Euthanasia & Terminal Care News

Back to main News index

This file includes links to papers published by Eubios Ethics Institute, and some other organizations, in the first section. Next it includes topical extracts from
EJAIB and EEIN between January 1994 - 2006 (older news items are in separate files). Last date of updating is referenced in the main News page. Latest news and papers is at the bottom of each of the two sections.

Abbreviations for journals

Eubios Ethics Institute home page

Northern Territory of Australia "Rights of the Terminally Ill Bill

Related Papers from Eubios Ethics Institute Publications

Tharien, A.K.
Euthanasia in India EJAIB 5 (1995), 33.
Leavitt, F.J.
Commentary EJAIB 5 (1995), 35.
Kuhse, H.
Voluntary Euthanasia: A Report from Australia EJAIB 5 (1995), 66.
Leavitt, F.J.
Commentary on Morioka and Kuhse EJAIB 5 (1995), 91.
The first euthanasia court case in China - Cong Yali, M.D., EJAIB 6 (1996), 61.
Commentary on Cao - Two More Articles On Euthanasia: Are We Doing Bioethics Or Thanatoethics? - Frank J. Leavitt, Ph.D., EJAIB 6 (1996), 61-2.
Attitudes of university doctors to the use of advance directives and euthanasia in Japan - D. Macer, T. Hosaka, Y. Niimura, and T. Umeno, EJAIB 6 (1996), 62-9.
Euthanasia In Turkey: Cultural and religious perspectives - N.Yasemin Oguz , EJAIB 6 (1996), 170-1.
The social acceptance of euthanasia does not stem from patient's autonomy in Japan - Noritoshi Tanida , EJAIB 7 (1997), 43-6.
Commentary On Tanida - L.S. Rothenberg , EJAIB 7 (1997), 46-7.
Physician Assisted Suicide - Jong-sik Reem , EJAIB 7 (1997), 47-8.
Commentary On Reem: Does analytic philosophy have anything to do with bioethics? - Frank J. Leavitt , EJAIB 7 (1997), 48-9.

Letting-Go or Killing: Thai Buddhist Perspectives on Euthanasia - Pitak Chaicharoen & Pinit Ratanakul EJAIB 8 (1998), 37-40.
Japanese attitudes toward euthanasia in hypothetical clinical situations - Noritoshi Tanida EJAIB 8 (1998), 138-41.
Should physicians make value judgments regarding medical futility? - Atsushi Asai EJAIB 8 (1998), 141-3.
Perspectives on old age in Turkey - Insaf Altun & Nermin Ersoy EJAIB 8 (1998), 143-5.
Commentary on Tanida, Asai, Altun & Ersoy - Frank J. Leavitt EJAIB 8 (1998), 145-6.
Artificial Respiration Administration in the Terminally Ill - Obligation or Prohibition? From the Jewish Ethical Perspective of a Family Physician - Sody A Naimer EJAIB 9 (1999), 7-8.
Spiritual Care for Dying Patients in Hospice - Hui-ying Li, Ekan Ikeguchi, Tatsuya Hobara EJAIB 9 (1999), 76-7.
Can We Restore Meaning of Life to Patients Who Have Given Up? Commentary on Hui-Ying Li, et al.- Yeruham Frank Leavitt EJAIB 9 (1999), 77-8.
Death and Dignity - V. Manickavel EJAIB 9 (1999), 116-7.
Respecting the cancer patient's right to know - Jong-sik Reem (Commentary by Masahiro Morioka) EJAIB 9 (1999), 117-119.
Rights and Duties: Ethics at the End of Life in Japan - Anne J. Davis, Emiko Konishi & Takako Mitoh EJAIB 10 (2000), 11-13.
Japanese Religious Organizations' View on Terminal Care - Noritoshi Tanida EJAIB 10 (2000), 34-37.
Ethical dilemmas in the context of ambiguity on a critical care unit in Norway - Eli Haugen Bunch EJAIB 10 (2000), 37-40.
Commentary on Bunch - Masahiro Morioka EJAIB 10 (2000), 40. Influence of Truth Disclosure on Quality of Life in Cancer Patients - Raghwesh Ranjan and K.K. Dua , EJAIB 10 (July 2000), 148-51.
Indian people can emotionally stand the truth of cancer, a commentary on the study by Ranjan and Dua - Noritoshi Tanida , EJAIB 10 (July 2000), 151-2.
Can Euthanasia be part of "Good-Doctoring?' - Sahin Aksoy , EJAIB 10 (July 2000), 152-4.
A short history of euthanasia laws, and their place in Turkish law - Aysegil Demirhan Erdemir and Imir Elcioglu EJAIB 11 (March 2001), 47-49.
Some fundamental questions about human life: Ethical comments of Japanese physicians in terms of the appropriate care of patients in persistent vegetative state - Atsushi Asai EJAIB 11 (May 2001), 66-67.
Reasons for Discontinuation of Treatments for Severely Demented Patients: A Japanese Physician's View - Atsushi Asai and Motoki Onishi EJAIB 11 (Sept. 2001), 141-144.

Cancer Disclosure from Recent Medical Malpractice Cases in Japan-Sumiko Takanami EJAIB 12 (Jan. 2002), 19-21.

Clinical Ethics Discussion: Should a physician be allowed to prescribe psychotropic drugs for a delusional patient without explicit explanation regarding diagnosis and treatments? Commentary by Koichiro Itai; Commentary by Atsushi Asai; The Need For Due Process in Psychiatric Ethics: Commentary on Itai and Asai - Frank (Yeruham) Leavitt EJAIB 12 (Jan. 2002), 21-25.

Terminating Futile Medical Treatment and Passive Euthanasia: Is there a Difference? - Yu Kam Por EJAIB 12 (July 2002), 137-138.
Bioethics must value and empower "Geront" -R.N. Sharma EJAIB 12 (July 2002), 153.

EJAIB 13 (2003), 20-25 The Limitations of the Dutch Concept of Euthanasia - Margaret Sleeboom

EJAIB 13 (2003), 143-147 Clinical Ethical Discussion 2: Should a physician withdraw ventilation support from a patient with respiratory failure when the patient prefers not to undergo tracheotomy? - Seiji Bito, Kazuki Chiba, and Atsushi Asai
EJAIB 13 (2003), 210-13 End of Life Issues and Moral Certainty: A Discovery through Hinduism - R. R. Kishore
EJAIB 14 (2004), 52-7 Clinical Ethics Discussion 4: Urgent "lifesaving" clinical research - Atsushi Asai and Koichiro Itai
EJAIB 14 (2004), 57 Experimental Medical Treatment for a Terminal Pediatric Patient: Commentary on Asai & Itai - Frank J. Leavitt
Dena Hsin HSIN-CHEN and Darryl MACER, Attitude towards Life and Death of Seniors in Taiwan, pp. 84-94 in Editors: Song Sang-youg, Koo Young-Mo & Darryl R.J. Macer, Asian Bioethics in the 21st Century, Eubios Ethics Institute, 2003.
Oana Iftime, Do we need a Thanatoethics? EJAIB 15 (January 2005), 22-25.
Denise M. Hise, Death's DoorstepEJAIB 15 (March 2005), 38-40.
Sarah E Hilmer, Euthanasia: A 2005 New South Wales Supreme Court Decision EJAIB 15 (May 2005), 83.
Kim Kah Hwi, Chin Kah Chuan and Munehiro Goto, Expert System on Diagnosis, Treatment and Alleviation of Stress EJAIB 15 (May 2005), 92-98. Dragan Pavlovic and Snezana Divac, Ethics of Concerns and Life Cessation Decisions: When Emotions are All What Remains EJAIB 15 (Nov. 2005), 178-183.
Emmanuel C. Gorospe, The Participation of Cognitively Impaired Elderly in Mental Health Research, EJAIB 16 (March 2006), 39-45.
Dena Hsin-Chen Hsin and Darryl Macer, Comparison of attitudes towards euthanasia among elderly people in New Zealand and Japan EJAIB 16 (March 2006), 45-52.
Sarah E. Hilmer, Wrongful Life: A Recent Australian High Court Decision EJAIB 16 (July 2006), 103-5.
Human death: paradoxes of mortal being (Fedor Serge Roganov, Dostoevsky and modern bioethical challenges), EJAIB 16 (Nov. 2006), 172-7.
Paolo Cattorini, Narrating Pain: The Role of Medical Humanities EJAIB 16 (Nov. 2006), 177-181.
Atsushi Asai and Sayaka Sakamoto, Self-Determination of Death in Japan: A Review and Discussion, EJAIB 17 (March 2007), 35-41.


A review is E. Fox & C. Stocking, "Ethics consultants' recommendations for life-prolonging treatment of patients in a persistent vegetative state", JAMA 270 (1993), 2578-82. Four papers on the question of decisions near the end of life are in HCR 23 (5): 6-30. The look at who can make decisions, communities or intimates or committees and individual rights to die. Other papers on the issue of disconnecting a ventilator are in Bioethics News 12(5), 15-20; New Scientist (18 Dec, 1993), 12-3. There is discussion of the UK Anthony Bland case over passive euthanasia in Despatches 4(1), 1-4.

In a UK High Court in October a judgement was made that advance directives by mentally competent patients about future treatment are legally binding; BMJ 307 (1993), 1023. Another case supporting removal of medical intervention is BMJ 307 (1993), 1164-5. The current practice of do not resuscitate orders in intensive care units is discussed in JAMA 270 (1993), 2213-7. They found that lately the limits to attempts at revival have been set earlier, possibly reflecting more discussion of these issues between families and doctors. A survey of elderly patients attitudes to these do not resuscitate orders in a London hospital is in Lancet 342 (1993), 1055. They found more patients wanted it then the doctors thought.

Physical restraints in nursing homes are discussed in JAMA 270 (1993), 2114-5. A study on the misuse of health care is C.E. Phelps, "The methodologic foundations of studies of the appropriateness of medical care", NEJM 329 (1993), 1241-5. A book review of David Clark, ed, The Future for Palliative care: Issues of Policy and Practice (Open University Press), is in BMJ 307 (1993), 1367.

A review of the well known "Doctor Death" Jack Kevorkian is in Newsweek (6 Dec), 30-1. Another indictment was made following his 18th assisted suicide, Lancet 342 (1993), 1046. There has been a substantial increase in the number of suicides by asphyxiation in New York City since the publication of the book, The Final Exit, NEJM 329 (1993), 1508-10.

A scientific review of studies on programmed cell death in the brain is in Science 262 (1993), 695-700. See also the above section on genetic engineering of animals for the mutant worm with double lifespan.

The broadening of the debate on euthanasia in the Netherlands to include the case when it is not explicitly requested by the patient is discussed in HCR 23(6) (1993), 24-27. A recent legal case from New Zealand involving withdrawal of ventilator and the recent "Power of Attorney - Health Care Decisions Act" in Oregon, are discussed in HCR 23(6) (1993), 30-31.

A book review of A.S. Berger, Dying and Death in Law and medicine: A Forensic Primer for Health and Legal Professionals (NY: Prager 1993, 227pp, US$50) is in JAMA 271 (1994), 324. A method to increase the use of durable power of attorney (legal documents to enable others to make decisions for the incompetent) is S.M. Rubin et al., "Increasing the completion of the durable power of attorney for health care", JAMA 271 (1994), 209-12. The problems raised may be difficult as shown in a survey in I. Higginson et al., "Are bereaved family members a valid proxy for a patient's assessment of dying?", SSM 38 (1994), 553-7.

An extensive study of the language used for euthanasia is M.A. Somerville, "The song of death: The lyrics of euthanasia", J. Contemporary Health Law & Policy 9: 1-76. A discussion of euthanasia and letting vegetative patients die is in Ethics & Medicine 9 (Autumn 93), 34-44. Another series of papers is in J. Medicine & Philosophy 18 (June 93), 237-342; also, CMAJ 149 (1993), 1771; Trends in Bioethics (Dec 93/Jan 94), 1-3; Newsletter Centre for Biomedical Ethics University of Minnesota (Winter 1994), 1. The background and a debate on introducing voluntary euthanasia in Victoria, Australia, is in Monash Bioethics Review 13 (1994), 48-61. A review of suicide in different countries is in BMJ 308 (1994), 7-11.

Assisted suicide is discussed in letters in JAMA 271 (1994), 23-4. A related topic is suicide, and a special issue of SSM 38 (3) is full of papers on suicide in railways. Several book reviews on dying and advance directives are in NEJM 329 (1993), 2042-5; 330: 294-5.

The use of monoclonal antibodies to understand cell death is discussed in Nature 367 (1994), 317-8. A genetic analysis of death in Drosophila is in Nature 367 (1994), 64-6.

A debate over the definition of euthanasia and its use in the Netherlands (Bioethics 7 (1993), 323) is continued in Bioethics Research Notes 6: 1-2. Although a survey of euthanasia in the Netherlands said there were 2300 cases of euthanasia in 1990, and 400 cases of assisted suicide, J. Keown argues there were 10158 cases of euthanasia by using a broad definition. A report on the benefits for all involved of open policies is C. Ciesielski-Carlucci & G. Kimsma, "The impact of reporting cases of euthanasia in Holland: A patient and family perspective", Bioethics 8 (1994), 151-8. Dutch physicians are debating whether mental torment justifies it, BMJ 308 (1994), 431-2.

The House of Lords in the UK recently issued a statement on euthanasia, and parts are reproduced in BME 95 (Feb 1994),13-6; however, they rejected legislation, BMJ 308 (1994), 553-4; Lancet 343 (1994), 431. Following that, there has been a court case in which a man was allowed to die, BMJ 308 (1994), 226; Lancet 343 (1994), 286-7.

A paper on euthanasia in Japan is K. Hoshino, "Euthanasia: Current problems in Japan", 2 (Winter, 1993), 45-7. A review of the Canadian Rodriguez court decision is in Humane Medicine 10: 59-60; BMJ 308 (1994), 554 (see also a paper by R. Mytikiuk in Intractable Neurological Disorders, Human Genome Research and Society (Eubios EI). Euthanasia has been a hot topic in Canada recently, Lancet 343 (1994), 534; CMAJ 149 (1993), 197-8, 858-9. The Nancy B case is discussed in CMAJ 149 (1993), 680-2.

Dr Kervokian was acquitted of assisted suicide under Michigan state law in the recent court case (2 May). A background is in Hospital Ethics (Nov 93), 8-10; (Jan), 1-3. A series of papers on ethical aspects of assisted suicide are in J. Med. & Phil. 18 (1993), 237-341; The Monist 76 (1993), 135-290.

The use of living wills to save health costs is discussed in Hospital Ethics (Jan 1994), 5-6; and the concerns for nurses of the PSDA in the USA are voiced in Nursing Outlook 42: 30-8. Comments and a translation of the Danish living will is in HCR 24(1)(1994), 2. In Denmark the registrar of living wills now has 62000 entries, Lancet 343 (1994), 167. Advance directives are discussed in Bioethics 8 (1994), 27-48; and limits to treatment in Bioethics 8 (1994), 49-73; BMJ 308 (1994), 66, 347.

On the topic of futility see HCR 24(1): 33-42. Refusal of life-saving surgery is discussed in Lancet 343 (1994), 724. The definition of futility being tested in Denver hospitals is discussed in Hospital Ethics (Nov 93), 5-7; see also p. 1-4. A study in the US finding that older patients do understand prognostic information is D.J. Murphy et al., "The influence of the probability of survival on patient's preferences regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation", NEJM 330 (1994), 545-9. A pessimistic and expensive outcome is likely for children in persistent vegetative state according to Critical Care Med. 21 (1993), 1890-4. A cost analysis of death is E.J. Emanuel & L.L. Emanuel, "The economics of dying. The illusion of cost savings at the end of life", NEJM 330 (1994), 540-4.

An international comparison of suicide is in BMJ 308 (1994), 7-11.

The biochemical basis of programmed cell death is discussed in Science 263 (1994), 754-6; Cell 76 (1994), 777-9; TIBS 19: 99-100.

Jack Kervokian was acquitted of charges against him, and other court cases in the USA make it more difficult for any doctor to be convicted for assisting suicide; BMJ 308 (1994), 1255; Lancet 343 (1994), 1215-6; US News & World Report (25 April), 31-9. In the US, Oregon will also be debating the right to die in a citizen initiative to be voted upon in November; HCR 24(2): 3. India has decriminalised suicide, BMJ 308 (1994), 1392. Suicide is discussed in BMJ 308 (1994), 915-6, 1001, 1445-7.

Comments from the UK government's response to the UK House of Lord's Committee report on euthanasia are in BME 97 (April 1994), 8-11; Lancet 343 (1994), 1219; BMJ 308 (1994), 1255-6. A survey of UK doctors finds many would consider requests for assisting death, BMJ 308 (1994), 1332-4. 32% of those who had been asked to hasten death said they had, which is 12% of the total. However, euthanasia will stay illegal at the moment. There may be a toughening attitude among Dutch prosecutors since last November's law, BMJ 308 (1994), 1119-20. A general review is BMJ 308 (1994), 1346-9.

A journal Quality of Life Research is being published by Rapid Communications of Oxford, The Old Malthouse, Paradise Street, Oxford OX1 1LD, UK. Started in 1992, the price for 6 issues is US$150; JAMA 271 (1994), 1377. Quality of life is discussed in JAMA 271 (1994), 1587-92; and selective treatment of infants, MJA 160 (1994), 377-81. Hospice care is found to be cheaper in JAMA 271 (1994), 1576-7. A consensus statement on critically ill patients is in JAMA 271 (1994), 1200-3. A study of patient and family decision-making in withdrawing medical care is JAMA 271 (1994), 1358-61; and on consent for CPR, p. 1405, 1445-7.

The general guidelines for withdrawal of treatment from a patient in PVS in the UK are discussed in Lancet 343 (1994), 1353; BMJ 308 (1994), 1060. Medical aspects of PVS are in NEJM 330 (1994), 1499-508, 1572-9. The results of brain study of Karen Ann Quinlan are published in NEJM 330 (1994), 1469-75, 1524-5.

Programmed death, apoptosis and human disease, are discussed in Biotechnology 12 (1994), 431, 487-93; Nature 369 (1994), 272-3. The genetic changes may allow some reprogramming in the future.

A survey in Japan by Yomiuri Shimbun (3 Sept 1994), 1,16-18, of 2064 persons looked at questions on terminal care. This is considered a major issue as among elderly persons Japan has the second highest suicide rate next to Hungary. Asked the question, if you had cancer would you like to know, 64% said yes and 29% no, whereas if it was to tell a family member they had cancer, 25% said they would tell, and 58% said they would not. Asked where they would like to be treated for terminal disease, 38% said at home, 32% said hospital and 30% said a hospice. The hospice was especially popular among younger persons, under 40 years, but a hospital was more popular among older persons. Papers on cultural aspects of explaining the truth about cancer are SSM 39 (1994), 519-26, 715-25; JAMA 272 (1994), 31-2.

