Food Safety including GM Foods

This file includes links to papers published by Eubios Ethics Institute, and some other organizations, in the first section. Next it includes topical extracts from EJAIB and EEIN between January 1994 - 2006 (older news items are in separate files). Last date of updating is referenced in the main News page. Latest news and papers is at the bottom of each of the two sections.

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Related papers:

Do We Have Alternatives to Feed the Growing Population - S. Seshadri and S. Ignacimuthu , EJAIB 10 (Nov 2000), 183-4.


What kind of questions should be asked in studying the social acceptability of food biotechnology? A Moral- economic approach - Ilkka Kauppinen EJAIB 12 (Sept. 2002), 182-5
Bhardwaj, M., Maekawa, F., Niimura, Y., and Macer, DRJ. (2003). Ethics in Food and Agriculture: Views from FAO. , International Journal of Food Science and Technology 38(5): 565-588.
Macer, DRJ., Bhardwaj, M., Maekawa, F., and Niimura, Y. (2003) Ethical Opportunities in Global Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry: The role for FAO, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 16: 479-504.
FAO Ethics Series 1: Ethical issues in food and agriculture (pdf)
FAO Ethics Series 2: Genetically modified organisms, consumers, food safety and the environment (pdf)


Studies on the food safety of a recombinant protein are presented in R.L. Fuchs et al., "Purification and characterization of microbially expressed neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) protein and its equivalence to the plant expressed protein", Biotechnology 11 (1993), 1537-42; R.L. Fuchs et al., "Safety assessment of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) protein", Biotechnology 11 (1993), 1543-7; see also p. 1495. Both studies say that the protein product of the neomycin resistance gene, which is used as a marker in transgenic plants, is safe for consumption. They first produced the protein in bacteria, found it to be identical, then used that protein for studies in mice and rats, and biochemical assays. General comments on clinical trials are in Biotechnology 11 (1993), 1600. A report on the proceedings of a recent conference on food biotechnology is Biotechnology 11 (1993), 1584-9; and the promise of the biotech tomatoes is discussed in Biotechnology 11 (1993), 1222-3.

A discussion of food safety and of another food under review by the FDA for approval, a disease-resistant squash, is Biotechnology 12 (1994), 7. A related topic is a review of the expected impact of biotech on the food preservative market;GEN (Dec 1993), 8.

The FDA has signalled that the sale of Calgene's FlavrSavr tomato should face no further review, and the voluntary safety assessment seems to be complete - awaiting the final approval from the FDA; Nature 368 (1994), 574. The USDA Food and Safety Inspection Service has published requirements that need to be met for the slaughter of meat from genetically engineered animals, called "Points to Consider in the Food Safety Evaluation of Transgenic Animals from Transgenic Animal Research"; Federal Register (17 March, Vol. 59, No. 52, p. 12582). A paper on fish is D.B. Berkowitz & I. Kryspin-Sorenson, "Transgenic fish: safe to eat?", Biotechnology 12 (1994), 247-52.

A survey of consumer attitudes was reported in the section above on public and biotechnology. In the International Bioethics Survey reported in Bioethics for the People by the People are the results of questions about attitudes to foods made from genetic engineering, which suggest some discretion depending on which type of product. A paper on consumer attitudes is I.M. Strychar et al., "Changes in knowledge and food behaviour following a screening program held in a supermarket", Can. J. Public Health 84 (1993), 382-7.

The so-called tasty tomato, Flavr Savr (Flavour Savour) has been approved for sale in the USA; New Scientist (28 May 1994), 6; GEN (1 June 1994), 1, 31; Science 264 (1994), 512-3; Nature 369 (1994), 268. The FDA doesn't need to examine food products, but Calgene sought their advise for various reasons. The tomato is being sold in supermarkets in parts of the USA, but will reach the East Coast later in this year, and only be nationwide by next year. Calgene says the tomato will stay fresh about a week longer, and will use the name MacGregor's. Other countries will no doubt want to use the tomato, especially those with difficulties in transport of fresh vegetables, and has public approval as seen in the International Bioethics Survey in Bioethics for the People by the People. The approval process of the FDA does not meet the satisfaction of some people, even in the biotech circle, Biotechnology 12 (1994), 439, 440-442.

The UK government has said that it will label products contain genes from humans, from an animal that is the subject of religious dietary restriction, or an animal gene when in a plant or microbe. The label will say "contains copies of X gene". On the general topic of food labels, JAMA 271 (1994), 1472; FDA Consumer (May 1994), 6-10. A discussion of the bioethical issues in food biotechnology by L. Rothenburg is GEN (15 May 1994), 33, 39. More technical advances in food processing associated with biotech are expected in the next few years, GEN (1 May 1994), 8, 37.

Dutch and American cheese containing genetically engineered chymosin is expected to be the first product of genetically engineering to be sold in Japan. It may be sold in autumn; Yomiuri Shinbun (24 June), 34.

The FDA is considering how to regulate the possible allergens that GMO products may contain, Biotechnology 12 (1994), 568-9. In Japan tests may also be performed on such foods. On antibiotic resistance genes in novel foods, a UK report has been published, Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes, Report on the use of antibiotic resistance markers in genetically modified food organisms, London: ACNFP, 1994, 58pp.; Lancet 344 (1994), 323. There is some debate after the FDA commissioner suggested that genetic engineering was being used to make tobacco with more nicotine (which it is in some cases), Biotechnology 12 (1994), 760-1.

In the UK there is resistance from supermarkets about retaining the genetically engineered tomatoes, and other fruit, Times (17 Sept), 9. In the UK a beer called Nuffield Lyte is being sold which is made with genetically engineered yeast which breaks down carbohydrates in the blood more effectively. In China a virus resistant tomato made by genetic engineering has been marketed for 18 months, Biotechnology Notes 7(10), 1-2. The general issue of designer fats in foods is discussed in GEN (1 Sept 1994), 3, 34; and on food safety, JAMA 272 (1994), 995. Letters on L-tryptophan and eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome are in Lancet 344 (1994), 817-9. A UK survey suggesting 97% of people want genetically engineered food 'to have proper labels to say so' is in GenEthics News 3 (1994), 3.

Calgene has recently expanded its production facilities for the genetically engineered MacGregor tomato, in Florida and Georgia. By June they plan to reach 2500 stores in the USA; GEN (15 Jan 1995), 7. As noted in the section above on release of GMOs, a disease-resistant squash is another foodstuff that is expected to be in supermarkets in the USA by the summer. In November 1994 the FDA informally examined 7 other foods, but they are still working on more formal guidance and a system, Biotechnology 12 (1994), 1332-3. The USDA efforts to monitor food safety are discussed in Biotechnology 13 (1995), 114-5.

In the UK, three products are expected to be available following the declaration by the Ministry of Agriculture that these products are safe, EBN (3 Feb1995), 3. The products include Zeneca's tomato, Plant Genetic Systems rapeseed oil made from male sterile rape, and Monsanto's herbicide-tolerant soybean.

