlling global emissions of greenhouse gases", Natural Resources Forum 19 (1995), 179-91. Also on economics of reducing emissions, Nature 378 (1995), 429, 433. A study suggesting that much of the methyl bromide used in soil fumigation may be consumed by bacteria in the soil, NS (28 Oct 1995), 10.

There are delays in the adoption of ozone-depleting chemical bans in developing countries because of debate on financial assistance by industrialized countries, NS (9 Dec 1995), 5. Low level ozone pollution can hinder pine tree growth, Nature 378 (1995), 449-51. Ozone-destroying chlorine leveled out this year, Science 271 (1996), 32.

The UK has agreed to an EU report to reduce air particle pollution, Lancet 346 (1995), 1356. A list of the most dirty polluters in the UK has been released, NS (25 Nov 1995), 4. The WHO has said that there is no safe level of particulate pollution, BMJ 311 (1995), 1246; though industry may try to deny this, NS (4 Nov 1995), 5. Electric cars are discussed in NS (14 Oct 1995),5; (28 Oct 1995), 5.

A guide to environmental information on-line is in EST 30 (1996), 76-81A; and more access is recommended through the www sites <http://www.epa.gov/ <http://www.geopac.com/. There are also sites on the EJAIB www news topics.

A prediction that the world will be short of fresh water in the future, and will use 70% of accessible fresh water by 2025, is NS (17 Feb 1996), 8. In general on environmental issues, NS (17 Feb 1996), 40-1. A series of papers on environmental management of coastal areas are in Ambio 24 (1995), 389-538. Economic incentives to reduce pollution are in EST 30 (1996), 19A, 70-73A. Book reviews on domination of nature are in Nature 379 (1996), 687.

A trend for insurance companies to release that climate change caused by the greenhouse gas emissions is behind unpredictable weather and changing climate patterns, is causing them to support efforts to reduce emissions, SA (Feb 1996), 27-8. This awareness is also discussed in Lancet 346 (1995), 1642-3. Some policy options are summarized in Wiglet, TML et al. "Economic and environmental choices in the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentrations", Nature 379 (1996), 240-3; Science 271 (1996), 273. On the function of the IPCC, Nature 379 (1996), 108-9; Science 271 (1996), 581-2; also, p. 431. A book review of the Rio Convention discussions is EST 30 (1996), 45A. On electric cars, EST 30 (1996), 17-18A. The ecosystem controls on the atmospheric oxygen level are discussed in Science 271 (1996), 459-60.

Climate change is also linked to disease, Jackson EK "Climate change and global infectious disease threats", MJA 163 (1995), 670-4; Patz, JA et al. "Global climate change and merging infectious diseases", JAMA 275 (1996), 217-23; J. Public Health Medicine 17 (195), 377-9; Lancet 346 (1995), s5; Nature 379 (1996), 582-3.

On skin cancer and the ozone hole, MJA 163 (1995), 578-9. More scientific evidence for the role of CFCs in ozone depletion is in Nature 379 (1996), 486-7.

A survey in Japan conducted by the Agency for the Environment (N=1003, 33% response rate) was conducted in Jan-Feb 1996; Yomiuri Shimbun (23 April 1996). 90% said they were worried about the Environment, and 60% said that they would not mind paying taxes to fund better protection of it. 66% agreed to pay recycling deposit fees, something which is rare. There appears to be an increase in public acceptance of an environmental tax, from 45% in a survey in Feb 1995.

A UK study finding no increase in asthma in people living close to busy roads is BMJ 312 (1996), 676-7; however, another study does find ozone and fine exhaust particles do make asthma worse, Anderson, HR. et al. "Air pollution and daily mortality in London: 1987-92", BMJ 312 (1996), 665-9, 661-5, 649-50; there was also link to a thunderstorm, BMJ 312 (1996), 601-4, 604-7. On the subject of environment and health, Public Health 110 (1996), 3-4; Science 272 (1996), 221-2; BMJ 312 (1996), 863-4. A study of children in Africa suggests 90% have lead poisoning from car emissions, at levels which cause neurological damage, NS (23 March 1996), 6; health effects shown in Needleman, HL et al. "Bone lead levels and delinquent behavior", JAMA 275 (1996), 363-9.

On global warming and climate change, Nature 380 (1996), 97, 478; Science 271 (1996), 1481-3, 1820-1; Ecological Economics 16 (1996), 13-24. A call for a body for global monitoring of the atmosphere is Nature 380 (1996), 467; and on testing for bias in the climate record is Science 271 (1996), 1879-83. General book reviews are in Nature 380 (1996), 295-6. On acid rain, Science 272 (1996), 244-6.

Economic methods to charge for the pollution are reviewed in Ecological Economics 16 (1996), 51-63; and management of local commons, Ecological Economics 16 (1996), 1-12; and public welfare, J. Environmental Law 7 (1995), 119-36. A review is Chichilnisky, G. "The economic value of the Earth's resources", Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11 (1996), 135-40. Sustainable development is discussed in Nature & Resources 31 (3, 1995), 1; Ambio 25 (1996), 39-43. An Indian view on sustainable development is Vibhute, KI. "Environment, development and the Law: The Indian perspective", J. Environmental Law 7 (1995), 137-48.

The ozone depletion over the UK was a record this year, in the 3rd year of an Arctic ozone hole, NS (30 March 1996), 3. One possible new solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, EST 30 (1996), 124-7A.

A World Resources Institute report has issued a report saying that pesticide exposure is a serious risk to public health, JAMA 275 (1996), 899-900. There is debate in New Zealand whether frogs are being killed by pesticides, NS (13 April 1996), 47. A letter on DDT and testicular cancer is Lancet 347 (1996), 553-4; and on changes to evolution caused by pollution, NS (2 March 1996), 34-7; Natural History 105 (March 1996), 2, 42-9; EST 30 (1996), 168-170A; EST 30 (1996), 159A. Alternative methods for disposal of PCBs and dioxin are still called for, EST 30 (1996), 114A.

On ecological risk assessment, EST 30 (1996), 111-2A, 128-132A, 172-4A. A review of environmental health in Europe is EST 30 (1996), 162-7A. Methods to reduce pollution from pig farming are discussed in NS (16 March 1996), 5, (23 March 1996), 7.

Reviews of the urbanization conference in Istanbul and the problems of megacities are in NS (1 June), 4, 32-7 (8 June 1996), 4; Nature 381 (1996), 451; Newsweek (10 June 1996), 50-5. The effects of transport on the environment are discussed in NS (4 May 1996), 3. Tropical forest burning smogs may be bigger polluters than cities, NS (18 May 1996), 4. On the deterioration of historic stones, EST 30 (1996), 206-8A. The US Natural Resources Defense Council has calculated that smog kills 60,000 people each year, Nature 381 (1996), 185.

The severe health problems of miners are highlighted in NS (11 May 1996), 14-5; (8 June 1996), 6. 1500 victims of Minamata disease who had not received any compensation (40 years ago) have now been awarded some compensation from Chisso chemical company (on average 16000pds each, NS (1 June 1996), 5. They are still seeking an apology from the government for lack of controls.

On the global balance for dioxins see EST 30 (1996), 1797-1804. In 1995 the world-wide pesticide sales were 11% up over the 1994 figure, and the value was US$29 billion, and it is expected to increase by about 2% a year, The Ram's Horn 137 (1996), 7. The USA is increasing its exports, as are most manufacturers if they can. On dioxins in diesel exhaust, Nature 381 (1996), 379. In New Zealand a law to make pesticide spray drift over others properties the same as trepass is being suggested, Christchurch Press (13 June 1996), 6. On drinking water, Nature 381 (1996), 654-5.

A call for following New Zealand's policy of planting pine trees to satisfy the requirements of reducing carbon emissions is made in NS (4 May 1996), 53. A model to look at the emissions is Hammitt, JK et al. "A welfare-based index for assessing environmental effects of greenhouse-gas emissions", Nature 381 (1996), 301-3. In the USA there is still political resistance to the idea of human greenhouse warming, Nature 381 (1996), 539, 546; and a breakdown of the effects of different gases is Science 272 (1996), 972-3, 1121-2; and on carbon sinks, Nature 381 (1996), 218-21. The use of fuel Cells to produce electricity is reported in NS (18 May 1996), 55; and on solar energy, NS (11 May 1996), 21.

As South Africa returns more land to the original owners, national parks will be made smaller and efforts to preserve the animals are being developed, NS (11 May 1996), 6. In general on environmental issues, NS (18 May 1996), 44-5; Nature 381 (1996), 125-6, 386. The funding of different states in the USA from environmental taxes is discussed in EST 30 (1996), 190-1A; there is a possibility a single network may be made, Nature 381 (1996), 182. The dangers of Russia's environmental pollution, especially nuclear ones, are discussed in Nature 381 (1996), 3, 203-4; NS (20 April 1996), 3-4.

A commentary on the ozone layer protection, Nature 381 (1996), 551-4. The mutations caused by UV light show especially tandem CC to TT transitions, Sage, E. et al. "Mutagenic specificity of solar UV light in nucleotide excision repair-deficient rodent Cells", PNAS 93 (1996), 176-80. Increases in penetration of UV light into lakes are reported due to acidification in Nature 381 (1996), 109-10, 141-3. On the climate and health, Lancet 347 (1996), 1567; and on environmental estrogens see the Birth Control section.

On environmental issues, Vesiland, PA. "There is no such thing as environmental ethics", Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (1996), 307-34 (with commentaries). The US is adding ecological concerns to national security and economic issues in US foreign relations, GEN (August 1996), 2, 8. On GATT and the environment, Environmental Health Perspectives 103 (1995), 240-2. Also on environmental problems, see the journal Ambio on-line at <http://www.allenpress.com/ambio. On computer monitoring, EST 30 (1996), 340-3A; and public access to information, J. Environmental Law 8 (1996), 139-57.

Dioxins and long-lived pollutants still threaten the great Lakes in North America, NS (13 July 1996), 5. The EPA dioxin review is expected at the end of the year, EST 30 (1996), 338A. In Scotland there is concern over the permission given to salmon farmers to use ivermectin which kills invertebrates, NS (7 Sept 1996), 4.

The international waste trade has found some hurdles since China decided to comply and refused to import certain wastes, Nature 382 (1996), 484. Methods to deter environmental crime are reviewed in California Law Review (1996), 307+.

A new law in France will cap the sound from personal stereos at 100 decibels and place warnings on the noise from them, in a progressive move, NS (29 June 1996), 12-3. On health and the environment, Lancet 348 (1996), 139; JAMA 276 (1996), 372-4; Theoretical Medicine 16 (1995), 153-69; Environmental Health Perspectives 104 (1996), 286-9, 492-515. A study of gene mutations from air pollution is in Calderon-Garciduenas et al. "DNA strand breaks in human nasal respiratory epithelium are induced upon exposure to urban pollution", Environmental Health Perspectives 104 (1996), 160-8, 18-9.

A review of the Asia-Pacific area and greenhouse gas emissions is Ambio 25 (1996), 219-310; and on global warming study, Science 273 (1996), 34; NS (6 July), 12-3; (13 July 1996), 1-4 supplement; Nature 382 (1996), 39-46. Japan's emissions are increased by 7.2% from 1990 in 1994, despite the goal to keep the emissions in the year 2000 at 1990 levels; and this could be common, Nature 382 (1996), 27-8, 103, 743; NS (3 August 1996), 48. There are challenges to the production of energy with carbon, EST 30 (1996), 323A; and various levels of progress in Europe, NS (13 July 1996), 9. Ecotaxes are also being implemented. A call for sulfur-emissions from ships to be included in targets and reduced is NS (26 July 1996), 4.

The environmental effects of halocarbon emissions are reviewed in EST 30 (1996), 348-55A. Water mists are being found as good as halons in fire extinguishers for most fires, NS (20 July 1996), 9. On ozone depletion, Nature 382 (1996), 390.

An essay by VR Potter on what bioethics mean, and the global questions of sustainability, is in AgBioethics Forum 8 (June 1996), 2-4. A discussion on environmental ethics is Cifric, I. "Anthropocentrism and naturalism - bases of modern thought?", Social Ecology (Zagreb), 4 (1995), Supplement in English, 5-54. A study on choice of environmental values is Boxall, PC et al. "A comparison of stated preference methods for environmental valuation", Ecological Economics 18 (1996), 243-53.

A report of the Ecological Society of America on the Scientific Basis for Ecosystem Management, followed by a number of perspectives on it, is in Ecological Applications 6 (1996), 665-747. The new right wing government in Israel has decided to push green party interests out of the Ministry for the Environment and change policy on two major projects, NS (14 Sept. 1996), 6.

Two papers on attitudes to nuclear power plants are in Social Ecology (Zagreb), 4 (1995), Supplement in English, 57-76, 77-90. A synopsis of a meeting to call for limits on transfrontier air pollution is Ambio 25 (1996), 376-7. Also on pollution and the environment, NS (28 Sept 1996), 48; (5 Oct 1996), 48.

The US DOE is currently spending about $1 million per year for biohydrogen production, Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1101-6. One more step in establishing hydrogen as a potentially viable energy source has been made, Woodward, J. et al. "In vitro hydrogen production by glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase", Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 872-4, 799. The paper demonstrates a method of producing hydrogen from a renewable source, and the economics of the system seem to make it commercially attractive as well. One possibility is to use corn syrup--currently selling for $0.08 per pound--as the glucose source and to sell the hydrogen byproduct. Alternatively, the glucose source might be some of the 16 billion pounds of cellulose generated each year in the United States from recycled newspapers. The authors calculate that, in theory, their in vitro process could convert this wastepaper stream into enough hydrogen to replace the annual natural gas energy demands of 37 cities the size of Oak Ridge, with its 27,000 inhabitants.

A review of the economics of making ethanol from biomass is Bioresource Technology 56 (1996), 131-40. Methods to use biofuel mix for cooking in rural areas in India are described in Bioresource Technology 56 (1996), 169-78. The controversial claims that a researcher could make petrol from plant oils seems to have been wrong, but there have been some scientific demonstrations in India, Nature 383 (1996), 112. A study suggesting that lead pollution may be worse than air quality if electric cars are introduced is Lave, LB. et al. "Battery-powered vehicles: Ozone reduction versus lead discharges", EST 30 (1996), 402A+.

The final Declaration of the Second Conference on the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change has said that after the year 2000 targets should be legally binding, EST 30 (1996), 435-6A; though industry is still encouraging slower change, Nature 383 (1996), 287, 657. The use of afforestation to sequester carbon in the tropics is reviewed in Ambio 25 (1996), 327-30. A criticism of energy subsidies in Australia has been made, NS (19 Oct. 1996), 54-5. Several book reviews are in Nature 383 (1996), 137-8. On the wastage of paper, NS (28 Sept. 1996), 16-7.

Ozone depletion is reported in parts of the Pacific in Science 274 (1996), 230-3; and as reached a record low, NS (28 Sept. 1996), 6. The 9th meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on removing ozone depleting substances occurs in November in Costa Rica, Lancet 348 (1996), 747. Developed countries have already phased out production except for metered-dose inhalers, although an alternative is on the market. An alternative for police fingerprint enhancer solvents has been found, NS (19 Oct. 1996), 11. The UK is trying to crack down on CFC smugglers, Nature 383 (1996), 660-1.

An iron enrichment experiment in the Pacific found that adding iron to the ocean, the missing trace element, led to increased phytoplankton production, Nature 383 (1996), 475, 495, 508+; NS (12 Oct. 1996), 4. On noise pollution to marine animals in the sea, NS (28 Sept. 1996), 40-2. A study on the 1908 Tunguska explosion is in Nature 383 (1996), 697-9, 674-5. It suggests it was a stony asteroid that fragmented in the atmosphere.
A debate on bias in environmental education in the USA is in Science 274 (1996), 1828-1830. A book review of Rowell, A. Green Backlash: Global Subversion of the Environment Movement (Routledge, 1996, 504pp., US$19) is in Nature 384 (1996), 325-6; and of Lamb, R. Promising the Earth (Routledge, 1996, 10 pds) is Nature 383 (1996), 781. On US ecopolitics, Nature 383 (1996), 749; and loss of funding in a German laboratory for monitoring climate in Zugspitze may close it, NS (16 Nov 1996), 6. New Zealand is planning to introduce an "Eco-label" in 1998, for food and beverages that are produced sustainably. The EC is being criticised for aiming low in reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 2005, aiming at 5% whereas one study suggests 14% would be easily obtained, NS (7 Dec 1996), 10.

A 5 year study of bus driver's in Copenhagen suggests that they have a 60% higher rate of lung cancer which may be due to fumes in the cab, NS (26 Oct 1996), 8. A US study found that asthma symptoms are more likely to appear in black children in cities, AJPH 86 (1996), 1406-9. Asthma has been called a disease of a modern lifestyle, MJA 165 (1996), 358-9. Air pollution has been linked to mortality in Valencia, Spain in J. Epid. Community Health 50 (1996), 527-33. A review of cleaning air pollution is Nature 383 (1996), 313-4; and the proposed US EPA guidelines of particulate pollution are considered too strict by some given that salt in ocean spray may be over the limit, NS (16 Nov 1996), 10. Dust may aggravate acid rain problems, SA (Dec 1996), 88-92. Noise pollution may not need to be very load in order to cause health problems, NS (16 Nov 1996), 14-5. In general on public health, JAMA 276 (1996), 1429-30; BMJ 313 (1996), 1197-9.

A calculation of the increased skin cancer due to ozone depletion found the reductions have saved many potential cases, Slaper, H. et al. "Estimates of ozone depletion and skin cancer incidence to examine the Vienna Convention achievements", Nature 384 (1996), 256-8. There are still problems with CFC smugglers, NS (26 Oct 1996), 3-4. DNA repair mechanisms and UV light are reviewed in Nature 383 (1996), 763-4. The defensive mechanism used in plants against UV is analyzed in Conconi A. et al. "The octadecanoid signaling pathway in plants mediates a response to ultraviolet radiation", Nature 383 (1996), 826-9.

A review of the research efforts to make a plastic battery is NS (26 Oct 1996), 24-7. A review of the case for electric vehicles is SA (Nov 1996), 54-9. Proposals for global climatic change in Mars are revisited in SA (Nov 1996), 80-8; Nature 383 (1996), 780.


Bicycles and bioethics

- Frank J. Leavitt, Ph.D.

The Jakobovits Centre of Jewish Medical Ethics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, ISRAEL

In my opinion bicycles have more to do with bioethics than euthanasia, abortion and many other things usually associated with "bioethics". These things really belong to "pathoethics" or "thanatoethics": moral decisions about what to do when you are sick or dying. But bioethics should teach how to live healthily with no or little need for doctors or medicine. I can think of no better contribution to bioethics in the real sense than the British scheme to build a national network of bicycle, foot and wheelchair paths by the year 2000, making it possible to travel anywhere in the country and, even more important, for any child to get to and from school - with no danger from automobiles. Many bioethicists think that autonomy is having the doctor kill you or at least turn off the respirator. But real autonomy is taking charge of your own life and health. A way to do this is by walking or riding a bicycle.

The contribution to health and life, and the reduction in the need for doctors and hospitals should be great considering the potential reduction in automobile accidents, cardio-vascular disease, pollution-caused respiratory diseases and various other syndromes Health services, sick funds and health insurers ought to investigate whether investment in bicycles might produce more health than investment in medicine.

It is sad that while simple, environmentally friendly living is appreciated in post industrial countries like Britain, people in developing countries want to get industrial and modern, and consider simplicity "primitive". I define "developing country" as a country which has not yet had enough experience with industrialization to understand that development can be as much a curse as a blessing. In Israel for example a vast network of superhighways is being built with unimaginable environmental destruction and no provision for bicycles. There is even a superhighway being discussed to destroy the Judean Desert, one of Israel's few quiet, natural places.

Further information on the British Scheme is available from: Sustrans: Routes For People. 35 King Street, Bristol BS1 4DZ, UK. Fax: 117 929 4173. And also see Bhopal R, Unwin, N, Cycling, physical exercise and the millennium fund. BMJ 311 (1995). 344.


A collection of papers on environmental ethics is Elliot, Robert, Environmental Ethics (Oxford University Press, 1995; 255pp., ISBN 0-19-875143-5); Ambio 25 (1996), 532-3. A book review of Pugh, C. ed., Sustainability, the Environment and Urbanization, is in BMJ 314 (1997), 615. A book review of Takacs, The Idea of Biodiversity (John Hopkins University Press 1997), which discusses biophilia is NS (22 Feb, 1997), 45. A study of human nature in Chinese philosophy is Philosophy East & West 47 (1997), 21-32. In India a group looking at the environment is the Environmental Research Academy International, 50-120-8/1, Seethammadhara North Extension, Visakhapatnam 530 013, A.P., India (President Prof. MV Subba Rao).

On the dangers of industry to health, Cullinan, P. et al. "Respiratory morbidity 10 years after the Union Carbide gas leak at Bhopal: a cross sectional survey", BMJ 314 (1997), 338-41, 242-3; on behalf of the International Medical Commission on Bhopal. Vitamin D deficiency may result from altered light, Ambio 25 (1996), 535-6. Exposure to UV light is discussed in AJPH 86 (1996), 1802-4; and on links to cancer, PNAS 94 (1997), 11-4. UV light is shown to harm Arabidopsis plants, PNAS 94 (1997), 328-32. Health in the Middle East through peace is discussed in AJPH 86 (1996), 1821.

On carbon in the atmosphere and climate, Science 275 (1997), 502-9; NS (4 Jan 1997), 43; (22 Jan, 1997), 16; (15 Feb), 7; PNAS 94 (1997), 175-9; Nature 384 (1996), 522-4; 385 (1997), 35. Increasing night temperature can reduce seed set and yield of tropical rice, Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 23 (1996), 791-4. A study suggesting more droughts in the Northern Great Plains of the USA before 1200AD is Nature 385 (1997), 552-4. On policy, NS (25 Jan 1997), 44; (1 Feb, 1997), 8; Nature 384 (1996), 499-500, 528, 605. Green cars on hydrogen are discussed in NS (21/28 Dec, 1996), 20.

The damage caused by aircraft to the ozone layer may be worse than thought, NS (15 Feb, 1997), 18; Geophysical Research Letters 24 (1997), 389. Acid rain in Asia is reviewed in NS (15 Feb, 1997), 16-7. Acid rain causes adverse health effects, Ambio 25 (1996), 527-31.

On green industry, EST 31 (1997), 90-1A; Nature 385 (1997), 188. On water pollution from shrimp farms in India, NS (21/28 Dec, 1996), 8. Environmental taxes are being accepted more in Europe, EST 31 (1997), 84-8A. UNEP has had a dispute over payments, making its future uncertain, NS (15 Feb, 1997), 11. Disposing of plutonium is discussed in Science 275 (1997), 11-2, 737. On polluted urban sites, NS (12 Jan, 1997), 12-3.

The contents of Environmental Values 6 (1) (Feb 1997) include: Environmental Victims: Arguing the Costs. C. Williams; Preserving Old-Growth Forest Ecosystems: Valuation and Policy. DE. Booth; Anthropocentrism: A Misunderstood Problem. T. Hayward; Plural Values and Environmental Valuation. W. Beckerman & J. Pasek; The Consequentialist Side of Environmental Ethics. D. Holbrook; A Comment on 'Radiation Protection and Moral Theory'. C. Miller; Response to Miller's 'Comment'. D. Sumner & P. Gilmour. A comparative study finding crop land area, then population density, then per capita external debt, were the most important factors linked to tropical deforestation, is Nature 386 (1997), 562-3.

Some role for occupational exposure with lung cancer is found in a study in the Netherlands, J. Epidemiol. & Comm. Health 51 (1997), 24-9; and borderline associations between chlorophenate wood preservatives and cancer are suggested in AJPH 87 (1997), 71-9. On health and the environment, BMJ 314 (1997), 687. The gene c-abl interacts with DNA protein kinase in the process of DNA damage repair, Nature 386 (1997), 732-5.

On environmental impact asseSSMent in industry, Chemistry & Industry (17 Feb 1997), 137. On human perspectives and the environment, TREE 12 (1997), 91-2. Indian cities like Delhi are in a crisis over polluted air, NS (8 March 1997), 9; and polluted water, NS (29 March 1997), 6. Indian households may be even more dangerous than outside air pollution from dung fire fumes, Lancet 349 (1997), 933. On environmental damage and war, NS (8 March 1997), 12-3; NEJM 336 (1997), 1031. The US Nat. Inst. Environmental Health Sciences plans to spend US$60 million over the next several years in an Environmental Genome Project, Science 275 (1997), 1407. It will focus on genes that confer sensitivity to environmental hazards.

A review of rising seas that may come with greenhouse warming is SA (March 1997), 112-7. Lessons that can be learnt from the Antarctica and past warming are reviewed in Time (14 April 1997), 42-7; and on climate models, Nature 386 (1997), 131-3. A series of papers commemorating the 100 years anniversary of the paper by Svante Arrhenius "On the influence of carbonic acid in the air upon the temperature of the ground", are in Ambio 26 (1997), 1-80. A call for developing countries to also reduce carbon emissions has been criticized by China and some G77 countries, Nature 386 (1997), 103; NS (1 March 1997), 12-3; (15 March 1997), 10. On the impact of civilization on the planet Earth, Nature 386 (1997), 35. Hydrogen-powered aircraft may take off by the year 2000, NS (22 March 1997), 25; and the US EPA is regulating smoking diesel train locomotives, Chemistry & Industry (17 Feb 1997), 123. On the radiative forcing caused by smoke from biomass burning, Science 275 (1997), 1776-8. A study has found that between 1981-1991 the Northern Hemisphere had increased photosynthesis, Nature 386 (1997), 659-69, 698-702.