A new set of criteria for persistent vegetative state (PVS) in Japan is suggested in Yomiuri Shimbun (27 July 1994), 17. The life expectancy of men in Japan is 76.25 and of women 82.51, in 1993.

A special issue of Bioethics 8 (1994), 191-246. On DNR orders: Can J Neurol. Sciences, Suppl 2, S8; Annals of Neurology 36: 268; BMJ 308 (1994), 1653-4, 1656, 1677-8. Advance directives are found to be used more often in the USA, JAMA 271 (1994), 1907-8; Silberfeld M, et al. "Liability Concerns About the Implementation of Advance Directives," CMAJ 151 (1994), 285-289. A discussion over who should decide in intensive care is in Health Care Analysis 2 (1994), 60-4. A US study on withdrawal decisions for life support is in Monash Bioethics Review 13 (1994), 24-33. A recent book is Derek Doyle, Caring for a Dying Relative. A Guide for Families (Oxford University Press, 104pp., £8, paperback).

Medical futility is discussed in Hospital Ethics (May 1994), 2-3; BMJ 308 (1994), 1689-92; NEJM 330 (1994), 1819-20. See also, Z. Schostak, "Jewish ethical guidelines for resuscitation and artificial nutrition and hydration of the dying elderly", JME 20 (1994), 93-100. On suicide, Nature 370 (1994), 187; Lancet 343 (1994), 1504-5.

A survey of the UK attitudes is C. Seale & J. Addington-Hall, "Euthanasia: Why people want to die earlier", SSM 39 (1994), 647-54. The Dutch Supreme Court has judged that doctors can agree to requests from patients for euthanasia, who are not sick but just want to die; BMJ 309 (1994), 7-8. A review of the acquittal of Jack Kervokian on his assisted suicide charge is HCR 24(4) (1994), 25-6; see also Hospital Ethics (July), 1-6; a polarised view is found in J.S. Cohen et al., "Attitudes toward assisted suicide and euthanasia among physicians in Washington State", NEJM 331 (1994), 89-94, 119-23.

A discussion of patient requests and refusals of treatment is in HCR 24(4) (1994), 13-5; Hospital Ethics (May 1994),4-5; (March 1994), 1-4; JAMA 271 (1994), 1786-8; BMJ 309 (1994), 52-3. A survey of South Australian doctor practices in euthanasia is JME 20 (1994), 41-6. The Canadian Medical Association views on physician-assisted death are in Humane Medicine 161: 172-6. The Rodriguez case in Canada is discussed in Dispatches 4(3), (1994), 7-9. A paper on medical attitudes to death is D. Callahan, "Ethics and the medical ambivalence toward death", Humane Medicine 161 (1994), 177-83.

The New York State Task Force on Life and the Law argument on why the law on euthanasia should not be relaxed is in BME 100 (Aug 1994), 8-11. On the other side of the debate, Singer, P. & Kuhse, H. "Bioethics and the limits of tolerance", J. Med. Phil. 19 (1994), 29-45. Letters on euthanasia are in BMJ 309 (1994), 471-4, 492-3, 565; Amer.J. Med. 96: 568-9; JAMA 272 (1994), 981-2. Suicide is discussed in Lancet 344 (1994), 822-3; J. Health & Social Behavior 35: 134-160. A test case for turning off a ventilator on a 750g premature baby is in Michigan courts, BMJ 309 (1994), 430.

A collection of papers is available on death, Corr, C.A. et al., eds, Statements about death, dying, and bereavement by the international work group on death, dying, and bereavement, C$11.45 from King's College, 266 Epworth Ave, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 2M3. Training is discussed in Schonwetter, R.S. & Robinson, B.E. "Educational objectives for medical training in the care of the terminally ill", Acad. Med. 69 (1994), 688-90. A paper on whether parents should see their children dying is Fina, D.K. "A chance to say goodbye", Amer. J. Nursing (May), 42-5; and on watching resuscitation in general, BMJ 309 (1994), 406-9, 670. A view of Mother Theresa's care for the elderly calling for improved medical tests is Lancet 344 (1994), 807-8.

Quality of life is reviewed in Gill, T.M. & Feinstein, A.R. "A critical appraisal of the quality of quality-of-life measurements", JAMA 272 (1994), 619-26. Aging and health should be a higher priority in public health according to AJPH 84 (1994), 1213-4. In Japan, the number of people 65 years old or over is now 14.1% of the population. A study of old age homes in Japan found problems in 90% of the homes that were surveyed, that charge admission fees, Daily Yomiuri (15 Sept 1994), 3. On the subject of postponing aging, FASEB J. 8: 925-8.

The NZ Medical Association has adopted guidelines on the withdrawal of nutrition and hydration from PVS patients, Lancet 344 (1994), 743.

The constitutional referendum in Oregon that legalizes physician assisted-suicide is held up by the courts at the moment, as challenges have been made to attempt to stop its implementation. Comments on the initiative, approved on 8 November, 1994, are in BME 103 (Nov 1994), 3-4; Lancet 344 (1994), 1493-4; BMJ 309 (1994), 1391; Annas, G.J. "Death by prescription", NEJM 331 (1994), 1240-3. Lawyers for the initiative have asked for a speedy court decision.

A paper claiming that most cases of assisted suicide in the Netherlands are unreported is JME 20 (1994), 212-7; BME 103 (Nov 1994), 4-5. A television program showing voluntary euthanasia there led to many calls, and 90% were said to be favourable; BMJ 309 (1994), 1107. The way hospital doctors and GPs make decisions may be different, Pijnenborg, L. et al. "Nationwide study of decisions concerning the end of life in general practice in the Netherlands", BMJ 309 (1994), 1209- 12.

The Baby K anencephelic case and medical futility is discussed in HCR 24(4) (1994), 42-3; NEJM 331 (1994), 1383-5. The US court decision about continued mechanical ventilation support for the baby was mixed, and it suggests that the decision to intervene depends on various factors together, not only the treatment and condition, but case-by-case - something that might be decided without many court cases. See also Yu, V.Y.H. "Selective non- treatment of newborn infants", MJA 161 (1994), 627-9; and on pediatric care limits, JAMA 272 (1994), 1271-5; BMJ 309 (1994), 1311.

A 36pp. supplement on health care directives is Advance Care Planning. Priorities for Ethical and Empirical Research, HCR 24(6) (1994). Letters on the US Patient Self-Determination Act are in CQHE 3 (1994), 405-21. Living wills in AIDS are being widely used in the UK, Lancet 344 (1994), 1509. Liability concerns in Canada are discussed in CMAJ 151 (1994), 285-9. The New Zealand manslaughter law is criticised in BMJ 309 (1994), 1324.

Persistent vegetative state is discussed in Dispatches 5(1), 6-7; NEJM 331 (1994), 1378-83. In a US court case a family wishing to turn the respirator off their son in PVS is gathering the attention of pro-life advocates, BMJ 309 (1994), 1035. Futility is also discussed in J. Clinical Ethics 5 (1994), 100-5, 109-12; J. Law, Med. & Ethics 22 (1994), 152-60; Trends in Health Care, Law & Ethics 9 (1994), 19-26, 27-8, 28-9.

The CMA policy statement on resusciative interventions is in CMAJ 151 (1994), 1176A-D, and comments in pp. 1125-8, 1182-3; BME (Nov 1994), 9-11. It considers CPR policy and was also approved by the Canadian Hospital Association, and the Catholic Health Association of Canada. It states there is no obligation to offer a person futile or nonbeneficial treatment. Related to resuscitation: JME 20 (1994), 192-3; Kerridge, I.H. et al. "Guidelines for no-CPR orders", MJA 161 (1994), 270-2.

A study suggesting methods for care of terminally ill is McCann, R.M. et al. "Comfort care for terminally ill patients. The appropriate use of nutrition and hydration", JAMA 272 (1994), 1263-6. The regulation of physician-assisted death suggested in NEJM 331 (1994), 119-22, is discussed in Humane Medicine 10 (1994), 246-7, 298; CMAJ 151 (1994), 271, 345-8, 1112. The Catholic Health Association of Canada guidance on euthanasia and pallative care are reviewed in Humane Medicine 10 (1994), 295-6. Canadian doctors are still officially against euthanasia, CMAJ 151 (1994), 267, 853-4, 1003. Depression and suicide are discussed in BMJ 309 (1994), 1088-9; JAMA 272 (1994), 1757-62.

A paper arguing that philosophy alone is insufficient when comparing killing and letting die, and saying that there is a difference is Gillett, G. "Killing die, letting die and moral perception", Bioethics 8 (1994), 312-28. Against this style, Parker, M. "Active voluntary euthanasia and physician assisted suicide: A morally irrelevant distinction", Monash Bioethics Review 13(4) (1994), 34-42. Also see Hospital Ethics (Sept 1994), 1-3; CMAJ 151 (1994), 656-8, 1133-6; JME 20 (1994), 131-2, 139-43, 144-5; Lancet 344 (1994), 1098; JAMA 272: 1410; Monash Bioethics Review 13(4) (1994), 4-6.

A survey of Russian doctors attitudes to euthanasia is Yudin, B. & Yasnaya, L. "Informing patients of a hopeless diagnosis", BME 103 (Nov 1994), 17-21. Two thirds thought euthanasia was possible if the patient's wish. A court ruling in Germany has made it easier for some passive euthanasia, Lancet 344 (1994), 1012.

The role of quality of life in determining treatment decisions is discussed in CMAJ 151 (1994), 467-8; Aust. J. Aging 13: 120-3, 131- 3. Dementia is discussed in Sayers, G. "Dementia, indeterminacy and non-treatment, BME 103 (Nov 1994), 13-16, see also pp. 22-4. A journal Quality of Life Research published bimonthly (Rapid Communications of Oxford Ltd., The Old Malthouse, Paradise St., Oxford, OX1 1LD, UK) includes a series of papers on quality of life.

Suicide is discussed in MJA 161 (1994), 404-5.

A series of papers on the problems of an aging population and health allocation are in HCR 24(4) (1994), 3-41, with a special supplement The Technological Tether. An Introduction to Ethical and Social Issues in High-tech Home Care, 28pp. Also, Shaw, A.B. "In defence of ageism", JME 20 (1994), 188-91. A feature on the aging population in Japan is Time (14 Nov), 48-54.

The Oregon assisted suicide law and the slippery slope in euthanasia are discussed in Capron, A.M. "Sledding in Oregon", HCR 25 (1995), 34-5. A report about the activities of Dr Kevorkian is in Bioethics 9 (1995), 62-71. General comments and letters are in NEJM 331 (1994), 1656-8; 332: 341; Lancet 344 (1994), 1626.

A discussion of euthanasia in Canada is Somerville, M.A. ""Death talk" in Canada", Humane Medicine 11 (1995), 10-5. It considers the issues raised by the Rodriguez case, and another paper is Pankratz, H.R.C. "The Sue Rodriguez decision: Concerns of a primary care physician", Humane Medicine 11 (1995), 16-22.

In a UK Court case, forced feeding of a mentally ill person against her will has been court-ordered, BMJ 310 (1995), 1531. In the Netherlands a new condition for assisted suicide of mentally handicapped persons is expected, Lancet 345 (1995), 246-7. Dutch hospitals are also expanding use of living wills, BMJ 310 (1995), 82. There is an increasing number of elderly dementia patients which raises more of these issues, Lancet 345 (1995), 271.

Futility is discussed in Swanson, J.W. & Van McGrary, S. "Doing all they can: physicians who deny medical futility", JLME 22 (1994), 318-26; BMJ 309 (1994), 1579, 1696-9; NEJM 331 (1994), 1660-1. Suicide is discussed in BMJ 310 (1995), 126-7, 164.

In Japan the Tokai University active euthanasia case has been decided at the Yokohama District Court, with the verdict that the doctor was guilty; Japan Times (29 March 1995), 1, 2. The doctor has a suspended sentence, for delivering potassium chloride to kill a patient. The Presiding judge outlined four conditions which must be met for euthanasia: 1. patient must be suffering unbearable physical suffering; 2. must be expected to die soon; 3. must have expressed a clear wish to have his life shortened; and 4. there must be no alternative treatment available to relieve the patient's suffering. The 2 years suspended sentence was given because the doctor had been repeatedly asked by the family, and because of the lack of terminal care in Japan several years ago. The judge outlined these conditions, which are similar to a 1962 Nagoya Court ruling. Some doctors would have preferred the judge to also suggest the most ethical method. The case may have led to increased use of morphine, and better terminal care, as discussed last in the last issue (EJAIB 5: 53).

The Oregon assisted suicide law is discussed in Monash Bioethics Review 14 (1995), 1-4; CMAJ 152 (1995), 91-2. The Chabot case in the Netherlands is assessed in Modern Law Review 58 (1995), 232-48; and in general, JME 20 (1994), 212-7. In April a trial on the assisted death of a baby in pain began in Amsterdam; Reuters News Service (3 April). The doctor gave a fatal injection upon parents request, and it is expected to go to the Supreme Court as a test case. A Dutch report on the ethics of prenatal care is discussed in JME 21 (1995), 14-6. China is considering an active euthanasia law, Reuters News Service (15 March).

Opinions of Russian physicians on euthanasia are reported in Bykova, S. et al. "Is euthanasia permissible? Opinions of physicians", IJB 5 (1994), 335-40. Overall about one third of the physicians surveyed (N=284) thought it was permissible.

The trends in Australia are reviewed in the paper by Helga Kuhse in this issue. She mentions the proposed law to allow euthanasia in Northern Territories, Lancet 345 (1995), 375-6; BMJ 310 (1995), 420-1, 553. A Tasmanian and Australian view is Otlowski, M.F.A. "Legal and ethical issues in palliative care", Monash Bioethics Review 14 (1995), 33-47; and on withholding resusciation, J. Law & Med. 2 (1994), 125-30, 131-46. A study of the relationship between religious belief and euthanasia in Australia finding a general trend for support from Catholics, Protestants to agnostics, is JME 21 (1995), 49-54.

There is also still discussion over death in Canada, BME 105 (Feb), 4-5; CMAJ 151 (1994), 1558-9, 1641, 1691-2; 152: 12, 77-9. A series of papers on the Rodriguez case and euthanasia are in McGill Law Journal 39 (1994), 602-724.

General papers on law, ethics and euthanasia include: J. Law & Med. 2: 233-46; JME 20 (1994), 203-4; 21: 35-8; Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 174-5; SSM 40 (1995), 581-7, 589-95; BMJ 310 (1995), 338-9. On dehydration and feeding, JME 20(1994), 218-22, 223-4; 21: 55-6. Suicide is discussed in SSM 40 (1995), 719-21, 825-8.

Instructions on how to make a living will are in Robertson, G.S. "Making an advance directive", BMJ 310 (1995), 236-8. A survey in Australia found poor knowledge of living wills, BMJ 310 (1995), 230. Persistent vegetative state is discussed in BMJ 310 (1995), 341-2. Palliative care is discussed in BMJ 310 (1995), 529, 550.

Neglect of elderly persons and the definition of abuse is debated in NEJM 332 (1995), 437-3. On the problem of aging populations, Asian Business Review (March 1995), 64-5; BMJ 310 (1995), 554. Attitudes to CPR among elderly patients in the UK is reported in JME 21 (1995), 39-44.

The Northern Territory of Australia has passed a bill called the "Rights of the Terminally Ill Bill". It is on world wide web at URL: http://www.nla.gov.au/nt/rotti/ntrotti3.html The background was discussed in the last issue by Helga Kuhse, EJAIB 5 (1995), 66-9; Time (12 June, 1995), 30. The Legislative Assembly passed, by a vote of 15-10, the "Rights of the Terminally Ill" Bill. The bill allows doctors to prescribe or administer, under specified conditions, a drug intended to bring about the death of a patient - it is voluntary euthanasia. The conditions include: a request by a competent, terminally ill patient who is suffering severe pain or distress; two doctors of at least 5 years standing must agree, and one must have a qualification in psychology or psychiatry; a cooling off period of 5 days; special conditions in the case of patients who are not native speakers of English. There is no residency requirement.

A series of papers on the theme "Elder Ethics" is CQHE 4 (1995), 129-196. It includes papers on decision-making in the elderly and the limits of proxy decision-making. Also on elderly peoples protection and ethics, BMJ 310 (1995), 1179-82; NEJM 332 (1995), 1027-9, 1376-8; Lancet 345 (1995), 1253; JAMA 273 (1995), 1319, 21; NS (6 May, 1995), 3, 8. A paper on Japanese American rituals, Nakasone, R.Y. "A Buddhist reflection on the task of elders", CQHE 4 (1995), 167-71. A study on the hospice way of death is in CQHE 4 (1995), 92-7. Do not resuscitate orders are discussed: CQHE 4 (1995), 103-10; QOL: JAMA 273 (1995), 843-5.

On dying see McCue, J.D. "The naturalness of dying", JAMA 273 (1995), 1039-43. A paper on the issue of infant care is Nelson, L.J. et al. "Forgoing medically provided nutrition and hydration in pediatric patients", JLME 23 (1995), 33-46; Lancet 345 (1995), 975. A US court has supported a case involving withdrawal from life support, BMJ 310 (1995), 1223; see also, JAMA 273 (1995), 703-8, 738-9; Lancet 345 (1995), 1345-9. On living wills, BMJ 310 (1995), 612-3, 662; Lancet 345 (1995), 913-4.

A court in the Netherlands has found a doctor did not assist a suicide in a proper way; BMJ 310 (1995), 894-5, 1028; Lancet 345 (1995), 914. In general on the case and trends in the Netherlands active euthanasia law, Schwartz, R.L. "Euthanasia and assisted suicide in the Netherlands", CQHE 4 (1995), 111-21; JAMA 273 (1995), 1411-4. China is considering voluntary euthanasia, BMJ 310 (1995), 761; Lancet 345 (1995), 783.

General papers on ethics of euthanasia include, CQHE 4 (1995), 239-49; BMJ 310 (1995), 613-4, 744, 746-7; Lancet 345 (1995), 714, 1240-1; JAMA 273 (1995), 1088-9; AJPH 85 (1995), 306-7; Modern Law Review 58 (1995), 404-11; NEJM 332 (1995), 1174-5. A new journal in 1995 is Archives of Suicide Research, ISSN 1381-1118, Kluwer Academic Publishers; also see MJA 162 (1995), 533-4.

The board of the Hemlock Society USA is split over whether people with debilitating diseases should have the right to a doctor's help in dying, even though they may not be terminally ill; USA Today (2 June, 1995). The Irish Supreme Court has ruled that a right to life also means a right to die for a woman on a life support system, The Irish Times (21 June, 1995); Lancet 345 (1995), 1296.