The UK Food Advisory Committee has refused to require labelling of three new food products made from GMOs; GenEthics News 5 (1995), 4. The new foods are oil from rapeseed made by Plant Genetic Systems, tomato paste from Zeneca/ICI engineered tomatoes, and soya products from soybeans made by Monsanto. Pharmaceutical Proteins ltd has withdrawn its application to market meat made from transgenic sheep which are not containing the desired genes, GenEthics News 5 (1995), 4. The Zeneca tomatoes stay firm during ripening, and have also been approved in the USA, GEN (1 Feb 1995), 26. Labelling is discussed in Lloyd-Jones, L.P.M. (1994) "Biotechnology-derived foods and the battleground of labelling", Trends in Food Science & Technology 5 (1995) 363-7.

A description of FDA procedures for approval of foods from genetic engineered organisms is Henkel, J. "Genetic engineering. Fast forwarding to future foods", FDA Consumer (April 1995), 6-11. The UK Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes has approved the marketting of oil from genetically engineered rapeseed, resistant to the herbicide Basta. A report on the European group of Advisors on Ethical Implications of Biotechnology has announced its guidelines on the labelling of food from genetically engineered foods; EBN 201 (1995), 1-2; Nature 375 (1995), 443. When the product is significantly changed in composition, nutritional value or intended use, it should be labelled. Generally they focus on the product rather than the process. General rules for labelling children's food are discussed in FDA Consumer (March 1995), 14-8. A report of a genetically modified yeast for baking is AEM 61 (1995), 2113-21.

In the UK the list of approved food products made from GMOs is growing, with 4 new products approved in 1995; GenEthics News (July 1995), 4. Those on the market include chymosin from Aspergillus awamori (Christina Hansen's lab), and from Kluyveromyces lactis (Gist Brocades), from E.coli (Pfizer). The products approved in 1995 include a tomato paste, oil from oilseed rape, and processed products from soybean. The 1990 approval of a baker's yeast was the first, but it has not been marketted yet. Monsanto has reached a deal with Calgene over the Flavr Savr tomato, with Monsanto getting a 49.9% stake in the tomato and Calgene getting cash and a 49.9% stake in the largest tomato packer and shipper in the USA, NTGargiulo of Naples, Florida, The Ram's Horn 128 (July 1995), 1-2.

Sainsbury and SafeWay supermarket stores in the UK will label tomato paste made from genetically modified tomatoes, sold from early 1996; GenEthics News 8 (Sept/Oct 1995), 4. A UK LINK project will examine the safety of foods with enhanced antioxidant properties, made by genetic engineering, EBN 210 (1995), 4. Description of a course teaching about food safety is J. Animal Science 73 (1995), 2741-3.

A review of international standards and food safety from GMOs is Biotechnology and Development Monitor 25 (Dec 1995), 11-4. The FDA has released regulations on the production of substances from transgenic animals for use in humans is Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 987. The opposition from Denmark, Sweden, Germany and Austria over the UK and US positions not to label foods from genetically engineered soybeans is delaying the introduction of herbicide-tolerant soybeans into the whole of the EU, NS (2 Dec 1995), 12; see also, The Ram's Horn 132 (Dec 1995), 1-5; GenEthics News 9 (Nov/Dec 1995), 8. A debate over the use of animal growth promoters in agriculture is blamed on lack of communication in, Nature 378 (1995), 553. A breakdown of the business interests of Monsanto and products of biotech is in The Ram's Horn 131 (Nov 1995), 4-7.

A discussion of an apparent lack of public comment and labeling in the introduction of Monsanto Newleaf variety potatoes into Canadian shops is in Ram's Horn 134 (Feb 1996), 1-3. The results of the Calgene Flavr Savr tomatoes have been mixed, and the company is now under the effective control of Monsanto, and further expansion of the tomatoes is expected until they have better growing traits; Nature 379 (1996), 576. The opinion on foods made by biotechnology of the EC Group of Advisors on the Ethical Implications of Biotechnology is in IDHL 46 (1995), 575-8.

An allergenic component has been identified in transgenic soybean, Nordlee, JA et al. "Identification of a Brazil-nut allergen in transgenic soybeans", NEJM 334 (1996), 688-92, 726-7; Lancet 347 (1996), 819. The 2S albumin was transferred by genetic transfer. See the paper in the plant section on engineering of bread gluten, and Biotechnology 13 (1995), 1141. On increased immunogenicity testing of food biotechnology products, GEN (15 March 1996), 1, 12-3. HealthCanada has approved the sale of a potato produced by Monsanto which contains Bt genes, GEN (15 Feb 1996), 24-5.

There was controversy in Japan on 25 January a group of representatives of 50 consumer groups went to the Ministry of Health & Welfare calling for labels to be put on foods from GMOs (NishiNihon Newspaper 7 Feb, 1996). However the official said in the USA they do not require labels so they should not needed. There was controversy because of European requirements for labeling. A progress report on the novel food labeling cases in Europe and the UK is GenEthics News 10 (Jan/Feb 1996), 4. If genes are added to fresh vegetables they should be labeled in the UK, NS (9 March 1996), 10. A paper on the prospects for growing vegetables in space is in NS (13 April 1996), 28-31.

Call for comments!

Please send any comments or papers on the subject of Plant biotechnology, food and ethics to Darryl Macer for preparation of a report of the UNESCO International Bioethics Committee on this subject. Please send by the end of July, address as on front of journal.

Some transgenic crops still contain antibiotic resistance genes when they are grown. This concern lead to rejection of a maize with an inserted Bt gene that is resistant to European corn borer, that was being marketed by Ciba-Geigy; of Coghlan A. Engineered maize sticks in Europe's throat. NS (6 July 1996), 8. The maize includes three extra genes, including a resistance gene to ampicillin, and only France seemed to support the introduction among the EU countries. Technically unanimous disapproval is needed to block a product, but it raises further questions of international versus national regulation. Studies in mice and rats of the protein product of the marker gene for neomycin resistance found it is safe for consumption. A general review of the issues is Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes, Report on the use of antibiotic resistance markers in genetically modified food organisms, London: ACNFP, 1994.

The latest UK report (8th in the series) is Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes, Annual Report (London: MAFF, Dept. of Health ACNFP, 1995). For background see Jonas DA, The UK approach to the regulation and evaluation of novel foods produced by biotechnology. Archives of Toxicology Supplement 17 (1995), 557-61; Samples, J.R. & Buettner, H. (1983) "Corneal ulcer caused by a biologic insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis," Amer. J. Opthalmology 95: 258-260; Smith RE, Food demands of the emerging consumer: the role of modern food technology in meeting that challenge. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58 (1993; 2 Suppl), 307S-312S; Zemanek EC & Wasserman BP, Issues and advances in the use of transgenic organisms for the production of thaumatin, the intensely sweet protein from Thaumatococcus danielli. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition 35 (1995), 455-66.

There have been extensive safety tests conducted on some transgenic foodstuffs, for example the Calgene Flavr Savr tomato which was given to rats and no serious health effects were found even in large quantities; for glyphosate-tolerant soybeans over 450 different components were studies for 20 lines of six different crops; and other studies on virus resistant squash, OECD, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Food Safety Evaluation. (Paris: OECD 1996).