The implications of increased UV-B have meant that a national standard for reporting may be introduced in the USA, EST 31 (1997), 142-6A. Sewage sludge dumping under agricultural land may lead to abnormal cadmium levels in UK sheep, NS (22 March 1997), 4.

The contents of Environmental Values 6 (1) (Feb 1997) include: Environmental Victims: Arguing the Costs. C. Williams; Preserving Old-Growth Forest Ecosystems: Valuation and Policy. DE. Booth; Anthropocentrism: A Misunderstood Problem. T. Hayward; Plural Values and Environmental Valuation. W. Beckerman & J. Pasek; The Consequentialist Side of Environmental Ethics. D. Holbrook; A Comment on 'Radiation Protection and Moral Theory'. C. Miller; Response to Miller's 'Comment'. D. Sumner & P. Gilmour. A comparative study finding crop land area, then population density, then per capita external debt, were the most important factors linked to tropical deforestation, is Nature 386 (1997), 562-3.

Some role for occupational exposure with lung cancer is found in a study in the Netherlands, J. Epidemiol. & Comm. Health 51 (1997), 24-9; and borderline associations between chlorophenate wood preservatives and cancer are suggested in AJPH 87 (1997), 71-9. On health and the environment, BMJ 314 (1997), 687. The gene c-abl interacts with DNA protein kinase in the process of DNA damage repair, Nature 386 (1997), 732-5.

On environmental impact asseSSMent in industry, Chemistry & Industry (17 Feb 1997), 137. On human perspectives and the environment, TREE 12 (1997), 91-2. Indian cities like Delhi are in a crisis over polluted air, NS (8 March 1997), 9; and polluted water, NS (29 March 1997), 6. Indian households may be even more dangerous than outside air pollution from dung fire fumes, Lancet 349 (1997), 933. On environmental damage and war, NS (8 March 1997), 12-3; NEJM 336 (1997), 1031. The US Nat. Inst. Environmental Health Sciences plans to spend US$60 million over the next several years in an Environmental Genome Project, Science 275 (1997), 1407. It will focus on genes that confer sensitivity to environmental hazards.

A review of rising seas that may come with greenhouse warming is SA (March 1997), 112-7. Lessons that can be learnt from the Antarctica and past warming are reviewed in Time (14 April 1997), 42-7; and on climate models, Nature 386 (1997), 131-3. A series of papers commemorating the 100 years anniversary of the paper by Svante Arrhenius "On the influence of carbonic acid in the air upon the temperature of the ground", are in Ambio 26 (1997), 1-80. A call for developing countries to also reduce carbon emissions has been criticized by China and some G77 countries, Nature 386 (1997), 103; NS (1 March 1997), 12-3; (15 March 1997), 10. On the impact of civilization on the planet Earth, Nature 386 (1997), 35. Hydrogen-powered aircraft may take off by the year 2000, NS (22 March 1997), 25; and the US EPA is regulating smoking diesel train locomotives, Chemistry & Industry (17 Feb 1997), 123. On the radiative forcing caused by smoke from biomass burning, Science 275 (1997), 1776-8. A study has found that between 1981-1991 the Northern Hemisphere had increased photosynthesis, Nature 386 (1997), 659-69, 698-702.

The implications of increased UV-B have meant that a national standard for reporting may be introduced in the USA, EST 31 (1997), 142-6A. Sewage sludge dumping under agricultural land may lead to abnormal cadmium levels in UK sheep, NS (22 March 1997), 4.

There has been frustration expressed at the lack of concrete conclusions from the Rio-follow up meeting on the environment held in New York in June 1997, Nature 387 (1997), 637, 640-1, 836; 388 (1997), 1, 5. In December, 1997, a meeting in Kyoto will be held to decide upon levels of carbon dioxide emissions up to the year 2005, but there are criticisms of the amount of money spent on research in Japan, NS (31 May 1997), 10; Science 276 (1997), 1025-6. A paper on "The coming climate" looks at the difficulty of predictions, SA (May 1997), 78-83; and a series on air pollution are in Science 276 (1997), 544-5, 914-5, 1040-86. A study of the way the Northern and Southern hemisphere temperatures interact suggests human role in climate warming, Kaufmann, RK. & Stern, DI. "Evidence for human influence on climate from hemispheric temperature relations", Nature 387 (1997), 39-44. For more on the environment in Japan, see Japan Environment Monitor <http://www.yin.or.jp/user/greenstar/>

Another El Nino is beginning, and it is still difficult to predict, NS (31 May 1997), 6; Science 276 (1997), 965-7; Nature 388 (1997), 108. It is expected to alter rainfall patterns again. In India disputes over water allocations between states have held up work on dams, NS (26 April 1997), 12. Arsenic may be in much of the water also, NS (17 May 1997), 10. Excess nitrogen fertilizer is also toxic, Smil, V. "Global population and the nitrogen cycle", SA (June 1997), 76-81, 24-5. A further affect of nitrogen oxides in the air may be to signal seeds to germinate, Science 276 (1997), 1199, 1248+.

A paper on ethics is Dobson, A. "Genetic engineering and environmental ethics", CQHE 6 (1997), 205-221. Two essays on consumption and sustainable development are in Science 276 (1997), 53-7, 1631-3. Essays on food consumption and supply are in Ambio 26 (1997), 133-46. Noise pollution appears to diminish reading skills of children, NS (10 May 1997), 5.

People are criticizing the plastics industry for the air pollution it causes and its denial that dioxin is released, NS (3 May 1997), 4. Dioxin has been added to the list of restricted air pollutants in Japan, NS (10 May 1997), 6. Sulphuric acid forms easily in the air, NS (3 May 1997), 20. The use of lichen diversity as a monitor for air pollution-linked lung cancer is Nature 387 (1997), 463-4.

Oil companies are called to make petrol cleaner to allow anti-pollution devices to work more effectively, NS (10 May 1997), 14-5. Oil production decline is expect in 20 years, raising questions of alternatives, Nature 387 (1997), 121. On electric cars, SA (May 1997), 32, 36; also Science 276 (1997), 194, 511. New technologies could save much energy, NS (24 May 1997), 10. Japan has had the highest rate of recycling of steel tins for 5 years, with the 1996 rate being 77% (compare to Germany 67%), Yomiuri Shimbun (27 June 1997), 11.

A book review on pesticides is Wargo, J. Our Children's Toxic Legacy: How Science and Law Fail to Protect Us from Pesticides (Yale University Press, 1997, US$30, 380pp., ISBN 0-300-06686-4) is JAMA 277 (1997), 1329-30. Tesco and Marks & Spencer supermarket chains in the UK are refusing to sell salmon from fish farms which use ivermectin, NS (10 May 1997), 16. On other environmental books, NS (10 May 1997), 53; Nature 387 (1997), 338; BMJ 314 (1997), 1493.

The US is phasing out metered dose inhalers that contain CFCs, JAMA 277 (1997), 1029; FDA Consumer (May-June 1997), 11-3. Sunscreens in mice inhibited gene mutation, Anathaswamy HN. et al. "Sunlight and skin cancer: Inhibition of p53 mutations in UV-irradiated mouse skin by sunscreens", NatMed 3 (1997), 510-4. The use of insect repellents decreases the sun protection factor of sunscreens, Lancet 349 (1997), 1670-1. The sizes of moles are linked to melanoma risk, JAMA 277 (1997), 1439-44; BMJ 314 (1997), 1438.

A chemical method for consuming hospital wastes is reported in NS (19 April 1997), 24.

A paper in Italian on phenomenology of ecology and ethics is Carlotti, P. "Prospettive etiche dell' ecologia", Bioetica e Cultura 11 (1997), 9-46. The social patterns of ecological activism are discussed in Hartigan, J. "Green ghettos and the white underclass", Social Research 64 (1997), 339-65; Purkis, J. "The city as a site of ethical consumption and resistance", pp. 203-224 in O'Connor, J. & Wynne, D., eds., From the Margins to the Centre. Cultural production and consumption in the post-industrial city (Arena, 1996, ISBN 1-85742-333-X). A study of farmer motivations to join in environmentally sensitive areas is J. Environmental Management 50 (1997), 67-93; and on environmental mediation, Harrison, J. "Environmental mediation: The ethical and constitutional dimension", J Environmental Law 9 (1997), 79-102. A study of nature is Barnhart, MG. "Ideas of nature in Asian context", Philosophy East & West 47 81997), 417-32. Also, Chapple, CK., ed, Ecological Prospects. Scientific, Religious, and Aesthetic Perspectives (State Univ. NY Press, 1994, ISBN 0-7914-1740-9, 234pp.).

Two new books from WHO (Email: publications@who.ch) are, Briggs, D.et al., eds., Linkage Methods for Environment and Health Analysis. General Guidelines. 136pp., Sw Fr.18 (12.60 in developing countries, 1997); Health and Environment in Sustainable Development. Five Years after the Earth Summit. 242pp., Sw Fr 25 (17.50 in developing countries, 1997). The effects of air pollution on health are greater than previously thought, Lancet 349 (1997), 1896; and on transport, BMJ 314 (1997), 1917. At the end of July schools in Santiago, Chile were shut for two days because smog exceeded accepted limits, which was expected to drop traffic by 30%.

The difference between maximum and minimum daily temperatures each day are decreasing, probably due to increased cloudiness, Science 277 (1997), 364-6, 277-8; also, Nature 388 (1997), 418-9, 521-3, 533-9. Targets for carbon emissions are debated in Science 276 (1997), 1818-9; Nature 388 (1997), 213, 316, 407; Naturwissenschaften 84 (1997), 268-74; NS (19 July 1997), 38-43; Population and Environment 18 (1997), 389-413; Ecologist 27 (1997), 2-4. A study suggests that they may not alter soybean yields in Iowa, Agronomy J. 89 (1997), 167-76. Forests can act as sponges for sometime, Science 277 (1997), 315-7. The El Nino this year is expected to be large, Science 277 (1997), 197. The body size of animals is usually larger in colder climates, TREE 12 (1997), 235-9; and organisms can reversibly change organ size in response to conditions, TREE 12 (1997), 134-8.

Wind turbines are having positive results in New Zealand trials, NS (14 June 1997), 49. New solar water heating systems in Australia have 12 year warranty, NS (12 July 1997), 48. A study suggests introduction of CNG powered vehicles in California will be very effective in environmental savings, not only electric vehicles, J. Env. Economics & Management 33 (1997), 163-85. There is still a need to reduce emissions, EST 31 (1997), 310-1A. A report on the lack of progress between the first and second world Environment Summits is BMJ 315 (1997), 3-4.

On air pollution, Science 277 (1997), 15, 466-9. It is damaging crops in Asia, NS (14 June 1997), 11. In Japan the government plans to reduce dioxin emissions 90% over the next 5 years (26 August, 1997). NHK in Japan has developed a camera with a range 250-1050nm, from infra red through UV, which may be used for monitoring pollution emissions, NS (28 June 1997), 19. Europe has banned surfactants alkylphenol ethoxylates because of fears of danger to aquatic communities, EST 31 (1997), 316-20A.

Parents can be asked to report on UV exposure of children, AJPH 87 (1997), 1146-9. On risks of sun exposure, JAMA 277 (1997), 1745-6, 1751-2; but there have been past variations in history, Nature 388 (1997), 457-9. A mouse with a predisposition to sun cancer is shown in van der Horst, GTJ. et al. "Defective transcription-coupled repair in Cockayne syndrome B mice is associated with skin cancer predisposition", Cell 89 (1997), 425-35.

A vaccine may be developed to overcome hearing loss due to noise, NS (5 July 1997), 17. About one quarter of young Germans are thought to have damaged there hearing by listening to loud music, NS (5 July 1997), 12. In the UK television commercials will be monitored and technically compressed if necessary to ensure that they are not loader than the main programs, companies use frequency changes to make them sound louder - a phenomenon used world-wide, NS (21 June 1997), 20.

Irradiated sewage sludge is being tested as a safe fertilizer in Argentina, NS (21 June 1997), 24. The raw sewage is not safe, although still used in many parts of the world. Industrial waste may also be used, NS (28 June 1997), 20. On future sustainable water use, J. Soil & Water Conservation 52 (1997), 151-6; BioScience 47 (1997), 97-106.

The balance between free trade and environment is discussed in NS (21 June 1997), 14-5. On environmental policy, Munn, RE. et al. Policy making in an Era of Global Environmental Change (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996, ISBN 0-7923-4072-8, 224pp.); J. Soil & Water Conservation 52 (1997), 157-61, 166-70; Iglesia, GCR et al., "Nature conservation: The rule of law in European Community environmental pollution", J. Environmental Law 9 (197), 139-80.

On the general issues of environmentalism, NS (6 Sept. 1997), 50; (27 Sept. 1997), 42-3, 46; Nature 388 (1997), 813. A book review of Cadbury, D., The Feminization of Nature is NS (30 Aug. 1997), 42. Greenpeace is facing up to a challenge from BP Oil following occupation of oil platforms, Nature 388 (1997), 816. A commentary on insurance risk calculations for climate change is Nature 389 (1997), 225-7. A neutral mechanism has been called for in the US to fund environmental research, Nature 389 (1997), 612; and a scientific basis for environmental policy in Nature 389 (1997), 607, 630.

Japan has announced it will try for an average target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 5% from 1990 between 2008 and 2012, Nature 389 (1997), 529. However some parties want 12% cut, and others are not sure, so the debate is ongoing. It is estimated that average temperatures will increase 1C if carbon dioxide doubles and 2.3C if it trebles, but regional variations are major in cold regions, for example 4C increase if double level (as predicted in the year 2060), Japan Times (9 Oct. 1997), 2. There is much international discussion, Nature 388 (1997), 704; 389 (1997), 614, 685-6. On the economic calculations in the reduction of emissions, Nature 389 (1997), 13-4, 247-8; EST 31 (1997), 418-22A. A Dept. of Energy report says the US could cut carbon emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2010 with no net cost to the economy, Nature 389 (1997), 429, 527, 537. The UK is aiming for a 20% reduction by 2010 of 1990 levels, Nature 389 (1997), 530. Fires in coal fields in China may contribute 3% of the world's carbon dioxide emissions.

On the extent of ice cover in the Antarctic, Nature 389 (1997), 20-1; NS (6 Sept. 1997), 3. The rate of change as well as the total may influence the ocean flow of water altering climate, Nature 388 (1997), 825-6, 862-5. The risk to reefs by sea level change is less than local pollution and activities, NS (4 Oct. 1997), 47. Sulphur emissions from volcanoes can lower global temperature, Nature 389 (1997), 543-4; and smoke has varied affects, Science 277 (1997), 1636-9. A special issue of Scientific American (October 1997), 54-137 is on transportation. On renewable energy, NS (6 Sept. 1997), 18-9. A plan to feed electricity back into the electric grid during peak hours from electric cars has been proposed, NS (13 Sept. 1997), 5. The factories that make catalytic converters for cars may make more pollution, in sulphur dioxide emissions equal to a quarter of the nitrogen oxide emissions that they are meant to prevent (in acid rain!), NS (20 Sept. 1997), 13.

The need to stop CFC smuggling was agreed upon at a meeting of the Montreal Protocol in September, Nature 389 (1997), 219-20; NS (30 Aug. 1997), 3, 16-7. The pesticide methyl bromide is to be banned, but debate is whether it should be by 2001 or 2005 (as Europe wants), NS (30 Aug. 1997), 4; (20 Sept. 1997), 12. Liquid carbon dioxide is being used for dry cleaners from 1998 in the USA to reduce emissions, NS (30 Aug. 1997), 12. There is still unknowns in ozone chemistry and more studies are called for, Nature 388 (1997), 625-6. The Arctic is also experiencing severe ozone loss in winters, Nature 389 (1997), 709-12.

The UK is reducing the amount of radioactive waste it dumps in the sea from reprocessing plants, NS (6 Sept. 1997), 10. There are also fears from people around the French site of La Hague, Nature 388 (1997), 654. On monitoring of radioactive contamination of organisms after the Chernobyl accident, EST 31 (1997), 358-63A. Norwegian engineers who wanted to help clean up the Russian north are being rejected, NS (4 Oct. 1997), 22. Chemical slippers can help remove toxic metals from the environment, NS (13 Sept. 1997), 34-7.

A review on fluorinated organics in the biosphere is EST 31 (1997), 2445+. Minamata Bay has been declared free of mercury, and fishing will be restarted, Lancet 350 (1997), 422. The phosphates added to water to protect pipes from corrosion also increase bacterial growth, NS (30 Aug. 1997), 15. East European pollution is reviewed in EST 31 (1997), 412-6A. On air pollution, NS (20 Sept. 1997), 58; EST 31 (1997), 352-3A, 404-6A. Maybe one in fifty heart attacks in London may be triggered by air pollution, BMJ 315 (1997), 330. Coal ash is causing mutations in some amphibians, as are environmental estrogens EST 31(1997), 408A; NS (13 Sept. 1997), 18. The EPA is allowing some states to use confidential data in risk assessments, EST 31 (1997), 356A.

A series of papers in German and English on ecological ethics and modernization are in Fritsch-Oppermann, ed., Recht in unterschiedlichen Kulteren und Religionen (Loccumer Protokolle 59/95, 1997, 208pp.). A paper in Italian on ecological ethics is Carlotti, P. "Prospetitive etiche dell' ecologia", Bioetica e Cultura 11 (1997), 9-46. On Christian duties to the environment, Houghton, J. "Christians and the environment: Our opportunities and responsibilities", Science and Christian Belief 9 (1997), 101-12. Several case studies on agricultural bioethics are in AgBioethics Forum 9 (Nov 1997), 1-13. A review is McIntyre, O & Mosedale, T. "The precautionary principle as a norm of customary international law", J. Env. Law 9 (1997), 221-41. On why humans intervene in nature, NS (11 Oct 1997), 48-9.

An analysis of options for paper recycling or incineration finds that the high the value placed on the environment, the more ecological incineration becomes, when linked to energy production, and recycling paper is only a little better than landfill, both much worse then incineration, NS (22 Nov 1997), 31-4; Int. J. Env. Planning & Management (Nov 1997). Japan has one of the world's highest rates of paper recycling, but its waste paper collection and recycling system are said to be on the brink of collapse, as prices have fallen. Tokyo waste paper wholesalers refused to take old magazines unless they were paid, and collections in some areas stopped. Citizens were asked to store waste paper in their homes until prices improved, Penna, I. "The crisis in Japan's waste paper collection and recycling system", Japan Environmental Monitor 94 (No. 5, Dec 1997). Another reversal is that processed food is easier on the environment than fresh food, NS (6 Dec 1997), 10. On reducing the damage caused by scientific investigations, NS (20 Dec 1997), 16-7.

Reports after the Kyoto COP3 conference include Science 278 (1997), 2042, 2048; Nature 390 (1997), 429, 545, 647, 650, 659; Lancet 350 (1997), 1646; BMJ 315 (1997), 1326; NS (13 Dec 1997), 6-7; (20 Dec 1997), 10; Time (8 Dec 1997), 44-5; (22 Dec 1997), 48-53; Newsweek (15 Dec 1997), 12-4. The agreement calls on 38 industrialized countries to drop carbon emissions by an average of 5.2% from 1990 levels by 2012, which should be a reduction by two thirds of what the emissions would be if no action was taken. The USA agreed to 7%, European Union 8% and Japan 6%. Much more is needed to lessen the global warming and pollution. For example, see McLaren, S. et al. Tomorrow's World (Earthscan, 1997, 13pds), reviewed in Independent (19 Wed 1997), 14. On whether China will benefit or lose from cutting emissions, Nature 390 (1997), 209. The UN IPCC will widen membership to scientists from developing countries, Nature 389 (1997), 894. Reports from before the meeting, include Nature 389 (1997), 205, 215-20, 225-8, 323, 893-4; Science 277 (1997), 1916-7; 278 (1997), 216-8, 783, 1691, 1703; Time (3 Nov 1997), 48-9; EST 31 (1997), 516-8A, 543A; NS (11 Oct 1997), 4; (15 Nov 1997), 54; (29 Nov 1997), 3, 22-3; (6 Dec 1997), 4. On the case for an International Environmental Organization, J. Env. Law 9 (1997), 243-69.

On carbon cycling, Nature 389 (1997), 905-6; and past climates, Nature 389 (1997), 929-35; 390 (1997), 117-8; Science 278 (1997), 1251-6, 1257-66. It is difficult to predict climate change, Nature 390 (1997), 111, 267-70; Science 278 (1997), 870-2, 1411, 1416-7, 1422-6; nor people's response, Ha-Duong, M. et al. "Influence of socioeconomic inertia and uncertainty on optimal CO2-emission abatement", Nature 390 (1997), 270-3; and on Zen, Nature 390 (1997), 332-4. As a step toward getting consumers to choose energy-efficient appliances in order to help alleviate global warming, Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) will publish a pamphlet showing the energy performance of four types of consumer appliances: air conditioners, televisions, refrigerators, and video recorders. This "energy-savings report card," as MITI calls it, will be made available at consumer centers and large- volume appliance retailers. MITI will calculate numerical values for performance as a function of power consumption, i.e., the amount of power consumed versus work performed per unit time. The Energy Conservation Law requires that product brochures show this information, but it is not always easy to read.

On the way emission permits can be traded, McLean BJ. "Evolution of marketable permits: the US experience with sulfur dioxide allowance trading", Int. J. Environment and Pollution 8 (1997), 19-36. Canada still has to reduce emissions of SO2 by another 75% if it wants to control acid rain, Nature 390 (1997), 6. On energy production, EST 31 (1997), 462-5A; and new technologies, pp. 506-7A, 574-5A. On methane production biochemistry, Science 278 (1997), 1413-4.

On the impact of aircraft emissions, Sen, O. "The effect of aircraft engine exhaust gases on the environment", Int. J. Environment and Pollution 8 (1997), 148-57; and on ozone depletion in rocket plumes, Nature 390 (1997), 62-4. Ships may have more impact, Science 278 (1997), 823-4. Brazil is renewing its ethanol program for cars, Wall Street J. (6 Oct 1997), A18. A review of the El Nino is Nature 390 (1997), 562-4; and assessment of the disaster burden, Lancet 350 (1997), 1435. The monsoon in India was normal, despite US predictions, Science 278 (1997), 581.

A profile of Mario Molina who released the damage to the ozone layer is SA (Nov 1997), 40-3. A study on the impact of aerosols on solar ultraviolet radiation and photochemical smog is Science 278 (1997), 827-30. On the balance between ozone depletion and greenhouse warming, Science 278 (1997), 1090-1. A German CFC smuggling group was stopped recently, after importing 1000 tons of CFCs from China in 1997, EST 31 (1997), 459A; Ecologist 27 (1997), 188-91.

A review of the genetics of air pollution is NatGen 17 (1997), 365-6; and a paper on genes involved in ozone-induced lung damage in mice, NatGen 17 (1997), 471-8. There appears to be a relationship to life expectancy in humans, Occup. Env. Med. 54 (1997), 781-4. The El Nino causes more respiratory problems in Asia, Lancet 350 (1997), 1008. The haze that covered Indonesia. Malaysia and South East Asia in 1997 from the forest burning may have had many health effects, but a government ban was made in Malaysia on public reporting by scientists on the haze, Nature 390 (1997), 107, 222-3; NS (25 Oct 1997), 51. On standards used to assess health damage, EST 31 (1997), 568-73A. Researchers are finding plants more resistant to ozone pollution damage, EST 31 (1997), 508A.

Climate change brings about health problems, Lancet 350 (1997), 1609; Working Group on Public Health and Fossil Fuel Combustion, "Short-term improvement in public health from global climate policies on fossil fuel combustion: an interim report", Lancet 350 (1997), 1341-9; McMichael, AJ & Haines, A. "Global climate change: the potential effects on health", BMJ 315 (1997), 805-9; also p. 758-9, 870-4; Science 278 (1997), 1004-6. Diesel emissions may include the most carcinogenic compound yet found, 3-nitrobenzanthrone, Lancet 350 (1997), 1118; NS (25 Oct 1997), 4; and Europe is tightening laws on soot and dust, NS (15 Nov 1997), 12; (29 Nov 1997), 5. On jam dynamics, Science 278 (1997), 1233; and Chinese pollution, NS (29 Nov 1997), 15. Polluters should pay, NS (13 Dec 1997), 52; Ecological Economics 23 (1997), 59-70; and on sustainable economy, Ecological Economics 23 (1997), 1-14.

DDT and PCBs may not increase breast cancer risk, NEJM 337 (1997), 1253-8; see also 1562. Results of a survey of deformed frogs and amphibians in USA is Science 278 (1997), 2051-2; EST 31 (1997), 552A. Ambient UV-B radiation causes deformities in amphibian embryos, PNAS 94 (1997), 13735-7. On organochlorine contamination of the Canadian Arctic, Int. J. Environment and Pollution 8 (1997), 57-73; and in fish oils, pp. 74-93; and on risk perception, Ambio 6 (1997), 359+. On Oct 17, 1997, a UK Judge ruled that Actellic-D caused injury to a farm worker, Lancet 350 (1997), 1457; BMJ 315 (1997), 1113. The monitoring of pesticide levels in natural waters of Greece is reported in Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 59 (1997), 917-23. Hazardous pesticides are commonly used in Kenya, Lancet 350 (1997), 1528; and on the question of banning chemicals, NS (18 Oct 1997), 5; (22 Nov 1997), 24-5. The EPA has asked industry to voluntarily screen high production chemicals, and the EPA will publish its toxicity data EST 31 (1997), 456A, 502A. There are doubts on synergistic effects, Ecologist 27 (1997), 192-6. Ecology studies should be conducted, and a series of papers are in Ecological Applications 7 (1997), 1083-1132. A review of Lear, L., Rachel Carson. Witness for Nature (Holt, NY, 1997, 634pp., US$35) is in Science 278 (1997), 1897. A series of papers on agriculture and environmental sustainability are in Ambio 26 (1997), 410-75.