The Northern Territory of Australia "Rights of the Terminally Ill Bill" is in BME 108 (1995), 8-11; Monash Bioethics Review 14 (July 1995), 14-22. Also see comments in Monash Bioethics Review 14 (July 1995), 1-4; MJA 162 (1995), 566;BMJ 310 (1995), 1427-8; 311 (1995), 12; Lancet 345 (1995), 1561-2. A series of papers on assisted suicide were in HCR 25 (May 1995), 8-45; and more comment in Newsletter Center for Biomedical Ethics University of Minnesota (Summer 1995), 1-2; Dispatches 5 (No.3, 1995), 5-7; Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (1995), 261-72. Voluntary euthanasia has majority support in the UK, BMJ 311 (1995), 510. US doctor guilty of murder, BMJ 311 (1995), 468. Opposition to child's right to die, BMJ 311 (1995), 405. Also on euthanasia see Bioethics 9 (1995), 309-26; Singer, P. "Presidential address: Is the sanctity of life terminally ill?", Bioethics 9 (1995), 327-43.

Mullens, A. "The Dutch experience with euthanasia: Lessons for Canada?", CMAJ 152 (1995), 1845-54. On the Japanese euthanasia decision, see last issue, Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 393. On euthanasia in Canada, CMAJ 152 (1995), 1855-6; BC Med J 37 (1995), 66-7, 70-1, 73. On US attitudes, Caddell, D.P. & Newton, R.R. "Euthanasia: American attitudes toward the physician's role", SSM 41 (1995), 1671-81; Asai, A. et al. "Attitudes of Japanese and Japanese-American physicians towards life-sustaining treatment", Lancet 346 (1995), 556-9; and on the Oregon law, JAMA 273 (1995), 483-7. On euthanasia in general, JME 21 (1995), 135-43; Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 618-20; BMJ 310 (1995), 1466-7, 1682; SSM 41 (1995), 449; JAMA 274 (1995), 80-1, 302-3; Lancet 346 (1995), 259, 428.

Reviews of empirical studies on advance directives are in BME 109 (1995), 18-23; also see BME 110 (1995), 2. The UK National Council for Hospice and Specialist Palliative Care Services Guidelines on Research in Palliative Care are in BME 110 (1995), 19-20. A major international project on advance directives making comparisons between Germany, USA, and Japan, had its second meeting in Bochum, Germany in August. The meeting reports will be published later, the project is a joint project of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics and the Volkswagon Foundation. When information becomes available it will be reported, or send enquiries to the editor. Also on advance directives, BMJ 310 (1995), 1604-5, 1663-5; JAMA 273 (1995), 478-82.

Loss of autonomy in long term care is discussed in SSM 41 (1995), 150-1. Futility is discussed in J.Med. & Phil. 20 (1995), 109-224. Quality of life is being increasing used as a marker of outcome than survival, Lancet 346 (1995), 1-2, 444-5; JAMA 274 (1995), 449. There are at least five clinical variables to identify comatose patients at high risk of death or severe disability, JAMA 273 (1995), 1842-8.

On withdrawing artificial feeding from children with brain damage, BMJ 311 (1995), 464-5; Nature 376 (1995), 451. On the treatment of critically ill newborns see papers in J. Legal Medicine 16 (1995), 183-276. Alexandrov AV, et al, "Do-not-resuscitate orders in acute stroke", Neurology 45 (1995), 634-640; also on DNR orders, JAMA 273 (1995), 299-300. Withdrawal of nutrition and medical treatment is discussed in JAMA 273 (1995), 1736-7; Lancet 346 (1995), 3-4, 163-6, 327-8.

Persistent vegetative state is discussed in Monash Bioethics Review 14 (July 1995), 20-6; NEJM 333 (1995), 130. The Irish Supreme Court has approved removal of life support, despite some opposition in Ireland, Lancet 346 (1995), 368. Suicide is discussed in MJA 162 (1995), 533-4; BMJ 310 (1995), 1542-3; 311 (1995), 226-30.

In Australia 7 medical practitioners are being investigated by the police, in Victoria, for allegedly assisting patients to die, despite an earlier medical board decision not to proceed because of lack of evidence, Lancet 346 (1995), 494. A report on the Northern Territory voluntary euthanasia law is in Bioethics 9 (1995), 419-36; Lancet 346 (1995), 692. On 16 Aug., 1995, a private members bill to permit voluntary euthanasia in New Zealand was defeated 61-29 votes.

On the euthanasia debate, Otago Bioethics Report 4 (Oct 1995), 1-2, 8-10; BMJ 311 (1995), 815; JAMA 274 (1995), 1016; Lancet 346 (1995), 640. The WMA rejected a Dutch proposal on advance directives, Lancet 346 (1995), 763. The guidelines for euthanasia in the Netherlands have been tightened stressing the need for a second opinion, BMJ 311 (1995), 708, 833. A court case has permitted nurses to help doctors in exceptional cases, BMJ 311 (1995), 895. There is also a new survey being conducted on the practice.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the elderly is discussed in Humane Medicine 11 (1995), 96-7; and suffering in Humane Medicine 11 (1995), 110-3. The concept of user rights in nursing homes is discussed in Monash Bioethics Review 14 (4, 1995), 16-26. Medical futility is discussed in AJLM XXI (1995), 221-40; and on the concept of humans, SA (Sept 1995), 142-3. A Canadian anaesthetist received a jail sentence after a patient was left in vegetative state, CMAJ 153 (1995), 619-20.

A sad French case where a mother shot her son who was suffering from a genetic disease is discussed in AJMG (1995), 381; with a commentary, Macer, D. "Views of euthanasia for sufferers of genetic disease: Comments on the Felon case", AJMG 58 (1995), 379-80. On physician-assisted death, CMAJ 153 (1995), 739+, 882; Canadian Nurse 91 (Oct 1995), 29-34, 35-40; Mount, B., "Counselling as death approaches: Is the New Yorker really the best we can do?", CMAJ 153 (1995), 1340-1342.

Letters on the attitudes of Japanese physicians to life-sustaining treatment are Lancet 346 (1995), 970-1. One claims that financial rewards to doctors are one of the main reasons for continuing treatment. Also, Fukaura, A. et al. "Do-not-resuscitate orders at a teaching hospital in Japan", NEJM 333 (1995), 805-7.

Advance directives are being implemented in hospitals in the USA but seem to be having little practical effect according to Glick, H.R. et al. "Advance medical directives in US hospitals and nursing homes: The implementation and impact of the Patient Self-determination Act", Politics & Life Sciences 14 (1995), 47-60. A Canadian report is Crelinsten GL. "Advance directives in cardiovascular medicine", Can J Cardiol. 11 (1995), 716-717. A Scottish case for discontinuance of life support is being considered by the courts, BMJ 311 (1995), 647-8.

The use of teeth as markers of the quality of life is proposed from a study in Guatemala, SSM 41 (1995), 1217-40. See also, Farquhar, M. "Elderly people's definitions of quality of life", SSM 41 (1995), 1439-46. The South Pacific leads the world in rates of youth suicide, BMJ 311 (1995), 830. The ethics of elderly care are discussed in SSM 41 (1995), 1289-99; BMJ 311 (1995), 644.

Physicians in Missouri but not Illinois have won a legal battle to avoid participation in executions, JAMA 274 (1995), 524.

An editorial supporting the limited use and open discussion of euthanasia given the strong support in some countries is in BME 113 (1995), 1. A review of the arguments for and against euthanasia is BME 112 (1995), 13-4. The possibilities of legal recognition of a right to die in the USA are discussed in A.M. Capron, "Constitutionalizing death", HCR 25 (6, 1995), 23-4. A bibliography on Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the Netherlands has been produced by the Ministry of Health, Netherlands, 1995, 20pp. In general on euthanasia, Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 849-51, 979; Lancet 346 (1995), 1164, 1301-2.

A special supplement to the Hastings Center Report is Moskowitz, E.H. et al. "Dying well in the hospital. The lessons of SUPPORT", HCR 25 (6, 1995), S1-36. One of the difficult issues is the case of persons with mental incapacity, D. Callahan, "Terminating life-sustaining treatment of the demented", HCR 25 (6, 1995), 25-31; R. Dresser, "Dworkin on dementia. Elegant theory, questionable policy", HCR 25 (6, 1995), 32-8. On the self and Alzheimer disease, KIEJ 5 (1995), 307-22. See also Stolberg, S.D. "Human dignity and disease, disability, suffering: A philosophical contribution to the euthanasia and assisted suicide debate", Humane Medicine 11 (1995), 144-7; Somerville, M.A. "Unpacking the concept of human dignity in human(e) death: Comments on "Human dignity and disease, disability, suffering", Humane Medicine 11 (1995), 148-51.

On living wills, BMJ 311 (1995), 1302-3, 1644; and hospices, BMJ 311 (1995), 1687-8, 1690-3. A US study finds generally patients wishes are not accepted for dying, BMJ 311 (1995), 1455; JAMA 274 (1995), 1591, 1634-6, 1775-9; Lancet 346 (1995), 1480. A series of papers on quality of life are in SSM 41 (No. 10, 1995),1337+.

Consensus has been achieved on resuscitative interventions, CMAJ 153 (1993), 1641-2; and the CMA Joint statement on resuscitative interventions (update 1995) CMAJ 153 (1995), 1652A-1652D. Canadian public opinion is reported in Singer, P.A. et al. "Public opinion regarding end-of-life decisions: Influence of prognosis, practice and process", SSM 41 (1995), 1517-21. Withdrawing feeding from children on respirators is discussed in BMJ 311 (1995), 1437. On Dutch euthanasia prosecution which was dropped in a infant case, BMJ 311 (1995), 1183-4; 312 (1996), 77; Lancet 346 (1995), 1355; Modern Law Review 58 (1995), 895-7; Scotland's right to die case, BMJ 311 (1995), 1524; and in Belgium, BMJ 311 (1995), 1526. A legal review in the UK on refusal of medical treatment is JME 21 (1995), 162-5, 184-5; and on PVS, pp. 205-8. A book review on euthanasia in Germany 1900-45 is in Nature 378 (1995), 570.

Dutch euthanasia prosecutions will be stopped, BMJ 312 (1996), 76. Many Dutch doctors still oppose euthanasia, BMJ 312 (1996), 465; Lancet 347 (1996), 188.

Dr Kevorkian is on trial again, BMJ 312 (1996), 464; Bioethics 10 (1996), 56-70; BME 114 (1996), 5. A survey finding that Michigan physicians would like a law to legalise the practice or no law is Bachman JG et al. "Attitudes of Michigan physicians and the public toward legalizing physician-assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia", NEJM 334 (1996), 303-9. Oregon physicians are also supportive of legalizing assisted suicide, NEJM 334 (1996), 310-5; also JAMA 274 (1995), 1910-3.

Also on euthanasia: Chochinov HM, Wilson KG, "The euthanasia debate: attitudes, practices and psychiatric considerations", Can J Psychiatry 40 (1995), 593-602; Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 96-8, 129. On the Australian Northern Territory Rights of the Terminally Ill Act, NEJM 334 (1996), 326-8; which will be soon in effect.

On living wills in Canada, CMAJ 154 (1996), 576; Du Val G. "Assisted Suicide and the Notion of Autonomy," Ottawa Law Review 27 (1996), 1-31; and care of dying patients in Scotland, Monash Bioethics Review 15 (1996), 11-9. Futility is discussed in Bioethics 10 (1996), 43-55; SSM 42 (1996), 125-33; also Alexandrov A, et al. "Agreement on Disease-Specific Criteria for Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in Acute Stroke," Stroke 27(1996), 232-237; JAMA 275 (1996), 158-9. Adequate pain treatment is called for in JAMA 274 (1995), 1870-3, 1874-80, 1881-2. Care of dementia sufferers in Japan is in Ineichen B, "Senile dementia in Japan: Prevalence and response", SSM 42 (1996), 169-72.

A US judge has declared that assisted suicide of a mentally competent patient who requests it is legal, in a US Federal Appeals court decision, BMJ 312 (1996), 655-6; Lancet 347 (1996), 756. It denounced the Washington state law against assisted suicide. A review of responses to assisted suicide is Back, AL. et al. "Physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in Washington state", JAMA 275 (1996), 919-25. Dr Kervokian was acquitted in Michigan also of charges of assisted suicide, BMJ 312 (1996), 656; see also BMJ 312 (1996), 865-6. Australian doctors in the AMA may challenge the Northern Territory law permitting euthanasia, BMJ 312 (1996), 529-30; Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 379; Lancet 347 (1996), 609. A report on the euthanasia cases reported in the Netherlands is in BMJ 312 (1996), 612-3; and a review is Haverkate, I & van der Wal, G. "Policies on medical decisions concerning end of life in Dutch health care institutions", JAMA 275 (1996), 435-9. Assisted suicide is more common among homosexual men with AIDS, Lancet 347 (1996), 499-504. Israel is developing guidelines on terminal care to give some freedom to refuse extraordinary procedures, BMJ 312 (1996), 727.

The media reports of the recovery of an American policeman, who spoke for the first time 7 years after an accident, where wrong. He was not in PVS or a coma, rather he was partly paralyzed and aphasic but had always been awake, alert and able to understand what was said to him, BME 115 (1996), 1. The BMA is reviewing guidelines to ensure no patients are misdiagnosed of PVS, BMJ 312 (1996), 725-6, 995-6.; Lancet 347 (1996), 817. Accuracy of death certificates is also often lacking, JAMA 275 (1996), 794-6; J. Public Health Medicine 18 (1996), 59-66.

A moral discussion of differences between killing and letting die is in Bioethics 10 (1996), 131-39. A series of papers on physician-aided death and the escalating debate is: CQHE 5 (1996), 1-166; also Quar. Review of Biology 70 (1995), 491-5; Nature 380 (1996), 784. See also the papers in this issue of EJAIB, from China and Japan. Also on euthanasia, Lancet 347 (1996), 810-1. Suicide rates are higher with deprivation in Scotland, BMJ 312 (1996), 543-4. An infanticide case highlighting differences between UK and USA is BMJ 312 (1996), 656.

A US AMA Council on Scientific Affairs report on "Good care of the dying patient" is JAMA 275 (1996), 474-7. Legal issues in foregoing nutrition in US nursing homes are reviewed in AJLM XXI (4, 1995), 335-82. Other papers include: DuVal G. "Assisted suicide and the notion of autonomy", Ottawa Law Review 27 (1995), 1-31. Alexandrov AV. et al "Agreement on disease-specific criteria for do-not-resuscitate orders in acute stroke", Stroke 27 (1996), 232-237. Futility is discussed in Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 480-1; Lancet 347 (1996), 893. Satisfaction with caregivers over terminal care for cancer in the UK is dependent upon service characteristics, SSM 42 (1996), 721-31; JAMA 275 (1996), 643. A discussion on the difficulties to be prescribed morphine in many countries is NS (6 April 1996), 14-5; Lancet 347 (1996), 753; and the WHO analgesic ladder, JAMA 275 (1996), 835-6. On intensive care, BMJ 312 (1996), 654; Lancet 347 (1996), 944; and advance directives JAMA 275 (1996), 588; (27 March 1996).

A discussion of ethical issues in the care of the elderly is in Dispatches 6 (No. 2, Spring 1996), 1-4; JAMA 275 (1996), 1449-50. Discussion of the Irish Supreme Court decision of July 1995 on withholding treatment and dying is in Dispatches 6 (No. 2, Spring 1996), 8-9. A review of the US situation on assisted suicide is Monash Bioethics Review 15 (No. 2, 1996), 3-6; Lancet 347 (1996), 1036; Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 607, 616-8; and in Canada, Health Law Review 4 (No. 3, 1996), 9-16. Germany has drafted guidelines on the care of dying patients, Lancet 347 (1996), 1256.

Doctors in Australia made a legal challenge to block the country's first voluntary euthanasia bill, which is due to become law on 1 July in the Northern Territory, BMJ 312 (1996), 1437. Also on the Australian law, a critique is Bioethics Research Notes 8 (March 1996), 1-2. Jack Kevorkian is debated as a medical hero in BMJ 312 (1996), 1434-5. A Dutch physician who failed to follow the country guidelines was in police custody with a murder charge for 2 weeks, BMJ 312 (1996), 1116, 1186. Relief of pain, and bioethics is discussed in KIEJ 6 (1996), 107-28; Lancet 347 (1996), 1278; and on euthanasia, BME 118 (1996), 1, 4-5; Lancet 347 (1996), 1046, 1334; Asch, D. "The role of critical care nurses in euthanasia and assisted suicide", NEJM 334 (1996), 1374-9, 1401-2; JME 22 (1996), 69-71; SA (May 1996), 12-4; J.Med.&Phil. 20 (1995), 403-18.

On advance directives: Stone, J. "Advance directives, autonomy and unintended death", Monash Bioethics Review 15 (No. 2, 1996), 16-33; Hoffmann, DE et al. "The dangers of directives or the false security of forms", JLME 24 (1996), 5-17; BMJ 312 (1996), 1538-9; JME 22 (1996), 67-8, 95-9, 100-4. On DNR orders in stroke, Lancet 347 (1996), 1415.

Health care rationing is discussed in the UK context in BMJ 312 (1996), 670-4, 1553-4, 1605. The Asbury draft policy on ethical use of resources is presented and discussed in BMJ 312 (1996), 1528-33. A Scottish women in PVS has been given the right to die, withdrawing artificial feeding, BMJ 312 (1996), 1115. On hospices, MJA 164 (1996), 452-3.

Treatment decisions of newborns are discussed in Wyatt, JS. "Ethical issues in the application of medical technology to pediatric intensive care: Two views of the newborn", Science & Christian Belief 8 (1996), 3-20.

As described above, more of the genetics of aging is being discovered, with interesting implications for human longevity, NS (1 June 1996), 43. Also see Nature 381 (1996), 335-41; Science 272 (1996), 1010-3, 1278-9; PNAS 93 (1996), 2239-44.

The Australia Northern Territory Act on euthanasia is awaiting a decision by the Federal Parliament and or Australian High Court, and doctors are afraid to follow the Act in case it is annulled, Lancet 347 (1996), 1777; 348 (1996), 120. On euthanasia, JRSM 89 (1996), 320-3; BMJ 313 (1996), 643; Hawaii Medical J. 54 (1995), 514-20. Euthanasia is being discussed in Japan, BMJ 312 (1996), 1627. On Jack Kervokian, BME 119 (1996), 5-6; BMJ 313 (1996), 227-8; and physician assisted suicide, Lancet 347 (1996), 1698; 348 (1996), 548-9; NEJM 335 (1996), 518-20, 663-7, 683-87; JAMA 275 (1996), 1967. A report of Danish physicians experiences with end-of-life experiences is Bioethics 10 (1996), 233-49. A US survey is Emanuel, EJ. et al. "Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: attitudes and experiences of oncology patients, oncologists, and the public", Lancet 347 (1996), 1805-10.