American soybean traders reject European calls to label the beans from genetically modified plants, GenEthics News (July/August 1996), 1-2. In 1996 they are about 2% of the total crop. The EU Council of Ministers rejected most of the amendments made by the European Parliament to the Directive of foods from GMOs, and the negotiations will determine whether it is accepted or not. One of the issues of labeling. Australia and Canada appear to be making guidelines that will only label foods when they are substantially different from equivalent foods. Adverse public reaction to transfer of animal genes into plants has led a Swedish company Svalof Weibull to terminate research on a frost resistant potato containing a fish gene.

A draft report on Plant biotechnology, food and ethics, written by D. Macer for UNESCO International Bioethics Committee is on the Internet at <http://eubios.info/ food.html>. A final version is intended to be on there in late November. There was discussion of the report during the UNESCO IBC meeting at the first week of October in Paris.

Prospective testing for allergenicity of proteins obtained from sources with no prior history of causing allergy has been difficult because of the absence of valid methods and models. A report from the systematic evaluation of the stability of food allergens that are active via the gastrointestinal tract in a simple model of gastric digestion, looking especially at legumes (peanuts and soybean), has found that important food allergens were stable to digestion in the gastric model (simulated gastric fluid); James D. Astwood, JD. et al. "Stability of food allergens to digestion in vitro", Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1269-73. For example, soybean _-conglycinin was stable for 60 min. In contrast, nonallergenic food proteins, such as spinach ribulose bis-phosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, were digested in simulated gastric fluid within 15 sec.

A report on the use of diagnostics to test meat safety is GEN (1 Sept. 1996), 1, 27-8. The Codex Alimenius is being pressured on biotechnology food labels, Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 816; and Rifkin has announced world-wide boycott of ten products in particular that are not guarantied to be free of food from genetically engineered crops including Coca Cola and McDonald's French fries, Nature 383 (1996), 472, 559, 564. Crops include soybeans and maize, and some people are requesting the services of a company tat checks the DNA for gene markers that would show the food is from a plant which had undergone genetic engineering. A series of papers are in Amer. J. Clinical Nutrition 63 (1996), Supplement, 621-62S. These include several papers on milk products. Also a paper on US opinions, Hoban TJ, "Anticipating public reaction to the use of genetic engineering in infant nutrition", Amer. J. Clinical Nutrition 63 (1996), Supplement, 657-62S. Comments on BST safety Ram's Horn 138 (June 1996), 5-7.

The Monsanto Corporation has been accused of not listening to the groups that would be responsible for marketing their "Roundup Ready" soybean, as they shipped tons of these beans to soy processors in Europe; Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1627; Nature 384 (1996), 203, 301; NS (7 Dec 1996), 5. Protesters have done various actions around Europe, and a trade war nearly began between USA and Europe. Hans Kroner, secretary-general of Eurocommerce, representing retailers in 20 European countries, recently called for Roundup Ready to be segregated from other beans. Earlier in 1996, European retail and wholesale groups had asked for separate streams for the Roundup Ready. Retailers in France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom wanted segregation so that they could label the products appropriately. German, Austrian, Finnish, and Swedish retailers wanted a separate stream so that they could exclude genetically manipulated food either "for the foreseeable future" or "until consumers are happy." Their Norwegian and Swiss counterparts cannot import until it has been approved for import. The modified soybean is already being used in Australia, having being approved earlier in 1996 following review by the Australia New Zealand Food Authority, the Genetic manipulation Council and the National Registration Authority for Agriculture and Veterinary Chemicals. The beans are not yet approved to be grown there, but 60% of soybeans are imported and t is estimated that 1-2% of soybeans in the USA, the major exporter, are modified.

Monsanto argued that thousands of different processed food products have soybeans as an ingredient, and that the products are distinguishable only in insignificant details. The regulators and, indeed, most of the retailers agree. Alternative views, and a call for separate regulatory systems is Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1628-9, 1630-1; GenEthics News 13 (Sept/Oct 1996), 1-2. On 19 December the EU approved the selling of Ciba-Geigy's glufosinate-tolerant Bt-maize made from GMOs. Together with the soybeans, maize is now sold in Europe, and will be sold around the world as most processed foods contain soybean or corn. It will be difficult to label so many different food products as having potentially some extract from the current 1% of the crops which are made from GMOs. It is expensive to separate the beans or maize, so it is unlikely that these foods can be guarantied free of GMOs. A dilemma for labelers. The final version of the UNESCO IBC report, Macer, D., "Bioethics, Food and Plant Biotechnology" is on-line at <http://eubios.info/food.html>

There have been protests organized by Greenpeace also in New Zealand, the first major controversy over release of GMOs. In Oamaru protesters came to protest against a Monsanto Round-up resistant Ready canola (rapeseed) trial of 0.5Ha that had been approved by the Ministry for the Environment after review, Otago Daily Times (14, 17, 18 Dec 1996); Oamaru Mail (16 Dec 1996).

Beer is another target, Hansen, J. et al. "Inactivation of MET10 in brewer's yeast specifically increases SO2 formation during beer production", Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1587-91, 1540-1; NS (9 Nov 1996), 22. Sulfite is widely used as an antioxidant in food production. Partial or full elimination of MET10 gene activity in a brewer's yeast resulted in increased sulfite accumulation by six times, which enhances its life. Beer produced with such yeasts was quite satisfactory and showed increased flavour stability.

EuropaBio, the European biotechnology industry group, has welcomed the adoption of the harmonized legislation on Novel Foods, which will introduce a basis for labeling of foods from GMOs, EBN 238 (1997), 3; Nature 384 (1996), 502-3. But some foods will be exempt, EBN 236 (1997), 2-3; NatBio 15 (1997), 1-2, 111-6, 210-1; and on the importation debate in Europe, NS (4 Jan, 1997), 3, 8; (15 Feb), 10. Novartis, a Swiss company, said it supports labels, Nature 385 (1997), 762. In the US maize crop for 1996 about 0.6% are from GMOs, a proportion that will increase in 1997. Food allergies are discussed in Ram's Horn 144 (Jan 1997), 5; and some criticism of foods from GMOs in GenEthics News 15 (Nov/Dec 1996), 1-4. In Canada there are 7 canola, 3 tomato, 5 corn, and one soybean that are GMOs licensed to be marketed, Ram's Horn 145 (1997), 6-8. On transgenic corn debates, Science 275 (1997), 1063. The UK Government intends to appoint an independent food- safety adviser to strengthen existing arrangements for handling food- safety matters. Lancet 349 (8 Feb 1997).

On 26 March, 1997, EuropaBio, a group representing European biotechnology industry proposed ways for the European Commission to improve the regulatory environment for biotechnology in Europe, EBN 242 (1997), 4; NS (1 March 1997), 50. Seeds need to be labeled if from GMOs, Nature 386 (1997), 532. The companies said they will label foods from GMOs and seeds, even if exempted by the law, so that consumers can exercise choice. A conference review on biotech food labeling is in Nature Biotechnology 15 (1997), 308; and on the politics of a UK decision in 1996 objecting to Ciba's genetically modified maize (CG00526-176), Nature Biotechnology 15 (1997), 308-10. On opposition to GMO food, GeneWatch 10 (4-5) (Feb 1997), 14-6. 20% of Austrian people signed a petition to ban food on GMOs and patents on GMOs, Nature 386 (1997), 745. A paper with the results of an industry survey looking at predictions for the future is Ahson, K. "What is actually happening in agro-food biotechnology?", Nutrition and Food Science 1 (1997), 26-31.

The Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA) issued a proposal to deal with food from GMOs, Proposal P97: Food derived from gene technology to be included in Standard A18. It is for the asseSSMent of food safety from organisms which have been genetically modified by genetic engineering or biotechnology techniques. The approach is supported by scientific literature and extensive safety asseSSMent studies. The only anomaly is the standard of using 5% content from GMOs as a reason to introduce labeling. Why is it 5% and not 1 or 10% is raised by many critics. There is also the problem of mixed products, when combined that are 5%; or whether several compounds will be labeled but those less than 5% will not need to be written. This could lead to manufacturers altering levels to avoid labeling.

On 26 March, 1997, EuropaBio, a group representing European biotechnology industry proposed ways for the European Commission to improve the regulatory environment for biotechnology in Europe, EBN 242 (1997), 4; NS (1 March 1997), 50. Seeds need to be labeled if from GMOs, Nature 386 (1997), 532. The companies said they will label foods from GMOs and seeds, even if exempted by the law, so that consumers can exercise choice. A conference review on biotech food labeling is in Nature Biotechnology 15 (1997), 308; and on the politics of a UK decision in 1996 objecting to Ciba's genetically modified maize (CG00526-176), Nature Biotechnology 15 (1997), 308-10. On opposition to GMO food, GeneWatch 10 (4-5) (Feb 1997), 14-6. 20% of Austrian people signed a petition to ban food on GMOs and patents on GMOs, Nature 386 (1997), 745. A paper with the results of an industry survey looking at predictions for the future is Ahson, K. "What is actually happening in agro-food biotechnology?", Nutrition and Food Science 1 (1997), 26-31.

The Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA) issued a proposal to deal with food from GMOs, Proposal P97: Food derived from gene technology to be included in Standard A18. It is for the asseSSMent of food safety from organisms which have been genetically modified by genetic engineering or biotechnology techniques. The approach is supported by scientific literature and extensive safety asseSSMent studies. The only anomaly is the standard of using 5% content from GMOs as a reason to introduce labeling. Why is it 5% and not 1 or 10% is raised by many critics. There is also the problem of mixed products, when combined that are 5%; or whether several compounds will be labeled but those less than 5% will not need to be written. This could lead to manufacturers altering levels to avoid labeling.

A description of the Australia-New Zealand Food Authority guidelines on the labeling of foods from GMOs is in Lancet 349 (1997), 1610; NS (17 May 1997), 50. After considering the use of 5% GMO content as a line for labels, EJAIB 7 (May 1997) they have maintained that position despite increasing pressure in New Zealand (see section on Public and Biotechnology). In Austria a referendum voted against the use of food from GMOs, the growing of GMOs, and patents on life, Nature 386 (1997), 745;GenEthics News 17 (April/May 1997), 1. The European Commission is labeling bags of seeds of GMOs, GenEthics News 17 (April/May 1997), 4. In the UK some protesters go to Sainbury's supermarkets and fill the trolleys with products and ask not to pay for those containing products from GMOs, which are often not possible to distinguish because of no labels, GenEthics News 17 (April/May 1997), 4-5.

In Canada two varieties of canola were withdrawn by Monsanto, from the seed stock of Limagrain, because they contained unapproved and mistaken genetic material, Ram's Horn 147 (April 1997), 1-3; 148 (May 1997), 3. Novartis was the top agrochemical company in sales in 1996 of 4.5 US$billion, ahead of Monsanto at 3.0 US$ billion. Monsanto predicts 8-10 million acres of Roundup Ready soybeans will be planted in the USA this year, up from 1 in 1996. In the 1996/97 season 250-300,000 acres were planted in Argentina, Ram's Horn 148 (May 1997), 4. Some citations on genetic engineering of foods are in Environment & Health News 2 (No.3, March 1997), 12-5. In the UK a promised food safety commission may wait for some time, NS (24 May 1997), 6. The US and WTO reject the use of labels on food from GMOs, but the EU is likely to make it a law in July 1997, Nature 387 (1997), 833. In general on drug labeling, FDA Consumer (May-June 1997), 5-10. In Japan some cooperatives have started to stick a label that they are not using GMOs for tofu, although the soybeans come from USA or China!, Yomiuri Shimbun (5 June 1997), 27.

In 20-27 April, 1997, there was a week-long "Global Days of Action Against Biotechnology" protest organized by Jeremy Rifkin's Foundation on Economic Trends (Washington, DC) and the Pure Food Campaign (Little Marais, MN), NatBio 15 (1997), 499+. Close to 200 groups in 24 different countries held events disseminating messages that transgenic food substances may be unsafe and that herbicide-resistant crop strains may have a negative impact on the environment. Papers on people's fears about food include, Frewer, LJ. et al. "What determines trust in information about food-related risks? Underlying psychological constructs", Risk Analysis 16 (1996), 473-86; Frewer, LJ. et al. "The influence of realistic product exposure on attitudes towards genetic engineering of food", Food Quality and Preference 7 (1996), 61-7; Frewer, LJ. et al. "Consumer attitudes towards different food-processing technologies used in cheese production - The influence of consumer benefit", Food Quality and Preference 7 (2 1997).

The bans on food from GMOs has raised free trade concerns, NatBio 15 (1997), 836. On July 1, 1997, Egypt's Ministry of Health issued Decree #242 banning the import of "foodstuffs that have used genetic engineering in their production until they are proven fit for consumption." The decree also required any grain or legume claiming to be genetically engineered to be accompanied by certificates verifying this from the country of origin. A 90-day delay in implementation of the decree was put in place to defuse controversy. Austria, Italy and Luxembourg have banned the sale of genetically modified maize.

A review on food safety is Franck-Oberaspach, SL. & Keller, B., "Consequences of classical and biotechnological resistance breeding for food toxicology and allergenicity", Plant Breeding 116 (1997), 1-17. It argues the source is of no consequence to the level of carcinogens and other compounds. There are some differences in organic foods from conventional farming, Woese, K. et al. "A comparison of organically and conventionally grown foods - results of a review of the relevant literature", J. Sci. Food. Agric. 74 (1997), 281-93. Novartis' new labeling policy for GMO products creates confusion among some, NatBio 15 (1997), 395; but is consistent with the European Commission call for labels on whether foods do or do not contain products from GMOs, Nature 388 (1997), 414. A review of molecular techniques in food is Stewart, GSAB. "Challenging food microbiology from a molecular perspective", Microbiology 143 (1997), 2099-108.

The ethical issues for consumers in labeling are discussed in Thompson PB, "Food biotechnology's challenge to cultural integrity and individual consent", HCR 27 (4, 1997), 34-8. Brazil has banned the sowing of seed from GMO soybean, appealing to a non-genetically engineered food market for exports. Austria, Italy and Luxembourg banned import, but the European Commission has said these are illegal. The UK Consumer's Association criticized current UK regulations, in a report, Gene Cuisine, Nature 388 (1997), 657.