A review of the environmental accountability measures taken by the company Novo Nordisk in Denmark is Biotechnology & Development Monitor 33 (Dec 1997), 16-9. The US and Canada are studying dioxin emissions from iron and steel factories, EST 31 (1997), 460A; and from a Japanese private incinerator around a US airbase in Atsugi, Japan, Nature 390 (1997), 434. Massachusetts efforts to reduce toxic chemical use are reviewed in EST 31 (1997), 564-7A.

On the economics of mercury mining and the pollution damage, Nature 390 (1997), 112-3. Reporting of metal pollution in fish is increasing in USA, EST 31 (1997), 451A. A review of environmental lead exposure in Africa is Ambio 26 (1997), 399-403. California is starting to destroy dams to allow salmon to migrate despite farm irrigation losses, Newsweek (24 Nov 1997), 52. On access to safe drinking water, SA (Nov 1997), 38; and agriculture and water quality, J. Envion. Qual. 26 (1997), 1198-203, 1203-12.

A book review of Volk, T. Gaia's Body: Toward a Physiology of Earth (Copernicus, 1998, 269pp) is Nature 391 (1998), 550-1. A group of scientists have formed a new society called Gaia Science, Science 279 (1998), 973. On biocentrism, Agar, N. "Biocentrism and the concept of life", Ethics 108 (1997), 147-68. A paper on traditional knowledge and ecosystem sustainability is Kurian, J. "Traditional ecological knowledge and ecosystem sustainability: New meaning to Asian coastal proverbs", Ecological Applications 8 (1, 1998) Supplement S2-5; also on definitions of sustainability, Land Economics 73 (1997), 445-622. A paper on human carrying capacity is J. Applied Ecology 34 (1997), 1325-33. A paper calling for more research into environmental issues is Lubchenco, J. "Entering the century of the environment: A new social contract for science", Science 279 (1998), 491-7; also EST 32 (1998),73A.

El Nino is being blamed for many storms and deaths in the Horn of Africa, Lancet 350 (1997), 1830; and in Peru; and the Galapagos may be changed forever, NS (10 Jan. 1998), 4; and a food crisis in 37 countries is predicted by FAO (18 Feb 1998). Reports on the Kyoto agreement continue, BMJ 316 (1998), 7; NS (17 Jan. 1998), 48; Science 279 (1998), 330-1; EST 32 (1998), 74-5A. There is debate on the US policy to follow the Kyoto agreement, Nature 391 (1998), 619; Science 279 (1998), 669-70.

It is difficult to predict the species range shift in global warming, Nature 391 (1998), 783-8. A letter discussing wheat yield in Australia and climate change is Nature 391 (1998), 447-9. The phase out date of 2001 for methyl bromide may be altered in the USA, EST 32 (1998), 11A. A discussion of carbon dioxide dumping is EST 32 (1998), 20-4A; SA (Jan. 1998), 21-22. On climate modeling, Nature 391 (1998), 351-6, 552; Science 279 (1998), 1003-4. Sea level changes that have been reported may have been related to sloshing seas, NS (31 Jan. 1998), 13. The Akkadian empire ended with a drought, Science 279 (1998), 325.

On climate change and health, Science 279 (1998), 968-9; Lancet 350 (1997), 1825. Air pollution has been reported to hasten the deaths of 24,000 people in the UK, BMJ 316 (1998), 248. A Manila study suggests risk of lung cancer increases by 15% because of air pollution, Lancet 351 (1998), 350. A study of how to measure levels of chemicals in Denmark caused by traffic is Environmental Research 75 (1997), 149-59. Another factor is the increase in suicide rates after natural disasters, NEJM 338 (1998), 373-8. A US map of deaths from excess cold or heat is SA (Feb 1998), 26. On noise pollution, Davies, S., "Praying for silence", NS (17 Jan. 1998), 34-7; Staples, SL. "Public policy and environmental noise: Modeling exposure or understanding effects", AJPH 87 (1997), 2063-7.

A review of a UK White Paper on transport policy is Financial Times (19 Feb 1998). The UK is trying to reduce road traffic by 10% by 2010; BMJ 316 (1998), 242-3. Closing roads may reduce traffic, NS (24 Jan. 1998), 4. Papers on preventing the next oil crunch are in SA (March 1998), 77-95. A life cycle assessment of electric vehicle batteries is EST 32 (1998), 40-6A. The EPA has new ozone and particulate matter standards, EST 32 (1998), 32-9A; and a study of vehicle emissions is EST 32 (1998),450-5. Russia has begun to construct a floating nuclear power station, planned to serve Arctic town of Pevek, with a capacity of 60 megawatts and a 12 year storage of waste, which then will be emptied by towing to the waste processing site, Int. Herald Tribune (19 Feb. 1998), 7.

Global saturation with nitrogen compounds is discussed in Science 279 (1998), 988-9. A review of what causes toxic algal blooms is EST 32 (1998), 26-30A. On water pollution, NS (31 Jan. 1998), 32-5. Mercury in fish is discussed in Science 279 (1998), 459-61, 639-41; EST 32 (1998),8-9A. Evidence suggests there is atmospheric mercury contamination in remote areas, EST 32 (1998), 1-7; and butyltin contamination in marine mammals, EST 32 (1998),193-8A. There may be 20 times more dioxin accumulated in world soils than previously thought, suggesting we do not know about 90% of the sources, EST 32 (1998), 10A. On environmental estrogens, EST 32 (1998), 8A; PCBs, SA (Feb. 1998), 20-2; and lead, FDA Consumer (Jan 1998), 16-9, 21; NatMed 4 (1998), 3. A book review of Lear, L. Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature (Henry Holt & Co., NY., 1997) is SA (Feb. 1998), 98-9. On indoor pollution hazards, SA (Feb. 1998), 86-91.

On ethical issues, a book is Rowell, A., Green Backlash. Global Subversion of the Environmental Movement (Routledge, 1996). A paper is Meaton, J. & Morrice, D. "The ethics and politics of private automobile use", Environmental Ethics 18 (1996), 39-54. A view from Ed Wilson on science and the environment is Science 279 (1998), 2048-9. Calls for the UN eco-fund to open are made in Nature 392 (1998), 640. The US Vice-President suggested that a satellite that broadcasts constantly the whole image of the sunlit surface of the earth be set up, Science 279 (1998), 1845. Some criticism of Canada's revised draft Environmental Protection Act is debated in Nature 392 (1998), 216.

The question of whether pesticides are related to declining amphibian populations is discussed in NS (14 Feb. 1998), 11; and there will be regulations in the UK, EST 32 (1998), 128-9A. The needs for some use of DDT are discussed in NS (7 Feb. 1998), 18-9. A Nagoya-based company has exported about 50,000 tons of hazardous ash to North Korea over the past decade, Japan Times (16 March 1998), 2. On methods to encourage industry to save the environment, The Bulletin (24 March 1998), 28-9; EST 32 (1998), 124A. A discussion of the unintentional experiments we are conducting on terrestrial ecosystems with sulphur and nitrogen pollutants is J. Ecology 86 (1998), 1-12. The difficulty of predicting nonpoint source pollution is discussed in EST 32 (1998), 130-3A.

El Nino has been linked to global warming not only in 1998, but over the past 40 years according to the US NOAA (9 April, 1998). El Nino has altered the earth's spin and increased winds. The idea of uses fertilizer to increase the carbon sink in the ocean is being retested, SA (April 1998), 33. About 15,000 US science graduates have signed a petition rejecting the Kyoto agreement, arguing that increased carbon dioxide benefits the earth, Nature 392 (1998), 639; and there is debate in Congress, Science 279 (1998), 1124. The Kyoto Protocol could be met with forest credits, EST 32 (1998), 125A. A new gas, fluoroform (HFC-23) is a waste product of HCFC-22 has been found to be 10,000 times more active than carbon dioxide in global warming, and may need to be regulated, NS (7 Feb. 1998), 13. 9 countries in East Asia are setting up a monitoring system for global warming, Nature 392 (1998), 426; and a book review on uncertainties in warming is Nature 392 (1998), 458-9. Ozone depletion is linked to greenhouse warming, Nature 392 (1998), 551-2. The ozone depletion is expected to get worse, Nature 392 (1998), .

The difficulty to supply fuel to China for energy is reviewed in Science 279 (1998), 1483. Perhaps hydrogen fuel can be made by a new catalyst, NS (28 Feb. 1998), 10. A book review of Cities for a Small Planet is Nature 392 (1998), 456. Digital TV may waste a lot of energy, NS (14 Feb. 1998), 8. Difficulty to model past climate is discussed in Nature 392 (1998), 758-9. Clinton has been urged to speed up plutonium disposal, Nature 392 (1998), 213.

A debate on who owns nature is in AgBioethics Forum 10 (June 1998), 1-8, 12-3. A discussion of Gaia is in NS (30 May 1998), 28-33. An editorial on democracy on risk from environmental hazards is Environmental Health Perspectives 106 (1998), A216; and an international comparison is Power, M. & McCarty, LS. "A comparative analysis of environmental risk assessment/risk management frameworks", EST 32 (1998), 224-31A. Ecologists have important roles in policy formation, Ecological Applications 8 (1998), 350-64; and on the law and social sciences, pp. 330-64.

On the problems of environment in developing countries, NS (6 June 1998), 18-9. The new head of UNEP has asked for input from environmental groups, Nature 393 (1998), 99-100. On sustainable development, Science 280 (1998), 1710; Ambio 27 (1998), 79. A comment from G. Hardin on the tragedy of the commons is Science 280 (1998), 682-3. A series of papers on measuring trends in ecological resources is in Ecological Applications 8 (1998), 225-329. A review of the book on Rachel Carson is NS (27 June 1998), 46. The question of how to judge so-called green products is raised in NS (13 June 1998), 49.

A series of papers on children's environmental health are in Environmental Health Perspectives 106 (1998), A18-23, 785-890+. Residues of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides are reported in breast milk of Jordanian women, Environmental Pollution 99 (1998), 141-8. Organochlorine residues may still have some effect on breast cancer, despite some studies suggesting otherwise, NEJM 337 (1998), 988-91. They certainly have large effects with 1 million serious accidental poisonings world-wide each year, NEJM 337 (1998), 1078; and many other minor effects, NS (21 Feb. 1998), 5. A critique of the World Resources Institute report on Pesticides and the Immune System: The Public Health Risks, is Environmental Health Perspectives 106 (1998), 51-4. Seven female polar bears have been found with both female and male genitalia, thought to be due to PCBs, Science 280 (1998), 2053. PCBs are in the Sea of Japan, EST 32 (1998), 1747-53; and are found in Atlantic whales, NS (4 July 1998), 6. Dredging is planned for the Houstanic River in Massachusetts, USA, which has many PCBs, EST 32 (1998), 257A. Ether is expected to replace more harmful pain thinners, NS (21 March 1998), 7. Also on estrogenic compounds in water, Science News 153 (21 March 1998), 187-9; EST 32 (1998), 1549-54, 1559-65. A simple filter with iron and sand may save arsenic poisoning, which is very common the world, NS (28 March 1998). Pesticides may be choking aquatic life, NS (28 March 1998). Miscarriages may be associated with drinking water disinfection byproducts, EST 32 (1998), 169-70A.

A study on genotoxicity of lake Taihu in China is Environmental Pollution 99 (1998), 279-83. A series of papers on mercury and health are in Environmental Research 77 (1998), 67-177; and on the question where it comes from, EST 32 (1998), 176-9A. Methylmercury and fish consumption is discussed in CMAJ 158 (1998), 1467-8; and cadmium exposure in Japan has led to renal dysfunction, Environmental Research 77 (1998), 1-8. Metal pollution from salmon farms is threatening wildlife in some of Scotland's sea lochs, NS (14 March 1998), 12. A study on trace metals in US residents is Environmental Research 77 (1998), 53-9. On attempts to clean up pollution, NS (16 May 1998), 50. Environmental assessment in terms of statistics is difficult, NS (4 April 1998), 18-9. The UK landfill tax may not have such a positive effect on the environment, NS (30 May 1998), 22-3. A trench on the side of roads may capture highway runoff metals, EST 32 (1998), 175A. A call for latitude in toxic chemical trading is made in NS (27 June 1998), 49. Dioxins from the Victorian era still exist in the environment, NS (27 June 1998), 23.

Toys and games are considered hearing hazards in BMJ 316 (1998), 1473; and on noise pollution, NS (2 May 1998), 17. The Beijing media has joined the attack on air pollution there, Nature 393 (1998), 853; and on the Three gorges dam project and health, Lancet 351 (1998), 1449-50. Also on air pollution, Environmental Research 77 (1998), 94-106. Air pollution in Sydney is associated with daily mortality, AJPH 88 (1998), 759-64. Gases from cutting lawns add much to city pollution in summer time, NS (9 May 1998), 11. California is studying cancer risk from diesel exhaust, EST 32 (1998), 250A.

UV exposure decreases immune response in humans, and we can expect it to get worse, Goettsch, W. et al. "Risk assessment for the harmful effects of UV-B radiation on the immunological resistance to infectious diseases", Environmental Health Perspectives 106 (1998), 71-7. A study evaluating different carotenoids in E. coli as protectants against UVB is AEM 64 (1998), 1972-4. Ozone layer recovery will take longer than thought, and emissions from India and China are exceeding predictions, Nature 393 (1998), 723. Ozone depletion and greenhouse gases are linked, Science 280 (1998), 202; Science News 153 (11 April 1998), 228. An international clampdown on the black market in CFCs is called for SA (July 1998), 32.

El Nino is discussed in Science 280 (1998), 203, 522-3, 1302-3; and the effects have been seen for hundreds of years in droughts, Nature 393 (1998), 318-9. On climate warming in general, Science 280 (1998), 441-3, 544-5; and on policy and the Kyoto accord, Science 280 (1998), 195, 1393-4, 1682-4; Nature 393 (1998), 508; NS (9 May 1998), 22. The draft Japanese environment agency bill to reduce carbon emissions has been criticized for the lack of measures to enforce industry to follow it, Nature 393 (1998), 199. Germany has targeted 22.5% reduction from 1990 emissions before 2012, with Denmark and Austria close behind; while UK agreed to 12% and France and Finland to stabilize at 1990 levels; Nature 393 (1998), 616. A common sense climate index has been devised, PNAS 95 (1998), 4113-20; Science News 153 (18 April 2998), 246; which looks at seasonal temperature.

On the health effects of gasoline, Environmental Health Perspectives 106 (1998), 115-25. New methods to remove sulfur from oil by a metallic filter have been developed, NS (11 April 1998), 17. Energy consumption is discussed in Science 280 (1998), 539-40; and efforts to make clean cars, EST 32 (1998), 272-4A. There is still debate on the health effect of MMT a fuel additive, SA (June 1998), 35. Energy from the sea has become very cheap, NS (16 May 1998), 15. Different plant species have been screened as energy sources, Bioresource Technology 65 (1998), 257-9. Methane growth may abate soon, SA (June 1998), 14. Air travel is causing much greenhouse warming, about 2 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents, and maybe 5-6% of the total, NS (11 April 1998), 4. Tax reform and ecology is discussed in BioScience 48 (1998), 193-6. Pumping iron into the sea leads to thinner diatoms, Nature 393 (1998), 733-4. Some scientists still disagree that there is climate warming, BMJ 316 (1998), 1164, 1530. On human health and climate change, Nature 393 (1998), 534; Lancet 351 (1998), 1737-8; SA (June 1998), 30, 32. Increased CO2 alters ecological relationships, Plant, Cell & Environment 21 (1998), 1-11, 12-22.

On nuclear waste and secrecy, Science & Engineering Ethics 4 (1998), 181-90; Lancet 351 (1998), 1297. There has been much debate on the Indian/Pakistan nuclear tests and Asian stability, Nature 393 (1998), 197, 298, 499. The US is still to ratify the test ban treaty, Nature 393 (1998), 855. A robot is investigating Chernobyl, Science 280 (1998), 826-7; also see, BMJ 316 (1998), 952-3. A study from Scandinavia suggests no extra risk of non-hereditary cancer in children of childhood cancer survivors, NEJM 337 (1998), 1339-44; but there is debate on radiation workers children, BMJ 316 (1998), 1672-3. Nuclear weapon test survivors are waiting for compensation in many countries, NS (4 April 1998), 15. On EMF radiation, Occup. & Environ. Med. 55 (1998), 333-9. Radon has been linked to lung cancer in houses, Lancet 351 (1998), 1561; NS (14 March 1998), 20-1.

Research finding that people feel more productive when there are plants in the workplace is Environment & Behavior 30 (1998), 261-81. A study finding that preferences for outdoor scenes were mostly affected by scene type is Environment & Behavior 30 (1998), 282-305. On aesthetics, Rolston, H. III "Aesthetic experience in forests", J. Aesthetics and Art Criticism 56 (1998), 157-66. A study in Pennsylvania, USA found that visits to forests were only moderately associated with pro-environmental behavior but weakly associated with environmental concern, Nord, M. et al. "The association of forest recreation with environmentalism", Environment & Behavior 30 (1998), 235-46. A study of environmental justice in the USA is California Law Review 86 (1998), 775-841. A call for quality of life to be the most important factor in environmental planning is NS (18 July 1998), 50. The question is QOL for who? A majority of persons in 30 countries surveyed around the world believe that environmental laws in their countries do not go far enough, EST 33 (1998), 355A; Science 281 (1998), 909.

Letters on Gaia are Lenton, TM. "Gaia and natural selection", Nature 394 (1998), 439-47; NS (11 July 1998), 57; (1 Aug. 1998), 47. An idea for improving consciousness of streams and pollution is SA (August 1998), 94-5. A paper on ethics is Barkdull, J. & Harris, PG. "The land ethic: A new philosophy for international relations", Ethics & International Affairs 12 (1998), 159-77. Some papers on ethics include, Rolston, H. III, "Feeding people versus saving nature?", pp. 248-67 in Aiken, W. & LaFollette, H., eds, World Hunger and Morality, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 1996); "Nature for real: Is nature a social construct?", pp. 38-64 in Chappell, TDJ., ed, The Philosophy of the Environment (Univ. Edinburgh Press, 1997). New books include Bolzler, R. & Armstrong, S., eds. Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence (McGraw-Hill, 1998); Clayton, PH. Connection on the Ice: Environmental Ethics in Theory and Practice (Temple Univ. Press, 1998, 328pp.). A new Institute is The Nature Institute, Inc., Craig Holdrege, 169 Route 21C, Ghent, NY 12075, USA.

Incas may have used irrigation and tree planting to restore overgrazed land, Science 281 (1998), 323; Nature 394 (1998), 224-5. A million year record of fire in sub-Saharan Africa is reviewed in Nature 394 (1998), 767-9. Calls for better pasture management in China are made in Science 281 (1998), 1147-8. A review of the use of sea water to irrigate crops is SA (August 1998), 76-81. The disinfectants used in water cleaning may have health risks such as cancer, NS (18 July 1998), 18-9. A review of pollution in the Baltic sea is Naturwissenschaften 85 (1998), 318-29. On sustainability in South Africa, Global Environmental Change 8 (1998), 99-108; and in Turkey, Environment & Behavior 30 (1998), 520-34. A study of toxic release inventories in the USA since 1987 found most reductions were not because of altered sources rather from changes in plant operation and production levels, EST 33 (1998), 368-74A. Environmental epidemiology is important for public health, Lancet 352 (1998), 417.

A copy of the Council of Europe Recommendation on environmental impact assessment is IDHL 49 (1998), 403-6. Prevention of pollution by design improvements is discussed in EST 33 (1998), 318-20A. Acid rain is discussed in Environment 40 (6, 1998), 4-7, 27; NS (1 August 1998), 45.

An analysis of a car life is MacLean, HL. & Lave, LB. "A life-cycle model of an automobile", EST 33 (1998), 322-30A. Policies to influence urban car travel are discussed in Transportation Planning 3 (1998), 33-51; Transportation 25 (1998), 99-117; Transport Reviews 18 (1998), 199-213; NS (25 July 1998), 3; (15 August 1998), 22. There is a global demand for motorized mobility, Transportation Research 6 (1998), 455-77. A discussion criticizing the introduction of Western transport planning in developing countries, where many road users are not in cars, is NS (1 August 1998), 44. The estimated peak in world oil production may be within a decade, raising calls for moves to find alternatives, Science 281 (1998), 1128-30. There appears to be little hydrogen made in basalt aquifers, Science 281 (1998), 976-7.

On policies to reduce global warming, EST 33 (1998), 354A; NS (25 July 1998), 22, (15 August 1998), 4; Science 281 (1998), 504-6. The record world temperatures this year are helping to convince skeptics of the increase in global warming, Science 281 (1998), 639, 930-2, 1152-3; Nature 394 (1998), 305, 615-6. There is more carbon released into the atmosphere from rainforest clearing than previously thought, NS (22 August 1998), 12. World wide energy consumption is expected to increase 75% between 1995 and 2020 according to International Energy Outlook 1998 <http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/ international/contents.html>. The UN Commission on Sustainable Development has called for review of voluntary environmental initiatives, EST 33 (1998), 303A.

A study of the affect of climate change on glaciers in Europe is Ambio 27 (1998), 258-65. The Sahara may not be steadily moving south, Science 281 (1998), 633-4. Experimental techniques to measure affect of temperature and carbon dioxide on wheat growth are discussed in Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 25 (1998), 617-26. A study of moose and deer population change following climatic fluctuation is J. Animal Ecology 67 (1998), 537-43. Polar bears are finding the hot summers very difficult, NS (8 August 1998), 40-3. Alaska is heating up with the expansion of caterpillars and pest insects and loss of trees, NS (18 July 1998), 12. Warming may also make prairie grasses tougher meaning they are harder for grazers to eat, NS (15 August 1998), 10-11. The possibility of a zero emissions society and economy is debated in EST 33 (1998), 366-7A. A study of noise is Bronzaft, AL. et al. "Aircraft noise. A potential health hazard", Environment & Behavior 30 (1998), 101-13.

A review of the multilateral ozone fund for the Montreal protocol is in Global Environmental Change 8 (1998), 171-5. Effects of ozone depletion on plant growth, Ambio 27 (1998), 275+. UV is thought to be having a significant impact on some plankton species, altering the food web, NS (8 August 1998), 24. A plasmid in Pseudomonas syringae bacteria has an extra gene to help in DNA repair which may make them more resistant to UV light, Science News 153 (1998), 364. An analysis of the impact from the elimination of methyl bromide fumigant on fruit and vegetable trading is HortScience 33 (1998), 794-7.

A new book looking at religious aspects on environmental ethics is K.K. Dua, Bhagavad Gita and Environment (Delhi: Koshal Book Depot (3611/5 Narang Colony, Tri Nagar Delhi 110035, India), 1998, ISBN 81-86049-03-7, 146pp.) It covers a range of environmental issues, applying verses from the Bhagavad Gita to their interpretation. A paper on ethics is Agar, N. "Biocentrism and the concept of life", Ethics 108 (1997), 147-68. A paper on environmental epidemiology is Soskolne, C. & Sieswerda, LE. "Implementing ethics in the professions: Toward ecological integrity", Ecosystem Health 4 (1998), 109-18.

A World Wildlife Fund Report on environmental load found that Norwegians have a load 4 times the world average, with US about triple the average global citizen, NS (3 Oct. 1998), 12. On environmental management, Progress in Human Geography 22 ((1998), 321-43. A Mexican project at conservation is reported in Science 281 (1998), 1372-2. On economics, Scruggs, LA. "Political and economic inequality and the environment", Ecological Economics 26 (1998), 259-75; Nature 395 (1998), 415, 426-9, 433-4. Two papers on risks and government environment policy are Government & Opposition 33 (Spring 1998), 139-66; (Summer 1998). Despite laws saying that people have a right to information on the environment, often no information can be gained, NS (29 August 1998), 18-9. On US politicians voting for environmental issues, SA (Nov. 1998), 36-7. Public opinion should be considered in setting of standards, BMJ 317 (1998), 1033.

A paper in Italian on safeguarding the environment for the future in the religions of the Mediterranean is in Bioetica e Cultura 13 (1998), 51-62. Medical facilities in the USA are focusing on cleaner environmental impacts, JAMA 280 (1998), 501-2. The protein polymorphism of glutathione transferase, GSTP1-1 may influence the pesticide sensitive expression of Parkisonian symptoms, Lancet 352 (1998), 1344-6. The issue of pesticide regulation is discussed in The Ecologist 28 (1998), 106-10; and on children and cancer from pesticides, The Ecologist 28 (1998), 100-5. About half of Inuit women in the Arctic are consuming the pesticide chlordane above accepted international limits, with 29% exceeding mercury and 21% cadmium levels because of the accumulation of these substances in the Arctic food chain, NS (26 Sept. 1998), 13. A series of papers on ecology and water resources is Ecological Applications 8 (1998), 559-630; also NS (29 August 1998),42-3. A book review on environmental pollution in Love Canal is JAMA 280 (1998), 1276.

A study of hormone mimics by the EPA may include 87,000 chemicals which have been collected, Science News 154 (1998), 148. A common pesticide residue is endosulfan which affects amphibians, Science News 154 (1998), 150. Although increasing amounts of sewage are being dumped on farmland there are questions about its safety, NS (29 August 1998), 26-30.