Policy on medical futility is suggested by Halevy, A. & Brody, B. "A multi-institution collaborative policy on medical futility", JAMA 276 (1996), 571-4. A US survey of nurses attitudes to artificial feeding is J. Advanced Nursing 21 (1995), 295-8. A US study also finds that DNR orders are age-linked, Lancet 348 (1996), 535. On ethical issues in general, Ethics 106 (1996), 876-9.

On PVS, Andrews, K. et al. "Misdiagnosis of the vegetative state: retrospective study in a rehabilitation unit", BMJ 313 (1996), 13-5, 5-6; Lancet 348 (1996), 69. In their study 14 of 40 patients were found to have been misdiagnosed. A survey finding 90% of doctors in the UK thought it would not be appropriate to treat acute infections is Grubb, A. et al. "Survey of British clinicians' views on management of patients in persistent vegetative state", Lancet 348 (1996), 35-40.

A number of new books on the subject of Dying have been released by Bayword Publishing Co., 26 Austin Ave, PO Box 377, Amityville, NY 11701, USA. Spiritual aspects of hospices are discussed in SSM 43 (1996), 409-19. On quality of life data, Lancet 348 (1996), 421; NEJM 334 (1996), 1740-2, 335 (1996), 201-2, 520-22. An economic analysis of the cost of treatment at the end of life is JAMA 275 (1996), 1907-14.

The world's first legal euthanasia case (in Northern Territory, Australia) is discussed in BMJ 313 (1996), 835-6; Lancet 348 (1996), 952; Monash Bioethics Review 15 (Oct. 1996), 3-4. According to a AGB-McNair poll released on 9 October, 1996, 75% of voters were against the federal government overturning the Northern Territory euthanasia law, and 19% supported overturning it. The issue is also being debated in New Zealand, Christchurch Star (9 Oct 1996), 7. This follows a two and half year sentence for a man who assisted suicide, Christchurch Press (8 Oct 1996), 18.

The man accused has been freed in the first Scottish euthanasia case, BMJ 313 (1996), 961; and a Dutch survey on euthanasia is also discussed. A review is Kuhse, H. "Sanctity of life, voluntary euthanasia and the Dutch experience: Some implications for public policy", Monash Bioethics Review 15 (Oct. 1996), 13-26. The Dutch euthanasia society has been soliciting complaints about doctors who people believe did not act properly, Lancet 348 (1996), 954. The revised guidelines of the Dutch Medical Association on euthanasia are in IDHL 47 (1996), 401-5. A draft UK euthanasia bill made from the Voluntary Euthanasia Society is BME 121 (1996), 19-22. Aggressive treatment of AIDS is urged in BMJ 313 (1996), 961-2. A description of Jack Kevorkian's philosophy of assisting suicide is Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 1063.

A paper concluding that the lack of communication is the key issue for doctors is Carmel, S. "Behavior, attitudes, and expectations regarding the use of life-sustaining treatments among physicians in Israel: An exploratory study", SSM 43 (1996), 955-65. Papers on advance directives include, Murphy, ST. et al. "Ethnicity and advance directives", JLME 24 (1996), 108-17; Gordon M, & Levitt D. Acting on a living will: a physician's dilemma", CMAJ 155 (1996), 893-5. A review of a 1995 decision by the Irish Supreme Court to permit the withdrawal of food and fluids from a brain damaged woman after 25 years is European J. Health Law 3 (1996), 29-48. Letters on the role of nurses in assisted suicide are in NEJM 335 (1996), 971-4.

A series of papers on the quality of care includes papers in NEJM 335 (1996): Part 1: Quality of care - what is it?, 891-4; Part 2: Measuring Quality of Care, 966-70; Part 3: Improving the quality of care, 1060-3; Part 4: The Origins of the Quality-Of-Care Debate, 1146-9; Part 5: Payment by Capitation and the Quality of Care, 1227-31; Part 6: The Role of Physicians in the Future of Quality Management, 1331-4; and an overview in NEJM 335 (1996), 883-4. Also on quality of life, JAMA 276 (1996), 652-3, 857-8.

A study on the role of advance directives in decisions to withdraw chronic dialysis among 72 American, 87 German, and 73 Japanese nephrologists is Sehgal, AR et al. "Advance Directives and Withdrawal of Dialysis in the United States, Germany, and Japan", JAMA 276 (1996), 1652-6. American, German, and Japanese nephrologists reported withdrawing dialysis for 5.1%, 1.6%, and 0.7% of their patients in the last year, respectively. 30% of American patients had advance directives, and such directives were used in decision making for 3.2% of all patients. Only 0.3% of German and Japanese patients had advance directives, and such directives were used in decision making for 0.09% of patients. When asked about a hypothetical mentally incompetent patient whose family requests withdrawal of dialysis, American nephrologists were much more likely to stop dialysis in the absence of an advance directive than German or Japanese nephrologists. However, almost all nephrologists from the 3 countries would stop dialysis when a family request to withdraw was supported by a patient advance directive.

A UK survey has found many people favour euthanasia in the most desperate cases, in the survey carried out by Social and Community Planning Research, BMJ 313 (1996), 1432. "The survey was based on interviews with 3500 people in England, Scotland, and Wales. When the question "Should doctors be permitted to end a life when someone requests it?" was asked, 82% said yes and 1504 said no. When the same question was asked 10 years earlier 75% had said yes and 24% no. The researchers then presented seven scenarios where decisions about euthanasia might be made: A patient has an incurable illness and is too ill to make a life or death decision (for example, in a coma on a life support machine with no hope of regaining consciousness) . The relatives agreed to euthanasia -percentage of respondents agreeing that euthanasia would be justified - 86%; The patient has an incurable and painful illness and is bound to die (for example, dying of cancer) - 80%; The patient is in a coma, not expected to regain consciousness but is not on a life support machine - 58%; The patient is not in pain or in danger of death but becomes permanently and completely dependent on relatives - 5.1%; The patient has an incurable illness from which he or she will die but which is not very painful (for example, leukaemia) - 44%; The patient has an incurable, painful, but not fatal, illness (for example) severe arthritis - 42%; Someone is not ill or close to death but is simply tired of life and wishes to die (for example, extremely lonely) - 12%".

A Dutch study found most doctors do not fulfill the legal obligations to report cases of euthanasia, according to a confidential study, van der Waal, G. et al. "Evaluation of the notification procedure for physician-assisted death in the Netherlands", NEJM 335 (1996), 1706-11; 1676-8; BMJ 313 (1996), 1431-3. Reporting has reached 41%, and "the Royal Dutch Medical Association believes every act of euthanasia could be performed openly by the end of the century. The four part study ordered by the Dutch government to evaluate the euthanasia reporting procedure entailed interviewing 1250 doctors, as well as coroners and magistrates. The response rate from doctors was between 8404 and 9804. The study shows that reporting increased from 1804 to 41% over five years, which, it argues, has strengthened social control and shows that decisions about the end of life are taken with increasing care. The 59% of doctors still not notifying the authorities fear conviction, are concerned that families and next of kin should not face a criminal investigation, or do not regard the death as unnatural." Euthanasia is a criminal act, but doctors are not prosecuted if they follow strict guidelines. Compared to five years ago, the number of initial requests by patients asking for euthanasia, if required in the future, increased by 37%, to 34500, last year. Explicit requests rose less rapidly by 9%, to 9700 a year. Of these, 3200, or 2.4% of all deaths, were granted, an increase from 30% to 37%. In 1995 there were 900 more cases of euthanasia than in 1990, while assisted suicides have remained the same, at 400 a year. Cases in which doctors reported ending a patient's life without an explicit request have declined from 1000 to 900 cases. A positive outlook on the impact of the law on the practice in the Netherlands is Van der Maas, PJ. et al. "Euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and other medical practices involving the end of life in the Netherlands, 1990-1995", NEJM 335 (1996), 1699-705.

Letters on the Houston City-Wide Task Force on Medical Futility are in JAMA 276 (20 Nov. 1996); and on withdrawal of artififical ventilation for patients with motor neurone disease, Nursing Ethics 3 (1996), 317-28. Hospice care for children is discussed in Lancet 348 (1996), 1102. On evidence-based guidelines for withdrawing life support, Lancet 348 (1996), 1087. Depression can lead to some people into temporarily desiring to die, Hooper, SC et al. "Major depression and refusal of life-sustaining medical treatment in the elderly", MJA 165 (1996), 416-9; 411. A study of what happened to elderly people in the great Hanshin earthquake is BMJ 313 (1996), 1133-5.

Australia is still debating the Northern Territory law on euthanasia, as well as other state proposals, Lancet 348 (1996), 1439; Bioethics Research Notes 8 (Sept 1996), 25-6. Most US Medical Associations are against making the right to die a legal right. Parents of a 7 year old cancer patient who was helped to die in Austria have received a 8 month suspended sentence, Lancet 348 (1996), 1440. On the right to die, BMJ 313 (1996), 1354; Politics & Life Sciences 15 (1996), 273-82. On palliative care and euthanasia in Japan, Lancet 348 (1996), 1103, 1187-8. Ethical issues of dehydration in terminally ill patients are reviewed in Ridder, DD & Gastmans, "Dehydration among terminally ill patients: an integrated ethical and practical approach for caregivers", Nursing Ethics 3 (1996), 305-16. On permanent vegetative state, BMJ 313 (1996), 1280; BME 122 (1996), 19-20.

A review of cell suicide's role in health and disease, SA (Dec 1996), 80-6.

An interview on euthanasia in the Netherlands is Klotzko, AJ. "What kind of life? What kind of death? An interview with Dr. Henk Prins", Bioethics 11 (1997), 24-42; with a discussion following. On the law and end of life, JME 22 (1996), 261-2, 273-8, 286-91, 309-13 (on Buddhism), 317-8; BME 123 (1996), 5-7. Dutch euthanasia rules have been relaxed, BMJ 314 (1997), 325. A survey of community members, medical practitioners and nurses views of Australia's Northern Territory Rights of the Terminally Ill Act (1995) is in MJA 166 (1997), 131-35; also BMJ 314 (1997), 92. The third person died in January, 1997, Lancet 349 (1 Feb 1997). The lower house of the federal government has passed a bill against it, Lancet 348 (1996), 1730.

Papers on assisted suicide include those from a symposium of the ASLM, J. Law, Medicine & Ethics 24 (No.3, 1996), 181-242. The US Supreme Court is hearing a case on assisted suicide, which are appeals against state bans on assisted suicide, Reproductive Freedom News (17 Jan 1997), 2; Newsweek (20 Jan 1997), 48; NatMed 3 (1997), 127-8; NEJM 334 (1997), 50-53. On advance directives in USA, Japan, Germany and Chile, Rothenberg LS, et al. "The relationship of clinical and legal perspectives regarding medical treatment decision-making in four cultures. Annual Review of Law & Ethics 4 (1996), 335-379. On experiences with dying patients, Humane Health Care International 12 (1996), 168-72; Hamel RP, Dubose ER eds. Must We Suffer Our Way to Death? (Dallas TX: Southern Methodist University Press, 1996). On DNR orders, Stroke 27 (1996), 232-7; Can J Anaesth 43 (1996), 840-851; NEJM 334 (1997), 439-41. On persistent vegetative state, BMJ 314 (1997), 537; and on diagnosing death, BMJ 314 (1997), 442-3. On euthanasia, J. Palliative Care 12 (1996), 3-5, 31-7, 42-43.

A paper, "Withdrawing Intensive Life-Sustaining Treatment -- Recommendations for Compassionate Clinical Management", NEJM 336 (1997), 652-7; addresses the issue that despite an ethical and legal consensus regarding the right of patients or their surrogates to refuse life-prolonging therapy, surveys show that dying patients in hospitals in the United States frequently receive unwanted interventions. A call by Geriatricians for better End-of-Life care is made in JAMA 277 (1997), 445-446. The difficulties in trusting cause of death certificates is reviewed in BMJ 314 (1997), 271.

In general on death, JAMA 277 (1997), 346; NEJM 334 (1997), 54-7. On care for AIDS patients and assisted suicide, NEJM 334 (1997), 417-21. On aging, SA (Jan 1997), 110-3; Time (20 Jan 1997), 42-9. On quality of life, JAMA 277 (1997), 64-6.

The Northern Territory, Australia, euthanasia law has been overturned by the federal Parliament, BMJ 314 (1997), 994; Lancet 349 (1997), 932. A survey of the community support is Steinberg, MA. et al. "End-of-life decision-making: community and medical practitioners' perspectives", MJA 166 (1997), 131-4, 150-2. Also on the Australian debate on voluntary euthanasia, Monash Bioethics Review 16 (1) (1997), 1-6. A proposed assisted suicide Act prepared by the Voluntary Euthanasia Society of Scotland is in BME 125 (1997), 11. Euthanasia is also in debate in China, Newsweek (24 March 1997), 14-5. A book review on Dutch euthanasia is BMJ 314 (1997), 761.

The University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics Cancer Living Will is a disease specific advance directive which has been developed to meet the needs of patients with cancer. It is on-line at <http://www.utoronto.ca/jcb. A survey of 500 physicians finding acceptance is Blasszauer, B. et al. "Hungarian physicians' attitudes towards advance directives", BME 126 (1997), 13-6. On Hungarian psychiatric institutions, BME 126 (1997), 17-21. Home care for cancer patients in developing countries and India is discussed in World Health Forum 17 (1996), 400-1. A UK judge has allowed withdrawal of artificial feeding in an 18 month long non-PVS coma in the UK, Lancet 349 (1997), 932. Economics and the right to die is discussed in Hospitals & Health Networks (20 Dec. 1996), 18-22.

On philosophical issues, JME 23 (1997), 5-6, 51-4. QALYs are discussed in Medical Decision Making 17 (1996), 21-32; and age as a basis for rationing, New Ethicals (March 1997), 9-13. Dementia and end of life are discussed in JAMA 277 (1997), 800-5, 806-12. On end-of-life care and the US Supreme Court, JAMA 277 (1997), 445-6; and in general, Lancet 349 (1997), 887. The science of aging is discussed in Science 275 (1997), 943-4; and of suicide, SA (March 1997), 18, 20.

A book review of Spiro, HM. et al., eds., Facing Death (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press 1996, ISBN 0-300-06349-0) is NEJM 336 (1997), 969-70; and of Yamazaki, F. Dying in a Japanese Hospital (The Japan Times, 1997, ISBN 4-7890-0845-2) in Nature Medicine 3 (1997), 463-4. Also on age in Japan, Nature Medicine 3 (1997), 262. On pain control, NZMJ 110 (1997), 65-7.

The Northern Territory, Australia, euthanasia law has been overturned by the federal Parliament, BMJ 314 (1997), 994; Lancet 349 (1997), 932. A survey of the community support is Steinberg, MA. et al. "End-of-life decision-making: community and medical practitioners' perspectives", MJA 166 (1997), 131-4, 150-2. Also on the Australian debate on voluntary euthanasia, Monash Bioethics Review 16 (1) (1997), 1-6. A proposed assisted suicide Act prepared by the Voluntary Euthanasia Society of Scotland is in BME 125 (1997), 11. Euthanasia is also in debate in China, Newsweek (24 March 1997), 14-5. A book review on Dutch euthanasia is BMJ 314 (1997), 761.

The University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics Cancer Living Will is a disease specific advance directive which has been developed to meet the needs of patients with cancer. It is on-line at <http://www.utoronto.ca/jcb. A survey of 500 physicians finding acceptance is Blasszauer, B. et al. "Hungarian physicians' attitudes towards advance directives", BME 126 (1997), 13-6. On Hungarian psychiatric institutions, BME 126 (1997), 17-21. Home care for cancer patients in developing countries and India is discussed in World Health Forum 17 (1996), 400-1. A UK judge has allowed withdrawal of artificial feeding in an 18 month long non-PVS coma in the UK, Lancet 349 (1997), 932. Economics and the right to die is discussed in Hospitals & Health Networks (20 Dec. 1996), 18-22.

On philosophical issues, JME 23 (1997), 5-6, 51-4. QALYs are discussed in Medical Decision Making 17 (1996), 21-32; and age as a basis for rationing, New Ethicals (March 1997), 9-13. Dementia and end of life are discussed in JAMA 277 (1997), 800-5, 806-12. On end-of-life care and the US Supreme Court, JAMA 277 (1997), 445-6; and in general, Lancet 349 (1997), 887. The science of aging is discussed in Science 275 (1997), 943-4; and of suicide, SA (March 1997), 18, 20.

A book review of Spiro, HM. et al., eds., Facing Death (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press 1996, ISBN 0-300-06349-0) is NEJM 336 (1997), 969-70; and of Yamazaki, F. Dying in a Japanese Hospital (The Japan Times, 1997, ISBN 4-7890-0845-2) in Nature Medicine 3 (1997), 463-4. Also on age in Japan, Nature Medicine 3 (1997), 262. On pain control, NZMJ 110 (1997), 65-7.

A Canadian doctor who administered potassium chloride to a patient has been charged with murder, BMJ 314 (1997), 1645. The Philippines has considered a euthanasia bill, BMJ 314 (1997), 1644. Comments on Dr. Kervokian in Michigan are Fino, SP. et al. "Paging Dr. Death: The political theater of assisted suicide in Michigan", Politics & Life Sciences 16 (1997), 87-104. On assisted suicide: CQHE 6 (1997), 78-87, 111-7; 131-47, 175-204; AJLM XXIII (1997), 69-96; from a Christian position, Monash Bioethics Review 16 (2, April 1997), 15-21; and from an Anglican position, J. Law, Medicine & Ethics 24 (1996), 365-8. A report from the Netherlands is JAMA 277 (1997), 1720-2; NEJM 336 (1997), 1385-7, 1795-801. Other papers include, SA (May 1997), 100-5; Monash Bioethics Review 16 (2, April 1997), 5-9; 16 (3, July 1997), 3, 4-7, 15-25; Humane Health Care International 13 (1997), 17-24; Bioethics Research Notes 9 (1, March 1997), 1-2; JAMA 277 (1997), 1408-9, 1562-3, 1633-40, 1705-8; Oxford J. Legal Studies 17 (1997), 123-36; Calif. Law Review 85 (1997), 371-427; NEJM 336 (1997), 1524-5, 1824-6. An Australian doctor built a suicide machine, BMJ 314 (1997), 1503; and this is still debate, NatMed 3 (1997), 479.