A review paper is Macer, D. "Plant biotechnology, bioethics and food", Nature & Resources 33 (No. 2, 1997), 2-13. It is similar to the UNESCO IBC report on the same topic. A series of papers on food safety are in FDA Consumer 31 (Nov 1997), 7-36; Lancet 350 (1997), 1786-7

British retailers have announced that from January 1998 they will label products containing US Soya, GenEthics News (Oct 1997), 4. On European food labels, Ram's Horn 154 (Dec 1997), 2-4. Opinions on GMO foods are dividing EU countries, as the May 1997 Novel Food Regulations did not define "substantial equivalence" or say how foods must be "equivalent" and how "equivalent" they must be, NatBio 15 (1997), 1317. The European Commission proposed two options for establishing the "nonequivalence" of genetically engineered foods; detection of either the distinguishing proteins or the introduced DNA. However, both were rejected at the beginning of November, 1997, and 15 January, 1998 by the Standing Committee on Foodstuffs, officials drawn from the member states' governments. Companies have to interpret the Novel Foods Regulations in their own way, decide what and how to test, how to apply the results, and what wording, if any, to use on labels. Many companies are conducting tests of food and food ingredients in connection with these questions, , NatBio 15 (1997), 1331; Splice of Life 4 (No. 3, Jan 1998), 1. On November 1, 1997 the European Union's Novel Food Regulations requiring that foods containing genetically modified soy or corn be labeled came into force. The Austrian ban on GMO foods is not likely to be challenged while other European countries have sympathy to them, Lancet 350 (1997), 1457.

High-level US officials, including President Clinton, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, and Secretary of Agriculture Dan Glickman, are urging officials of the EU to ease restrictions on biotechnology food and agricultural products. NatBio 16 (1998), 7. The European Commission put another barrier in to food-related biotechnology products, when the Scientific Committee on Plants of DGXXIV--the Directorate General for Consumer Policy and Consumer Health Protection - has to examine the dossiers for products. In December, 1997 they examined for three recombinant maize products which are awaiting marketing approval within the EU.

A discussion of the US National Organic Standards Board draft guidelines position on irradiation and genetic engineering, which is ambiguous, is Ram's Horn 155 (Jan 1998), 1-5; see also earlier discussion on organics, Ram's Horn 153 (Nov 1997), 1-3. On FDA rules for labeling of dietary supplements, JAMA 278 (1997), 1394.

About 4000 letters have been sent on the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA; Washington, DC) proposed national standards for organic foods. Many organic farmers, have responded to the USDA's proposed standards rejecting the idea that genetically engineered products might be considered organic. (Their comments are available on the Internet at www.ams.usda.gov/nop), NatBio 16 (1998), 214-5, 127. A discussion of GMO food in Europe is Science 279 (1998), 19; Lancet 351 (1998), 120. The UK has made a new independent Food Standards Agency, Nature 391 (1998), 300; BMJ 316 (1998), 416. On the use of molecular tests for safety assessment of foods, NS (31 Jan. 1998), 5.

The Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA) made a statement on 25 Feb. 1998 recommending that mandatory labeling of food products from GMOs that have substantial equivalence will not be made. Information can be obtained from Email: info@anzfa.gov.au Japan in Dec 1997 decided also not to legally enforce labeling, but issued a non-binding administrative instruction on producers to disclose products, and there have been 20 products approved from GMOs. A discussion of foods and edible vaccines made from GMOs is Nature Genetics 18 (1998), 1-2. A letter on the transfer of peanut allergy by a liver graft is NEJM 338 (1998), 202-3; reminding us of the transfer of allergens by genetics. A study of the impact of adoption of US beef in Japan is Rural Sociology 62 (1997), 508-24.

Further discussion of US organic food rules is Ram's Horn 156 (Feb. 1998), 2-3; Biotechnology & Development Monitor 34 (1998), 18-21, 24; GeneWatch 11 (1998), 1-5. On the BST debate, Agricultural and Human Values 14 81997), 59-66. On 8 April the Inter Press Service released a press release on the opposition to GMO food in Japan by activists. The Internet site of the Pure Food Campaign is <http://www.geocities.com/Athens/1527/>. A famous Irish cook, has added her voice to the protests against plans to expand trials in the Irish Republic involving sugar beet genetically modified to be resistant to Roundup. Five new trials of the crop are planned, and the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; Johnston Castle) must decide by the end of April whether they can proceed, NatBio 16 (1998), 323. On food safety reorganization in the UK, Nature 392 (1998), 319.

A review paper on food (that is on-line <http://eubios.info/food.html>) is Macer, D. "Food, plant biotechnology and ethics", pp. 1-24 in Proceedings of the Fourth Session of the UNESCO International Bioethics Committee, October 1996, Vol. 1 (Paris: UNESCO 1997). The European Commission failed to overturn the country bans by Australia and Luxembourg on the import of BT maize, because several countries abstained from voting because they considered it a local issue of sensitive nature, GenEthics News 23 (April/May 1998), 11. Prince Charles has attacked GMO foods, NS (13 June 1998), 3. There is trend against GMO food, with 58% opposed and 22% supporting it, compared to 51% and 31% in 1996; NS (20 June 1998), 12. There has also been debate continued in New Zealand, Christchurch Press (4 June 1998), 15.

The Nuffield Council on Bioethics has began an Inquiry into Genetic Modification of Crops: the social and ethical issues The report is expected in early 1999, and would like to receive comments by the 31 July 1998 (or as soon as possible after that date). Send comments to Director, Dr. Sandra Thomas, Nuffield Council on Bioethics, 28 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3EG, UK. On biotechnology and food security NatBio 16 (1998), 399-400.

Genetically modified soybeans are being used in SMA baby milk formulas with sell buy dates after 2000; as do Boots and Abbot Ross Isomil; Environment & Health News 3 (May 1998), 2. It is being promoted as a cleaner product. In the USA 33 products have now been approved by the FDA, and a lawsuit on their policy of non-labeling has been placed, GenEthics News 24 (June/July 1998), 7; Nature 393 (1998), 404; NS (6 June 1998), 23; NatBio 16 (1998), 611. The USDA has said GMO foods are not organic, Nature 393 (1998), 10. A series of papers against GMO food are in Splice 4 (August 1998), 4-9; Newsweek (13 July 1998), 44-5; BMJ 316 (1998), 1845-6. An immune response may occur in response to uncooked foods, Tacket, CO. et al. "Immunogenicity in humans of a recombinant bacterial antigen delivered in a transgenic potato", NatMed 4 (1998), 607-9. The same principle is being used for vaccine development.

On risk perception of fisherfolk in the USA, Environmental Research 77 (1998), 25-35. A paper on food irradiation is FDA Consumer (May-June 1998), 12-7. On food labeling, NS (14 March 1998), 13. A discussion of whether there is any health benefit of oilseed rape is BMJ 316 (1998), 1327-8. One should note perhaps, it is widely consumed in Japan.