Ways to absorb carbon by planting trees are discussed in NS (3 Oct. 1998), 20. There is much debate on how much carbon dioxide is absorbed by North American forests, Science 282 (1998), 386-7; NS (24 Oct. 1998), 3, 5, 20-1; Nature 395 (1998), 9; 396 (1998), 1, 17-8. Warmer nights may decrease growth and reduce carbon dioxide absorption, SA (Oct. 1998), 20. Carbon dioxide uptake in Europe is discussed in Science 281 (1998), 1806. The European Parliament and the Non-Aligned Movement have agreed that a single per capita level for carbon emissions should be set next century, Nature 395 (1998), 316. A commentary on the reduced emissions of carbon after Kyoto is Nature 395 (1998), 741, 837-8, 881-4; 396 (1998), 7.

Book reviews on predicting the future are NS (26 Sept. 1998), 44-5; (3 Oct. 1998), 46-7; Science 281 (1998), 1293, 1948-9. A review of new methods in wave power is NS (3 Oct. 1998), 30-4. A call for less oil use is NS (5 Sept. 1998), 53. An intelligent battery charger has shortened the time for recharging electric cars, NS (10 Oct. 1998), 22. Conserving energy may result in reduced prices that may in turn increase energy use again, NS (5 Sept. 1998), 18-9. Green policies for defense spending are called for in Nature 391 (1998), 838-9.

UV exposure is linked to increased risk of cortical opacity, JAMA 280 (1998), 714-8. Halon-1202 in fire retardents has been increasing by a fifth every year and is a missing chemical among the ozone depletion compounds that needs to be regulated, NS (12 Sept. 1998), 12. 6-8 years after the Chernobyl accident a significant increase in thyroid autoimmunity was found in exposed children, Lancet 352 (1998), 763-8; NS (10 Oct. 1998), 20. On nuclear safety, NS (12 Sept. 1998), 6; Nature 395 (1998), 739.

The influence of lead exposure litigation on future discussions of genetics and IQ is GeneWatch 11 (Oct. 1998), 3-4. A 14 thousand year carbon-14 study of atmospheric lead deposits has been reported from a peat bog in Switzerland, Science 281 (199816), 35-40. There is a wide variety of particulate matter pollutants, Science 281 (1998), 1609.

ATM kinase is activated by ionizing radiation, which then phosphyrylates p53, Science 281 (1998), 1677-9. On the use of radiofrequency ablation for arrhythmias, Lancet 352 (1998), 1404-5; and for cancers, NS (10 Oct. 1998), 24.

A paper on environmental ethics is Cairns, J. "Ecological ethics: The basis for leaving a habitable planet for our descendants", Convergence 1 (1999), 1-17. Convergence is a new journal published by the LIFE, Centre at Loyola Institute of Frontier Energy, Loyola College, Chennai 600 034, India (editor Dr. M. Selvanayagam), focusing on environmental issues and energy conservation. A paper on development and conservation in Panama and Costa Rica is Kennedy, E. "Development and conservation: Can they coincide?", Currents in Science, Technology, Policy, Ethics 2 (No.1, Fall 1998), 1, 6-7. A letter calling for better ecology education is Science 282 (1998), 879. A survey has found that only 3% of Japanese students were currently involved in volunteer activities, the lowest number among 11 countries in a comparison, Japan Times (3 Jan. 1999), 2.

A reference work on the state of the Environment is Brown, LR. & Ayres, E., eds., The World Watch Reader on Global Environmental Issues (World Watch Institute 1998). A book on how promises are kept (or not) is Victor, David et al., eds., The Implementation and Effectiveness of International Environmental Commitments: Theory and Practice (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998). A call for cooperation between environmental movements, industry and governments is Nature 396 (1998), 511-2. A historical view from 1863 in the UK is Pontin, B. "Tort law and Victorian government growth: The historiographical significance of tort in the shadow of chemical pollution and factory safety regulation", Oxford J. Legal Studies 18 (1998), 661-80. The court case of Nikitan who opened Russian military environmental damage is reviewed in NS (7 Nov. 1998), 12. On models for environmental justice, EST 32 (1998), 488-9A; and on US congress environment votes, SA (Nov. 1998), 36-7..

Methods to reduce carbon emissions are discussed in Science 282 (1998), 1053-4; EST 32 (1998), 531A, 540-4A; Ambio 27 (1998), 498-505; Nature 396 (1998), 210, 509, 613; NS (7 Nov. 1998), 3, 14; (14 Nov. 1998), 15; (21 Nov. 1998), 3, 16; and on the use of sugar cane for fuel, Ambio 27 (1998), 465-70. Exploration is testing whether seabed methane hydrates might be a useful gas resources, Science News 154 (1998), 312-4; and on biological hydrogen production, Science 282 (1998), 1842-3. The history of climate forcing is discussed in PNAS 95 (1998), 12753-8; Nature 396 (1998), 405, 619-20. On the carbon cycles, Nature 396 (1998), 521-2, 560-3. Antarctic larvae are being suggested as climate monitors, NS (28 Nov. 1998), 27. Air traffic may increase cirrus cloudiness, Nature 397 (1999), 30-1. In Japan small cars are becoming more popular, included among their advantages are decreased pollution, Newsweek (18 Jan. 1999), 22-6. On acid rain, Science 282 (1998), 1024-7, 1991-2. The indoor and outdoor pollution cycles in Rio de Janeiro are recorded in EST 32 (1998), 3485-90.

Asahi Beer is investing 18 billion yen in measures to reduce total CO2 emissions in 2005 by over 6 percent compared to 1990 levels. Making one kiloliter of beer will emit 43 percent less CO2 than in 1990. Concrete measures include the use of natural gas as opposed to oil, the use of cogeneration and ammonia cooling equipment at all nine plants, utilizing fuel cells, capturing and reusing heat, and discontinuing use of CFCs beginning with its Nagoya plant next spring. The company plans to save four billion yen a year in energy costs to recoup its investment in five years. At a calculated 500,000 tons of CO2, beer production accounted for 20 per cent of the CO2 emitted by the food industry in 1996. Kirin Beer also plans 25 percent reductions by 2010, Nikkei Shimbun (10 Nov. 1998) (Quoted from Japan Environment Monitor).

1998 was the warmest year on record, NS (2 Jan. 1999), 32-3; affecting the Arctic as well, NS (14 Nov. 1998), 55. Research is being conducted to attempt to predict the weather further into the future, NS (12 Dec. 1998), 12. However, many monitoring sites are needed, NS (21 Nov. 1998), 17. Soybeans exposed to increased carbon dioxide appear to make more lateral branches, Ziska, LH. et al. "Intraspecific variation in seed yield of soybean (Glycine max) in response to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide", Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 25 (1998), 801-7. Methane flux from rice varies with the type of agriculture, Naturwissenschaften 85 (1998), 494-7.

Efforts to protect the ozone layer are trying to regulate halon-1202, chlorobromomethane and n-propylbromide which have escaped regulation to date, NS (5 Dec. 1998), 23. Methyl bromide has been found to seep through plastic sheets put over it as it fumigates the soil, so it still reaches the ozone layer, Science News 154 (1998), 216. The Antarctic ozone hole has reached record size, Science News 154 (1998), 246.

Human health impacts of environmental pollution are discussed in Lancet 352 (1998), siv9; J. Public Health Med. 20 (1998), 249-52; AJPH 88 (1998), 1761-6; MJA 169 (1998), 452-3, 459-63; NS (12 Dec. 1998), suppl. pp.1-4; Nature 396 (1998), 529. Low level chemical exposures are a challenge for science and policy, EST 32 (1998), 508-9A. Genotoxicity tests are reviewed in EST 32 (1998), 498-501A. Thyroid abnormalities have been linked to iodine excess from water purification units, Lancet 352 (1998), 1519; and hyperkalemia is reported from a potassium-based water softener, NEJM 339 (1998), 1790. In Israel the Knesset passed a bill requiring all communities over 5000 persons to build water fluoridation units, BMJ 317 (1998), 1338. On water and welfare, Nature 396 (1998), 496; Ambio 27 (1998), 492-3; and by the year 2025 it is predicted 35% of the world's population will face water shortages, EST 32 (1998), 491A. The USA is now using less water than 20 years ago, despite increased population, Science News 154 (1998), 260. Artificial glaciers are being made in India to help sustain water supply, Science 282 (1998), 619.

Mercury in the hair of crematoria workers in the UK suggests exposure is not so high, Lancet 352 (1998), 1602. Dioxin is discussed in EST 32 (1998), 527A. On regulating lead, Science 282 (1998), 1825-7. Exposure to organochlorines can increase risk of breast cancer, Lancet 352 (19981), 816-20. In response to a 15 percent drop in sales of instant noodles in May 1998 in Japan due to public concerns over endocrine disrupters from the polystyrene packaging, instant noodle producers are changing over to paper containers. On environmental estrogens, Sharara, FI. et al. "Environmental toxicants and female reproduction", F&S 70 (1998), 613-22; Science News 154 (1998), 251; EST 32 (1998), 484-5A. There are new US EPA guidelines on pesticides, Nature 396 (1998), 207; NS (7 Nov. 1998), 15. Toshiba's new Dynabook Satellite 2510 notebook computer incorporates new glass epoxy resin technology in its printed circuit boards so that they do not emit dioxin when burned, Nikkei Shimbun (10 Nov. 1998). Global warming: have a cold beer? -There is concern over disinfection byproducts, EST 32 (1998), 546A+. On PCB recycling in Lake Superior, EST 32 (1998), 3249+. Nutrient pollution from animal feedlots will be controlled in the USA, EST 32 (1998), 535A.

A paper on environment ethics is Potter, VR. "Bioethics, biology, and the Biosphere", HCR 29 (No. 1, Jan. 1999), 38-40. A discussion of the life force, Mauri, is Patterson, J. "Respecting nature the Maori way", The Ecologist 29 (Jan 1999), 33-8. On economics, Soderbaum, P. "Values, ideology and politics in ecological economics", Ecological Economics 28 (1999), 161-70. A recent book is KK. Dua, Bhagavad Gita and Environment (Koshal Book Depot, Delhi 1999). A review of using benefit-cost analysis to improve regulations is Environment 41 (March 1999), 12-5, 34-7. On the tragedy of the commons, Environment 41 (March 1999), 4-5.

A UNEP report suggests one third of the world's population will go thirsty by 2025, Nature 398 (1999), 278. There is growing concern over the expected lack of clean water, Network (March 1999), 3-4. Not only pesticides but also medical drugs are to be found in the water, NS (6 March 1999), 18-9. Papers on pesticides and PCBs in water are in Ambio 28 (1999), 1-106; also EST 33 (1999), 517+. A biochip is being used in France to control water quality, GEN (1 March 1999), 1, 10, 36. Discussion of whether to save Salton Sea in California is Science 284 (1999), 28-30. On pesticide detection, EST 33 (1999), 164A+. A diuron-destroying bacteria may help clean the water from pesticides for fish, NS (23 Jan. 1999), 21.

Japan is trying to reduce dioxin emissions by 90% over 1997 levels in the next 4 years, despite the fact it has 10 times more incinerators than the USA; BMJ 318 (1999), 830; Nature 398 (1999), 362. Dioxin can harm tooth development, Science News 155 (1999), 119. The European Parliament has voted to eliminate lead pollution by the year 2005, Lancet 353 (1999), 304. On environmental carcinogens, MJA 170 (1999), 372-4. Cadmium can promote bone loss, Lancet 353 (1999), 1140-4. Methylmercury exposure can affect neurodevelopment, JAMA 281 (1999), 896-7.

Children with bronchial hyperresponsiveness or high IgE serum levels are more sensitive to ambient air pollution, Lancet 353 (1999), 859-60, 874-8. Air pollution is also linked to lung cancer, Lancet 353 (1999), 729. Incinerators are linked to many lead releases, EST 33 (1999), 106-7A. The air pollution associated with the former Aral Sea in CIS is Science 284 (1999), 30-1.

On calls for global warming action, Science 283 (1999), 179, 183-4, 1440-1; Nature 397 (1999), 664, 688-91. Climate models have insufficient regional data in the USA to closely predict affects, Science 283 (1999), 766-7; Nature 397 (1999), 657-8. Landscape change can alter local climate, Science 283 (1999), 317-8. However weather predictions are becoming better, NS (27 March 1999), 11; Nature 398 (1999), 289, 291; and the El Nino can also be predicted to some degree, Science 283 (1999), 467-8, 1108-9; Nature 397 (1999), 645-6. The frequency of El Nino may increase with greenhouse warming, Nature 398 (1999), 694-7. On scientific responsibility in climate change research, Science 283 (1999), 940-1. The global carbon cycle has not been in a steady state for the past 11,000 years, Nature 398 (1999), 111-2, 121-6. Iron does limit the growth of phytoplankton over much of the South Pacific, Science 283 (1999), 840-3.

There are concerns in the USA over the slow development of new car technologies given that Toyota already introduced hybrid vehicles in 1998 with low fuel consumption, SA (April 1999), 46-7. A study has found 9 out of 10 energy projects funded by the World Bank benefit transnational companies based in the G-7 countries, <www.seen.org>, EST 33 (1999), 153A. There are growing calls for China to filter sulfur dioxide emissions from coal burning, NS (13 Feb. 1999), 25. Landfill may slow down global warming, NS (23 Jan. 1999), 22. Methane can be removed from mine emissions and other sites by a new catalyst, NS (30 Jan. 1999), 17.

UV-B damage to plants is amplified by transposons in maize, Nature 397 (1999), 398-9; NS (6 Feb. 1999), 8. The time that is needed for ozone to recover is uncertain, Nature 398 (1999), 663-4, 690-4.

Papers on noise are in Occupational Health & Safety 68 (March 1999), 38-49; NS (9 Jan. 1999), 36-9. A letter on social noise and hearing loss is Lancet 353 (1999), 1185. Personal stereos affect hearing loss, Lancet 353 (1999), 756. Books on environment and mental health are reviewed in NEJM 340 (1999), 1051-2.

A review on the prospects for further nitrogen fertilizer and its impact is PNAS 96 (1999), 1175-80; and on phosphates, Science 283 (1999), 2015. On green industry, SA (March 1999), 39-40; EST 33 (1999), 116-9A, 154-8A; NS (6 Feb. 1999), 42-5. There has been some reduction in environmental toxicology funding in Sweden since 1992, Science 283 (1999), 924.

A study has found that carbon dioxide can be fixed into trees at increased concentrations, DeLucia, EH. et al. "Net primary production of a forest ecosystem with experimental CO2 enrichment", Science 284 (1999), 1177+. A review of models to predict the Earth's global warming is Nature 399 (1999), 523-4, 313-4, 342-5; Science 284 (1999), 464+, 926-7. On greenhouse gas emissions, Ambio 28 (1999), 148-51; 171-81. Mercury in peat bog may be an archive of climate change, Science 284 (1999), 939+. A 420,000 year study of Vostok ice core found that methane and CO2 are higher now than at any time in the past, Nature 399 (1999), 412-3, 429-36. In the past sea levels have altered by 20m when ice sheets melt, NS (17 April 1999), 5. Injecting carbon dioxide by deep ocean dumping may slow down global warming, NS (15 May 1999), 14.

A compilation of environmental protection laws is reviewed in IDHL 50 (1999), 146-7. On ethical issues, Ostrom, E. et al. "Revisiting the commons: Local lessons, global challenges", Science 284 (1999), 278-2. Environmental justice is discussed in EST 33 (1999), 200-4A. German environment policy is discussed in EST 33 (1999), 194-8A. Efforts to prevent pollution from airports are reviewed in EST 33 (1999), 210-2A; and tracing pesticides using anantiometers, EST 33 (1999), 206A+.

The reasons for mutations in frogs are discussed in Science 284 (1999), 800-4. Shellfish in the North Sea have recovered since small boats have been banned from using the antifouling paints containing tributyltin (TBT), but it is still used for larger boats, NS (8 May 1999), 23. The current US limit of 50 ppb arsenic in drinking water is considered too low by the NRC, EST 34 (1999), 188-9A. Health and the environment are discussed in JAMA 281 (1999), 1656, 1661; and the severe health impacts of coal use in China are reviewed in PNAS 96 (1999), 3427-31. On the effects of noise on hearing, JAMA 281 (1999), 1658-9.

Some of Sellafield's plutonium is missing, NS (24 April 1999), 17.

Environmental ethics is discussed in Chess, C. & Purcell, K. "Public participation and the environment: Do we know what works?", EST 33 (1999), 2685-91.

Plans to mitigate natural disasters are discussed in Science 284 (1999), 1943-4. The US insurance industry has found that climate change may not be a serious threat, http://www.aiad.org; EST 33 (1999), 273A. A slight wobble in the axis of spin may have triggered the change from the forested Sahara to the desert, Science 285 (1999), 325; NS (17 July 1999), 22. Sulphur from ships may seed clouds that stop all of the sun reaching the earth's surface and thus help the world stay cooler, NS (21 August 1999), 7; Nature 400 (1999), 713. Also on climate change, NS (5 June 1999), 5, 10; (7 August 1999), 6; Nature 401 (1999), 39-43; The Ecologist 29 (March 1999), 55-149.

Climate and health is discussed in Science 284 (1999), 347-8; MJA 170 (1999), 521-2; BMJ 318 (1999), 1635-6. On diesel emissions and health, AJPH 89 (1999), 991-3, 998-1002, 1009-17. Transportation safety is discussed in JAMA 281 (1999), 2080-2; BMJ 318 (1999), 1647-50, 1686-9, 1694. Air pollution affects many people in China, Lancet 354 (1999), 137; MJA 170 (1999), 342. On public health and carcinogens, MJA 170 (1999), 372-4; JAMA 282 (1999), 800-1. Environmental health education is discussed in JAMA 282 (1999), 224-5.

Missing carbon is discussed in Science 285 (1999), 544-5, 574-8, 1198-9. Efficiency alone might allow countries to meet Kyoto targets, NS (22 June 1999), 22; Science 285 (1999), 662. On fuel cells for cars and houses, SA (July 1999), 74-9, 80-6. Renewable energy future is discussed in Science 285 (1999), 687-9. Emissions fall as the global economy grows, NS (7 August 1999), 23. On environmental engineering and replacing waste, Science 284 (1999), 706-9. The consequences of megacities are discussed in EST 33 (1999), 238-40A.

Climate change is resulting in a larger Arctic ozone hole, NS (12 June 1999), 6. A 20th century record of halocarbons is reported in Nature 400 (1999), 749-55. The dangers of suntan are discussed in BMJ 319 (1999), 114-6.

On the use of critical loads in environmental policy, EST 33 (1999), 245A+. On environmental science and policy, Nature 401 (1999), 17. The US Supreme Court overturned a Texas state judge decision that the asbestos industry settled liability, Int. Herald Tribune (24 June 1999), 8. On water pollution, Lancet 353 (1999), 2171; BMJ 318 (1999), 1678-82; Ecological Applications 9 (1999), 772-83; EST 33 (1999), 2693+. Fluoridation is discussed in BMJ 319 (1999), 269-70.

Gender changing chemicals are discussed in NS (5 June 1999), 12; (17 July 1999), 23; JAMA 282 (1999), 722; Nature 400 (1999), 607; Spearow, JL. Et al. "Genetic variation in susceptibility to endocrine disruption by estrogen in mice", Science 284 (1999), 1259-61. Methods to reduce blood lead levels are discussed in JAMA 281 (1999), 2340-1. On protecting children from lead, AJPH 89 (1999), 822-3.Tumours have been observed in Lake Michigan crustaceans, Science 284 (1999), 1613. Dioxin has been confirmed as a human carcinogen, Science News 155 (1999), 309; as has heavy exposure to trichloroethylene, Science News 154 (1999), 343. Japan is the heaviest emitter of dioxin among 15 industrial countries in a recent UNEP survey, with a total of 4kg of dioxin emitted in 1994, compared to 2.7kg by the USA and 873 grams by France, Japan Times (22 June 1999), 1; Nature 400 (1999), 397. Local enforcement of pollution control in developing countries is reported in J. Public Policy 18 (1999), 265-82. On soil erosion, Science 284 (1999), 1187-8. A book review critical of the chemical industry is AJPH 89 (1999), 1120-2; and on industry, EST 33 (1999), 280-2A. Waste from electric and electronic equipment may be lessened by regulations to require industry to take back the old appliances, EST 33 (1999), 228-9A.

Environmental ethics is discussed in Chess, C. & Purcell, K. "Public participation and the environment: Do we know what works?", EST 33 (1999), 2685-91.

Plans to mitigate natural disasters are discussed in Science 284 (1999), 1943-4. The US insurance industry has found that climate change may not be a serious threat, http://www.aiad.org; EST 33 (1999), 273A. A slight wobble in the axis of spin may have triggered the change from the forested Sahara to the desert, Science 285 (1999), 325; NS (17 July 1999), 22. Sulphur from ships may seed clouds that stop all of the sun reaching the earth's surface and thus help the world stay cooler, NS (21 August 1999), 7; Nature 400 (1999), 713. Also on climate change, NS (5 June 1999), 5, 10; (7 August 1999), 6; Nature 401 (1999), 39-43; The Ecologist 29 (March 1999), 55-149.

Climate and health is discussed in Science 284 (1999), 347-8; MJA 170 (1999), 521-2; BMJ 318 (1999), 1635-6. On diesel emissions and health, AJPH 89 (1999), 991-3, 998-1002, 1009-17. Transportation safety is discussed in JAMA 281 (1999), 2080-2; BMJ 318 (1999), 1647-50, 1686-9, 1694. Air pollution affects many people in China, Lancet 354 (1999), 137; MJA 170 (1999), 342. On public health and carcinogens, MJA 170 (1999), 372-4; JAMA 282 (1999), 800-1. Environmental health education is discussed in JAMA 282 (1999), 224-5.

Missing carbon is discussed in Science 285 (1999), 544-5, 574-8, 1198-9. Efficiency alone might allow countries to meet Kyoto targets, NS (22 June 1999), 22; Science 285 (1999), 662. On fuel cells for cars and houses, SA (July 1999), 74-9, 80-6. Renewable energy future is discussed in Science 285 (1999), 687-9. Emissions fall as the global economy grows, NS (7 August 1999), 23. On environmental engineering and replacing waste, Science 284 (1999), 706-9. The consequences of megacities are discussed in EST 33 (1999), 238-40A.

Climate change is resulting in a larger Arctic ozone hole, NS (12 June 1999), 6. A 20th century record of halocarbons is reported in Nature 400 (1999), 749-55. The dangers of suntan are discussed in BMJ 319 (1999), 114-6.

On the use of critical loads in environmental policy, EST 33 (1999), 245A+. On environmental science and policy, Nature 401 (1999), 17. The US Supreme Court overturned a Texas state judge decision that the asbestos industry settled liability, Int. Herald Tribune (24 June 1999), 8. On water pollution, Lancet 353 (1999), 2171; BMJ 318 (1999), 1678-82; Ecological Applications 9 (1999), 772-83; EST 33 (1999), 2693+. Fluoridation is discussed in BMJ 319 (1999), 269-70.

Gender changing chemicals are discussed in NS (5 June 1999), 12; (17 July 1999), 23; JAMA 282 (1999), 722; Nature 400 (1999), 607; Spearow, JL. Et al. "Genetic variation in susceptibility to endocrine disruption by estrogen in mice", Science 284 (1999), 1259-61. Methods to reduce blood lead levels are discussed in JAMA 281 (1999), 2340-1. On protecting children from lead, AJPH 89 (1999), 822-3.Tumours have been observed in Lake Michigan crustaceans, Science 284 (1999), 1613. Dioxin has been confirmed as a human carcinogen, Science News 155 (1999), 309; as has heavy exposure to trichloroethylene, Science News 154 (1999), 343. Japan is the heaviest emitter of dioxin among 15 industrial countries in a recent UNEP survey, with a total of 4kg of dioxin emitted in 1994, compared to 2.7kg by the USA and 873 grams by France, Japan Times (22 June 1999), 1; Nature 400 (1999), 397. Local enforcement of pollution control in developing countries is reported in J. Public Policy 18 (1999), 265-82. On soil erosion, Science 284 (1999), 1187-8. A book review critical of the chemical industry is AJPH 89 (1999), 1120-2; and on industry, EST 33 (1999), 280-2A. Waste from electric and electronic equipment may be lessened by regulations to require industry to take back the old appliances, EST 33 (1999), 228-9A.

Environmental ethics is discussed in Chess, C. & Purcell, K. "Public participation and the environment: Do we know what works?", EST 33 (1999), 2685-91.

Plans to mitigate natural disasters are discussed in Science 284 (1999), 1943-4. The US insurance industry has found that climate change may not be a serious threat, http://www.aiad.org; EST 33 (1999), 273A. A slight wobble in the axis of spin may have triggered the change from the forested Sahara to the desert, Science 285 (1999), 325; NS (17 July 1999), 22. Sulphur from ships may seed clouds that stop all of the sun reaching the earth's surface and thus help the world stay cooler, NS (21 August 1999), 7; Nature 400 (1999), 713. Also on climate change, NS (5 June 1999), 5, 10; (7 August 1999), 6; Nature 401 (1999), 39-43; The Ecologist 29 (March 1999), 55-149.