The US Supreme Court rejected the idea that there is a right to die, 29 June, 1997. Also on US federal funds should be used for assisted suicide, Lancet 349 (1997), 1155. The Florida Supreme Court on 17 July upheld a state law banning physician-assisted suicide, endorsing a -year-old state law in a 5-1 decision. A UK court case for a peaceful death is in BMJ 314 (1997), 1709.

Views of minority US communities on advance directives are in CQHE 6 (1997),58-71. A series of papers on pain relief are in J. Law, Medicine & Ethics 24 (1996), 285-64; BMJ 314 (1997), 1294; Lancet 349 (1997), 1709, 1747; NEJM 336 (1997), 1842-3. Children's issues are discussed in Alderson, R. & Nicholson, R. "Deciding when to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatment for children", BME 127 (April 1997), 13-20. Images of death and dying in an ICU are reviewed in Monash Bioethics Review 16 (2, April 1997), 36-49. On QOL, JAMA 277 (1997), 1038, 1232-7, 1329; SSM 45 (1997), 221-30; AJPH 87 (1997), 331-4.

A case study on end of life treatment is HCR 27 (1997), 23-5. A paper questioning how we define euthanasia is Hopkins, PD. "Why does removing machines count as "passive" euthanasia?", HCR 27 (1997), 29-37. The US Supreme court's decision that there is no constitutional right to assisted suicide is discussed in CMAJ 157 (1997), 169-71, 239; BMJ 315 (1997), 9; Lancet 350 (1997), 40. Columbia has legalized euthanasia, BMJ 314 (1997), 1852.

Papers on euthanasia include, Lavery JV. et al. "Bioethics for clinicians: 11. Euthanasia and assisted suicide", CMAJ 156 (1997), 1405-10; Achille MA, Ogloff JRP. When is a request for assisted suicide legitimate? Factors influencing public attitudes towards euthanasia. Can J of Behavioural Science 29 (1997), 19-27; Latimer EJ. Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: The wrong issues in the care of dying people. Can Fam Physician 43 (1997), 189-191; NEJM 337 (1997), 56; JAMA 278 (1997), 340-1; Lancet 349 (1997), 1907-8; van Theil GJMW et al. "Retrospective study of doctor' "end of life decisions" in caring for mentally handicapped people in institutions in the Netherlands", BMJ 315 (1997), 88-91, 73, 137-8, 206; van der Heide, A. et al. "Medical end-of-life decisions made for neonates and infants in the Netherlands", Lancet 350 (1997), 251-5. Forde, R. et al. "The ethics of euthanasia - attitudes and practice among Norwegian physicians", SSM 45 (1997), 887-92. The BMA opposes legalization of euthanasia, BMJ 315 (1997), 80.

On advance directives, CQHE 6 (1997), 325-38. On use of morphine in Japan and truth-telling, Japan Times (27 August 1997), 3. The care of the family is discussed in Yamamoto N. & Wallhagen MI. "The continuation of family caregiving in Japan", J. Health & Social Behavior 38 (1997), 164-76; and the Brasilia Declaration on Aging, IDHL 48 (1997), 86-7. Life expectancy is discussed in Newsweek Bulletin (29 July 1997), 14-7; Newsweek (11 August 1997), 50-6. On the awareness of dying, SSM 45 (1997), 477-84.

A Kantian case for death with dignity is presented in J. Clinical Ethics 7 (1997), 215-21. On the UK euthanasia debate, Keown, J. "The euthanasia debate in Britain", IJB 8 (1997), 55-64. In general on euthanasia, BME 130 (1997), 5-7. A survey found 20% of all Irish doctors are in favour of physician assisted suicide, Lancet 350 (1997), 723. Analysis of the US Supreme Court decision on assisted suicide is in NatMed 3 (1997), 820.

A letter on pediatric euthanasia in Holland is in Lancet 350 (1997), 816-7. Also on Holland, JAMA 278 (1997), 817-8. A UK study of suicide pacts is BMJ 315 (1997), 286-7. A book review is NEJM 337 (1997), 943.

A survey in Australia found that 26% of all residents of nursing homes had at some time been physically restrained, Aust.J. Advanced Nursing 14 (1997), 33-9. There is also a debate in the Netherlands, BMJ 315 (1997), 327. On pain management, JAMA 278 (1997), 592-3; DALY, Bulletin WHO 75 (1997), 377+; and QOL, SSM 45 (1997), 1005-15, 1051-63, 1299-309. Medical futility is discussed in Lancet 350 (1997), 820-1. On cancer care, NEJM 337 (1997), 931-8.

Telomerase may just be a back-up gene for aging, NS (4 Oct. 1997), 12. Papers on apoptosis, cell death, include, Nature Genetics 16 (1997), 358-63; Nature 388 (1997), 714-5; 389 (1997), 191-4, 237-8, 300-5.

The 1997 annual report of the Danish Council of Ethics includes, Euthanasia. Summary of a report for use in the public debate, (18pp., 1996) prepared by Lene Staerbo, argues that pain control and withdrawal from treatment should be sufficient. The Second report included is Priority-Setting in the Health Service, pp. 21-118. A report from an exhibition at the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine is Arnold, K. et al., Doctor Death. Medicine at the End of Life (Welcome Trust, 1997, 67pp.). A new journal on euthanasia in Hungarian is Kharon, Thanataologiaa Szemle, 110pp, 200Ft., contact address: Pecs, Frankel Leo u. 2. III/1. 7629 HUNGARY, or editor, Bela Blasszauer.

Papers on euthanasia ethics include J. Clinical Ethics 8 (1997), 39-49; J. Med. & Phil. 22 (1997), 99-123. On the US Supreme Court decision, Capron, AM. "Death and the court", HCR 27 (Sept. 1997), 25-8; Kaveny, MC. "Assisted suicide, the Supreme Court, and the Constitutive function of the law", HCR 27 (Sept. 1997), 29-33; Kleinman, A. "Intimidations of solidarity? The popular culture responds to assisted suicide", HCR 27 (Sept. 1997), 34-36; pp. 37-8; Annas, GJ. "The bell tolls for a constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide", NEJM 337 (1997), 1098-103, 1234-9; also, Gostin, LO. "Deciding life and death in the courtroom", JAMA 278 (1997), 1523-8. Oregon has however reaffirmed assisted suicide, BMJ 315 (1997), 1253; and the movement is growing, JAMA 278 (1997), 967-70. Opinion surveys are only slightly altered if pain is mentioned, Gallup Poll Monthly (Jan 1997), 28-30.

A report from the Canadian Latimer mercy-killing case is in Health Law Journal 5 (1997), 1-26; also, Lancet 350 (1997), 1458. A survey from Japan is in Berger, D. et al. "Japanese psychiatrists' attitudes toward patients wishing to die in the general hospital: A cultural perspective", CQHE 6 (1997), 470-9. The position of Australian nurses in euthanasia given the law change making it illegal, are discussed in Monash Bioethics Review 16 (October 1997),1-3; and on catholic position of Aquinas..., Bioethics Research Notes 9 (Sept 1997), 25-6. On Canadian and Australian senate decisions on euthanasia, ", J. Law, Medicine & Ethics 25 (1997), 40-51. On European laws on advance directives European Journal of Health Law 4 (June 1997), 179-88. On Dutch euthanasia, JAMA 278 (1997), 1492-3; NEJM 337 (1997), 1091-2. In general, Lancet 350 (1997), 1408-10; BMJ 315 (1997), 1164-5; JAMA 278 (1997), 1025-6, 2099-104; Nursing Outlook 45 (1997), 204-8, 209-14; Nursing Forum 32 (July 1997), 5-13; Medicine, Science & Law 37 (1997), 289-95. The case of children euthanasia is difficult, BMJ 315 (1997), 834; Lancet 350 (1997), 967. There is increased suicide rate in China, Time (26 Jan 1998), 19.

A UK judge has approved a death free from mental pain, Lancet 350 (1997), 1376; BMJ 315 (1997), 1178. The need for specialized training programs in palliative medicine is made in CMAJ 157 (1997), 1395-40; BMJ 315 (1997), 801-4, 867-70, 1242, 1600-3. A survey of hospice patient choices is in BMJ 315 (1997), 1202-3; Carmel, S. & Mutran, E. "Wishes regarding the use of life-sustaining treatments among elderly persons in Israel: An explanatory model", SSM 45 (1997), 1715-27. A series of papers on aging in Canada are in CMAJ 157 (1997), 1025-86; and on intergenerational warfare, pp. 1123-4. On aging in general, BMJ 315 (1997), 1029-34, 1082-4; JAMA 278 (1997), 1299-300, 1372-7; AJPH 87 (1997), 1591-3; NEJM 337 (1997), 1279-84; Science 278 (1997), 367, 1717; and on the exclusion of the elderly from research, BMJ 315 (1997), 1059. On the mechanism of aging, Science 278 (1997), 399-400; Nature 390 (1997), 958-60; NatMed 3 (1997), 1410-1.

On PVS, Lancet 350 (1997), 1324; and coma, Lancet 350 (1997), 1039. On zombification in Haiti, Lancet 350 (1997), 1094-6.

A survey of 401 patients in New Zealand found that many acutely unwell patients are not able to advocate for themselves, Taylor, EM. et al. "Patients' receipt and understanding of written information about a resuscitation policy", Bioethics 12 (1998), 64-76. A paper from the UK on the Terrence Higgins Trust Living Will Project is Dispatches 8 (1, 1997), 1-3. There is a helpline in the UK (Tel. 0171-242-1010, 12 noon to 10pm every day). On home nursing care and families' distress, Nursing Research 47 (1998), 2-10; and hospices, Lancet 350 (suppl. III, 1997), 20. A series of papers on palliative care are in BMJ 316 (1998), 208-11, 286-9, 319, 373-7, 390-1, 456-8.

A case description is presented in a discussion, Weijer, C. "Cardiopulmonary resuscitation for patients in a persistent vegetative state: Futile or acceptable?" CMAJ 158 (1998), 491-3. An Israeli study is Carmel, S. "Medical student attitudes regarding the use of life-sustaining treatments for themselves and for elderly patients", SSM 46 (1998), 467-74; and a UK/USA study on medical and nursing attitudes is SSM 46 (1998), 415-24.

On the US Supreme Court and assisted suicide, AJPH 87 (1997), 2058-62. Several news issues on euthanasia are in Monash Bioethics Review 17 (1, 1998), 3-6. The Columbian highest court upheld their earlier ruling in favour of voluntary euthanasia, on 2 Oct. 1997. Also on euthanasia, Lancet 351 (1998), 40; JAMA 279 (1998), 323-8; NEJM 338 (1998), 336, 467-9. A Canadian doctor has been convicted of physician-assisted suicide, Lancet 351 (1998), 121. On suicide predictors, Lancet 351 (1998), 93-7; NatMed 4 (1998), 25-30.

A discussion of who chooses and controls death is HCR 28 (Jan-Feb. 1998), 14-33. A cancer specific Advance Directive is presented in Cancer 82 (1998), 1570-7. Quality of life is discussed in BMJ 316 (1998), 542-5; and on death in old age, JAMA 279 (1998), 622-3. The oldest human recorded is 122 years and 164 days, Jeanne Calment, but a discussion of the length of life is Science 279 (1998), 1834-5. Hospice care is discussed in SSM 46 (1998), 1011-6.

The ethical issues of relatives witnessing resuscitation are discussed in CMAJ 158 (1998), 617-20. A critique of the concept of medical futility with an argument in favour of CPR for patients in PVS is Weijer C. CMAJ 158 (l998), 491-493.

A paper on the quality of life in Italian is in Bioetica e Cultura VI (1997) 12, 141-62. On treatment at the end of life, HCR 28 (March-April 1998), 27-41. Advance directives are discussed in Kuhse, H. "Problems for personhood and personal identity: Do advance directives allow one person to kill another?", Monash Bioethics Review 17 (April 1998), 14-21. European Resuscitation guidelines for adult advanced life support and single rescuer care are in BMJ 316 (1998), 1863-9, 1870-6; 1844-5.

A Newcastle (UK) GP has been charged with murder for giving a lethal dose of pain killers, BMJ 316 (1998), 1849. A survey finding 6% of doctors in USA have ended life early at least once is Meier, DE. et al. "A national survey of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the United States", NEJM 337 (1998), 1193-201. The first legal case in Oregon is discussed in BMJ 316 (1998), 1037. On terminal sedation, NEJM 337 (1998), 1230-1; BMJ 316 (1998), 1543. A paper urging standardization of the way end of life decisions are made in the Netherlands, euthanatics, is in Monash Bioethics Review 17 (April 1998), 22-30.

The UK public has called for laws on living wills, BMJ 316 (1998), 959. A review of hospice care is Sociology of Health & Illness 20 (1998), 121-43; also BMJ 316 (1998), 1166-7; Lancet 351 (1998 Suppl. II), 21-9. A special issue of CMAJ 158 (30 June 1998), 1702-59, looks at palliative care; and on resuscitation technology and death with dignity, Sociology of Health & Illness 20 (1998), 144-67; also JAMA 279 (1998), 1065-7, 1511-2, 1521-2; BMJ 316 (1998), 1839. Singer, P. & MacDonald, N. "Bioethics for clinicians: 15. Quality end-of-life care", CMAJ 159 (1998), 159-62; argue that physicians do not have an clear conceptual framework for approaching end-of-life care. On QOL, J. Rehabilitation (April-June 1998), 5+; BMJ 316 (1998), 1939-44; SSM 46 (1998), 1569-85. Futility is discussed in NEJM 337 (1998), 997.

People using life support systems seem to benefit from the noise of the machine, Nature 393 (1998), 127-8. Papers on grief include, BMJ 316 (1998), 1011-3, 1376-8, 1521-4. How to value different life expectancies is discussed in BMJ 316 (1998), 1316. On pain management, JAMA 279 (1998), 1877-82. Death on camera is discussed in BMJ 316 (1998), 1100. On the end of life and aging, NatGen 19 (1998), 103-4; NEJM 337 (1998), 1035-41, 1064-6.

The futility debate is discussed in CQHE 7 (1998), 269-78. The UK BMA has released an ethics paper on withdrawing treatment, BME 139 (1998), 3-5. An Australian survey found most patients want to be involved in CPR and advance directive decision making, MJA 169 (1998), 124-5, 128-31. Terminally ill patients have a right to know, JME 24 (1998), 106-9. On advance directives and end of life, Ethics & Medicine 14 (1998), 34-40; NEJM 339 (1998), 274-5; Christian Bioethics 3 (1997), 188-261; J. Clinical Ethics 8 (1998), 279-302. Emotional support of cancer patients is important for nurses especially, Cancer Nursing 21 (1998), 246-51. Palliative care for children must involve the family, BMJ 317 (1998), 286; and the question of its role in anorexia nervosa is discussed in BMJ 317 (1998), 195-7. Reducing blood transfusion in critically ill patients can also sometimes benefit them, JAMA 279 (1998), 1596-7.

The future of physician assisted suicide in Oregon now that it has been legally sanctioned is discussed in HCR 28 (May 1998), 9-17; JAMA 280 (1998), 387-8. The US Congress is considering federal measure to punish doctors even if state laws allow it, Lancet 352 (1998), 381. Physicians need to develop skills to deal with the requests, JAMA 280 (1998), 643-7; Lancet 352 (1998), 549. A series of reports on euthanasia are in Monash Bioethics Review 17 (July 1998), 2-5; and a paper, Hardwig, J. "Is there a duty to die?", Monash Bioethics Review 17 (July 1998), 17-30. A discussion of economic savings from legalizing physician assisted suicide is NEJM 339 (1998), 167-71. The role of the courts is discussed in JAMA 279 (1998), 1259-61. Doctors can reject patients requests in most countries, BMJ 317 (1998), 217-8.

A series of 7 papers on euthanasia and public policy are in CQHE 7 (1998), 333-404; and more papers in Issues in Law & Medicine 13 (Spring 1998), 425-46, 447-58; also Dixon, N. "On the difference between physician-assisted suicide and active euthanasia", HCR 28 (Sept. 1998), 25-9; Nielsen TO: Guidelines for legalized euthanasia in Canada: a proposal. Annals RCPSC 31 (1998), 314-8; Roy DJ, MacDonald N: Ethical issues in palliative care. pp. 97-138 in Doyle D, Hanks GWC, MacDonald N (eds): Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine, 2nd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998; Lancet 352 (1998), 1306-7. Some meanings of suffering are discussed in HCR 28 (Sept. 1998), 13-19. Views of critical care nurses on suffering at the end of life are in Monash Bioethics Review 17 (Oct. 1998), 25-38.

The US assisted suicide debate and whether it should be a federal issue is discussed in Bioethics Research Notes 10 (1998), 25-7. On Jack Kervokian, CQHE 7 (1998), 436-42; and his lawyers are not supported his latest moves which are euthanasia with lethal injection directly, Associated Press (22 November 1998). The Australian campaigner against legal voluntary euthanasia is Brain Pollard, and a discussion of his views are in Monash Bioethics Review 17 (Oct. 1998), 11-25. Assisted suicide for ALS is discussed in Ganzini, L. et al. "Attitudes of patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and their care givers towards assisted suicide", NEJM 339 (1998), 967-83, 987-9. A majority of persons in Washington and Oregon states supported assisted suicide. The second issue of the Hungarian journal Kharon. Thanatologiai Szemle, has been published. A discussion of who should decide is Sullivan, MD. et al. "Should psychiatrists serve as gatekeepers for physician-assisted suicide?", HCR 28 (July 1998), 24-31. A survey of UK psychiatrists' attitudes found opinions on assisted suicide split, Lancet 352 (1998), 1360. On autonomy and assisted suicide, HCR 28 (July 1998), 32-6; JAMA 280 (1998), 507-13, 1198; NEJM 339 (1998), 775-6; BMJ 317 (1998), 1089.

End of life care in prisons is subject to the rigid rules of many institutions, JLME 26 (1998), 149-56. On aged care, BMJ 317 (1998), 896; NEJM 339 (1998), 918-20; Lancet 352 (1998), 1199; and pain management, JAMA 280 (1998), 147-51, 181-2, 1035-6. A series of papers on apoptosis in cells is Science 281 (1998), 1301-26; Nature 395 (1998), 321,323.

The impact on family can be large, however a call for allowing family to enter resuscitation rooms is made in Robinson, SM. et al. "Psychological effect of witnessed resuscitation on bereaved relatives", Lancet 352 (1998), 614-7. Resuscitation preferences may change over time, Lancet 352 (1998), 711. Palliative care may be important for heart failure patients, BMJ 317 (1998), 961-2. A book review on Living with Cancer is Lancet 352 (1998), 913; BMJ 317 (1998), 825.