A European Council regulation stipulating that any food product made from some maize and soya varieties containing "foreign" DNA or proteins must be labeled accordingly came into force in September. In effect, the regulation means that all soya and corn from the United States, and possibly all prepared foods containing them, will have to be tested, creating what some regard as a substantial new and unscientific barrier to trade. There are, however, no officially approved tests on the market that would allow food companies to test for molecules from genetically modified organisms in their ingredients, no standards protocols outlined, and the lower limit for testing has yet to be defined, NatBio 16 (1998), 605, 712. Japan's Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MAFF; Tokyo) is likely to announce this month its preliminary plans for the labeling of food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO). NatBio 16 (1998), 712-3.

A DNA vaccine has been used to prevent diarrhoea from rotavirus, J. Virology 72 (1998), 5757+: NS (11 July 1998), 27. A report from a protest against GMO food in Canada is Lancet 352 (1998), 382. The USA and EU are still debating over labels for GMO food, Science 281 (1998), 714-5, 768-71; NS (11 July 1998), 25. Alternatives to a moratorium are discussed in an editorial in Nature 394 (1998), 605. There is less concern about GMO food seen in surveys in USA than in Europe. The method to keep food fresh up to 5 times longer in refrigerators by increasing humidity to 95% has been developed in Japan, NS (18 July 1998), 20. On the issue of whether food made from GMO plants is safe was complicated by a breach of scientific ethics when a scientist reported adding the toxin Conanvalin A to potatoes that were feed to rats by genetic engineering, when in fact it was added as a protein, NS (15 August 1998), 3, 5; (22 August 1998), 3, 24; Science 281 (1998), 1124-5.

A US study has found that more people are using food labels, but 70% still want them to be easier to understand, AJPH 88 (1998), 1212-5. It is unlikely that a single authority will be put in charge of food safety in the USA, Nature 395 (1998), 108. In Japan a series of food and drink poisoning cases have led to labels being placed on drink vending machines for people to check carefully drink cans for signs of glue or holes where poisons may have been added; see also Lancet 352 (1998), 379. On unsafe food concerns from imports in USA, Congressional Quarterly Weekly (30 May 1998), 1436-9. Some bacteria are resistant to washing, Science News 153 (1998), 340.

A book review of Nottingham, S. Eat Your Genes: How Genetically Modified Food is Entering Our Diet (Zed Books 1998) is in Nature 395 (1998), 855-6. There is further discussion of the erroneous story released in the World in Action TV program on 10 August 1998 in the UK, where a scientist reported results of a trial using potatoes which had the known toxin Concavalin A added to them and misleadingly said that they were from GMOs, Environmental & Health News 3 (1998), 1. Consumers in UK are seeking a larger role in food safety, Nature 395 (1998), 212; and the Royal Society has argued for a group to oversee enforcement of GMO regulations for food, Nature 395 (1998), 5. The US food safety system has also been criticized, Lancet 352 (1998), 716; JAMA 280 (16 Sept. 1998).

Japan is likely to require labels on GMO food, Nature 395 (1998), 628. On September 17, 1998, a US Trade Representative warned the Japanese agriculture minister, that Japan's decision to require the labeling of food products containing GMOs could create a trade barrier, NatBio16 (1998), 992. Nearly 80% of Japan's total soybean supply is imported from the United States. On May 26, 1998, the European Union approved regulation CE 1139/98, concerning the different presentation of information on food labels compared to that originally considered in regulation CE 258/97, NatBio16 (1998), 889+. Germany is seeking a "non-modified" food label in the EU; Nature 391 (1998), 828.

The Australia and New Zealand Novel Food Authority has decided to make it necessary to label all foods that contain components from GMOs, following intensive public debate in December, 1998. The decision does not reflect the results of public opinion surveys conducted by Eubios Ethics Institute (see the www site and paper by Macer et al. 1997 in EJAIB.) The opinion was also against the New Zealand science minister's opinion. UNIDO held a forum on Biotechnology in Public 2-4 Dec in Vienna (contact Email: Michaela@binas.unido.org). On UK public food safety fears, SA (Jan. 1999), 41-2. A bacterium Burkholderia cepaccia is being suggested as a natural pesticide for onions, but care must be taken for some strains are toxic to people, Science News 154(1998), 295.

A review of the issues is Jones, L. "Genetically modified foods", BMJ 318 (1999), 581-4. In February 1999 work on the possible harm caused by lectins to the immune system was released in the UK after a restraining order on a scientist Dr. Pusztai, was released. The experiment does not allow assessment of whether the harm is from the lectins that were transferred or the process, Lancet 353 (1999), 605-6; Nature 397 (1999), 545, 547; 398 (1999), 98 NatBio 17 (1999), 207. However some scientists are calling for a moratorium on the consumption of food from GMOs, BMJ 318 (1999), 483; Science 283 (1999), 1094-5; NS (20 Feb. 1999), 3-5; (27 Feb. 1999), 3-7; (6 March 1999), 13. The calls stem from a general distrust of food regulators, BMJ 318 (1999), 547-8; NS (27 March 1999), 54; Science & Christian Belief 11 (1999), 2-4. We should keep watch over the safety of all foods. There has been growing use of environmental arguments against chemical pesticides to support use of GMOs. A series of short papers on the long-term effects of GM crops is Nature 398 (1999), 641, 651-6.

The UK debate also led to further debates in other countries. A Dutch study has found that DNA remains intact in a model intestine for several minutes, during which time it can be transferred between cells and bacterial species, NS (30 Jan. 1999), 4. In New Zealand a field of potatoes was uprooted in Canterbury on 11 March, by a protest group called WildGreens, Christchurch Press (12 March 1999), 1. There were also articles protesting the lack of labels, e.g. Welch, D. & White, M. "The Frankenstein food feud", The Listener (13 March 1999), 16-20. On concerns in Iceland, Ram's Horn 166 (Feb. 1999), 7. More on GMO food, NatBio 17 (1999), 113, 311, 314. The USDA appeased the organic lobby by keeping organic and GMO separate, NatBio 17 (1999), 217.

There needs to be a recipe for restoring trust, Nature 398 (1999), 639. A new sensitive DNA test made by RHM Technology of High Wycombe, Bucks., UK allows detection of DNA in highly processed foods, NS (27 March 1999), 4. The EU is expected to introduce rules to allow food to be labeled GM-free if less than 2% of the soya or maize within the product is from a GMO. Seven supermarket chains in Europe have tried to stop having GM components in their foods, including Sainsburys in the UK and Carrefour in France. However in 1996 the GM tomato puree was outselling its non-GM counterpart since 1996 until the 1999 controversy. A claim that "GM-free" food labels are value-free is NatBio 17 (1999), 420; Ram's Horn 168 (1999), 7. The New Zealand baking company Goodman Fielder switched to canola oil from genetically modified soy oil in response to protests, Christchurch Press (12 March 1999), 9. However, much canola oil is also from GMOs, so it relies on an Australian producer using that method.

A colour classifier system for sorting diseased soybeans using image processing has been developed, Plant Disease 83 (1999), 320-7; which one could imagine could be applied to sorting soybeans if a colour marker was included.