Climate and health is discussed in Science 284 (1999), 347-8; MJA 170 (1999), 521-2; BMJ 318 (1999), 1635-6. On diesel emissions and health, AJPH 89 (1999), 991-3, 998-1002, 1009-17. Transportation safety is discussed in JAMA 281 (1999), 2080-2; BMJ 318 (1999), 1647-50, 1686-9, 1694. Air pollution affects many people in China, Lancet 354 (1999), 137; MJA 170 (1999), 342. On public health and carcinogens, MJA 170 (1999), 372-4; JAMA 282 (1999), 800-1. Environmental health education is discussed in JAMA 282 (1999), 224-5.

Missing carbon is discussed in Science 285 (1999), 544-5, 574-8, 1198-9. Efficiency alone might allow countries to meet Kyoto targets, NS (22 June 1999), 22; Science 285 (1999), 662. On fuel cells for cars and houses, SA (July 1999), 74-9, 80-6. Renewable energy future is discussed in Science 285 (1999), 687-9. Emissions fall as the global economy grows, NS (7 August 1999), 23. On environmental engineering and replacing waste, Science 284 (1999), 706-9. The consequences of megacities are discussed in EST 33 (1999), 238-40A.

Climate change is resulting in a larger Arctic ozone hole, NS (12 June 1999), 6. A 20th century record of halocarbons is reported in Nature 400 (1999), 749-55. The dangers of suntan are discussed in BMJ 319 (1999), 114-6.

On the use of critical loads in environmental policy, EST 33 (1999), 245A+. On environmental science and policy, Nature 401 (1999), 17. The US Supreme Court overturned a Texas state judge decision that the asbestos industry settled liability, Int. Herald Tribune (24 June 1999), 8. On water pollution, Lancet 353 (1999), 2171; BMJ 318 (1999), 1678-82; Ecological Applications 9 (1999), 772-83; EST 33 (1999), 2693+. Fluoridation is discussed in BMJ 319 (1999), 269-70.

Gender changing chemicals are discussed in NS (5 June 1999), 12; (17 July 1999), 23; JAMA 282 (1999), 722; Nature 400 (1999), 607; Spearow, JL. Et al. "Genetic variation in susceptibility to endocrine disruption by estrogen in mice", Science 284 (1999), 1259-61. Methods to reduce blood lead levels are discussed in JAMA 281 (1999), 2340-1. On protecting children from lead, AJPH 89 (1999), 822-3.Tumours have been observed in Lake Michigan crustaceans, Science 284 (1999), 1613. Dioxin has been confirmed as a human carcinogen, Science News 155 (1999), 309; as has heavy exposure to trichloroethylene, Science News 154 (1999), 343. Japan is the heaviest emitter of dioxin among 15 industrial countries in a recent UNEP survey, with a total of 4kg of dioxin emitted in 1994, compared to 2.7kg by the USA and 873 grams by France, Japan Times (22 June 1999), 1; Nature 400 (1999), 397. Local enforcement of pollution control in developing countries is reported in J. Public Policy 18 (1999), 265-82. On soil erosion, Science 284 (1999), 1187-8. A book review critical of the chemical industry is AJPH 89 (1999), 1120-2; and on industry, EST 33 (1999), 280-2A. Waste from electric and electronic equipment may be lessened by regulations to require industry to take back the old appliances, EST 33 (1999), 228-9A.

Several recent publications from UNU on environmental issues include: Inter-Linkages. Syngergies and Coordination between Multinational Environmental Agreements (UNU, 1997, 31pp.); Global Climate Governance. Inter-Linkages between the Kyoto Protocol and other Multilateral Regimes (UNU, 1999, 76pp.); Eco-Restructuring for Sustainable Development (UNU, 1997, 60pp.); UNU/INRA, UNU in Africa: Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Development (UNU, 1997, 28pp.). A comment by Vandana Shiva on the historical significance of the protests at Seattle is Splice 6 (No. 2, 2000), 4-5.

The idea of sequestering carbon dioxide underground is discussed in SA (Feb. 2000), 72-9. Climate change is discussed, Science 287 (2000), 246-7, 793-4; Nature 403 (2000), 233. The development of durable catalysts for cleaner air is discussed in Nature 403 (2000), 35-6. It may not however be better for the environment if you buy a new car, NS (12 Feb. 2000), 21. A book review on generating solar energy is Nature 403 (2000), 363. Future electricity supplies are discussed in Science 287 (2000), 971; NS (22 Jan. 2000), 49; (12 Feb. 2000), 3. Chinese and Indian coal burning and efficiency is discussed in NS (22 Jan. 2000), 16-7.

El Nino lead to increased health admissions in Peruvian children, Checkley, W. "Effects of El Nino and ambient temperature on hospital admissions for diarrhoeal diseases in Peruvian children", Lancet 355 (2000), 442-50. Marine iguanas shrink to survive El Nino, Nature 403 (2000), 37. Releases of methyl bromide and methyl chloride from coastal salt marshes account for 10% of the total release, Nature 403 (2000), 292-5. On rice field releases of methane, Nature 403 (2000), 375-6.

A paper on the need for sustainable development is Caldwell, LK. "Is humanity destined to self-destruct?", Politics & Life Sciences 18 (1999), 3-14. Industry needs to be involved, Nature 403 (2000), Dally, GC. & Walker, BH. "Seeking the great transition", Nature 403 (2000), 243-5. A study on politics of fuelwood in Malawi is Politics & Life Sciences 18 (1999), 37-54. A study on equity and willingness to pay for ivermectin in Nigeria is Public Health 113 (1999), 193-4. Ecology in the Third World in Mexico is discussed in BioScience 50 (2000), 66-76. Environmental policy is discussed in Nature 403 (2000), 139.

A book review of Fagin, D. & Lavelle, M, Toxic Deception: How the Chemical Industry Manipulates Science, Bends the Law and Endangers Your Health (Common Courage Press 1999) is JAMA 283 (2000), 121-2. Regulation of environmental hormones is discussed in BioScience 50 (2000), 4-6. The role of the lead industry in the lead poisoning in the first half of the twentieth century is discussed in AJPH 90 (2000), 36-46. Mercury risks are discussed in Public Health Reports 114 (1999), 512-5. Self-reported health of persons living in chromium contaminated areas is reported in BMJ 320 (2000), 11-5. A study of a landfill in the UK found higher rates of congenital malformations predated the landfill, BMJ 320 (2000), 19-23. Arsenic poisoning is still a major problem in the Ganges, NS (12 Feb. 2000), 16-7. A film review from the Bhopal accident is Time (17 January 2000), 52.

Housing construction in California is leading to increased asbestos releases into the air, SA (Feb. 2000), 34. The need for proper disposal of computers to avoid contamination is discussed in SA (Feb. 2000), 33. Grass roots action is urged in Nature 403 (2000), 129.

The directors of nuclear weapons labs in the USA contributed to a senate vote to not ratify the Comprehensive TestBan Treaty, Nature 403 (2000), 131-3. Letters on still births among offspring of male radiation workers are Lancet 355 (2000), 492-4. Neutropenia is found in survivors of the atomic bomb explosion, Lancet 355 (2000), 117. Some radioactive waste from plutonium dioxide can mutate into a water soluble form, which means long term storage may not be safe, NS (18 Jan. 2000), 18. On the Russian nuclear power campaign, NS (22 Jan. 2000), 48.

A book review of Redman, CL. Human Impact on Ancient Environments (Univ. Arizona Press 1999, 255pp., ISBN 0-8165-1963-3) is Science 287 (2000), 2427-8. A call for seeking peoples values is Fischhoff, B. gInformed consent for eliciting environmental valuesh, EST 34 (2000), 1439-44. A discussion of pragmatists and environmentalists is Harvard Law Review 113 (20000), 1421-47.

A view on the greenhouse effect is Sciboch, MA. & Ragavan, VRV. "Greenhouse effect: Chemists approach to this global issue", Convergence 1 (1999), 49-54. The melting of Greenlandfs ice is discussed in Nature 404 (2000), 551-2. In the UK a trial of feeding cows and sheep bacteria to convert methane to carbon dioxide to reduce emissions is discussed in NS (15 April 2000), 6. The need to reduce carbon emissions and carbon trading is discussed in EST 34 (2000), 114-5A, 176-82A, 184-7A. The drilling of holes to test past carbon levels is discussed in Nature 403 (2000), 714-5. Old ocen temperature data has shown that the oceans are in fact warming and thus delaying the warming in the atmosphere, Science 287 (2000), 2126-7.

Plankton may not be affected by the ozone hole in Antarctica yet, NS (19 Feb. 2000), 17. A study of the impact of El Nino on malaria in Tanzania found that despite 2.4 times higher rainfall, there was less malaria, Lancet 355 (2000), 989-90. However subarctic lakes do have altered UV exposure, Nature 404 (2000), 484-8. The Arctic ozone hole is growing, NS (25 March 2000), 24-8; and global warming may make it worse, Nature 404 (2000), 531. Nonpoint pollution is likely to become more common in the future as a source of environmental pollution, EST 34 (2000), 160A. Pollution suppresses rain, Science 287 (2000), 1763-4.

Environmental business is discussed in Time (April-May 2000), 82-3. The green bio strategy for environmental business is promoted in Japan, PharmaJapan 1688 (13 March 2000), 19. Sustainable consumption is discussed in Science 287 (2000), 2419. There is a need to make international trade agreements consistent with environmental and health protection, EST 34 (2000), 107-9A; BMJ 320 (2000), 580, 802-3. It has been found that Brazilian Indians may not be as green as they appear, Newsweek (27 March 2000), 23-8. Environmental problems in China are discussed in Ambio 28 (1999), 635-86. On the motivation to save the planet and Earth Day, Science 288 (2000), 1188-93. A discussion of a new NASA satellite for monitoring the Earth is SA (April 2000), 92-7.

A discussion of environmental estrogens is Ms. (April 2000), 48-51; EST 34 (2000),136-41A; NatMed. 6 (2000), 246-7; NatBio 18 (2000), 1162-3. Evaluation of the environmental and health impacts of pesticide use in the design of ecolabels is discussed in EST 34 (2000), 1456-61. Some organic farming waste can lead to harmful endotoxins on dust, NS (March 2000), 14. The making fresh air, EST 34 (2000), 541-5. Chemical hazards could be present in the backyard, Environment 42 (2000), 3. Outdoor garbage burning creates many dioxins, EST 34 (2000), 106-7A. On the use of water, Environment 42 (Jan 2000), 30-8. Urban benzene is a risk factor at home as well as from exhaust fuel, Nature 404 (2000), 141. A review of diesel emissions is EST 34 (2000), 729-40, 933-9. Efforts to remove sulfur from diesel fuel continue, EST 34 (2000), 161A. Transport issues in Australia are discussed in MJA 172 (2000), 230-2.

The health risks due to drinking radon in drinking water are reviewed in EST 34 (2000), 921-6. People who live in houses contaminated with cobalt-60 (in Taiwan) have increased chromosomal translocations, Lancet 355 (2000), 726. There has been a further negative report on Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant in the UK, NS (26 Feb. 2000), 3, 18-9; Lancet 355 (2000), 1250. A book review on the dangers of nuclear factory fires is in NS (11 March 2000), 54. A book review on the development of India's nuclear bomb, Nature 403 (2000), 701-2. A book review from the US nuclear program is JAMA 283 (2000), 1621-2. There is concern about increased radiation doses in computed tomography, BMJ 320 (2000), 593-4. Instead of building new cell phone antennas it has been proposed to put them on top of existing electric pylons. A paper asking where the boundaries of biocentric and ecocentric ethics are is Holdrege, C. "Where do organisms end?", In Context (Spring 2000], 14-6. A call for equal per capita emissions is Neumayer, E. "In defence of historical accountability for greenhouse gas emissions", Ecol. Econ. 33 (2000), 185-92. A letter arguing for regulation not private enterprise is Nature 405 (2000), 613; see also a US case of company efforts, JAMA 283 (2000), 2519-20. A debate on development and the Third World is The Ecologist 30 (April 2000), 22-5. Papers on good land use are in Dale, VH. Et al. "Ecological principles and guidelines for managing the use of land", Ecol. Appl. 10 (2000), 639-70; also pp. 671-2+; J. Environ. Quality 29 (2000), 728-37. Use of policy to conserve land in Ethiopia is discussed in Agricultural Economics 22 (2000), 217-32.

A UK panel has suggested 60% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in the UK over the next 50 years, Nature 405 (2000), 873. An Indian review of the greenhouse effect is in Everyman's Science 34 (1999), 114-20. The history of ice ages is discussed in Science 288 (2000), 1316; Nature 405 (2000), 615. Respiration is the main determinant of carbon balance in European forests, Nature 404 (2000), 819-20, 861-5. Reduced growth of Alaskan spruce is reported due to temperature increases, Nature 405 (2000), 668-73. Cholera incidence and El Nino-related temperature increase is discussed in JAMA 283 (2000), 3072-3. A US report on the likely local impacts of global warming is Nature 405 (2000), 725; www.gcrio.org. In general, NS (6 May 2000), 6-7; Science 288 (2000), 589-90. Ford has admitted sports utility vehicles are bad for the environment, but said they are profitable, (May 2000).

China, Japan and South Korea are developing a joint project to study air pollution, Science 288 (2000), 1317-8. Even when there is high air pollution from human activity, forest fires can influence pollution over large areas, Science 288 (2000), 324-8. The impact of air pollution on ecological balances affecting insects pests has been studied in Russia, NS (27 May 2000), 16; also NS (1 July 2000), 14-5. The limits to smog in the USA may still permit lung damage, Science News 157 (2000), 308. On wind power, NS (17 June 2000), 14.

Water pollution from sewage in slums need local solutions like one described in NS (27 May 2000), 14-5. A review on dangers of methylene chloride is Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 73 (2000), 429-42. Drug pollution in water is increasingly being found, Lancet 355 (2000), 1789-90; Science News 157 (2000), 212. Metal pollution in Romanian water will have health consequences for long term, BMJ 320 (2000), 1294. Development of inorganic yellow-red pigments without toxic metals is reviewed in Nature 404 (2000), 980-2. A study of lead pollution in Sweden over the past 4000 years is Ambio 29 (2000), 150-6. Studies suggesting current cadmium pollution in Japan does not disturb liver function are Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 73 (2000), 86-90; but the margin for kidney function is small, pp. 15-25; but the intake has fallen since the 1970s, pp. 26-34. Left over chemical weapons from Japan in China will be destroyed only by the year 2007, paid for by Japan, NS (27 May 2000), 5. In the USA the EPA has ordered cleanups of unexploded ordnance, SA (June 2000), 18-9. Exposure to home pesticides is linked to Parkinson disease, JAMA 283 (2000), 3055-6; and in children there are acute effects, AJPH 90 (2000), 971-3.

Mass psychogenic illness at a high school due to toxic exposure is discussed in NEJM 342 (2000), 96-100, 1673-5. Industrial waste is discussed in Nature 405 (2000), 741. On the dangers of dioxin, Science 288 (2000), 1313-4, 1941-4; Lancet 355 (2000), 1883. Dioxin effects are worse for persons with high fat diets because they accumulate, NS (27 May 2000), 19. Exposure of men to dioxin lowers the male/female sex ratio in their offspring, Lancet 355 (2000), 1838, 1858-63. A book review on environmental estrogens is BMJ 320 (2000), 1082. There are genetic differences, Indulski, JA. & Lutz, W. "Metabolic genotype in relation to individual susceptibility to environmental carcinogens", Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 73 (2000), 71-85. On PCBs, Science 288 (2000), 1965-6; and industrial pollutants in general, Industrial Health 38 (2000), 107-19; Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 73 (2000), 7-14. Poor children are more likely to face environmental pollution, JAMA 283 (2000), 3057-8. On bioaccumulation, EST 34 (2000), 2373-9. There are limitations in cancer registries however, AJPH 90 (2000), 695-8.

Health hazards of mobile phones are discussed in BMJ 320 (2000), 1288-9; Lancet 355 (2000), 1793; NS (13 May 2000), 5. On EMF dangers, Ecologist 30 (April 2000), 50. Nuclear radioactive waste cleanup in Australia is discussed in Nature 404 (2000), 797. On the future of nuclear power, NS (22 April 2000), 20; (13 May 2000), 14-5; Science 288 (2000), 602; Nature 405 (2000), 141. Germany will phase out nuclear power stations once they all close after the 32 year maximum working life (June 2000). Radioactive exposure to persons around Tokaimura following the accident in 1999 has been found to be high because of a five hour delay in evacuting people from the vicinity of the plant, NS (20 May 2000), 5. A UK study found no link between household radon and adult acute leukemia, Lancet 355 (2000), 1888.

A series of papers on the ethics of forestry are in J. Forestry (July 2000) 1-42, including the SAF Code of Ethics. On the role of trees in environmental ethics, Environmental Ethics 22 (2000), 359-76. The Biophilia hypothesis is mentioned in J. Forestry (July 2000) Values supplement, p.1; which introduces the book, Kellert, S., Kinship to Mastery: Biophilia in Human Evolution and Development (Island Press 1997). On environmental ethics, Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), A108-9; Low, N., ed. Global Ethics and Environment (Routledge 2000); Pratt, V. et al. Environment and Philosophy (Routledge 2000). Gandhi and his ecological vision of life are discussed in Environmental Ethics 22 (2000), 149-68. On myths of human and physical nature, Risk Analysis 20 (2000), 27-39; and social construction of nature, Environmental Ethics 21 (1999), 339-57. Indigenous worlds are discussed in Environmental Ethics 22 (2000), 273-90, 291+.

Participatory approaches to environmental policy-making in Europe are discussed in Ecological Economics 33 (2000), 457-72. The dangers of ecotourism are discussed in Newsweek (5 June 2000), 62-3; Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), A211, A214-9.

A commentary on the value of nature is Science 289 (2000), 395-6; and on prices for ecosystems, Ecological Economics 33 (2000), 473-86. Renewable resources are discussed in J. Environmental Economics & Management 39 (2000), 282-305, 306-27. The polluter pays principle is being supported in the EU, EST 34 (2000), 290-1A. Forensic methods are important to identify who committed the crime, EST 34 (2000), 262-6A. Air pollution often follows a long path, EST 34 (2000), 330-1A; Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), A170-5; and tiny particles kill, Science 289 (2000), 22-3; NS (5 Aug. 2000), 5; and also cause sick leave, Environmental & Resource Economics 16 (2000), 31-50. Methods to estimate cancer risk form air pollutants are discussed in Environmental Research 82 (2000), 194-206; Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), 283-7. Poverty is linked, Ambio 29 (2000), 42-3; Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), 193-7.

Unusual weather has affected health in South America, Lancet 356 (2000), 408; and a review is Epstein, PR. "Is global warming harmful to health?", SA (August 2000), 50-7; Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), 367-76. The measurement of the Greenland Ice Sheet changes is reported in Science 289 (2000), 404-5, 426+. Climate change alters breeding of animals and plants, Nature 406 (2000), 366-7. Silica in the ocean also is altering carbon dioxide conversion by phytoplankton, Nature 406 (2000), 358-9; iron is also important, Nature 406 (2000), 468-9. The role of methane is discussed in Nature 406 (2000), 356-7. A new greenhouse gas has been identified SF5CF3, Science 288 (2000), 611-3. Plant growth in high carbon dioxide may protect against high temperature damage, Plant, Cell & Environment 23 (2000), 649-56. The US is proposing no-till farming to keep carbon trapped in soil as a way to met Kyoto Protocol standards, Nature 406 (2000), 549; earlier a panel said emission reductions were unrealistic, Nature 406 (2000), 333. Global change research in Africa is introduced in Ambio 29 (2000), 1-41. In general on climate change models, Science 288 (2000), 2113; 289 (2000), 253-4, 270-7. Climate extremes in New Zealand are discussed in NZ Science Monthly (July 2000), 6-8.

Elevated UV light reduces genome stability in plants, Nature 406 (2000), 98-101. Apples can also get sunburnt, NZ Science Monthly (June 2000), 4. Ozone degradation is increasing in the Arctic, Science News 157 (2000), 356. Landsat has revealed Chinese agricultural land to be vast, but rapidly disappearing, Nature 406 (2000), 121. On Chinese refrigerators that reduce energy use and do not have CFCs, Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), 164A. Ecological principles to manage land are proposed by the Ecological Society of America in Ecological Applications 10 (2000), 639-70; with further papers pp. 671-88. The balancing of shrimp farming between wild and cultured is discussed in Agricultural Economics 23 (2000), 55-68. A pig that uses more phosphorus thus reducing pollution from farms has been bred, Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), A14. An essay by G. Benford on the next millennium and megaengineering is Nature 406 (2000), 462. Methods to avoid risks due to noise are discussed in Occup. Environ. Med. 57 (2000), 361-9; and health effects, Passchier-Vermeer, W. & Passhier WF., "Noise exposure and public health", Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), 123-31.

The toxicity of mercury is supporting stricter rules on its handling, Science 289 (2000), 371-2. Treatment of soils with sewage is being examined with regard to metal contaminants, EST 34 (2000), 242-3A. The EPA is proposing the world's most stringent arsenic standard for water, EST 34 (2000), 291-2A. On the dangers of lead, Environmental Research 83 (2000), 1-22, A165. Fluoridation does not affect cancer mortality in Taiwan, Environmental Research 83 (2000), 189-93. Water resources are vulnerable to climate change and population growth, Science 289 (2000), 284-7; Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), A69-72. A discussion of privatization of water as a solution for the scarcity is EST 34 (2000), 340-5A. The shortage of water in the Middle East is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 319; and India, NS (8 July 2000), 44-6. Papers on water and ethics in Spain's water management by R. Llamos et al. have been published, see also the COMSTECH www site (94pp.).

Trading in hazardous wastes is reviewed in EST 34 (2000), 300-5A. Combustion is the major source of dioxin, EST 34 (2000), 2879-86. The issues of dioxin for small countries are discussed in Croatian Medical J. 41 (2000), 150-3. A book review on the effects of chlorine is Nature 406 (2000), 17-8. A model to predict risks from pesticide exposure is in Environmental Research 83 (2000), 67-71; and on biological monitoring, Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), 515-20, 521-5. On toxic chemicals, Environmental Research 82 (2000), 113-33; Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), A24-6. A series of papers on health risks of trichloroethylene is Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), 159-363. On toxicity of DDT, Lancet 356 (2000), 267-8; Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), 1-4. The Royal Society has warned of the risks of hormone disruptors, Nature 406 (2000), 4. A workshop summary on genomic imprinting and environmental disease susceptibility is Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), 271-8; and on children's susceptibility, pp. 13-21, A252-3, A272, 475-526.The environmental genome project is described in Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), 279-81.

An example of an energy efficient building is the environmental school at Oberlin College, Ohio, USA. A call for work on providing alternative energy is discussed in EST 34 (2000), 289A, 329A; despite US Geological Survey predictions of large energy reserves, Science 289 (2000), 237. Book reviews on non-carbon energy are in Nature 406 (2000), 457-8. Doubling of renewable energy is expected in the EU, so that it is 12% by 2010, EST 34 (2000), 333A. A study has shown Paris Taxi drivers are highly exposed to exhaust fumes, Occup. Environ. Med. 57 (2000), 406-10. Methodology to examine environmental health is discussed in EST 34 (2000), 296-7A.

The health effects and persistence of depleted uranium shells in war veterans is reviewed in Environmental Research 82 (2000), 168-80. Storage of radioactive waste is discussed in NS (12 August 2000), 6. Chernobyl based radiophobia may have increased TB incidence in Belarus, Lancet 356 (2000), 257. The mean period of life expectancy lost after atomic bomb exposure was 4 months, Lancet 356 (2000), 303-7. The dangers of X-rays are discussed in Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), A273. On mobile telephone risks, Occup. Environ. Med. 57 (2000), 431-2.

On the causes of malformations in frogs, Probe 8 (1 Oct. 2000), 1, 5-7. Book reviews of Krimsky, S. Hormonal Chaos: The Scientific and Social Origins of the Environmental Endocrine Hypothesis (John Hopkins Univ. Press 2000) are BMJ 321 (2000), 516; JAMA 284 (2000), 2380. Mothers who eat a large amount of shellfish during pregnancy may give birth to children with neurodevelopmental problems due to methylmercury or PCBs, EST 34 (2000), 410-1A. Trends over the past 60 years in DDT and PCBs in the Baltic sediments are reviewed in Ambio 29 (2000), 195-201. Watershed losses of agrochemicals are discussed in EST 34 (2000), 3307-14, 3315-22. On DDT, Lancet 356 (2000), 1189-91. The availability of PAHs and PCBs to earthworms is studied in EST 34 (2000), 4335-40. On the land-water interface, Ecological Applications 10 (2000), 939-1056. On the dangers of Alaskan oil pipelines to earthquakes, NS (30 Sept. 2000), 21. On ecosystem evasion and health following a landslide of waste in the Philippines, CMAJ 163 (2000), 489.

Pesticide use appears to be one causative factor in development of Parkinsonfs disease, Nature 408 (2000), 125. On the risks of mild pesticide exposure, Lancet 356 (2000), 912. Lobsters have died due to New Yorkfs over use of pesticides, NS (12 Aug. 2000), 11. Food poisoning bacteria may thrive in certain pesticides, NS (7 Oct. 2000), 20.