On lessons from euthanasia policy in the Netherlands, Health Law J. 8 (2000), 121-42. The problems for children are discussed in Marker, RL. "Kids and euthanasia", Human Life Review 26 (Winter 2000), 30-45. On autonomy and benevolence for Alzheimer's disease see CQHE 10 (2001), 184-93. Tube feeding in advanced progressive dementia is discussed in HCR 31 (Jan. 2001), 36-42.

Views of cancer patients in Finland on participation in care and decision making are reported in Nursing Ethics 8 (2001), 97-113. On pain control and negligence, Nursing Ethics 7 (2000), 379-92. A survey of the attitudes of Canadian nurses towards advance directives is Nursing Ethics 7 (2000), 399-411.

A manual on End-of-Life care is available from The St. Francis International Center for Healthcare Ethics, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. On arguments against mercy-killing, Tan SY "Why I do not believe in mercy-killing", Hawaii Medical J. 55 (Dec. 1996); Christian Bioethics 4 (1998), 115-21, 122-42, 183-201. Dr Jack Kervokian may escape conviction due to a legal technicality, BMJ 317 (1998), 1547; Lancet 352 (1998), 1838. He claims to have assisted 130 persons to die. An Australian, Dr Philip Nitschke has said he has helped 15 patients to die in Northern Territory, Australia, Lancet 352 (1998), 1838. On euthanasia laws, Lancet 352 (1998), 1863-4; and assisted suicide, NEJM 339 (1998), 1562-4, 1684-5; Nature 396 (1998), 232.

A paper on knowledge of illness is Hegedus, K. "Dying patients' awareness of sickness in Hungary", BME 142 (1998), 13-9. A new book, is Thomasma, DC. et al. Asking to Die. Inside the Dutch Debate about Euthanasia (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998, 604pp., ISBN 0-7923-5185-1, GBP 126). On euthanasia in Canada, Health Law Review 7 (Fall 1998), 16-20. A Canadian court has ordered a DNR order be lifted from a hospital decision that a patient would deteriorate into PVS if resuscitated, Lancet 352 (1998), 1689. A series of papers on pain management are in J. Law, Medicine & Ethics 26 (1998), 265-352; and a book review on Palliative Care is JAMA 280 (1998), 1541; also BMJ 317 (1998), 1518-20; NEJM 339 (1998), 1478-81. On end-stage renal disease, Lancet 352 (1998), 1715.

Letters on the effect of witnesses resuscitation on bereaved relatives are Lancet 352 (1998), 1863. A UK report claims doctors are performing too many unnecessary operations on dying patients, BMJ 317 (1998), 1269 On the otherhand, an 80 year old man was denied a heart valve replacement in two Australian hospitals resulting in claims of ageism, BMJ 317 (1998), 1548; and also on ageism, Lancet 352 (1998), 1849-51. On the US way of death, Lancet 352 (1998), 1713; NEJM 339 (1998), 1793

A new book is Sass, H-M., Veatch, RM. & Kimura, R. eds., Advance Directives and Surrogate Decision Making in Health Care: United States, Germany, and Japan (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1998, 311pp.). It includes 3 papers from each country on the issues in a comparative analysis. A discussion of the implications of environmental ethics for end of life care is CQHE 8 (1999), 107-17, 250-6. Several papers from a two year project A comparative study of selected ethical issues at the patient's end-of-life: International and Japanese nurses' perceptions and experiences by Anne Davis and Emiko Konishi of Nagano College of Nursing have been published (Email: davis@nagano-nurs.ac.jp). Related is Martin DK, et al. "A New Model of Advance Care Planning: Observations from people with HIV", Archives of Internal Medicine 159 (1999), 86-92. On the competence to complete advance directives, BMJ 318 (1999), 493-7.

Medical futility is discussed in JAMA 281 (1999), 937-41; NEJM 340 (1999), 467-8; and aging, BMJ 318 (1999), 681-2; Science 283 (1999), 796-7. The AMA has issued guidelines on end-of-life care, BMJ 318 (1999), 690. In the past decade there has been an increase in the number of children on long-term ventilation in the UK, BMJ 318 (1999), 295-9. The treatment of marginally viable babies is discussed in BMJ 318 (1999), 418.

An editorial on Jack Kervokian, recently convicted of murder in the USA for his active euthanasia of a patient on videotape, is BMJ 318 (1999), 953-4. The first year of experience in Oregon on physician assisted suicide is reviewed in NEJM 340 (1999), 577-83; but the law is seldom used, Lancet 353 (1999), 821. On active and passive euthanasia, CMAJ 160 (1999), 857-60; Modern Law Review 62 (1999), 151-4; JAMA 281 (1999), 227-9, 289-90, 567; Lancet 353 (1999), 242-4. A study of consultants on euthanasia in the Netherlands is MJA 170 (1999), 351-2, 360-3; JAMA 281 (1999), 568-9. An advisory body has been set up there, BMJ 318 (1999), 348. UK psychiatrists are separating themselves from the government position to detain or treat persons with threatening behaviour to the public who have untreatable behaviour, Lancet 353 (1999), 647. A US survey of oncologists experience of end of life care is JAMA 281 (1999), 897-9; also NEJM 340 (1999), 817. A paper on PVS patients is Asai, A. "Should a patient in persistent vegetative state live?", Monash Bioethics Review 18 (No. 2, April 1999), 25-39.

A book review of Griffiths, J. et al. Euthanasia and law in the Netherlands (University of Michigan Press, 1998) is in IDHL 50 (1999), 142-4. A series of 7 papers on physician-assisted suicide are in Ethics 109 (April 1999), 497-642. In general on euthanasia, BMJ 318 (1999), 1415-6; NEJM 340 (1999), 1517-8; JAMA 281 (1999), 1488.

Issues 16 and 17 of the Japanese journal Hospice and Home Care continue to publish papers from research in Japan on the subject, and the 7th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Hospice and Home Care Association was held on 26-27 June in Okayama University. On the problems of the long-term care giver, NEJM 340 (1999), 1587-90; and information need sin terminal illness, SSM 48 (1999), 1341-52. Also on home care, Lancet 353 (1999), 1423: JAMA 281 (1999), 1683-5.

A Canadian study of 57 cases is presented in Mitchell, S. & Lawson, FME "Decision-making for long-term tube-feeding in cognitively impaired elderly people", CMAJ 160 (1999), 1705-9, 1721-2. They concluded that the substitute decision-making process for tube-feeding in cognitively impaired elderly people is limited by a need for advance directives, lack of confidence in substituted judgment and poor communication of information to the substitute decision-maker by the health care team.

Physician assisted suicide can be considered as promoting autonomy or medicalizing suicide, and a paper on the ethical issues is HCR 29 (May-June 1999), 30-6; with a comment that the Oregon report is basically do not ask and do not tell about it, HCR 29 (May-June 1999), 37-42; BMJ 318 (1999), 1491. On euthanasia in the Netherlands, MJA 170 (1999), 351-2, 360-3. The Netheralnds has published a plan to legalise euthanasia, instead of the current legal pardons, BMJ 319 (1999), 467.

A report from a symposium on voluntary euthanasia is Monash Bioethics Review 18 (July 1999), 17-40. Also on voluntary euthanasia, JME 25 (1999), 16-21, 22-4; Nursing Ethics 6 (1999), 107-17; BMJ 319 (1999), 1431-3. There are Internet sites which may encourage suicide and euthanasia, BMJ 319 (1999), 337. Psychologists have difficulty to deal with requests, Lancet 353 (1999), 2133. The ability to complete advance directives requires competence, Lancet 354 (1999), 48; BMJ 319 (1999), 75.

BMA guidance on withdrawing life-prolonging treatment is in BME 149 (1999), 9-11, 306-8; Lancet 354 (1999), 55; BMJ 318 (1999), 1717; 319 (1999), 1709-10. Natural death is discussed in SSM 49 (1999), 691-704. On ethics in Japan, Nakata, Y. et al. "Serving the emperor without asking: Critical care ethics in Japan", J.Med. Phil. 23 (1998), 605-15. On the diversity in critical care ethics, J.Med. Phil. 23 (1998), 643-51. Patients perceptions of intensive care are varied, Lancet 354 (1999), 571-2; and depend upon ethnicity, Blackhall, LJ. et al. "Ethnicity and attitudes towards life sustaining technology", SSM 49 (1999), 1779-89. Newborn treatment is discussed in JAMA 281 (1999), 1991; 2041-2.

A paper based on two Japanese case studies of dementia is Kusuno, Y. "Do the old people of dementia really lose the ability of self-decision on medical services?", J. Health Care, Medicine & Community 16 (Nov. 1999), 50-6. Most papers in this journal are in Japanese, but this is in English (editor: Prof. Shinryo Shinagawa). Three papers in Italian on palliative care are in Bioetica & Cultura VIII (1999), 23-56. Medical futility is discussed in JAMA 282 (1999), 1331-2; Lancet 354 (1999), 816-9: BMJ 319 (1999), 1012, 1088. On death with dignity, Issues in Medical Ethics 7 (Dec. 1999), 127-8; CMAJ 161 (1999), 1264-5; and killing and letting die in Bioethics 13 (1999), 414-25. Evidence for disability in age from the Framingham heart study is discussed in AJPH 89 (1999), 1678-83.

There has been public debate in Spain over euthanasia following the Ramon Sampedro case, Bioethics 13 (1999), 426-32. A UK euthanasia supporter is standing for election in London, BMJ 319 (1999), 1154. A book review is in SSM 49 (1999), 1425. Also on euthanasia, BMJ 319 (1999), 639-40; 647, 1026.

Results of a patient survey are in Carmel, S. "Life-sustaining treatments: what doctors do, what they want for themselves and what elderly persons want", SSM 49 (1999), 1401-8. A study on how written information affects preferences for CPR is MJA 171 (1999), 239-42: also A Canadian study is Guru, V. et al. "Response of paramedics to terminally ill patients with cardiac arrest: an ethical dilemma", CMAJ 161 (1999), 1251-4. A US survey on how family members help in terminal care is NEJM 341 (1999), 956-63. The impact of laws in the UK on nursing home care are reviewed in BMJ 319 (1999), 1060-3. Also on home care, NEJM 341 (1999), 1004-6, 1324-8; MJA 171 (1999), 453-4. Advance directives are discussed in Bioethics 13 (1999), 373-91. An international agenda on end of life care is discussed in Lancet 354 (1999), 1361. An Oregon doctor has been disciplined for past cases of grossly under-treating pain, BMJ 319 (1999), 728.

Papers on palliative care in Holland, Sweden and Belgium (in Italian) are in Bioetica e Cultura VIII (1999), 23-56. Research on the bereaved is discussed in Nursing Ethics 7 (2000), 23-34. Papers on death and dying in prison are in JLME 27 (1999), 213-269; St. John PD. & Man-Son-Hing M. "Physician-assisted suicide: the physician as an unwitting accomplice", J. Palliative Care 15 (1999), 56-58; Tisdale C, Woloschuk DMM. "Terminal sedation: is there a role for the pharmacist?" Can Pharmaceutical J 132 (1999), 28-33. The America Nurses Association has a position statement on foregoing nutrition and hydration available from their website http://www.nursingworld.org/readroom/position/ethics/etnutr.htm. Switzerland allows assisted suicide but not euthanasia, Lancet 354 (1999), 2059. Criticism of the US Congress in its efforts to undermine Oregon's law on assisted suicide is NEJM 341 (1999), 1923-4. Palliative care is also discussed in BMJ 319 (1999), 1472-5, 1447-8; Lancet 354 (1999), 2083-5; JAMA 282 (1999), 1638-45, 1670-2, 2078-81; SSM 50 (1999), 137-54; Cancer Nursing 22 (1999), 414-20.

Papers on nursing and euthanasia are in Nursing Ethics 6 (1999), 97-117, 157-62. End of life care in Japan is discussed in Okuno, S. et al. "Elderly Japanese people living in small towns reflect on end-of-life issues", Nursing Ethics 6 (1999), 308-15. Misconceptions about pain in Chinese patients with cancer are reported in Cancer Nursing 22 (1999), 408-13. Euthanasia is discussed in The Economist (16 Oct. 1999), 99-102. A survey in Italy found 18% of doctors supported euthanasia for the terminally ill, Lancet 354 (1999), 1876-7. Human life expectancy is discussed in Time (8 Nov. 1999), 54-6.

End of life care in Hawaii is discussed in CQHE 9 (2000), 123-7; and in Germany, IJB 10 (1999), 45-52. Papers in Italian on palliative euthanasia in Italy and Germany, Bioetica e Cultura 8 (1999), 155-82. In general on end of life care, Nursing Ethics 7 (2000), 134-40; BMJ 320 (2000), 54-5 and advance directives, BMJ 320 (2000), 24-5. A book review of Stewart JB. Blind Eye: How the Medical Establishment Let a Doctor Get Away with Murder (Simon & Schuster 1999) is JAMA 283 (2000), 403-4. In general on euthanasia, Lancet 355 (2000), 223-4; JAMA 282 (1999), 2333-9, 283 (2000), 540-1; BMJ 320 (2000), 67. An interview with Peter Singer who has supportive views towards euthanasia is NS (8 Jan. 2000), 34-7. Decisions to limit treatment are discussed in JAMA 283 (2000), 909-13. On resolving conflicts between family and doctors over what to do, JAMA 283 (2000), 909-14.

Care of children who are terminally ill is discussed in NEJM 342 (2000), 326-33, 347-8. On palliative care, JAMA 283 (2000), 114-6, 255-8, 771-8; MJA 172 (2000), 3-4; BMJ 320 (2000), 129-30, 198-9. Psychological response and survival in cancer is discussed in Lancet 355 (2000), 404-6. QOL is discussed in JAMA 283 (2000), 512-8, 519-23. It includes a study showing that people over 85 years old experienced a rise in QOL in their last year in 1993 compared to 1986, but people 65-84 did not really change in most measures. Aging is discussed in Lancet 354 (1999), 2000 Supplement 3-4. A study on extracorporeal life support from the University of Michigan is JAMA 283 (2000), 904-8. On tube feeding, NEJM 342 (2000), 206-9.

The training of doctors by procedures on dying patients are criticized in BMJ 320 (2000), 137. The use of physical restraints for Alzheimer disease patients is discussed in AJPH 90 (2000), 92-6.

A review of US state DNR laws is Sabatino, CP. "Survey of state EMS-DNR laws and protocols", JLME 27 (Winter 1999), 297-315. A proposal is Truog, DR. et al. gPharmacologic paralysis and withdrawal of mechanical ventilation at the end of lifeh, NEJM 342 (2000), 508-11. On the ethics of elective ventilation, Bioethics 14 (2000), 42-57. Refusal of life-prolonging therapy in anorexia nervosa is assessed in Bioethics 14 (2000), 120-33. The force feeding of a a UK prisoner has been declared lawful, BMJ 320 (2000), 731. Tube feeding of patients with advanced dementia is discussed in JAMA 283 (2000), 1563-4.

A report from 33 persons who died under the Oregon law in 1999 is Sullivan, AD. Et al. gLegalized physician-assisted suicide in Oregon – The second yearh, NEJM 342 (2000), 598-604, also pp. 557-63, 654-6, 1049-50. A Dutch report has found that technical difficulties occur in about one fifth of the cases of physician assisted suicide, Groenewoud, JH. Et al. gClinical problems with the performance of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the Netherlandsh, NEJM 342 (2000), 551-6, 583-4; Lancet 355 (2000), 811. In general on euthanasia in UK following the consideration of a bill, BME 154 (2000), 3-4; 155 (2000), 3-6, 21-4. A change in Francefs law on euthanasia has been proposed for exceptional cases, Lancet 355 (2000), 909. Hong Kong is debating euthanasia, Lancet 355 (19 Feb. 2000). On withdrawal of treatment, JAMA 283 (2000), 1061-7. A discussion is Parks, JA. "Why gender matters to the euthanasia debate. On the decisional capacity and the rejection of womenfs death requests", HCR 30 (Jan. 2000), 30-6.

Public policy on pain is discussed in NEJM 342 (2000), 1211-3. On spiritual issues at the end of life are discussed in HCR 30 (Jan. 2000), 28-30. The will to live is discussed in NS (11 March 2000), 50-1; Lancet 355 (2000), 847-8. Dying patients may not have depression, Lancet 355 (2000), 554. On long-term care, BMJ 320 (2000), 589. Advance directives are discussed in JAMA 283 (2000), 1437-44, 1481-2. Cancer in children is discussed in BMJ 320 (2000), 644-5; and grief in the care giver, NEJM 342 (2000), 523. Prognosis is discussed in NEJM 342 (2000), 522; BMJ 320 (2000), 895-8.

European debate on euthanasia is reviewed in HCR (May 2000), 7; Dispatches 10 (May 2000), 13. A report from the French Bioethics Committee on euthanasia is Cahiers 23 (2000), 3-20. An Israeli surgeon has been accused of killing two patients, BMJ 320 (2000), 1292. More than 80% of Germans are in favour of assisted euthanasia, Lancet 355 (2000), 2057. Comparing euthanasia today with Nazi Germany is Bioethics Research Notes 12 (March 2000), 1-2. Irish doctors oppose euthanasia legislation, Lancet 355 (2000), 1800.On stopping treatment, BMJ 320 (2000), 1268. On legislation over end of life care, JAMA 283 (2000), 2933-4.

Autonomy and assisted suicide are discussed in Bioethics 14 (2000), 187-204; 240-53. Living wills can help doctors and patients talk about dying, BMJ 320 (2000), 1618-9, 1640-1; Lancet 355 (2000), 1792. Hungarian perspectives on the end of life are in IJB 11 (March 2000), 43-6; Belgium, Bioethics 14 (2000), 254-67; Europe, Lancet 355 (2000), 2112-8; and two Canadian papers are in Health Law Journal 7 (1999), 205-58; see Lancet 355 (2000), 2145. On end of life decisions and ethics, J. Clinical Ethics 10 (1999), 271-93; NEJM 342 (2000), 1755-6; BMJ 320 (2000), 1205-6. A Swedish report is Nursing Ethics 7 (2000), 296-313. Caring for the aged is discussed in New Zealand Bioethics J. 1 (2000), 19-23. DNRs are discussed in BMJ 320 (2000), 1155, 1545. A study of the development of intensive care at Chestnut Hill hospital is Bull. History Medicine 74 (2000), 90-106. Hospice eligibility is discussed in JAMA 283 (2000), 2527.

Consultation among physicians on euthanasia are discussed in CQHE 9 (2000), 381-90; SSM 51 (2000), 429-38. The question of miracle cures and looking for drugs on the Internet, NS (May 2000), 16-7. People may report pain more nowadays, BMJ 320 (2000), 1552-3; NEJM 342 (2000), 1211-3.