A study in Cornell University has found that Monarch butterflies are harmed by pollen from some Bt corn, and there are urgent calls for further verification of the results and studies on possible impacts of Bt toxin, Nature 399 (1999), 214, 405. For some people to accept the idea that GM food may be safe may require a system for testing all foods, and to make comparisons, NS (17 April 1999), 18-9. At a recent meeting of the Codex Alimentarius Commission only the USA and Argentina support the position that GM foods do not need labels if they are substantially equivalent, Nature 399 (1999), 11; NatBio 17 (1999), 519. A comment is Miller, HI. "A rational approach to labeling biotech-derived foods", Science 284 (1999), 1471-2. The British medical Association report released on 18 May, 1999 suggests that GM crops should not be grown commercially in the UK until the food is proven safe, Lancet 353 (1999), 1769. Some comments over the consumption of GM food are in The Ram's Horn 169 (May 1999), 1-8; Splice 5 (May 1999), 3, 8-9; SA (May 1999), 34-5, EST 33 (1999), 186-7A; NS (22 May 1999), 3; Lancet 353 (1999), 1531, 1769, 1811; NatBio 17 (1999), 517. On the Pusztai affair, BMJ 318 (1999), 1284; Science 284 (1999), 21, 1442-4. The UK prime minister may have softened his support for GM food, Nature 399 (1999), 515. A report by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics advises to proceed cautiously with GM food, Nature 399 (1999), 287, 396.

Scientists advising the European Commission have supported a genetically modified radicchio lettuce that is resistant to herbicide and it may be the first product approved in Europe for raw eating, NS (May 1999), 52 (note that raw eating tomatoes were approved in the USA in the mid-1990s). The British charity Christian Aid has challenged companies to show how GM food will be an answer to global hunger, Nature 399 (1999), 99. A paper related to this issue is Gerngross, TU. "Can biotechnology move us toward a sustainable society?" NatBio 17 (1999), 541-4.

There are also new regulations developing to allow nutrient supplements to drinks, so-called "nutraceuticals", GEN 19 (15 May 1999), 9, 41. The 1998 European Parliament resolution on food law is in IDHL 50 (1999), 99-104. Organic farming is also associated with food scars, NS (29 May 1999), 4. A Japanese consumer group has protested the revelation that so-called cloned beef has been sold for 4 years in Nara prefecture, but it was produced by embryo-splitting which is different to nuclear transfer, and quite common in some other countries, Lancet 353 (1999), 1422.

The MAFF of Japan proposed new guidelines for GMO labels on the 10th August, 1999 http://www.maff.go.jp/soshiki/syokuhin/hinshitu/990824-01.html; Nature 400 (1999), 605. These proposed guidelines are still subject to refinement and development. The new labeling standards will be announced in April 2000 and will be implemented after a one-year preparation period, although the length of the preparation period may vary with the case. The MAFF recognizes that the standards need to be periodically revised according to new product commercialization, usage of GM ingredients, technological advancement of DNA/protein detection and removal, and consumers concerns. The standards will need to be revised when necessary based on the usage of GM foods and Codex discussion.

Labeling will be a part of the mandatory Quality Labeling Standards in the Japan Agricultural Standards Law. Manufacturers or importers have an obligation for labeling. Manufacturers determine the labeling based on the procurement plans of the ingredients (such as non-segregated GM ingredients or segregated non-GMO ingredients). Identity-preserved (IP) handling or non-segregation is to be confirmed by certification or documentation from distributors of the ingredients. The foundation of confirmation of the truthfulness of the labeling by public organizations is certificates and documentation on the production and distribution of the ingredients. The certificates being discussed include: Breeder certificate, producer certificate, storage certificate, bulk transportation certificate, conditioner certificate, and container certificate. A public organization may test the presence of DNA and protein to screen the truthfulness of social confirmation system. Manufacturers may perform scientific testing on their products.

However, those who sell their products manufactured at the same place are exempted from labeling. This exemption is based on seeing the producer when buying the food, and by not packaging of food, so that farmers who sell products on the road-side are exempted if they do not package, tofu makers who do not sell tofu through over persons are exempted. A restaurant is exempted for food served, but not for food that is packaged and sold at the counter. Also on Japanese GM food labels, Ram's Horn 172 (August 1999), 4.

In general on the European GM food debate from a US Agroindustry perspective is GEN 19 (August 1999), 1, 8, 59; also Time (13 Sept. 1999), 40-2. The EU has adopted tougher standards, BMJ 319 (1999), 11; Lancet 354 (1999), 54; from the public debate, NS (12 June 1999), 53. On risk assessment for food safety, Biotechnology & Development Monitor 38 (June 1999), 2-7; Lancet 354 (1999), 69-71, 684; BMJ 318 (1999), 1694-5. Some comments on the shops which have been withdrawing GM food are in NatBio 17 (1999), 623. Switzerland was the first country in the EU to set its tolerance level for GMO-free food at 1%, to cover for possible cross-pollination or transport mixing, NatBio 17 (1999), 629. A discussion of GMO-free is Splice 5 (July/August 1999), 6-7; and on genetic engineering debate in New Zealand politcs, Splice 5 (July/August 1999), 8-9. Australia and New Zealand have agreed to mandatory labeling of foods produced using gene technology, Nature 400 (1999), 608. The debate in the UK is in GenEthics News 28/29 (1999), 1; Nature 400 (1999), 501-2; BMJ 318 (1999), 1441. There is a UK food ethics council, Lancet 353 (1999), 2220. Labeling in general is discussed in Ram's Horn 170 (June 1999), 3-6; Ram's Horn 171 (July 1999), 1-4.

A paper on public opinion is Gaskell, G. et al. "Worlds apart? The reception of genetically modified foods in Europe and the U.S.", Science 284 (1999), 384-7. A call for an international perspective on GM crops is Nature 399 (1999), 715. A new book is Kneen, Brewster, Farmageddon. Food and the Culture of Biotechnology (New Society Publishers, 1999 ISBN 0-86571-394-4, US$16.95, 240pp.). It has a negative view of the growing domination of large multinational Agrobiotech companies, and claims that there is insufficient regulations. On Monsanto, GeneWatch 12 (June 1999), 12-4; 12 (August 1999), 10-13. Even if the US labels GM crops Europe has to buy them, NS (24 July 1999), 12; Nature 400 (1999), 298. A French call for a G8 group to look at GMO food safety was rejected, Nature 399 (1999), 717.

African countries are being asked to introduce a law that would require an exporter to obtain permission of the importing country before sending the food, Nature 400 (1999), 495. However, it may not help world hunger, BMJ 318 (1999), 1506. In the UK restaurants will need to be able to tell customers if their ingredients are from GMOs or not, GenEthics News 28/29 (1999), 12. The baby food maker, Gerber and Heinz have declared that they will not include GM food components, Ram's Horn 172 (August 1999), 2-3.

On hormones in beef, Ram's Horn 170 (June 1999), 1-2.The US is to apply sanctions over the EU meat ban on hormone-treated beef imports, Financial Times (13 July 1999), 6; BMJ 319 (1999), 1442. On the supposed Coca-cola-related illnesses and dioxin in animal feed in Belgium, Lancet 353 (1999), 2049; 354 (1999), 173, 680-2; NS (12 June 1999), 4; (26 June 1999), 3, 18-9. Functional foods are discussed in BMJ 319 (1999), 205-6. On food safety, BMJ 319 (1999), 1689-93. On the Codex Alimentarius guidelines on organic food, Lancet 354 (1999), 314 (see FAO www site).