The risks to human health of environmental change are discussed in NS (4 Nov. 2000), 56-7. Temperature is one risk factor, BMJ 321 (2000), 650-1, 670-3; and other climatic extremes, Science 289 (2000), 2053-5, 2068-73. Increased carbon dioxide increases growth of ragweed, a common allergenic plant, Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 27 (1000), 893-8. The use of climate forecasts in the Ethiopian food crisis is discussed in Science 289 (2000), 1693-4. Public health impacts of air pollution are large, Lancet 356 (2000), 782-3, 795-801; Science 290 (2000), 453, 711; maybe causing 3% of all developmental problems, NS (23 Sept. 2000), 14. It can occur transPacific, Science 290 (2000), 65-6. On waste incineration, EST 34 (2000), 380-7A. The environmental factors in disease in Nigeria are discussed in SSM 51 (2000), 1473-89. The European Union has set new levels on ozone level exposure, Lancet 356 (2000), 1419. In pinetrees ozone exposure interacts with UV-B radiation, Plant, Cell & Environment 23 (2000), 975-82. Ozone may cause crop damage in China, Ambio 29 (2000), 294-301. There is a human health link to perchlorate, EST 34 (200), 374-5A. In general on toxic chemicals, Science 289 (2000), 1883. On ethics of public health practice, Issues in Medical Ethics 8 (2000), 111-8.

Policies for environment in EU are discussed in EST 34 (2000), 388-93A. Economics of ecological sustainability are discussed in BioScience 50 (2000), 149-54, 311-2, 321-31, 339-44. The Ecologist Report (Sept. 2000), 58pp. is on whether the World Bank, IMF and WTO help the poor. Papers on agroindustrialization are discussed in Agricultural Economics 23 (2000), 195-310. The question of whether the business ties affect environmentalists who work with business is discussed in Ecologist 30 (2000), 20-3. The gagging of environmental activists in Russia is discussed in NS (23 Sept. 2000), 6. There is still growth in environmental studies, BioScience 50 (2000), 509-16. There are still threats from acidification, Nature 407 (2000), 856-7. Arsenic pollution in Bangladesh from water may be lessened by more shallow wells, SA (Sept. 2000), 22. On eutrophication, Ambio 29 (2000), 183-99.

Equity and greenhouse gas responsibility are discussed in Science 289 (2000), 1293, 2287. There are new concerns that warming is happening faster then forecast, Nature 408 (2000), 10. There are concerns that the Kyoto Protocol may not work, NS (26 Aug. 2000), 3, 18-9; Science 289 (2000), 2058-9; Nature 407 (2000), 7, 571-2. Fourteen Latin American countries have signed up for carbon trading, Nature 408 (2000), 128. Canada has announced its plans to spend US$330 million over the next 5 years to help reach the targets, Nature 407 (2000), 824. There are concerns over the melting at the North Pole, Time (4 Sept. 2000), 46-50; Nature 406 (2000), 821; also pp.689-90. In Tokyo the increased rain may be due to the effects of a heat island, NS (23 Sept. 2000), 10. A 60 million year old record of carbon dioxide levels is discussed in Nature 406 (2000), 693-70; also Nature 407 (2000), 851-2, 859-69. Carbon cycle feedbacks may accelerate global warming, Nature 408 (2000), 184-7. Also on warming, Nature 407 (2000), 10-2; 408 (2000), 155-6, 449-50; Science 290 (2000), 35-7. On plankton and carbon sequestation, Nature 407 (2000), 143-4, 364-7; NS (16 Sept. 2000), 10.

Protests in Europe at high fuel prices may make people look for alternatives, NS (23 Sept. 2000), 3. The first commercial wave energy generator has begun in Scotland, NS (23 Sept. 2000), 16-7. Cars which use less energy are discussed in SA (Oct. 2000), 99-102. Magnesium batteries are discussed in Nature 407 (2000), 681-2. A microwave based device to reduce harmful emissions from cars is described in NS (7 Oct. 2000), 11. A desert fridge is reviewed in SA (Nov. 2000), 26; NS (30 Sept. 2000), 14. The release of CFCs to create warming on Mars are discussed in NS (Sept. 2000), 22.

NASA has encountered a record ozone hole over the Antarctic, Nature 407 (2000), 122. UV selection is related to human skin colour, Science 289 (2000), 1461. Chemists are trying to find alternatives to noxious solvents, Nature 407 (2000), 938-10.

The writings of Wordsworth and romantic poets show the sensitivity towards the environment, Ecologist 30 (2000), 36-9. The real nature of the environment in Africa is discussed in NS (12 Aug. 2000), 30-3. A report from the creation of an artificial landscape-scale fishery in the Bolivian Amazon made 12,000 years ago is Nature 408 (2000), 190-3. The question whether scientists should intentionally manipulate environmental cycles is discussed in EST 34 (2000), 423-30A. Salting clouds can lead to rain, Science 289 (2000), 2263-4. A book review on 20th century environmental change is Nature 407 (2000), 674-5. Gaia is discussed in Nature 406 (2000), 685-6.

A series of papers on mercury pollution are in Environmental Research 84 (2000), 197-218. Each year in the US alone about 60,000 babies are born with neurological damage caused by mercury pollution, Nature 409 (2001), 129. Sweden is tightening regulations on lead pollution from crystal, Science 290 (2000), 1663-5. An EPA report suggests low level dioxin may cause health damage, Science 290 (2000), 1071. Japan is trying to make polluters pay to victims, in a 11 year long Nagoya Court case, Nature 408 (2000), 631.

The pesticide rotenone has been linked to Parkinson’s disease, Nature Neuroscience (Dec 2000); Lancet 356 (2000), 1659; BMJ 321 (2000), 1175; Science 289 (2000), 1068; Nature 408 (2000), 125.; Pesticides are responsible for declining frog numbers, Nature 408 (2000), 760; EST 34 (2000), 500A. There have been problems in safe use of pesticides, NS (25 Nov. 2000), 16-7. Genes may alter susceptibility to hormone disrupters, Nature 409 (2001), 274. Monitoring estrogens is discussed in EST 34 (2000), 5059-67. As discussed above, a UN agreement to eliminate persistent organic pollutants has been reached in December, Nature 408 (2000), 762; Science 290 (2000), 2053. One third of the creosote applied to railroad track wood is lost to the environment, EST 34 (2000), 502A.

Indoor pollution and respiratory disease in Ancient Rome is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 1774. A survey of air pollution in 20 US cities has found many people die, NEJM< 343 (2000), 1742-9; 1798-9. The US EPA has issued tighter regulations on diesel emissions in the USA, Nature< 409 (2001), 3. Driving cycle alters emission, EST 35 (2001), 26-32. Air pollutants also enter the water, Science News 158 (2000), 332. On microcontaminants in recycled water, EST 34 (2000), 508-15A. Ethanol-blended gasoline may be less harmful than MTBE as a gasoline oxygenate, EST 35 (2001), 24-9A. Cleaning up MTBE is difficult, EST 34 (2000), 516-21A. US states are getting tougher on water pollution, EST 34 (2000), 503-4A. On toxic pollution in Taiwan, Nature 408 (2000), 905.

A study suggesting brain cancer is not linked to mobile telephone use is JAMA 284 (2000), 3001-7; Lancet 356 (2000), 2163; BMJ 321 (2000), 1155. A review on the physics and biology of mobile telephony is Lancet 356 (2000), 1782, 1833-6, 1837-40; and in the USA it is regulated by the FDA, FDA Consumer (Nov. 2000), 19-23. External earphones from mobile telephones may actually channel more radiation to the head, NS (11 Nov. 2000), 7.

The question of whether the UK should build more reactors to dispose of its plutonium is discussed in NS (11 Nov. 2000), 5. Japan is still pursuing its fast breeder nuclear program at Monju, Nature< 408 (2000), 759. There is scepticism that uranium shells cause leukemia, Nature 409 (2001), 121. On x-rays, Lancet 356 (2000), 1857-8. Extracts from the UK regulations on safe use of radiology in medicine are in BME 163 (2000), 10-1. The children born to survivors of the atomic bombs are part of a genetic study, Nature 409 (2001), 5. Radioactive waste, technetium-99 is still entering the Irish Sea, despite protests, NS (9 Dec. 2000), 3, 18.

In 1984 the Bhopal accident occurred, and still legal measures continue, Lancet 356 (2000), 1863. A study of a Down syndrome cluster in Dundalk, Ireland, has not yielded conclusive results, Occup. Environ. Med. 57 (2000), 793-804. On cancer, genes and the environment, NEJM 343 (2000), 1494-6. Flooding also affects human health, BMJ 321 (2000), 1167-8; NS (9 Dec. 2000), 5;; as does transport, BMJ< 321 (2000), 1168-9. A study is underway in the Antarctic to see whether helicopters adversely affect penguins, Science 290 (2000), 1495.

A study of elevated carbon dioxide< conditions found nitrogen limitation of microbial decomposition, Nature 409 (2001), 188-91. A study on trees growing in elevated carbon dioxide is Plant, Cell and Environment 23 (2000), 1353-62; also Ecological Applications< 10 (2000), 1551-1632; Nature 408 (2000), 656-7.; A review of external control of temperature in the 20th century is Science 290 (2000), 2081-3, 2133-7. Talks on climate change to implement the Kyoto Protocol failed in December, but further talks are hoped for in the future under what may be a tougher US position, BMJ 321 (2000), 1169-70, 1367; Science 290 (2000), 920-22, 1663; Nature 408 (2000), 501, 503, 888, 896-7; NS (2 Dec. 2000), 3-6; The Ecologist 30 (Nov. 2000), 58-9. In general on climate models, Nature 408 (2000), 651-2, 409 (2001), 153-8; NS< (11 Nov. 2000), 28; Science 290 (2000), 1097, 1109-10, 1313. Peatlands can maintain carbon because of a single enzyme block that prevents release, Nature 409 (2001), 149. A prediction of how much countries will warm is NS (11 Nov. 2000), 4; and on sea level rise, NS (25 Nov. 2000), 5. Energy supplies are becoming less reliable, Science 289 (2000), 931; NS (25 Nov. 2000), 3, 34-42; Nature 408 (2000), 289-90; but there are new options available, EST 35 (2001), 16A; www.aceee.org; NS (18 Nov. 2000), 16-7.

It is hoped that the ozone holes may be closed by the year 2050 because of the restrictions made, Nature 408 (2000), 627. A study of methyl emissions from rice fields has found that emissions are the same whether the flooded field is planted with rice or not, Science 290 (2000), 966-9. On nitrous oxide, Nature 408 (2000), 301-2.

Use of indigenous knowledge to innovate for sustainable development is discussed in Ambio 29 (2000), 455-8. Mountain ecology is discussed in articles in Ambio 29 (2000), 363-458. Single trees can alter the properties of soils, Ecology 81 (2000), 3283-90. Galapagos ecologists have been subject to violent protests, Nature 408 (2000), 761; Science 290 (2000), 2059-61; and in January, 2001, to a major oil spill. The environmental impact of service industries are reviewed in EST 34 (2000), 4669-77.

On environmental education, EST 34 (2000), 497A. Ecological theories are discussed in Nature 408 (2000), 293. Violent protests are discussed and defended in The Ecologist 30 (Nov. 2000), 20-3; Time (15 Jan. 2001), 41.

A general review on environmental challenges, EST 35 (2001), 75-9A. Denmark has banned use of lead in buildings, EST 35 (2001), 63A. On mercury in the Everglades, EST 35 (2001), 59-60A. The role of chemists in developing a sustainable future is discussed in Science 291 (2001), 48-9. Papers discussing the greening of engineers in different cultures are in Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (2001), 105-46. A brief review of Indian environmental laws is AIBA Newslink 4 (Feb. 2001), 1-3. A series of papers on whether humanity should self-destruct is in Politics and the Life Sciences 18 (1999), 201-284.

The potential global cost of global warming may be US$300 billion according to a UNEP report, Nature 409 (2001), 657; NS (27 Jan. 2001), 5; Science 291 (2001), 566. In general on climate change, Science 291 (2001), 58-9. Wave power has become commercial in Scotland, EST 35 (2001), 80-1A. Use of biomass to produce ethanol is discussed in NS (20 Jan. 2001). Particulate emission from biomass burning is reported in Nature 409 (2001), 998. Much of the hydrocarbon pollution from cars is released when the engine is cold, so a new method is being developed to prevent this, NS (Jan. 2001), 15. Australia is using a test for diesel pollution, EST 35 (2001), 61-2A. Smogs are predicted to get worse, with ozone, according to the IPCC report, NS (3 Feb. 2001), 19; Nature 409 (2001), 671-2. On aerosols, EST 35 (2001), 83A.

The US is about to ban the fuel additive MTBE, and ethanol could be a replacement, NS (20 Jan. 2001), 12-3. A series of papers on protecting water are in SA 284 (Feb. 2001), 26-41; also EST 35 (2001), 66-73A. The 3M corporation has stopped making a fluorinated chemical used in Scotchgard fabric protector found to be widely dispersed as pollution, SA (March 2001), 11-2. On ski field related pollution in the US, EST 35 (2001), 60-1A. Plastic pellets in the ocean absorb toxic pollutants, and when sea animals ingest them they are exposed to he concentrated levels, NS (Jan. 2001), 18.

The UK and US governments are claiming that depleted uranium is safe, NS (20 Jan. 2001), 3-5; BMJ 322 (2001), 123-4; Lancet 357 (2001), 244-5. However UK veterans from the Gulf war will be screened for uranium exposure, BMJ 322 (2001), 130. There is an investigation into a low level plutonium haul in Greece, Nature 409 (2001), 653.

Virtue is discussed in Cafaro, P. "Thoreau, Leopold and Carson: Toward an environmental virtue ethics", Env. Ethics 23 (2001), 3-18. Ecofeminism is discussed in Env. Ethics 23 (2001), 19-36. On promotion of individual autonomy in environmental ethics, Env. Ethics 22 (2000), 73-84. On environmental security, EST 34 (2001), 109-13A. Environment as cultural heritage is discussed in Env. Ethics 22 (2000), 241-8. On Islamic environmentalism, Env. Ethics 22 (2000), 63-72.

On sustainability of agriculture, Tisdell, C. "Coevolution, agricultural practices and sustainability: some major social and ecological issues", Int. J. Agricultural Resources 1 (2000), 6; Pretty, J. "Towards sustainable food and farming systems in industrialized countries", Int. J. Agricultural Resources 1 (2000), 77-94. Farming may cause more damage than global warming, NS (21 April 2001), 11; Ruhl, JB. "Farms, their environmental harms, and environmental law", Ecology Law Quarterly 27 (2000), 263-350; Tilman, D. et al. "Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change", Science 292 (2001), 281-7. On land rights in China, Pacific Rim Law & Policy J. 9 (2000), 553-68. There are conflicting reports on the impact of organic farming, a positive report is Australasian Science (Oct. 2000), 23-4. There is some compromise needed between the cowboy way of life and conservation, BioScience 51 (2001), 85-90.

A series of 7 papers are in the first issue of Int. J. Water 1 (2000), 1-144. Included is a paper Dawson, RM. "The genesis of the New Zealand Parliaments Treaty of Waitangi (Fisheries Claims) Settlement Act, 1992", pp. 80-101. On the environmental imperative, Science & Christian Belief 13 (2001), 2-4. A UK strategy to increase clean water supplies is in BMJ 322 (2001), 626-7, 756. An interview with Dai Qing an activist opposing the Chinese Three Gorges dam project is in NS (7 April 2001), 42-5.

A new paint has been developed that changes colour with temperature, and thus may change the energy use inside the house to combat global warming, NS (21 April 2001), 20. Comments on President Bush's rejection of the Kyoto Protocol are in Nature 410 (2001), 133, 401, 499, 616; BMJ 322 (2001), 690, 813; NS (24 March 2001), 3-4; (7 April 2001), 11; Science 291 (2001), 2095-6, 2515, 2549. The Protocol should be ratified by countries emitting at least 55% of the 1990 emissions of carbon dioxide. A book review on the collapse of the Kyoto Protocol is Nature 410 (2001), 750-1. On dispute resolution under the Kyoto Protocol, Ecology Law Quarterly 27 (2000), 53-134. As the global temperature increases there is rising uncertainty in predicting climate change, Science 292 (2001), 192-3; Nature 410 (2001), 649-50; Australasian Science (March 2001), 14-5. Climate change has been observed in the oceans Science 292 (2001), 270-4. Intact rainforests can be a carbon sink for a century of more, Nature 410 (2001), 429. Better data are needed, Nature 410 (2001), 287. On carbon sequestation, EST 34 (2001), 98-9A, 148-53A; Australasian Science (Nov. 2000), 19-20. A report from a German insurance company Munich Re suggests that the damages caused by global warming will cost the world more than US$300 billion annually by the year 2050, EST 34 (2001), 143A. A call to use technology to reduce climate change is NS (10 March 2001), 3, 12. Sustainable energy is discussed in Science 291 (2001), 1899.

Climate change will also affect human health according to a UN report (www.ipcc.ch), BMJ 322 (2001), 386; Lancet 357 (2001), 696. On the effects of volcanic air pollution on health, Lancet 357 (2001), 164. Public concern for environmental health is reviewed in AJPH 91 (2001), 559-62. A study of the Meuse Valley fog of 1930 is in Lancet 357 (2001), 704-8; and on smog in Donora, Pennsylvania, AJPH 91 (2001), 553. Air pollution increases systolic blood pressure, possibly due to change in cardiovascular autonomic control, AJPH 91 (2001), 571-7. Early migrating birds may miss food and may be a casualty of climate change, Science 291 (2001), 2532. Pinus halepensis forests may grow faster through climate change, Global & Planetary Change 26 (2000), 405-21.

A paper on removal of CFCs by increased mass exchange between the stratosphere and troposphere in a changing climate suggests the levels will drop 5 to 10 years earlier than predicted, Nature 410 (2001), 799-802. A study in the USA found difference in attitudes to sun protection and sunbathing, Health Psychology 19 (2000), 469-78.

There can be long term effects from acid rain as seen in US ecosystems, Science 292 (2001), 195-6. Despite reductions in emission of particulate matter and lead in the USA, NOx is increasing over the past 30 years, EST 34 (2001), 105A. There are questions on the deregulation of coal ash in the USA, Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), A496. On particulate emission from biomass combustion, Nature 409 (2001), 998; Science 291 (2001), 2128-32. Catalysis of pollution is discussed in EST 34 (2001), 138-9A. On the impact of mountain biking on vegetation in a deciduous forest, Environmental Management 27 (2001), 397-409. It recommends people stay on bike trails.

Most people in USA carry traces of toxins in their blood, like plastics, pesticides, and heavy metals, according a CDC survey Int. Herald Tribune (23 March 2001).A letter on Bhopal disaster is Lancet 357 (2001), 809-10. Environmental health in Brazil may be turning to become better, Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), A504-11. The poisoning of Costa Rican banana workers is reported in Int. J. Health Services 30 (2000), 491-514. A study of the claims from both sides in the debate over whether organochlorines cause breast cancer is SSM 52 (2001), 1589-605. The risks of pesticide regulation are analyzed in Risk Analysis 20 (2000), 665+; BMJ 322 (2001), 497. On the global concentration of PCBs in butter, the lowest levels are in Australasia, EST 34 (2001), 1013-8. Some loss of methylmercury may occur from Canadian lakes under the high UV and drought conditions, EST 34 (2001), 97-8A. On the dangers of perfluorinated chemicals, EST 34 (2001), 154-60A. Ecological risk assessment of endocrine disruptors is discussed in Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), 1007-14. On trichloroethylene, MJA 174 (2001), 244-7. DNA arrays are being used to assess damages from chemicals in the environment, Env. Health Perspectives 109 (2001), A20-1.

The UK Environment Survey from 2001 is reported in The Ecologist 31 (May 2001), 33-39.

There have been many criticisms of Mr. Bush's refusal to agree to the Kyoto Protocol, despite evidence of greenhouse warming, Economist (16 June 2001), 12, 49, 87-8.

Depleted uranium ammunition in the Gulf War and Balkans is discussed in Croatian Medical J. 42 (2001), 130-4.

Values and ecosystem health is discussed in BioScience 51 (2001), 437-43, 469-74; EST 35 (2001), 2867-73; Environmental Management 28 (2001), 1-7. Environmental education is discussed in BioScience 51 (2001), 279-99. On economics and ecology, BioScience 51 (2001), 257-9, 459-68; Ecological Economics 37 (2001), 313-26. A general discussion of the use of the precautionary principle in law, and the debate with industry, is in Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (2001), 313-26. New Zealand is changing regulations and is re-licensing all hazardous substances, see www.hsno.govt.nz. The question of the commons is debated in Yale Law J. 110 (2001), 549-624; Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16 (2001), 460-4.

Climate change over the land and in the oceans is reported in Science 292 (2001), 28, 192-4, 267-70, 270-4, 657-690, 870-2; 293 (2001), 48-9, 451-4; Nature 411 (2001), 17-9; 412 (2001), 103, 112-4, 583; NS (21 July 2001), 4-5; (28 July 2001), 30-3; Time (9 April 2001). Agriculture is one of the drivers of climate change, Science 292 (2001), 281-4. The greenhouse gas inventory from the Ministry for the Environment in New Zealand shows a 5% increase in carbon dioxide emissions between 1990 and 1999, Climate Wise 3 (May 2001), 3. The Ministry has also produced a 40 pp. Report, Climate Change Impacts on New Zealand. Discussion of the Kyoto Protocol is also made in Time (25 June 2001), 27; Nature 410 (2001), 1014; 411 (2001), 225, 725, 877; 412 (2001), 365, 575; Science 292 (2001), 1275-7, 1261, 1978; 293 (2001), 199-201 Ecological Economics 37 (2001), 173-82; 38 (2001), 59-69; PNAS 98 (2001), 4850-4; EST 35 (2001), 177A; NS (14 July 2001), 18. Chinese forests have increased since 1949, storing more carbon, Science 292 (2001), 2320-2. Also on China and the environment, Nature 412 (2001), 273-4; Ecological Economics 38 (2001), 141-54. Fast growing trees will be better when faced with climate change, Science 292 (2001), 36-7; Nature 411 (2001), 431-2; Ecological Monographs 71 (2001), 357-76. Responses of grasslands are predicted in Ecological Monographs 71 (2001), 341-56. On the response of large oil companies, Nature 411 (2001), 516-8.

On the use of fuel cells to make energy, SA (July 2001), 14. Low pollution engines are discussed in SA (June 2001), 74-9. Changing to ethanol supplemented gasoline means improved emissions, as shown in a Mexican study, EST 35 (2001), 1893+. A study of how ancient human cultures adapted to previous climate change is Science 292 (2001), 667-72. The issue of water shortages is discussed in Science 292 (2001), 1071-2; Ecological Applications 11 (2001), 1027-45. Acid rain has lingering effects, Science 292 (2001), 195-6. The role of aerosols on climate change is discussed in EST 35 (2001), 332-40A.

On compensation claims for psychiatric injury from motor vehicle accidents, MJA (2001), 129-32. Air pollution and health is discussed in NEJM 344 (2001), 1253-4; JAMA 285 (2001), 2712-3; Occup. Environ. Med. 58 (2001), 2-13, 165-71.

Environment and Health News has been changed in name to Greenhealthwatch, starting with edition 5.2 (May 2001), see www.greenhealthwatch.com. On solar ultraviolet radiation and its impact on aquatic system, Ambio 30 (2001), 112-7; Nature 412 (2001), 69+. On climate change and health, Science 292 (11 May 2001); Lancet 358 (2001), 16. The effects of contaminants on biological organisms and their behaviour is reviewed in BioScience 51 (2001), 209-17; EST 35 (2001), 3065-70. On lead pollution, Ambio 30 (2001), 104-11; NEJM 344 (2001), 1421-6; Science 293 (2001), 426-8. Mercury pollution is rising in Greenland, EST 35 (2001), 234-5A. Arsenic contamination of groundwater in Vietnam is discussed in Ambio 30 (2001), 2621-6; EST 35 (2001), 286-91A. In the USA there is a problem from chicken manure, EST 35 (2001), 184-5A; SA (June 2001), 10-1. Persistent pollutants are found in land-applied sludges, Nature 412 (2001), 140-1. Cyanide contamination from a fishing practice is discussed in SA (July 2001), 68-75. Organic pollutants are discussed in EST 35 (2001), 1567-73. The dangers of dioxin are discussed in EST 35 (2001), 180-1A; NS (26 May 2001), 13. An analysis of the costs of reducing dioxin emissions from incinerators in Japan is EST 35 (2001), 2861-6.

Estrogenic compounds are discussed in EST 35 (2001), 277-8A, 322A; Nature 412 (2001), 499-500; Environment 43 (No. 5, 2001), 22-31. Japan is attempting tests on the problem due to feminized fish, Nature 412 (2001), 668. Long term impacts of exposure to bisphenol A in minnow is reported in EST 35 (2001), 2917-25. Dilution as a solution is debated in EST 35 (2001), 230-1A.

A study of leukemia found no risk to UK electricity workers, Occup. Environ. Med. 58 (2001), 307-14. Letters on handheld telephones and cancer risk are in JAMA 285 (2001), 1838-9; NEJM 345 (2001), 1331-2.

Australian nuclear test victims have produced evidence for compensation, Lancet 357 (2001), 1775. Gene screens are also being done by 50 New Zealand veterans of the British nuclear tests, Nature 412 (2001), 5. The US government has backed a new procedure for melting and diluting old nuclear waste, NS (22 April 2001), 20. Plans to import 20,000 tonnes of spent nuclear fuel into Siberia have led to protests, Nature 411 (2001), 401. A local referendum in Japan has delayed Japanese plans for import of nuclear waste for reprocessing, Nature 411 (2001), 729. The dangers of plutonium being used by terrorists is discussed in NS (26 May 2001), 10-1. The long term impact of Chernobyl is discussed in Science 292 (2001), 420-6, 2010-1. In general on cancer after nuclear incidents, Occup. Environ. Med. 58 (2001), 482-7. A book review of Permissible Dose: A History of Radiation Protection in the Twentieth Century is NEJM 345 (2001), 1724-5. Radioactive iodine has been detected in Swedish groundwater at levels 3-4 times prenuclear era values, EST 35 (2001), 228A. Risks from depleted uranium are discussed in Lancet 358 (2001), 1532.