The Australian Voluntary Euthanasia Society of Victoria has stated that the provision of terminal sedation to a terminally ill patient is not an unnatural death, Lancet 356 (2000), 52. A Dutch proposal for children's right to euthanasia has been withdrawn, Lancet 356 (2000), 322; CMAJ 163 (2000), 324. Decisions at the end of life are discussed in Croatian Medical J. 41 (2000), 144-9; BMJ 321 (2000), 246. In general on euthanasia, NEJM 343 (2000), 150-3; Can. Family Physician 46 (2000), 254-6. The validity of advance directives are discussed in MJA 172 (2000), 545-8. On nursing perspectives on end of life, Nursing Outlook (May 2000), 109-5; and attitudes to assisted suicide, pp. 116-9. On relieving pain and death, JLME 28 (2000), 19-25.

Protective factors against suicide are given in Am. J. Psychiatry 157 (2000), 1084-7. Death and research is discussed in NEJM 343 (2000), 223-5. Attitudes to death are discussed in NZ Science Monthly (Feb. 2000), 8-10. Canadian Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology report, "Quality End-of-Life Care: The Right of Every Canadian," can be viewed at:www.parl.gc.ca/36/2/parlbus/ commbus/senate/com-e/upda-e/rep-e/repfinjun00-e.htm.

A report from the Netherlands finds that in 1995 37% of the requests for euthanasia in were carried out, BMJ 321 (2000), 865-6. In general on euthanasia see CQHE 9 (2000), 532-41; BME 161 (2000), 3-4. On patients in PVS and their families, Nursing Ethics 7 (2000), 533-4. In the UK the human rights law does not affect the law on PVS, BMJ 321 (2000), 916. Police are investigating deaths by another UK doctor, BMJ 321 (2000), 981. A US doctor has pleaded guilty to murdering patients also, Lancet 356 (2000), 1010; BMJ 321 (2000), 657. Apoptosis is reviewed in Nature 407 (2000), 769-816. On the limits of human lifespan, Lancet 356 (2000), 1249.

Palliative pain relief is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 888-93, 1273-4; BMJ 321 (2000), 555-8; MJA 173 (2000), 452-3. The ethics of removing low burden interventions in chronically ill patients is debated in JAMA 284 (2000), 1380-3. Changing patterns of death and dying in Eastern Europe and Africa are discussed in SSM 51 (2000), 917-30. A book review on aging across the world is BMJ 321 (2000), 517. The mechanism of aging is reviewed in Nature 408 (2000), 231-69. Improving the services of bereaved relatives is discussed in MJA 173 (2000), 456, 480-3.

The Netherlands has passed legislation to permit euthanasia, not just to waive prosecution as has been the practice in the 1990s, Lancet 356 (2000), 1666, 1911; BMJ 321 (2000), 1174, 1433; Time (11 Dec. 2000), 37. In general on euthanasia ethics, JLME 28 (2000), 176-86; Tannsjo, T. “Terminal sedation – a possible compromise in the euthanasia debate?”, BME 163 (2000), 13-22; J. Clinical Ethics 11 (2000), 56-65, 73-7. A US survey of 988 terminally ill patients found 60% supported euthanasia, JAMA 284 (2000), 2460-8. A survey in New Zealand found 61% of the public support euthanasia, New Zealand Herald (28 Dec. 2000). The details of the 69 persons that Jack Kervokian assisted to died are in NEJM 343 (2000), 1735-6. Psychiatric consultation is needed for euthanasia, Lancet 356 (2000), 2067-8.

Discussion of end of life decisions is encouraged in JAMA 284 (2000), 2483-8, 2502-13, 2907-11; Lancet 356 (2000), 1672-6. A review of legal barriers in the USA to end of life care, JAMA 284 (2000), 2495-501. End of life care in the African-American community is discussed in JAMA 284 (2000), 2518-21; and in Belgium, Lancet 356 (2000), 1806-11; and France, Lancet< 357 (2001), 9-14. Also on end of life, JAMA 284 (2000), 2427-9, 2437-8, 2442-4, 2449-10, 2476-94, 2514-7, 3051-7; Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s23-24, s44; BMJ 321 (2000), 1577-9; Lancet 356 (2000), 1866-7. The question whether mature minors have a right to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment is reviewed in JLME 28 (2000), 109-24. The question in the case of children with genetic disease is discussed in JME 26 (2000), 400-3; also, Rebagliato, M. et al. “Neonatal end of life decision making. Physician’s attitudes and relationship with self reported practices in 10 European countries”,Lancet 356 (2000), 2451-59; 2190-1. A study found many parents could not accept a prognosis of early death in their children, JAMA 284 (2000), 2469-75.

Advance directives have been made legal in Catalonia, Spain, Lancet 357 (2001), 51. The ethics of restricting physician-assisted death to the terminally ill is discussed in HCR 30 (Nov. 2000), 17-23. Cancer in China< is discussed in Mok, E. “Empowerment of cancer patients: From a Chinese perspective”, Nursing Ethics< 8 (2001), 69-76. An argument against futility is JME 26 (2000), 396-9; NEJM 343 (2000), 1575-7. Regional variations in end-stage renal failure in Japan are in JAMA 284 (2000), 2622-4.

A UK study of including relatives in the room when testing for brain stem death< is reported in BMJ 321 (2000), 1505-6.

Gene-environment interaction and lifespan is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 2103.

There is a call for euthanasia to be legal in Belgium, Lancet 357 (2001), 372. On euthanasia, Long, SO. "Ancestors, computers, and other mixed messages: Ambiguity and euthanasia in Japan", CQHE 10 (2001), 62-71.

Pain management is discussed in CQHE 10 (2001), 88-96; BMJ 322 (2001), 234-5. On DNR orders, BMJ 322 (2001), 102-6. Bioethics at the end of life is discussed in JLME 28 (2001), 267-286; CQHE 10 (2001), 103-9; and in Italian in Bioetica e Cultura X (2000), 153-98..

The Summary report and the full report with people_fs comments have been published from the UK scandal, UK House of Commons, The Royal Liverpool Children_fs Inquiry, Report, (London: Stationery Office, 2001, 535pp.). It includes 15 chapters and 5 appendices, and discusses suggested changes to the Human Tissue Act of 1961 in the UK. Some general comments on retaining organs are in BME 164 (Jan. 2001), 3-5, 10-1. A summary of the Bristol interim report is BME 165 (Feb. 2001), 8-11.

Debates over death are discussed in Medical Humanities Review 14 (2000), 49-55. A series of papers on a viewpoint from Pakistan of the ethical problems are in Pakistan J. Medical Ethics 3 (2000), 2-4, 9-20. A communal system for organ procurement is needed, HCR 31 (Jan. 2001), 29-35.

A review paper on the plasticity of motor neuron systems after incomplete spinal cord injury is Nature Reviews, NeuroScience 2 (20001), 263-73. A report from the new US Advisory Committee on Xenotransplantation is NatBio 19 (2001), 290-1.

Results of a mice trial is, Saito, N. et al. "A biodegradable polymer can be used as a cytokine delivery system for inducing bone formation", NatBio 19 (2001), 332-41.

The Netherlands legalized euthanasia in April, 2001; BMJ 322 (2001), 947, 1376-7; Lancet 357 (2001), 1221-2. On euthanasia in Europe, Lancet 357 (2001), 1038-9. Comments on legal assisted suicide in Oregon are in JAMA 285 (2001), 2363-9, NEJM 344 (2001), 605-7; MJA 174 (2001), 325-6, 353-4. On California's Death with Dignity Act, Ethics and Medicine 16 (2001), 79-86. Papers on futility and ethics of treating children include J. Clinical Ethics 11 (2000), 128-144. On palliative care for children, J. Clinical Ethics 11 (2000), 157-65. Spiritual care at the end of life is recommended in HCR 31 (March 2001), 22-6. Rights and assisted suicide are discussed in AJLM 27 (2001), 45-100. In general on end of life decisions, Lancet 357 (2001), 640, 1051; JAMA 285 (2001), 734-5, 2898-905; JME 26 (2000), 435-40; JAMA 285 (2001), 2578-9. Decisions in intensive care in India are discussed in Issues in Medical Ethics 9 (2001), 73-83.

A series of papers on the under treatment of pain are in JLME 29 (2001), 7-93; Lancet 357 (2001), 1217, 1304-5, 1311-5. There are gender differences in the will to live at old age, SSM 52 (2001), 949-58. On hospices, JAMA 285 (2001), 925-32. Home care is an ideal that requires the help of the system, MJA 174 (2001), 266-7. There are still deficiencies in the amount of time given to communication by doctors about palliative care in Holland, JAMA 285 (2001), 1351-7, 2906. Palliative care in Hong Kong is discussed in SSM 52 (2001), 1608-9. On long life-spans in Sardinia, Science 291 (2001), 2074-5. Yeast longevity is discussed in Nature 410 (2001), 154-5; nematode apoptosis in Nature 412 (2001), 133-5; and human longevity in Science 291 (2001), 1491-2.

DNRs are discussed in JAMA 285 (2001), 1602-6. QOL is discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 1240-3, 1297-300, 1357-60, 1417-20, 1481-3.

The role of nurses in making life and death decisions for children from New Zealand cases is discussed in Nursing Ethics 8 (2001), 399-408. A comparison between East and West is in Doutrich, D. et al. "Relief of suffering and regard for personhood: Nurses's ethical concerns in Japan and the USA", Nursing Ethics 8 (2001), 448-58. On palliative care in Italian, Bioetica e Cultura 11 (No. 1, 2001), 27-44. A survey of recent empirical studies in end of life is in BME 168 (May 2001), 16-22. A review of laws in the USA on dying after Quinlan is JLME 29 (Summer 2001), 182-196. A book review on The Moral Challenge of Alzheimer Disease is JAMA 286 (2001), 353-4.

A paper from the Chinese community in Toronto is Bowman, KW. & Singer, PA. "Chinese seniors' perspectives on end-of-life decisions", SSM 53 (2001), 455-64. Criticism of the Dutch euthanasia law is in Time (23 April 2001), 42. A study of requests for physician assisted suicide by persons with HIV or AIDS is discussed in Lancet 358 (2001), 344-5, 362-7. The safety of cannabinoids to manage pain is reviewed in BMJ 323 (2001), 2-3, 13-6. The question of whether cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be performed on patients with heart failure is discussed in J. Int. Med. 248 (2000), 279-86. Developing strategies for long term follow up of survivors of childhood cancer is reviewed in BMJ 323 (2001), 271-4. The use of struggle language in newspaper reports of persons with cancer is analysed in Sociol. Health & Illness 23 (2001), 308-29.

Religious factors that increase the risk of dying in elderly patients are discussed in Research News & Opportunities in Science and Theology 2 (Sept. 2001), 1, 3. Decisions Relating to Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation are discussed in papers in JME 27 (2001), 308-23. A discussion of policy is Singer PA, et al. "Hospital policy on appropriate use of life-sustaining treatment", Critical Care Med 29 (2001), 187-91. Deciding about resuscitation is discussed in JME 27 (2001), 291-294. A study of Hong Kong daughters' intergenerational caring is in SSM 53 (2001), 1125-34.

A survey from Japan is Asai A. et al. "Doctors' and nurses' attitudes towards and experiences of voluntary euthanasia: survey of members of the Japanese Association of Palliative Medicine", JME 27 (2001), 324-30. A protocol for consultation of another physician in cases of euthanasia and assisted suicide is suggested in JME 27 (2001), 331-7. Prescribing drugs for off-license use in palliative care has been surveyed in the UK, BMJ 323 (2001), 484-5. On distinctions between withdrawing life support an deuthanasia, BMJ 323 (2001), 388-91. The Dutch experience of euthanasia is discussed in Lancet 358 (2001), 667-8.

A review of Catholic teaching on end of life care is HCR 31 (Nov. 2001), 14-25. On the right to die, J. Clinical Ethics 11 (2000), 260-71. Parental refusal of life sustaining treatment for children in New Zealand is discussed in J. Law & Med. 8 (2001), 263-85. A report on the new Dutch law on euthanasia is CQHE 10 (2001), 445-50. The UK case of Diane Pretty who was denied euthanasia is discussed in BME 172 (2001), 18-21; BMJ 323 (2001), 1326; Lancet 358 (2001), 820. A survey found a third of surgeons in New South Wales, Australia, admit to euthanasia, BMJ 323 (2001), 1268. The US federal government may withdraw licenses of doctors who prescribe drugs for euthanasia under the Oregon State law, Lancet 358 (2001), 1788. There is controversy in Korea over the termination of treatment, Lancet 358 (2001), 1881.

Several papers on the termination of care and nursing are in Nursing Ethics 9 (2002), 7-35; and on palliative care in Australia, MJA 175 (2001), 292-3, 424-5, 508-36; BMJ 323 (2001), 443-6; and in Africa, Lancet 358 (2001), 734. Cross cultural issues are discussed in JAMA 286 (2001), 2993-3001. On caring for the bereaved, JAMA 286 (2001), 1369-76, 1377. A call for more explicit resuscitation directives is made in Lancet 358 (2001), 1920-3. In general, JAMA 286 (2001), 778, 788-9, 3131-2; BMJ 323 (2001), 1248-9; Lancet 358 (2001), 676.

Papers on aging are in Science 294 (2001), 13; Newsweek Special Issue (20002), 60-3; BMJ 323 (2001), 1008; Lancet 358 (2001), 731; The Economist (1 Sept. 2001), 66. Tumor suppression may be lost as we age, Nature 415 (2002), 26-7.

Assisted suicide is discussed in JLME 30 (2002), 6-37. Virtue ethics and euthanasia is discussed in NZ Bioethics J. 3 (Jan. 2002), 18-27. Euthanasia in the Netherlands is discussed in JLME 30 (2002), 95-104. An English translation of the Belgium euthanasia bill is in BME 174 (2002), 9-11. A review of problems nurses encounter in caring for the terminally ill is Nursing Ethics 9 (2002), 155-78.
Palliative care is a global duty, Turkish J. Medical Ethics 10 (Feb. 2002), 11-5. However there can be cultural differences in the current attitudes, and a paper on how Mexican Americans deal with terminal cancer is CQHE 11 (2002), 117-26. Culture and futility is discussed in CQHE 11 (2002), 127-33. There may not always be agreement that suffering is the enemy to be defeated, HCR 32 (March 2002), 40-4. A comparison is made in Tanida, N. et al. "Voluntary active euthanasia and the nurse: a comparison of Japanese and Australian nurses", Nursing Ethics 9 (2002), 313-22.

Israel has suggested a limit on the right to die, Lancet 359 (2002), 415. Results of physician assisted suicide in Oregon in 2001 are in NEJM 346 (2002), 450-2.

Funding of end of life care is discussed in Health Law Review 10 (2002), 3-5. The death tool from Shipman in the UK may be 300 persons, The Observer (14 July 2002), 4. Discussion of dowry related murder in India is NS (29 June 2002), 12-4.

The Diane Petty case is discussed in BME 178 (May 2002), 15-17; HCR 32 (4) (2002), 10-1; Lancet 359 (2002), 1586. A UK case of a tetraplegic woman on a ventilator saw the high court come to her bedside, BMJ 324 (2002), 629. A general discussion of why some persons want to die earlier is HCR 32(4) (2002), 14-21. Against assisted suicide, see Lancet 359 (2002), 1625; NEJM 347 (2002), 541. A series of papers on physician assisted suicide and euthanasia are in the National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 1 (2001), 293-458. Responding to requests on assisted suicide is discussed in JAMA 288 (2002), 91-8; Lancet 359 (2002), 352-3; BMJ 324 (2002), 305; NEJM 346 (2002), 1061-6; JME 27 (2001), 331-7. Euthanasia among ALS patients in the Netherlands is discussed in NEJM 346 (2002), 1638-44. Oregon experiences with hospice patients requesting assisted suicide is reported in NEJM 346 (2002), 460-3; 347 (2002), 582-8. On legalizing euthanasia, BMJ 324 (2002), 846-8. A comparison between Russia, Sweden and Germany is JME 27 (2001),186-91.

A Japanese paper is Elwyn, TS. Et al. "Responsibility and cancer disclosure in Japan", SSM 54 (2002), 281-93. A book review on home care in the USA is NEJM 347 (2002), 542. Japanese doctors experiences of voluntary euthanasia is surveyed in JME 27 (2001), 324-30. A Taiwanese study is Lo, JC. "The impact of hospices on health care expenditures - the case of Taiwan", SSM 54 (2002), 981-91. Palliative care in the Islamic world is reviewed in West. J. Med. 176 (2002), 60-1. Within a country there are multiple views on appropriate end of life care also, West. J. Med. 176 (2002), 62-4. Reporting of pain needs to be standardized, J. Clinical Epidemiology 55 (2002), 105-10. Discussion of spiritual issues at the end of life is discussed in JAMA 288 (2002), 749-54. Death with dignity is discussed in JAMA 288 (2002), 162; SSM 54 (2002), 433-43; BMJ 324 (2002), 855, 862-3. The presence of family members during CPR is discussed in NEJM 346 (2002), 1019-21. Also on CPR, JME 27 (2001), 309-9. A study of survival among mechanically respirated patients is JAMA 287 (2002), 345-5. Longevity is discussed in NS (10 Aug. 2002), 16; Current Biology 12 (2002), R311-2; Science 295 (2002), 120-3. The search for an anti-aging pill is reviewed in SA (August 2002), 24-9.

A review of the Dutch law on euthanasia is Medical Law Review 10 (2002), 57-75. Euthanasia and double effect is discussed in Monash Bioethics Review 21 (2002), 23-34. Policy on death is discussed in BME 180 (2002), 17-20. An argument for the sanctity of life approach rather than a QOL approach is in Croatian J. Philosophy 11 (2002), 37-54.

A series of papers on caring for older people are in Nursing Ethics 10 (2003), 1-94. They include perceptions of autonomy, privacy and informed consent in five European countries (Finland, Spain, Greece, Germany and the UK). Concepts of illness causation in older people in Ireland are discussed in SSM 55 (2002), 1389-400. Planning for death is discussed in BMJ 325 (2002), 125-30, 665; Nature 418 (2002), 921; Science 298 (2002), 323; AJPH 92 (2002), 1214-6. High frequency death certifiers in Taiwan are discussed in SSM 55 (2002), 1663-9. Health in the elderly in Taiwan is discussed in SSM 55 (2002), 191-209. On prevention of functional decline in the elderly, NEJM 347 (2002), 1068-74; JAMA 288 (2002), 2247-9. The research to make an anti-aging pill is discussed in SA (Aug. 2002), 24-9.

Assisted suicide is discussed in NEJM 346 (2002), 1489-93, 1663-5, 1836; 347 (2002), 533-5, 1041-3, 2082-3; JAMA 288 (2002), 2732-40; BMJ 325 (2002), 581-5, 916-7, 1326-9; Lancet 360 (2002), 1846. The WMA has isolated the Netherlands on its euthanasia policy, BMJ 325 (2002), 675. Pain control is discussed in Lancet 360 (2002), 426. Resolution of conflict in families about withdrawal of life support is discussed in BMJ 325 (2002), 1342-5. On palliative care, SA (Oct. 2002), 22-3; JAMA 288 (2002), 943-4.  Neonatal care is discussed in NEJM 347 (2002), 375.

The question of whether family members should be present during CPR is discussed in NEJM 347 (2002), 450-7. A book review of Demon Doctors is BMJ 325 (2002), 781. Dr. Shipman is discussed in BMJ 325 (2002), 919. Biomarkers of caloric restriction may predict longevity in humans, Science 298 (2002), 811.

Euthanasia is discussed in HCR 33 (Jan. 2003), 17-9; JAMA 289 (2003), 233-4. Advance directives require good communication, JAMA 289 (2003), 96. Euthanasia in Switzerland by non-medical staff is discussed in BMJ 326 (2003), 271-3. Tourism for end of life treatment is discussed in BMJ 326 (2003), 242. The Dutch supreme court has said that being tired of life is not grounds for euthanasia, BMJ 326 (2003), 71.

Spirituality at the end of life is discussed in J. Palliative Medicine 4 (2001), 333-5. Japanese religion and the end of life is discussed in AIBA Newslink 6 (Feb. 2003), 1-3. Chinese perspectives on the meaning of death are discussed in Death Studies 26 (2002), 143-75. Death anxiety in Chinese students is reported in Death Studies 26 (2002), 491-9. A study of UK physicians attitudes to euthanasia is in Death Studies 26 (2002), 479-90; see also BMJ 326 (2003), 30-4. Death in East African cultures is reviewed in J. Hospice and Palliative Nursing 3 (2001), 59-61; and in Hispanic culture, pp. 29-33. Study of end of life in different cultures is reported in Death Studies 26 (2002), 567-92; BMJ 326 (2003), 228. Also on dying, JAMA 289 (2003), 235-6. Comparisons of happiness across culture is made in SA (Feb. 2003), 17.

Palliative care in New Zealand is reviewed in J. Palliative Medicine 4 (2001), 70-4.Conflicts at the end of life are discussed in J. Palliative Medicine 4 (2001), 1-3. Telemedicine and end of life care is discussed in J. Clinical Ethics 12 (2001), 64-79.

A study of burns and child mortality found that survival does not depend on demographic and injury characteristics alone, so that all victims should be given a full course of treatment before considering futility, Lancet 361 (2003), 980-1, 989-84. On predictors of survival after in-hospital adult CPR, CMAJ 167 (2002), 343-8.

Comparisons of Norwegian and Danish nurses on disclosure of a terminal illness are made in Nursing Ethics 10 (2003),  175-85. Disclosure of cancer in Tanzania is reported in SSM 56 (2003), 905-13. Comparisons of dying from cancer in Scotland and Kenya are made in BMJ 326 (2003), 368-71. On the ethics of caring conversation, Nursing Ethics 10 (2003), 138-48. Use of sedatives at the end of life make some decision-making difficult, Arch Int. Med. 163 (2003), 341-4.  On the wisdom of old persons, Science 299 (2003), 1300-2. End of life decisions in a Muslim community in Oman for neonates are reported in Arch. Disease in Children 86 (2002), 115-9; yet fears of litigation can increase use of resuscitation of per-term babies, J. Pediatrics 140 (2002), 713-8. The question of whose choice is the reason for the increased use of DNR orders is discussed in JME 28 (2002), 303-7. On consent and end of life, JME 29 (2003), 10-5. On euthanasia in general, CMAJ 167 (2002), 651-4; JAMA 289 (2003), 2113-9; BMJ 326 (2003), 780;  on death, NEJM 348 (2003), 965-6; JME 28 (2002), 347-52. On palliative care, JME 28 (2002), 342-6. A controversial Dutch TV report is discussed in Lancet 361 (2003), 1352-3. A report from 5 years of physician assisted suicide in Oregon is NEJM 348 (2003), 961-4.

A report from a Swiss clinic that helps suicide is Lancet 361 (2003), 846. The ethics of suicide is discussed in Bioethics 16 (2003), 425+; BMJ 326 (2003), 498-9;  SSM 56 (2003), 1783-8; and from Japan,  Young, J. "Morals, suicide, and psychiatry: A view from Japan", Bioethics 16 (2002), 412-24. On the medicalization of capital punishment in the USA, Health & Human Rights 6 (2002), 65-79.

Genes and lifespan expansion in C. elegans are discussed in Nature 423 (2003), 181-5; Science 299 (2003), 644-7. A call for public debate on anti-aging research is Science 299 (2003), 1323, 1339-59. Policies for aging societies are discussed in NEJM 348 (2003), 1296-7.

On end of life care in Turkey, CQHE 12 (2003), 279-84. Nursing and palliative care is discussed in Nursing Ethics 10 (2003), 377-87. A booklet on hospice care is Jennings, B. et al. "Access to Hospice care. Expanding boundaries, overcoming barriers", HCR 33 (March 2003), Special Supplement 60pp. A report from a UK House of Lords debate on assisted dying is BME 187 (2003), 7-10. An interpretation of Aquinas on euthanasia is National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2003), 331-56. A Dutch survey suggests only a half of doctors report euthanasia, BMJ 326 (2003), 1164. Also on euthanasia, NEJM 348 (2003), 2162-4; JAMA 289 (2003), 2278-81.

A paper from Czech finds physiciaNS still hesitate to communicate to patients, BME 187 (2003), 13-5. Aging and health is discussed in JAMA 289 (2003), 1371-3.

Euthanasia is discussed in HCR 33 (July 2003), 44-7; J. Clinical Ethics 13 (2002), 179-87, 188-202; BME 187 (May 2003), 7-10; 189 (June 2003), 7-9; JAMA 289 (2003), 2282-3. Medical necessity is discussed in Health Law J. 10 (2002), 1-30. In Australia the courts may allow some forms of euthanasia according to an article in Bioethics Research Notes 15 (June 2003), 1-4; MJA 178 (2003), 171-4. A survey of 25 years of euthanasia in the Netherlands is in BMJ 327 (2003), 201-2; Lancet 362 (2003), 395-9. Effects of euthanasia on family and friends in Netherlands is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 189-92. Followup to the Shipman case in the UK to monitor for mortality rates is being implemented, Lancet 362 (2003), 485-91. Results of a UK survey on physician and family assisted suicide is SSM 57 (2003), 721-31. In July 2003 a bill on euthanasia was rejected from going to a Select Committee in New Zealand by a conscience vote in Parliament, Christchurch Press (8 March 2003), A10.

A consent process for dying patients is described in BMJ 327 (2003), 198-200. Aging self-stereotypes are discussed in J. Gerontology 58B (2003), P203-11, 212-6. On APO allele variability, Annals of Human Genetics 67 (2003), 54-62. The disablement process in older Mexican Americans is reviewed in SSM 57 (2003), 413-25. Nurses experience with patients who refuse food is reviewed in NEJM 349 (2003), 359-65. Withdrawal of dialysis is considered in JAMA 289 (2003), 2113-9. Measuring disability in the old is discussed in JAMA 289 (2003), 2387-92, 3239-40. A comparison of DALY between Australia and Cameroon is in SSM 57 (2003), 949-58. A survey of satisfaction of aging persons with the health service is in SSM 57 (2003), 757-62. Ageism is discussed in SSM 57 (2003), 687-96; BMJ 326 (2003), 1300-1. Religion, spirituality and health are discussed in MJA 178 (2003), 51-2, 86-8, 415-6; Lancet 361 (2003), 1603-7.

Biochemistry of aging in C. elegans is reviewed in Nature 424 (2003), 259-61, 277-84; Science 300 (2003), 881; and in Drosophila, NatGen 34 (2003), 429-33. On the evolution of aging, PNAS 100 (2003), 9637-42. Measuring pain in children is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 1408-9; and on pain in general, BMJ 327 (2003), 235; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1003-8. A study of why newborns are killed by their parent is in JAMA 289 (2003), 1425-9. In general on end of life care, BMJ 327 (2003), 123. 173-7, 204-7, 207, 213-5, 230, 232; SSM 57 (2003), 277-88; JAMA 290 (2003), 73-80; MJA 178 (2003), 508-9; AJLM 29 (2003), 45-76. On quality of end of life care in Africa, BMJ 327 (2003), 192-4, 209-13. A comparison of end of life care in 6 European countries is in Lancet 362 (2003), 345-50. Effect of hospice use on relatives is surveyed in USA in SSM 57 (2003), 465-75; and the insurance scheme also affects use, JAMA 289 (2003), 2238-45. The growing number of people kept alive by respirators in the USA is reviewed in SSM 56 (2003), 2249-61.

Long-term care is discussed in Lancet 361 (2003), 1755.

Euthanasia is discussed in papers in Bioethics Outlook 14 (June 2003), 1-12; Bioethics 17 (2003), 526-41; Lancet 362 (2003), 1239-40; BMJ 327 (2003), 465; NS (4 Oct. 2003), 48-51. Korean experience with advance directives are discussed in Nursing Ethics 10 (2003), 638-53. Conflicts of interest in end of life decisions are discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1419-20. A debate on discussion of resuscitation with terminally ill patients is BMJ 327 (2003), 614-6. The withdrawal of mechanical ventilation in anticipation of death in an ICY is discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 1123-32. A study of 106 Thai patients found 63% knew their cancer diagnosis, SSM 57 (2003), 1675-82. On suicide rates, Lancet 362 (2003), 961-2. Family history of suicide is a predictor of future suicide, Am J. Psychiatry 160 (2003), 1525-6.

Disability and the future of US Medicare is discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 1084-5. On disability in older adults, SSM 57 (2003), 1875-89. Older patients should be offered the full range of treatments, Lancet 362 (2003), 808; and on age discrimination, BMJ 327 (2003), 1300-1; SSM 57 (2003), 687-96, 757-62. Health care spending among elderly in USA is reported in NEJM 349 (2003), 1048-55. Early Alzheimer disease is discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 1056-63. Fatalism is discussed in Philosophy East & West 53 (2003), 435-89.

A paper in Italian on palliative care is in Bioetica e Cultura 12 (No. 2, 2003), 225-32. A paper on the regulatory frameworks for long term restraints among the elderly, Health Law Review 12 (2003), 22-8. On palliative care, BMJ 328 (2004), 725; MJA 180 (2004), 207-8; Lancet 362 (2003), 1812-3; JAMA 290 (2003), 2485. A study on the effects of bereavement on family caregivers of persoNS with dementia is in NEJM 349 (2003), 1936-42; 350 (2004), 733-4.

Artificial hydration for PVS patients is discussed in National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2003), 719-30; Lancet 362 (2003), 1465. On withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment, Bioethics Outlook 14 (June 2003), 1-7; NEJM 349 (2003), 2565-7. Canadian law and advance directives is discussed in J. Law & Med. 11 (Aug. 2003), 59-73. A study of the impact of living wills in Japan is JME 29 (2003), 248-52. On advance care planning, NEJM 350 (2004), 7-8. Finnish nurses and physiciaNS views on end of life are in Nursing Ethics 11 (2004), 165-78. On ageism in science, Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (2003), 445-52. Cultural issues in suicide are discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 2276-8. On refusal by patients of foods and fluids, NEJM 349 (2003), 1777-8.

A Council of Europe ruling on euthanasia and assisted dying is in BME 192 (2004), 3-4. End of life practices in Europe are discussed in JAMA 290 (2003), 2938-9. A survey of ethical issues experienced by nursing in caring for elderly persoNS is Nursing Ethics 11 (2004), 150-64. Choices by older persoNS in the UK is discussed in BMJ 328 (2004), 4-5; Nature 428 (2004), 116-8.

Papers on Buddhist, Jewish and Islamic perspectives on end of life care are in Soka Gakkai International Quarterly Magazine 36 (April 2004), 2-15. A paper comparing a good death in Japan and USA is SSM 58 (2004), 913-28. The Belgium Act on Euthanasia is reviewed in Eur. J. Health Law 10 (Sept. 2003), 239-55.
A failure of the living will in the USA is discussed in HCR 34 (March 2004), 2, 30-42. A UK survey on older persoNS views on advance care statements is SSM 59 (2004), 57-68. Advance directives are subject to wide interpretation, BMJ 327 (2003), 1011-4. On a Florida case of a court ordered reinsertion of a feeding tube, BMJ 327 (2003), 1010. Use of hospices in the USA is surveyed in BMJ 328 (2004), 607-10.

Hungarian nurses attitudes to euthanasia are reported in BME 196 (2004), 23. Ethics and end of life is discussed in NEJM 350 (2004), 2029-32. On assisted suicide, BMJ 327 (2003), 1355; 328 (2004), 1088-9; JAMA 291 (2004), 2432; Nursing Times 99 (25 Nov. 2003), 20-2. An obituary to the Dutch Supreme Court judge who was an advocate of euthanasia, BMJ 328 (2004), 1204. Withholding artificial feeding from severely demented persons is considered in JME 29 (2003), 208-12. Intravenous fluids for seriously ill children is debated in Lancet 363 (2004), 241; NEJM 350 (2004), 1752-62. A discussion of the Florida artificial feeding case is BMJ 328 (2004), 1154. Cardiac arrest policies in Australian hospitals are discussed in MJA 179 (2003), 470-4. Resuscitation can sometimes jeopardize survival, NEJM 350 (2004), 1708-9. Ancient Greek euthanasia is reviewed in SSM 58 (2004), 975-85; and in ancient Israel, pp. 987+. Preferences on place of death in cancer patients is discussed in SSM 58 (2004), 2431-4.

Despite lower overall health, US blacks have less mental depression than whites, Science 302 (2003), 1145. The Israeli kibbutz may be a venue for reduced disability in old age, SSM 59 (2004), 389-403; AJPH 93 (2003), 1945-52. Caring for elderly persons is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 1175; Lancet 363 (2004), 579. On chronic pain, JAMA 290 (2003), 2435-42. Palliative care for patients with heart failure is discussed in JAMA 291 (2004), 2476-82; and care for acutely ill patients in Lancet 363 (2004), 913, 970-7. On palliative care, BMJ 328 (2004), 544; CMAJ 169 (2003), 300-1; Nursing Times 99 (2 Dec. 2003), 24-5. The methods to ask patients in palliative care if they are depressed are questioned in BMJ 327 (2003), 372-3. A book review of The Anatomy of Hope is JAMA 291 (2004), 2381. Variations exist in the UK on hospital management of persons admitted for self-harm, BMJ 328 (2004), 1108-9. On the making of suicide bombers, NS (15 May 2004), 34-7. Delirium is a predictor of mortality in mechanically ventilated patients, JAMA 291 (2004), 1753-62.

Informal care giving for disabled stroke survivors is very important, BMJ 328 (2004), 1085-6. A calculation of the costs of family caregiving for patients with Alzheimer's disease is in NEJM 349 (2003), 1891-2. France has made plans this year in event of heat waves, Lancet 363 (2004), 1708. Mortality certification and cause of death reporting in developing countries is discussed in Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 83. On aging research, Science 303 (2004), 1276-9.

Palliative seduction at end of life is discussed in Christian Bioethics 9 (Aug. 2003), 343-55. The WHO has called for more palliative care in Europe, BMJ 329 (2004), 248. A speech on 20 March 2004 by Pope John Paul II defended the administration of food and water as "a natural means of preserving life, not a medical act", though it left issues of whether to continue if the nutrition is no longer absorbed by the body, SEACB Bioethics Newsletter 16 (May 2004), 2-3; HCR 34 (July 2004),18-20. The Popes'  paper is in National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 4 (2004), 367-72. Further papers on moral issues at the end of life and for persons in vegetative state are in National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 4 (2004), 473-584. The appropriate use of opioids for persistent non-cancer pain is discussed in Lancet 364 (2004), 739-40; and on the cannabinoid dronabinol for MS, BMJ 329 (2004), 253-8. A comparison of physician commitment in end of life care between New Zealand and the Netherlands is SSM 59 (2004), 775-85.

Ethics of assisted suicide is discussed in HCR 34 (May 2004), 8-9; (July 2004), 3, 21-31. A review of studies of nurses' attitudes towards assisted suicide is in Nursing Ethics 11 (2004), 349-65. A UK assisted suicide case that was dismissed is described in BME 197 (April 2004), 20-1; and on another UK case, BMJ 328 (2004), 1445. A UK patient with a terminal illness won a judgment from the European Court of Human Rights to insist that feeding continue even after his quality of life is less than the GMC standards in the UK, BMJ 329 (2004), 309. A federal appeal court in San Francisco has upheld Oregon's assisted suicide law, BMJ 328 (2004), 1337; Lancet 363 (2004), 1877. Dutch reporting of euthanasia has fallen, BMJ 328 (2004), 1336. In general on euthanasia, Ethics (April 2004), 621-3; JME 30 (2004), 212-7.

The role of advance statements in psychiatry is argued in BMJ 329 (2004), 122-3. Truth-telling in advanced dementia in the Netherlands is assessed in SSM 59 (2004), 1685-93. On the well being of patients with dementia, JAMA 292 (2004), 961-7.  On truth-telling from patients in Canada and Australia, BMJ 328 (2004), 1343-7; and in Peru, Lancet 363 (2004), 1556.  Changes in beliefs about cancer from 1964 to 2001 in Australia are positive, MJA 181 (2004), 23-5. The stigma of patients with lung cancer is reported in BMJ 328 (2004), 1470-3; and on hope in cancer SSM 59 (2004), 1329-37. A US study found no negative impacts of end of life discussions in patients, Nursing Outlook 52 (2004), 118-25. A Canadian study of 1000 persons found no affect on survival from cancer from the state of mind, Cancer DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20472; NS (31 July 2004), 15. On the sociology of death, dying and bereavement, Sociology of Health & Illness 26 (2004), 110-22. The opinions of Swedish parents upon their child's death from cancer are reported in Lancet 364 (2004), 787-89, 737. In general  on end of life, BMJ 329 (2004), 233. Autonomy in the family is discussed in Bioethics 18 (2004), 87-103.

Papers on the mechanisms of aging are in Science 305 (2004), 1369, 1419-31; NS (29 May 2004), 14. Ways to slow down aging are discussed in Science 304 (2004), 1731; Nature 429 (2004), 149-52. On the risks of suicide under antidepressants, JAMA 292 (2004), 338-43, 379; BMJ 329 (2004), 34-8.  Security for aged persons in Poland is discussed in Social Indicators Research 69 (2004), 199-218.


To Organ Transplants and Brain Death News
Back to Main News index