A policy discussion on ways that nature can be protected is in Science 293 (2001), 2207-8. On green lawns and grasslands, NS (8 Sept. 2001), 50. Networking for social science in ecology is discussed in Science 293 (2001), 1604-5. Humans are the greatest evolutionary force, Science 293 (2001), 1786-96. On sustainability, Science 293 (2001), 1995-6; Nature 413 (2001), 675-6. Managing uncertainties in environmental decision making is discussed in EST 35 (2001), 404-9A. Participation and deliberation in environmental law is discussed in Oxford J. Legal Studies 21 (2001), 415-42. A suggestion for a more environmental way to be buried is in NS (29 Sept. 2001), 15.

Discussion of climate change policy is in Science 293 (2001), 1777-9, 2391-2; Nature 413 (2001), 249, 478-9; SA (Oct. 2001), 8-9; The Ecologist 31 (Sept. 2001), 50; NS (15 Sept. 2001), 15; (22 Sept. 2001), 50. US rejection of the Kyoto Protocol is discussed in Science 293 (2001), 1221; EST 35 (2001),393A. US attitudes to environmental problems are reported in Gallup Poll Monthly (April 2001), 2-16. On the mechanism of warming, Nature 413 (2001), 470-1, 578. The health benefits of reducing greenhouse gas mitigation are reviewed in Science 293 (2001), 1257-9. The growth of Pinus ponderosa in response to elevated carbon dioxide is reviewed in Ecological Applications 11 (2001), 1412-24. On the impacts on forests, BioScience 51 (2001), 720-34. Lead contamination has revealed Atlantic water flow pathways, Science 293 (2001), 1301-4.

A study of neonatal sunburn and melanoma in mice is in Nature 413 (2001), 271-2. Polar vegetation may fight off increased UK by rapid DNA repair, NS (8 Sept. 2001), 12. UV radiation may protect against prostrate cancer, Lancet 358 (2001), 641-2. A study of skin cancer prevention policy in Australia, Canada and England is SSM 53 (2001), 1175-89. Indoor air pollution in Kenya from biomass reveals dangers to persons who face fire smoke, Lancet 358 (2001), 619-24. The question of whether fuel crops create more pollution is discussed in NS (18 August 2001), 17. On natural gas as a car fuel, Ecological Economics 38 (2001), 179-89.

Arsenic standards are discussed in Science 293 (2001), 2189; EST 35 (2001), 414-5A. Bangladeshis are suing the British Geological Survey in relation to arsenic poisoning, Nature 413 (2001), 551, 556; EST 35 (2001), 400A. Water pollution and health in China are discussed in Lancet 358 (2001), 735. Water shortage is also a major problem, Lancet 358 (2001), 1025. The risks of adverse birth outcomes near land refill sites are small in the UK, BMJ 323 (2001), 363-8.

Aromatic hydrocarbon receptor-driven Bax gene expression is required for premature ovarian failure caused by biohazardous environmental chemicals, NatGen 28 (2001), 355-60. The conflict between US environmental standards and military training is discussed in Nature 413 (2001), 7. A US-Vietnam study will assess dioxin affects, Nature 413 (2001), 442. A study from Japan on release of dioxin-like PCBs from waste incineration is EST 35 (2001), 3601-7.

Sustainability is discussed in Politics and Life Sciences 19 (2000), 27-32; Science 294 (2001), 303, 1287-8. Changing to a more environmental toilet is discussed in NS (27 Oct. 2001), 48-51. Questions on the real global environment are Science 294 (2001), 1285-7.

The Kyoto Protocol has an unofficial rulebook agreed by 160 nations in a Morocco meeting, Nature 414 (2001), 238. China has been reducing greenhouse gas emissions, Science 294 (2001), 1835-6. Carbon sinks are discussed in Nature 414 (2001), 385. Dumping carbon dioxide in the oceans is discussed in NS (20 Oct. 2001), 7; Science 294 (2001), 309-10, 319-20. Careless emission trading may make emissions worse, NS (10 Nov. 2001), 11. Japan is still considering a giant solar energy system in orbit beaming energy back to earth, Science 294 (2001), 1273. Future vehicles may be powered by hydrogen, Nature 414 (2001), 682-4. On global warming, Science 294 (2001), 765, 794-5, 2105-6. A study of cultural changes in previous climate changes in the USA, Science 294 (2001), 148-51.

After attempts to control ozone by replacing with other chemicals, four of these have been found to be potentially harmful, NS (20 Oct. 2001), 17. On asbestos removal, NS (10 Nov. 2001), 25. A persistent halogen compound in fish and seals is measured in EST 35 (2001), 4157-62. The Arctic may be naturally generating reactive gaseous mercury, EST 35 (2001), 434-5A.

A new volume of papers from a 2000 bioethics conference in India is Gabriel, M, Joshua, K., Azariah, J. Current Issues in Bioethics and Environment (Madras Christian College, 2001, 291pp.). A report is Pollard, SJ. et al. "Current directions in the practice of environmental risk assessment in the UK", EST 36 (2002), 530-8. Life cycle assessment and the precautionary principle are reviewed in EST 36 (2002), 71-5A. Poverty and the environment are discussed in Environment 44 (Jan 2002), 9-18. In general on the damage to people our damage to the environment makes, SA (Feb. 2002), 72-9.

The persistence of DDT is discussed in Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), 125-8. On the conseuqneces to health of mercury spills, Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), 129-32. A survey of the persistence of pharmaceuticals in US stream water is EST 36 (2002), 1202-11. The USA and Vietnam are to study the impact of Agent Orange, Nature 416 (2002), 252.

A call for life cycle preferences to be balanced with consumption and health is made in J. Health Economics 21 (2002), 161-6. On the issue of sustainability, EST 36 (2002), 523-9; Agricultural Economics 26 (2001), 227-36; Ecological Economics 40 (2002), 13-22.

Renewable energy is discussed in NS (26 Jan. 2002), 18. Traffic pollution harms many people, NS (9 March 2002), 8.

The human germline mutation rate and nuclear weapons tests are reported in Science 295 (8 Feb. 2002). Overall atom bomb tests may have killed 11,000 persons in the USA alone, Nature 416 (2002), 8.


Japan and the EU are going to ratify the Kyoto Protocol, EST 36 (2002), 184A. The US plans for reducing pollutants by trading are discussed in EST 36 (2002), 181-2A. Clean car fuel is discussed in SA (May 2002), 22-3. The carbon flow and release of carbon dioxide from rivers is discussed in Nature 416 (2002), 594-5, 617-9. Trees may not solve the problems of global warming, NS (13 April 2002), 16. Ocean fertilization by iron to make plankton accumulate carbon is discussed in Science 296 (2002), 467-8. IPCC politics is discussed in Science 296 (2002), 232-3. The difficulty of making predictions is discussed in Nature 416 (2002), 690-1.

The ideology of development is questioned in Ecologist 32 (March 2002), 44-5. Industrial ecology is discussed in Science 296 (2002), 471. A case study of Monsanto and PCB pollution is Political Affairs (April 2002), 8-13. Green consumerism is debated in SA (May 2002), 70-7.

Health affects from environmental pollution are discussed in BMJ 324 (2002), 683; JAMA 287 (2002), 1581. Asthma is associated with exercise in polluted areas by children, Lancet 359 (2002), 386-91. Lung cancer from fine particulate air pollution is also a risk, JAMA 287 (2002), 1132-41. Cattle growth hormone risks are discussed in EST 36 (2002), 194-7A. Endocrine disruptors and atrazine are discussed in NS (30 March 2002), 8; Science 296 (2002), 447-8; Nature 416 (2002), 665-6; EST 36 (2002), 186A. Medical waste is a particular problem, Lancet 359 (2002), 56.

The persistence of antifouling agents in the marine environment is discussed in EST 36 (2002), 1539-45. PBDE accumulates in the artic from flame retardants, EST 36 (2002), 188-92A. Indirect effects in aquatic ecotoxicology are discussed in Environmental Management 29 (2002), 311-23. Methods to assess surface water pollution are discussed in EST 36 (2002), 1532-8. Drug pollution in US streams is discussed in SA (May 2002), 18. Antibiotics are being spread across farmland in many places, NS (20 April 2002), 15. Trends in chlorinated benzene derivatives in pulp sites are assessed in EST 36 (2002), 1869+. Arsenic pollution is affecting millions of people in Bangladesh, Lancet 359 (2002), 1127.

Yucca mountain nuclear waste disposal is debated in Science 296 (2002), 659-60. A series of papers on the future of energy are in Newsweek (8-15 April 2002), 44-61.

The question of whether market forces will protect the environment is discussed in NS (6 July 2002), 10. a review is Berry, C. "The role of toxiciology in evaluating priorities in environmental health", Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 22 (Junne 2001), 277-80.

Greenhouse gas pollution from rich countries may have stopped rain over Africa, NS (15 June 2002), 4-5. Global warming is expected to increase the number of infectious diseases for many animals, NS (29 June 2002), 22. Human disease may also affect African wildlife, NS (8 June 2002), 10. The increased ice around Antarctica is discussed in NS (1 June 2002), 6; J. GeoPhysical Research Oceans. Rain may be an important carbon sink factor, Science 296 (2002), 1787. UV-responses by plants are discussed in Trends in Plant Sciences 7 (June 2002), 241-2.

Children of men who worked for 12 years or more at Sellafield have doubled risk of leukemia and lymphoma, NS (22 June 2002), 15. The UK had a secret plan to make more nuclear power plants, NS (6 July 2002), 14-5. The safety margins for tritium have been miscalculated, NS (1 June 2002), 8. An antismoking vaccine may help addicts, NS (22 June 2002), 4.

Pollution in the Himalayas is discussed in NISTADS News 4 (1) (2002), 64-7. Climate models are discussed in Science 296 (2002), 2139-40. El Nino is becoming easier to predict, Science 297 (2002), 497-8.

Some of the papers from the November 2000 conference organized by Eubios Ethics Institute and International Association of Law, Ethics and Science, Bioethics, Health and The Environment, are in IJB 2 (2002), 11-127. Sustainability is discussed in Science 297 (2002), 1994-5. In Japan increasing numbers of houses have solar power, Japan Times (22 Nov. 2002), 3. Hydrogen catalysts are discussed inScience 297 (2002), 2189-90.

A book review of Deceit and Denial. The Deadly Politics of Industrial Pollution is Science 298 (2002), 1176-7. Air pollution is discussed inScience 297 (2002), 2214-5. The health impact of air pollution is discussed in Lancet 360 (2002), 1184-5; Nature 418 (2002), 716; NS (19 Oct., 2002), 13. The US spends more than US$120 billion a year on protecting ecosystems, Science 297 (2002), 2194.

Water shortage is already a cause of death, Honey Bee 13 (April 2002), 1. In Bangladesh mistaken water tests are risky millions of people's lives, NS (16 Nov., 2002), 4-5. Side effects of oceanic iron fertilization are discussed in Science 297 (2002), 1993. On bank filtration, EST 36 (2002), 422-8A. There are several papers in Environmental Management 30 (2002), 455-559 on water pollution. There are ecological and societal needs for freshwater, Ecological Applications 12 (2002), 1247-60. Removal of pharmaceuticals from drinking water is needed in polluted areas, EST 36 (2002), 3855-63.

Nuclear power plants and fuel are also at risk for terrorist attack, Science 297 (2002), 1997-9. On Chernobyl, Science 298 (2002), 725. Environment, lifestyle and infertility are discussed in Nature Cell Biology and Nature Medicine Supplement (2002), s33-40. Feminization of male frogs is reported in Nature 419 (2002), 895-6.

Ethical and economic issues in the use of zero-emission vehicles are discussed in Science & Engineering Ethics 8 (2002), 561-78. China is planning to clean up its air, Nature 421 (2001), 101. The costs of the 1952 killer smog in London are discussed in Science 298 (2002), 2106-7.  A review of green chemistry is Science 297 (2002), 807-10. Europe continues to emit methyl chloroform, Nature 421 (2003), 131-5.

Plants may not help us from global warming, NS (26 Oct., 2002), 18. Climate change can cause civilizations to collapse, SA (Dec. 2002), 14-5. Regional warming may lead to resurgence of malaria, Nature 420 (2002), 627-8. Grassland responses to elevated carbon dioxide are discussed in Science 298 (2002), 1987-90.

Herbicides can harm and for home gardening may not be so desirable, NS (7 Dec., 2002), 55. Arsenic poisoning in water wells in Bangladesh is discussed in Lancet 360 (2002), 1757.

The ethical issues of radiation are discussed in a consensus conference report in Science & Engineering Ethics 8 (2002), 593-602. The safety of nuclear power plants are discussed in Science 299 (2003), 201-3.

The use of values in Environmental Decision making is discussed in Environmental Values 9 (2000), 407-530. On environmental ethics, Environmental Values 9 (2000), 125-52. Justice in environmental policy is discussed in Environmental Values 10 (2001), 5-18. On environmental policy, Science 299 (2003), 348-9. Equity is discussed in AJPH 93 (2003), 209-14; SSM 56 (2003), 573-87. Lack of progress on international environmental action is reviewed in NS (21 Dec., 2002), 18-19. On the Global Summit on sustainable development, Nature 418 (2002), 803; 420 (2002), 733. Economics is discussed in Nature 420 (2002), 123.

A call for a minimum list of pesticides for the developing world to FAO is made in Lancet 361 (2003), 259-60. Discussion of how to test for safety of pesticides is in BME 184 (Jan. 2003), 1.; NS (8 Feb., 2003), 12 Also on pesticide safety, Nature 421 (2003), 200-1; JAMA 289 (2003), 535-6; NatMed. 8 (2002), 1050. The impact of biopolymers on the environment is debated in Science 299 (2003), 822-4. A review of frog deformities is SA (Feb. 2003), 48-53. The role of environmental estrogens in deterioration of male fertility is reviewed in F&S 78 (2002), 1187-94.

Pollution causes genetic defects,  Somers, CM. Et al. "Air pollution induces heritable DNA mutations", PNAS 99 (2003), 15904-7; NS (14 Dec., 2002), 8. Mortality from traffic-related air pollution is discussed in Lancet 361 (2003), 430. On air pollution and health, Science 299 (2003), 485, 665-6; BMJ 325 (2002), 1380. Cities in Asia are suffering from smog, NS (25 Jan., 2003), 13. Ozone is one of these, EST 36 (2002), 379-82A. China is being put in the dark, NS (14 Dec., 2002), 6-7.

Consumption of arsenic from cooked rice in Bangladesh may be under-estimated, Lancet 361 (2003), 435-6. Arsenic is a maor problem there, NS (7 Dec., 2002), 9. It is also a problem in India, Nature 421 (2003), 778. Shortage of water is a global problem, SA (Jan. 2003), 78-9.  Lead burden is discussed in NEJM 348 (2003), 277-86, 345-6.  Drug pollution is discussed in Lancet 360 (2002), 1035-6.

El Nino and drought will affect many persons, Lancet 361 (2003), 437-8; Science 299 (2003), 636; NS (30 Nov., 2003), 26-9. On monsoon patterns, Nature 418 (2002), 713; 421 (2003), 324-5. Climate change may have increased US agricultural yields since the 1930s, Science 299 (2003), 1032. Carbon dioxide uptake is discussed in Science 298 (2002), 2344; 299 (2003), 235-9; Nature 421 (2003), 37-42.  The lack of US policy on climate change is criticized in Science 299 (2003), 309; NS (25 Jan., 2003), 4-5; Nature 420 (2003), 595. Litigation is one tool, SA (Feb. 2003), 8-9. Iron fertilization of the ocean is discussed in Nature 421 (2003), 109-10. Algae growth may not be a useful sink, Nature 420 (2002), 722.

Prevention of skin cancer is discussed in BMJ 326 (2003), 114-5.

Norway is using underwater coastal currents drive by tides for energy generation, Science 299 (2003), 339. Discussion of petroleum is in Science 298 (6 Dec. 2002). Conventional fuels still dominate US home heating, SA (Jan. 2003), 17. On biomass, NS (30 Nov., 2003), 8.

Chernobyl is discussed in Science 299 (2003), 44; SSM 56 (2003), 569-72. Nuclear power safety is discussed in Science 299 (2003), 201-3. Droppings from seabirds may introduce radioisotopes into the land food chain, NS (4 Jan., 2003), 5. The US has released details of the radioactivity in Nevada deserts after the tests, which reveals plutonium in ground water has moved 1.3 km through rock over 30 years, NS (8 Feb., 2003), 13. Background radiation can cause thyroid cancer, NS (11 Jan., 2003), 4.

A report from the World Water Forum called for better sanitation, Lancet 361 (2003), 935, 1022-3. Also from the conference, NS (29 March 2003), 5; Lancet 361 (2003), 1274-5; BMJ 326 (2003), 617. Physicians and global security are reviewed in Croatian Medical J. 44 (2003), 139-47. A review of molecular mechanisms of metal toxicity and carcinogenicity is in Environmental health Perspectives 110 (Supplement 5, Oct. 2002), 687-890. Nanoscale environmental technology is discussed in EST 37 (2003), 102-8A.

A background and history of the New Zealand HSNO Act is in ERMA Perspective 18 (March 2003), 1-3. A link between Agent Orange and leukemia is discussed in BMJ 326 (2003), 242-3. A pre-industrial source of dioxins existed in burning of coastal peat, Nature 421 (2003), 909-10. On pesticides hazards, The Ecologist (Jan 2003), 14-8. Environmental hazards are estimated to kill 5 million children a year, BMJ 326 (2003), 782. The CDC report on environmental toxins is reviewed in JAMA 289 (2003), 1230-3.

Reducing the level of particles in the air is good for health, but actually the particles also have reduced ozone levels, NS (22 Feb., 2003), 7. Burning fuel is important in many developing countries, Nature 423 (2003), 28-9. Toxicology of chemicals towards wildlife is discussed in EST 37 (2003), 178-83A. MTBE in rivers in Germany is described in EST 36 (2002), 3652-61.

Climate change signs in trees are discussed in Science 300 (2003), 566-7. Squirrels evolve as climate wars, NS (22 Feb. 2003), 18. Future energy resources are discussed in Science 300 (2003), 581-3.

Public education to have early diagnosis of malignant melanoma can work, BMJ 326 (2003), 367. On ozone depletion, Nature 422 (2003), 664-5.  On communicating about chlorinated drinking water in Canada, SSM 56 (2003), 1279-93. How ecotoxicology informs ecological risk assessment is discussed in EST 37 (2003), 146-51A. Links between genetics and risk of environmental disease are discussed in Science 300 (2003), 563.

Potassium iodide may not work against dirty bombs, JAMA 289 (2003), 2058. Dismantling old nuclear reactors is reviewed in SA (March 2003), 36-45.

Many environmental organizatioNS are less radical then they used to be, NS (21 June 2003), 40-3. An interview with Bjorn Lomborg is in Nature 423 (2003), 216-8. The roots of environmentalism in the Thirlmere conservation in the 19th century are reviewed in Science 300 (2003), 1510-1.

Although the USA as a nation has not joined the Kyoto Protocol, a number of cities and states has agreed to plaNS in line with the Protocol, SA (June 2003), 12-3. Carbon flux is discussed in Science 300 (2003), 1242-3. Climate forcing by aerosols is hazy, Science 300 (2003), 1103-4. On climate change, Science 300 (2003), 1519-22. Europe's terrestrial ecosystem absorbs 7-12% of European anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, Science 300 (2003), 1538-42. Climate change has increased primary production, Science 300 (2003), 1560-3. The impact of household technology in Kenya is assessed in EST 37 (2003), 2051-9.

On solar-powered flight, NS (7 June 2003), 14-5. Solar panel technology is improving, Science 300 (2003), 1219. On the impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate, Nature 423 (2003), 528-31. Molecular fuel tanks are reviewed in Science 300 (2003), 1104-5.

The impact of air pollution on health is discussed in MJA 178 (2003), 359-60. Vehicle fumes increase the risk of asthma in children, NS (31 May 2003), 7. A greener catalyst is reported in Nature 423 (2003), 930-1; Science 300 (2003), 2022-3.

The radiation safety regimes are being changed with new data, NS (3 May 2003), 9. There are health concerNS over battlefield uranium, JAMA 289 (2003), 1621-3. The US military has sought exemptioNS from US environmental law, EST 37 (2003), 211A. A review of the 2003 NRPB report on UK nuclear test veteraNS is Lancet 361 (2003), 1759-60. Widespread dioxin pollution alters human responses to estrogens, Nature 423 (2003), 487-8; Science 300 (2003), 1069.

A US CDC report on environmental toxiNS is introduced in JAMA 289 (2003), 1230-1; and on ecotoxicology, EST 37 (2003), 199A. Clear-cutting forestry practices lead to more mercury run-off, EST 37 (2003), 200-1A. On industrial pollution, JAMA 289 (2003), 1706-7. The New York state Adirondack lakes are showing sigNS of recovery from acid rain, EST 37 (2003), 202-3A. Linking genes to environmental diseases is reviewed in Science 300 (2003), 563.

A discussion of engineering projects to change water flow is NS (7 June 2003), 30-4. The water shortage is discussed in Science 300 (2003), 1238. The quality of tap and bottle water is discussed in SA (June 2003), 23. In general on environmental disaster, Nature 423 (2003), 803-4.

A series of papers on integrative biology are in Biology International (IUBS) No. 44 (June 2003), 5-91. On the limits of environmental science, EST 37 (2003). Environmental false alarms are discussed in Science 301 (2003), 1187-8. On oil dumping at sea, EST 37 (2003), 245-6A. On water resources, EST 37 (2003), 273-4A, 3048-54. Sustainability is discussed in PNAS 100 (2003), 8059-91.

Global warming and heat waves as Europe experienced this summer are signs of the future changes for agriculture, NS (23 Aug. 2003), 5. On global warming, SA (August 2003), 10-1. Global warming has affected Lake Tanganyika and fish production, Nature 424 (2003), 731-2. A review on the history of El Nino is Nature 424 (2003), 261-62. West Nile virus is expected to spread more as global warming occurs, NS (26 July 2003), 12-3. Hydrogen energy is discussed in Nature 424 (2003), 129-130; Science 301 (2003), 47-8; NS (16 Aug. 2003), 8-11.

While UV light exposure in excess causes cancer, some sunlight exposure is necessary for health, NS (9 Aug. 2003), 3, 30-3.

There is discussion of the recent blackout in Eastern North American as electricity grids failed, NS (23 Aug. 2003), 3, 7. There may be a need for more nuclear power in the future, NS (9 Aug. 2003), 10-13. The threshold of low dose radiation is discussed in PNAS 100 (2003), 4973-5. Studies from Hiroshima exposure are discussed in Nature 424 (2003), 495-6; Science 301 (2003), 742. In Iraq there may be some persons exposed to high levels, BMJ 327 (2003), 11. Gamma ray weapons may be developed for the next military arms race, NS (16 Aug. 2003), 4-5. Cosmic rays in airplanes do not appear to increase cancer risk, NS (19 July 2003), 7. The dangers of internal radiation are unknown, NS (19 July 2003), 5. On nuclear leaking from NS (5 July 2003), 8.

The tragedy of arsenic poisoning across the world is surveyed in NS (9 Aug. 2003), 4-5. Lead paint on former military bases poses risks to wildlife, EST 37 (2003), 277-9A. On cadmium and cancer, NatGen 34 (2003), 239-41. Contaminant bioavailibity in soil is reviewed in EST 37 (2003), 295-301A. Environmental copper may have a role in Alzheimer disease, Science 301 (2003), 905. On industrial pollution, NEJM 348 (2003), 2696-7. The question of whether environmental mutagens cause cancer is discussed in NatGen 34 (2003), 255-9. On environment and health, JAMA 290 (2003), 674. Veterinary medicines are causing environmental risks, EST 37 (2003), 286-94A.

Environmental ethics are discussed in Ecological Economics 44 (2003), 11-27; 46 (2003), 307-8; Asian Ethnicity 3 (2002), 263-5; Environmental Health Perspectives 111 (2003), 133-7; Ethics (Jan. 2003), 405-7; Environmental Ethics 24 (2002), 135-148; Rolston, H. "Environmental ethics in Antarctica", Environmental Ethics 24 (2002),115-34. Nations compete to claim more of the continental shelf, Science 298 (2003), 1877-8; On Aristotle and the environment, Environmental Ethics 24 (2002), 409-28; and Gandhi, Environmental Ethics 24 (2002), 227-35. On ethics of environmental design, Environmental Ethics 24 (2002), 242-61. The author of Tragedy of the Commons, Garret Hardin has died, Science 302 (2003), 32. Discussion of Johannesburg conference one year after is in Science 302 (2003), 197; NS (7 Sept. 2003), 3, 8-9; Environment 45 (2003), 20-6. On the globalization of nature, Science 296 (2002), 1612; Ecological Economics 44 (2003), 77-89. Papers on community-based participatory research and environmental justice are discussed in Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), Supplement 2, 139-310. The study of Oceanic settlement and human history is reviewed in TREE 18 (2003), 531-40. The changing state of nature is discussed in TREE 18 (2003), 326-30. On environmental economics, Ecological Economics 40 (2002), 1-130; 46 (2003), 310-2; Can. J. Agricultural Economics 51 (2003), 197-216; Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), A228-9, A582-5. Growing numbers of people work for the environment, NS (12 July 2003), 46-7. Teachers' perceptions of teaching environmental issues in Hong Kong are discussed in J. Science Education and Technology 12 (2003), 187+. A study of Latino Angler's environmental risk perceptions is Medical Anthropology Quarterly 17 (2003), 99-116.

Green engineering principles are suggested in EST 37 (2003), 94-101. The UNEP is suggesting ways to help with China's environment, Nature 425 (2003), 336. China's environment is discussed in Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), A500-1, A510-1, A516-27. Enforcement styles of environmental protection officials in China were studied in J. Public Policy 23 (2003), 81-115. On environmental modeling and conceptualism, EST 37 (2003), 4685-93. The amount of land required for one person to live is discussed in Nature 421 (2003), 898. On sustainability, PNAS 100 (2003), 8062-85; NS (22 Feb. 2003), 44-7. Environmental noise pollution retards auditory cortical development, Science 302 (2003), 498-502.

The question of whether environmental mutagens have caused oncomutations in people is debatable, NatGen 34 (2003), 255-9. Genomics tools in environmental impact assessment are reviewed in EST 37 (2003), 356-63A; and on environmental genomics, EST 36 (2002), 372-3A; 37 (2003), 125-6A; Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), A746-7, A750-3, A756-9; Lancet 361 (2001), 1356-60. On ecotoxicology, EST 37 (2003), 324-30A. Traces of Agent Orange are still found in food in Vietnam, BMJ 327 (2003), 521. On the studies of the real levels dumped on Vietnam, Nature 422 (2003), 649, 681-7, 793. On mercury pollution in India, Lancet 362 (2003), 1050; and Japan, Lancet 358 (2001), 1349; and general, EST 37 (2003), 167-8A. Arsenic pollution in Bangladesh is related to agricultural water pumping, Science 296 (2002), 2143-6; 298 (2002), 1535-6, 1602-6; 300 (2003), 1066. Lead safety is discussed in Science 298 (2002), 732; EST 37 (2003), 3256-60; NS (26 April 2003), 21; NEJM 349 (2003), 1810-2.

Ethics of hog production are discussed in Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), 437-44. On sustainable farming, Science 301 (2003), 309.  Pesticide use damages farmers health, SSM 57 (2003), 1559-71; Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), 233-40; and farmer's children, EST 37 (2003), 323A; Environmental Health Perspectives 111 (2003), 1259-64. Some residues cannot be extracted from soil, EST 37 (2003), 138A+. A solar unit to dispose of medical waste in countries without over means is displayed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1251, 1285-6.

In general on environmental health: Lancet 362 (2003), 587; Nature 425 (2003), 346-7; AJPH 91 (2001), 1964-7. The question of how much one human life is worth is compared in Science 299 (2003), 1836-7. It is difficult to gauge the price of good health, EST 37 (2003), 365-8A. Child health and the environment is discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 1682-3; EST 37 (2003), 168-9A. It may kill 5 million children a year according to WHO, Bulletin of WHO 81 (2003), 385-6. Air pollution and health in San Paulo has not improved much between 1986 to 1998 because of increased number of cars, despite measures to reduce damage, SSM 57 (2003), 2013-22. Also on air pollution, Lancet 360 (2002), 549, 1184, 1210-4, 1233-42; Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), 499-590; BMJ 324 (2002), 691-2; NatMed. 9 (2003), 490. Climate has affected dengue fever, Lancet 360 (2002), 830-4; BMJ 325 (2002), 1094-8. Adelie penguins are affected by climate change, Science 300 (2003), 429-30; as are other organisms, Science 296 (2002), 2158-62; 299 (2003), 1844-5; PNAS 100 (2003), 4957-62, 7650-4; NS (8 March 2003), 24. On toxic corporate crime, Lancet 361 (2003), 1753. Global pollution controls are discussed in EST 37 (2003), 134A. In India legal action is discussed in Lancet 359 (2002), 53.

Endocrine disruptors are discussed in EST 37 (2003), 173-4A, 313A, 331-6A, 345-6A, 2847-54, 3430-4, 3764-73, 4021-6, 4098-105; Environment 43 (9, 2003), 37-8; Science 300 (2003), 31-2, 1069; NS (14 June 2003), 10; BMJ 323 (2001), 1317-8. A study of some PCBs compounds in human tissue in Tokyo between 1970 and 2000 is reported in EST 37 (2003), 817-21. The global distribution of PCBs is surveyed in EST 37 (2003), 667-72; Science 299 (2003), 1642-3. The effects on frogs are discussed in AJMG 104 (2003), 99-109. On persistence of fluorinated compounds, EST 37 (2003), 312-3A. Nitrate may be a disrupter, EST 37 (2003), 162A. Cadmium is also a gender bender, NS (19 July 2003), 16. Drugs in water are also a problem, EST 36 (2002), 377-8A. PBDE may overtake PCBs in popular fish, EST 37 (2003), 240-1A. PDBEs may come from old furniture where it was used as flame retardants, EST 37 (2003), 164-5A. The pollution caused by excessive fertilizer is discussed in Nature 425 (2003), 894-5. The effects may be made worse with UV radiation, Ecological Applications 13 (2003), 1083-93. Oxygen deficiency also disrupts fish reproduction, EST 37 (2003), 122A. Rocket fuel perchlorate is discussed in Science 299 (2003), 1829; EST 37 (2003), 166-7A.

Japanese environmental leadership is discussed in Politics & the Life Sciences 21 (2002), 66-71. Japan is learning from Germany how to reduce waste, Environment 43 (2003), 20-32. On Japanese Foreign Aid Policy and sustainable development, Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 23 (2003), 302-10. The Kyoto Protocol is discussed in NS (25 Oct. 2003), 42-5; Nature 423 (2003), 792; BMJ 323 (2002), 1146; Science 299 (2003), 1669.

Europe may be able to reduce carbon dioxide emissions 4-6% if energy was harvested from logging residues, UNU news release (21 Sept. 2003). The EU has started greenhouse gas trading, EST 37 (2003), 321A. On climate change, Science 299 (2003), 2005-10; 301 (2003), 479-83; 302 (2003), 210, 404-5; NS (22 March 2003), 18; (24 May 2003), 8; (7 June 2003), 7; (12 July 2003), 5; (13 Sept. 2003), 6-7; (20 Sept. 2003), 25; (4 Oct. 2003), 18; (11 Oct. 2003), 12; Nature 419 (2002), 188+.; 421 (2003), 879; 424 (2003), 271-6, 867; Naturwissenschaften 90 (2003), 282-8; Ecological Economics 44 (2003), 29-42; EST 37 (2003), 123-5A, 165-6A. Alaska is warming up fast, Nature 425 (2003), 338-9. On wildfires, Nature 420 (2002), 29-30; 421 (2003), 913-9; NS (17 Aug. 2002), 8. Insurance costs are discussed in NS (27 July 2002), 7. Liability is discussed in Nature 421 (2003), 891-2.

On transportation, EST 37 (2003), 314-5A. Discussion of hydrogen as a fuel is Science 300 (2003), 1740-2; 301 (2003), 315-6; 302 (2003), 226-9; NS (5 Oct. 2002), 14; (11 Oct. 2003), 47; Nature 418 (2002), 928-9; 422 (2003), 104. US law could boost renewable fuel use, NatBio 20 (2002), 860; EST 36 (2002), 369-70A; Science 298 (2002), 1847; 299 (2003), 1494, 1813; 300 (2003), 17. Potential for cheap oil is discussed in NS (2 Aug. 2003), 9-10. Psychosocial benefits of private vehicle use are discussed in Transportation Research Part F 6 (2003), 217-31. Fuels for urban buses are discussed in EST 37 (2003), 4823-4. An additive has been developed called Envirox, which enhances fuel efficiency of diesel engines, NS (18 Oct. 2003), 24. Jojoba is an alternative fuel, NS (8 March 2003), 18. On reducing costs for sulfur removal, EST 37 (2003), 319-20A.  If airplanes flew at lower altitudes they could lower the impact on the global climate, NS (19 Oct. 2002), 6-7. Power from waves is suggested in NS (20 Sept. 2003), 33-4; and solar energy, NS (12 April 2003), 14-5; (6 Sept. 2003), 23. The problems of the US electricity grid are discussed in NS (23 Aug. 2003), 7.

Hydrocarbon pollution in USA is reviewed in PNAS 100 (2003), 11975-9. The oceans are becoming more acid, Nature 425 (2003), 365; NS (27 Sept. 2003), 8. On ocean fertilization to absorb carbon dioxide, Science 300 (2003), 67-8. On sulfur emissions in Asia, EST 36 (2002), 4707-13. Warming seas may have sucked water out of Africa, NS (18 Oct. 2003), 15. The way that rivers flood is being analyzed, Nature 425 (2003), 459. On flooding, Nature 421 (2003), 805; 422 (2003), 254-6. On water shortages, SA (Nov. 2003), 18; Lancet 359 (2002), 2010; Nature 419 (2002), 187-230; 422 (2003), 8, 243, 251-3, 364; Science 297 (2002), 926-7; 299 (2003), 165; NS (22 March 2003), 11, 29; (29 March 2003), 8-9; (26 April 2003), 24-5; EST 37 (2003), 83-4A, 87-8A, 90A. Caffeine is a marker of pollution of water, EST 37 (2003), 691-700. Marine recreation and microbiology is discussed in BioScience 51 (2001), 817-25. A greenhouse to attract rain in the desert is discussed in NS (26 Jan. 2002), 40-3.

On ozone and climate change, Science 302 (2003), 236-7; SA (Aug. 2002), 9-10. The Antarctic ozone hole may be record size this year, Nature 425 (2003), 114-5. The UN history and ozone protection is reviewed in Ecological Economics 46 (2003), 309-10. Farmers want to be exempt from the zone treaty ban on methyl bromide, NS (5 Oct. 2002), 11. On UV damage, Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), A392-3.

On nuclear power, Science 298 (2002), 1553-4. Efforts to dismantle Russian nuclear ships are delayed for various factors, Science 301 (2003), 1460-3. Forests near Chernobyl are still under stress, NS (6 Sept. 2003), 10; Nature 425 (2003), 763. On thyroid cancer 15 years after Chernobyl, Lancet 359 (2002), 1946-7. The UK may stop nuclear reprocessing, Nature 425 (2003), 7. Depleted uranium shells cause harm after war to children who play with them, NS (27 July 2002), 5; (19 April 2003), 3-6. A report from a uranium grab is Science 297 (2003), 1456. Risks of radiation are discussed in NS (26 Oct. 2002), 8. The damages of radiation to atomic weapon survivors of UK bomb tests are discussed in NS (23 Nov. 2002), 14. Managing the legacy of US nuclear weapons production is reviewed in American Scientist 90 (2003), 514-23. Nuclear waste transport is discussed in Environmental Health Perspectives 111 (2003), 263-72. Nuclear releases can be traced in 125I in tree rings, EST 37 (2003), 1271-5. On Yucca mountain, SA (March 2003), 26-7.

On the ozone hole, Nature 427 (2004), 289-91. Genetic differences in glutathione S- transferase enzymes alter the sensitivity to sunburn, Amer. J. Pharmacogenomics 2 (2002), 147-54. Tanning is dangerous, FDA Consumer (Nov. 2003), 16-7. On air pollution and allergies, Lancet 363 (2004), 95-6. Also on health impact of air pollution, NEJM 350 (2004), 834-5. A summary of illnesses in USA from chemical agents is JAMA 290 (2003), 2247-8; American Scientist 92 (Jan. 2004), 38-45. Chemicals alter reproductive health also, BMJ 328 (2004), 447-51. Estrogen may disrupt nitrogen fixation, Science 303 (2004), 950; EST 37 (2003), 5471-8.

A paper on ethics is Leopold, AC., "Living with the land ethic", BioScience 54 (2004), 149-54. The need for clean water is growing, BMJ 327 (2003), 1416-8; MJA 180 (2004), 260-1. The environmental effects of NAFTA are discussed in Environment 46 (March 2004), 26-41. Noise pollution is discussed in NS (22 Nov. 2003), 26-7; (21 Feb. 2004), 26-9; Pepper, CS. Et al. "A review of the effects of aircraft noise on wildlife and humans, current control mechanisms, and the need for further study", Environmental Management 32 (2003), 418-32.

The impact of climate change on ecosystems is discussed in Science 303 (2004), 176-7, 1600-2; SA (March 2004), 40-7. Russia is still to decide whether to ratify the Kyoto Protocol, Science 303 (2004), 1461-2. On the impacts of climate change, MJA 179 (2003), 571-2. Volcanic eruptioNS are linked to El Nino, Nature 426 (2003), 239-41. Wind power is discussed in NS (6 Dec. 2003), 30-33.

Global warming and nuclear power are discussed in Science 303 (2004), 433. On the development and politics of nuclear weapoNS in North Korea, Science 303 (2004), 452-4; and in general, Science 303 (2004), 161-4, 1772-3; Nature 426 (2003), 213; 428 (2004), 451; NS (7 Feb. 2004), 7.

The question of how people accept global standards and policy is discussed in Science 304 (2004), 827-8. The precautionary principle is discussed in Nature 426 (2003), 227. On sustainable development, Science 304 (2004), 649; Ecological Economics 48 (2004), 149-72, 173-87. Book reviews on human consumption are in Nature 429 (2004), 22-3. International environmental crime is discussed in Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (2004), A80, A89. There is declining support in the US for environmental protection, Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (2004), 121-5. On the Gaia hypothesis, Nature 426 (2004), 769-70.
The global spread of plastics in the ocean is analyzed in Science 304 (2004), 838. A series of photos of waste on beaches is in The Ecologist (March 2004), 28-31. Regime-based water quality standards are called for in BioScience 54 (2004), 155+. The privatization of water, which used to be a free common good, is discussed in The Ecologist (March 2004), 52-9. The loss of water has great health impact, Lancet 362 (2003), 2028; 363 (2004), 219, 954. There is criticism of an Indian dam project that may consume more energy to build than it will produce, and will destroy 245 Indian villages, The Ecologist (March 2004), 38-42. Russia is reconsidering diversion of a rive southwards to help alleviate water shortages, NS (7 Feb. 2004), 8-9. The effect of water and sanitation on childhood health is discussed in Lancet 363 (2004), 94, 112-8.
Pesticides may have greater impact on tadpoles with the presence of a predator, SA (April 2004), 14; Ecological ApplicatioNS (Dec. 2003). On transnational water pollution, Environmental Management 32 (2003), 433-44. Development of safer pesticides for art preservation is reviewed in Nature 428 (2004), 886-7. RegulatioNS are a barrier to adoption of new pesticides, NS (15 Nov. 2003), 10. Pesticide regulation can limit poisoning however, Bulletin WHO 81 (2003), 789-98. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants came into force, Nature 427 (2004), 768. On fertilizer impact, Nature 427 (2004), 99, 485.
A study in mice has found how airborne particles can induce heritable mutations, Science 304 (2004), 971-2. New paint may have chemicals to reduce smog, NS (7 Feb. 2004), 23. On health, wealth and air pollution, Environmental Health Perspectives 111 (2003), 1861-70; CMAJ 169 (2003), 397-402. Toxicogenomics is discussed in Environmental Health Perspectives 111 (2003), 1819-50. A legacy to children to provide a healthier environment is called for in Lancet 363 (2004), 1409. Stopping mercury vapour from exhaust gases is difficult, NS (13 March 2004), 9. The toxicology of mercury is discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 1731-7; 350 (2004), 945-7; Science 303 (2004), 763-6. The links between environmental chemicals and adverse reproductive health is discussed in BMJ 328 (2004), 447-51.
The climate is getting warmer, as detected by several different methods, Science 304 (2004), 805; Nature 429 (2004), 7; NS (15 Nov. 2003), 17. Soot may accelerate snow formation, PNAS 101 (2004), 423-8. Measurement of the effect of Amazon smoke on inhibition of cloud formation is reported in Science 303 (2004), 1337-41, 1342-5. Melting of Greenland ice is discussed in Nature 428 (2004), 114-5; Science 303 (2004), 1781-2. A study on how climate change affects ecosystem function is New Phytologist 162 (2004), 243-51, 253-78. A study of iron fertilization in the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment is reported in Science 304 (2004), 408-14, 414-7. On reengineering the Earth, NS (27 March 2004), 3. Early farmers may have warmed the climate using wet rice fields, NS (13 Dec. 2003), 16; Science 303 (2004), 306, 1300-2; Nature 427 (2004), 213-4. Climate also changed civilization, Nature 429 (2004), 25-6. The Kyoto Protocol is discussed in Nature 426 (2003), 486, 756; NS (13 Dec. 2003), 6-7. A Climate club of cities and corporatioNS is trying to drastically reduce energy use, Nature 428 (2004), 884. Reducing energy use is needed, SA (Feb 2004), 2: Nature 428 (2004), 469-70.
Climate change may lead to a prolonged season for malaria transmission, Lancet 362 (2003), 1775, 1792-8. The impact of El Nino on health is reviewed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1481-9. Urban planning can alter public health, AJPH 94 (2004), 541-6, 546-9.
The environment impact of wind turbines is discussed in The Ecologist (March 2004), 24-8. In some sites bats may be killed by wind turbines, SA (Feb 2004), 10-1. An analysis of the impact of a hydrogen economy is in SA (May 2004), 40-7; NS (15 Nov. 2003), 3, 6-7; (21 Feb. 2004), 23; Nature 427 (2004), 661; Science 303 (2004), 942-3. Soya based fuel may be used for aircraft, NS (27 March 2004), 22. A series of papers on hydrocarbon reserves is in Nature 426 (2003), 317-63. A report on worldwide production of biodiesel is Green Tech Newsletter 6 (No. 2, 2004), 3-7. The pollution from so-called clean diesel engines still crate more smog than gasoline based engines, NS (31 Jan. 2004), 15. Human sewage could also be a source of power, NS (13 March 2004), 21. On biowaste conversion, Bioresource Technology 92 (2004), 121-31.
The US Pentagon has decided to try to develop "cleaner" nuclear weapons, Nature 428 (2004), 892.

The consequences of a nuclear weapon attack on global satellite systems is reviewed in SA (June 2004), 68-75. Chernonbyl area continues to have cancer problems, Lancet 363 (2004), 1534. On nuclear disarmament, NS (8 May 2004), 6; (15 May 2004), 3.  Alternative energy technologies are discussed in Time (Global Business Feb. 2004), 44-6, Hydrogen cars are debated in Science 302 (2003), 1329. A review of hydrogen storage methods is Naturwissenschaften 91 (2004), 157-72. The petroleum age is still here for some time most probably,  Science 304 (2004), 1114-5. A submarine with a chain saw for ecological logging from flooded forests is described in SA (June 2004), 8-9. The red sweat of hippopotamus is important to protect them against UV light, Nature 429 (2004), 363. Biosensors allow detection of harmful algal blooms, BioScience 53 (2003), 918-23.

Hydrocarbon-driven warming is reported in Nature 429 (2004), 513-5; and on global change, Nature 429 (2004), 244-5; Science 302 (2003), 1171, 1201-3. Early warming however was essential for a better temperature on the planet, Nature 429 (2004), 359-60. A film review of The Day After Tomorrow is Nature 429 (2004), 347-8. Antarctic sea ice is getting smaller since 1950, Science 302 (2003), 1164. Climate change however will create droughts, NS (22 May 2004), 16-7. Biomineralization in plants as a long term carbon sink is discussed in Naturwissenschaften 91 (2004), 191-4.

Organic fertilizers are discussed in Time (Global Business Feb. 2004), 41. Europe is reexamining the safety of chemicals, Newsweek (5 April 2004), 39-40; Science 302 (2003), 969. A study of mortality from arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh suggests a doubling of lifetime mortality from liver, bladder and lung cancers, AJPH 94 (2004), 741-4. The background of US efforts for a propective cohort on study of genes and the environment is discussed in Nature 429 (2004), 475-8.

The health benefits of greenery for people have been confirmed in a Dutch study, Network #2, 19 (August 2004), 37-9 (also online, www.healthcouncil.nl). Moral values and arts in environmental education are discussed in J. Philosophy of Education 38 (No. 2, 2004), 221-40. Environmental responsibility versus taxation is debated in Ecological Economics 49 (2004), 129-34. On ecology for a crowded planet, Science 304 (2004), 1251-2. Papers on the environment, public health and the protection of future generations in law are in AJLM 30 (2004), 115-404. A book review on the history of the environment in China is in Nature 430 (2004), 505-6.

      The increasing proportion of global pollution caused by air traffic is discussed in NS (17 July 2004), 45. Renewable power is important even on a small scale, NS (3 July 2004), 18-9; (17 July 2004), 6-7. On methane cycles, PNAS 101 (2004), 12400-1. An ecological footprint of human consumption is discussed in NS (26 June 2004), 9. Also on consumption, Science 305 (2004), 947-8. Burial of carbon dioxide under the sea is considered in NS (17 July 2004), 16; and on the fate of industrial carbon dioxide in the oceans, Science 305 (2004), 352-3, 362-6, 367-71. The thermohaline circulation in the oceans is discussed in Science 303 (2004), 35; 305 (2004), 953-4. On iron in the oceans and phytoplankton growth, Science 304 (2004), 396-7.   China has decided to treble the number of coal-fired power stations by 2020, NS (10 July 2004), 45. The debate over the proposed wind turbines on top of the new World Trade center in New York is discussed in Nature 430 (2004), 12-3. A study of climate change in California is in PNAS 101 (2004), 12422-7; Nature 430 (2004), 818. In general on climate change, Science 302 (2003), 2040-1; 304 (2004), 685-6, 1565; 305 (2004), 616-7; Nature 429 (2004), 605-6; 430 (2004), 15, 725-6; 431 (2004), 1. The Kyoto Protocol is debated in Ethics & International Affairs 18 (2004), 23+; Nature 431 (2004), 12-3. A race car completed the 24 hour Le mans race powered by bioethanol, NS (19 June 2004), 19. However, the EU is lagging behind targets for biofuel use, AgraEurope (28 May 2004), 4-5; according to the EC. Methane production in soil using genomic techniques is measured in Science 305 (2004), 59-62. On the price of oil, Nature 430 (2004), 694-5; SA (Aug. 2004), 17; NatBio 22 (2004), 1077. Also on ethanol use, Science 305 (2004), 340. The hydrogen economy is discussed in Science 305 (2004), 917, 957-80. Carbon dioxide elicits a long-term decline in nitrogen fixation, Science 304 (2004), 1291; also on nitrogen, Science 302 (2003), 1512-3.

      Climate change is being blamed for increased diseases, NS (19 June 2004), 8-9; Lancet 363 (2004), 2032-9; Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 481. A book review of The Ethics of Environmentally Responsible Health Care is in Lancet 363 (2004), 2005-6. On agriculture, pesticides and the environment, Agricultural Economics 31 (2004), 17-32. Reducing dependence upon pesticides in farmers in India has advantages, Ecological Economics 49 (2004), 149-62. Nitrogen sensors in crops can reduce fertilizer runoff, NS (28 Aug. 2004), 21.  The environmental impacts of the Japanese beef fattening system are assessed in J. Animal Science 82 (2004), 2115-22.  Health promotion and sustainable development are discussed in BMJ 328 (2004), 1450-1. On sustainability, MJA 180 (2004), 556-7. Health risks of PCBs are still not fully known, JAMA 292 (2004), 793. Unhealthy environments are a major threat to young children, Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 558.

      Water shortages are discussed in NS (24 July 2004), 56-7; (21 Aug. 2004), 3; (28 Aug. 2004), 8; Nature 430 (2004), 723; JAMA 292 (2004), 318-20; BMJ 329 (2004), 3-4. A flame retardant, deca-BDE has been detected in the Arctic, NS (12 June 2004), 10-1. Israel has planned to build a large desalinization plant for supply of water to the West bank, NS (29 May 2004), 3, 6-7. Desalinization is considered in other regions also, NS (10 July 2004), 22. Global freshwater resources are discussed in Science 302 (2003), 1524-31. Arsenic poisoning is worldwide in water, SA (Aug. 2004), 70-5; and there are still gaps in awareness of the contamination of water in rural residents in Bangladesh, SSM 59 (2004), 1741-55. . Ocean protection is discussed in SA (Aug. 2004), 15.

      An interview with a worker who survived the Chernobyl accident is in NS (21 August 2004), 44-7. Thyroid cancer has increased 12-fold in women since Chernobyl, BMJ 328 (12 June 2004). A book review of Three Mile Island is Science 305 (2004), 181-2. Japan has suffered its worst ever nuclear accident in August at Mihama nuclear power plant, NS (14 August 2004), 4-5. Nuclear double standards that allow some countries to keep nuclear weapons are questioned in NS (10 July 2004), 17. The UN may play a larger role in weapons control, Nature 430 (2004), 6.  MOX litigation around Sellafield is described in ICLQ 52 (2004), 643-76.  John Kerry plans to stop the Yucca mountain nuclear repository, Nature 430 (2004), 820. There is uncertainty over the safe standards for mercury emissions, Science 303 (2004), 34. A book review on the environmental pollution and renewal of Pittsburgh is in Science 304 (2004), 392; and on the Chinese landscape, Science 304 (2004), 391-2. On US air pollution rules, BMJ 329 (2004), 72.

      Biomonitoring can be performed at the personal level to assess our exposure to chemicals, Science 304 (2004), 1892-4. Air pollution damages DNA before birth, NS (3 July 2004), 14; Environmental Health Perspectives DOI: 10.1289/ehp.7065). Soil ecology is reviewed in Science 304 (2004), 1613-40. A ten year change in sea temperature by emissions from a power station cooling water led to changes in the marine benthic community, Ecology 85 (2004), 1833-9.


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