Obesity is discussed in NatMed 5 (1998), 742-3; AJPH 89 (1999), 1194-9; BMJ 319 (1999), 147-50. Healthy weight guidelines are reviewed in NEJM 341 (1999), 427-34. A discussion of trans fatty acids and coronary heart disease is NEJM 340 (1999), 1933-40, 1994-8; and of vitamin E and fish oil, Lancet 354 (1999), 441-2. A study suggesting that the reason for low heart disease mortality in France is previously low animal fat consumption, BMJ 318 (1999), 1471-80; 319 (1999), 255-6. On cellular cholesterol metabolism, NatGen 22 (19999), 316-8. A book review on salt is NEJM 340 (1999), 1770-1; also NS (21 August 1999), 14-5. In a US sample, coffee consumption may reduce risk of gallstone disease in men at risk of it, JAMA 281 (1999), 2106-12.

An Internet site called http://www.thehungersite.com allows people to donate food on the Internet, Lancet 354 (1999), 605. Low alcohol beers could be made tastier by a yeast with a deleted gene, NS (12 June 1998), 7. In the UK the Food Ethics Council has added ethical reasons (including socio-economic considerations) as one factor in approval of new foods, Guardian (21 Oct. 1999); also NS (11 Sept. 1999), 15. In Holland the Health Council is responsible for safety assessment of novel foods, Network (August 1999), 5. On voluntary labeling of food in Canada, The Ram's Horn 173 (Sept. 1999), 1-2; Lancet 354 (1999), 1537; and on policy in British Columbia, The Ram's Horn 174 (Nov. 1999), 4-5. On the EC food safety commissioner, Lancet 354 (1999), 1012. A new book is Teitel, M. & Wilson, K. Genetically Engineered Foods: Changing the Nature of Nature (Park Street Press, 1999, 144pp., ISBN 0-89281-888-3), see GeneWatch 12 (Oct. 1999), 17-8. A series of papers on allergy testing from GM food as a conference review are C&B Bulletin 2 (Nov. 1999), 1-12. Comments that GM food may be useful for poorer countries are in NS (18 Sept. 1999), 3.

The publication of the Pusztai paper has re-activated the debate on that trial, Ewen, SWB. & Pusztai, A. "Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine", Lancet 354 (1999), 1353-4. Also on the unknown effects of lectins, and on safety of GM food, Lancet 354 (1999), 1354-5, 1382, 1312-4, 1725-30. There has been criticism of the journal for publishing the paper, Science 286 (1999), 656; NS (16 Oct. 1999), 6-7; BMJ 319 (1999), 1089; Nature 401 (1999), 731; Nature Biotechnology 17 (1999), 1047. On the debate, Nature 401 (1999), 640-1; 402 (1999), 228, 229; Lancet 354 (1999), 1314-6. A discussion of when Europeans may accept raw GM food is NS (30 Oct. 1999), 12. Social phobias are discussed in FDA Consumer (Nov. 1999), 27-33.

Substantial equivalence is discussed in Splice 6 (Nov. 1999), 4-5; Nature 401 (1999), 525-6, 640; Nature Biotechnology 17 (1999), 1042\3. Regulation of nutraceuticals is in Science 285 (1999), 1853-5; and on functional foods, Lancet 354 (1999), 794. In the USA there are about 75 million cases a year of foodborne illness, BMJ 319 (1999), 873. On the EU food agency and biotech Nature Biotechnology 17 (1999),945. Quantitation of genetically modified organisms in food is discussed in Nature Biotechnology 17 (1999), 1137\8.

The American desire for sugar-free sweeteners is discussed in FDA Consumer (Nov. 1999), 12-16. Orange juice can increase cancer protection, Science News 156 (1999), 166; as do fruits and vegetables, AJPH 89 (1999), 1390-6; JAMA 282 (1999), 1233-9. SNPs can help predict cancer prediction and diet links, PNAS 96 (1999), 12216-8. Green teas benefits are described in Nature Medicine 5 (1999), 1216. Also on nutrition, F&S 72 (1999), 579-91; JAMA 282 (1999), 1576-8, 1579-81.

Reducing television watching can reduce childrenfs obesity, JAMA 282 (1999), 1561-7; also NEJM 341 (1999), 1097-105, 1140-1. The prevalance of obesity in UK children is discussed in BMJ 319 (1999), 1039, 1103-4. About half US adults are overweight and face extra disease risks, JAMA 282 (1999), 1504-6, 1519-22, 1523-9, 1530-8. On anorexia in pigs as a model, NS (Oct. 1999), 5. Leptin response requires neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor, Nature Medicine 5 (1999), 1188-93. Food contamination by PCBs and dioxins is discussed in Nature 401 (1999), 231-2. Olestra can help the body remove dioxins, NS (23 Oct. 1999), 26.

A study on mite found mate choice depends on diet, Nature 401 (1999), 581-4. On flavoured foods for sheep, Animal Science 69 (1999), 313-25.

GM food is discussed in Science 286 (1999), 1666-8; Time (13 Dec. 1999), 25; GeneWatch 12 (Dec. 1999), 1-3, 5-11, 13, 15; The Economist (16 Oct. 1999), 97-8; Nature 402 (1999), 571, 575; Nature Biotechnology 18 (2000), 13. There is widespread contamination of crops with GM varieties, EST 33 (1999), 484-5A. However access issues may determine if developing countries can get GM crops, Nature 402 (1999), 341-5. SPS agreements are discussed in Agribusiness 15 (1999), 323-33, 355-69. FDA not yet moved by biotech food critics Nature Biotechnology 18 (2000), 15.

In general on food safety increases in the decade, JAMA 282 (1999), 1909-12; Food Policy 24 (Dec. 1999), 589-706. Regulation of food in Switzerland is reviewed in Food Today 17 (Oct. 1999), 2. Shiga toxin producing O157 survives a long time in bovine faeces, AEM 65 (1999), 5177-81. There are usually mixed microbial populations in food, J. Theor. Biol. 201 (1999), 159-70. An editorial calling for use of food irradiation after the 1999 Report of the Auditor General of Canada is CMAJ 162 (2000), 5; (www.oag-bvg.gc.ca). On food irradiation, Science 286 (1999), 2275-6; Report of a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Study group, High-dose irradiation: Wholesomeness of food irradiated with doses above 10 kGy, WHO Technical Report Series 890 (1999). On nutraceuticals, Science 286 (1999), 1854-6, 2269-70; and unconventional diets, BMJ 319 (1999), 1419-22.

Testing for heart disease risk is discussed in JAMA 282 (1999), 1991-2, 2012-8. The risk of high sodium includes heart disease, JAMA 282 (1999), 2027-34, 2068-70; and alcohol and heart disease, BMJ 319 (1999), 1523-8. Obesity is an epidemic in UK children, Lancet 354 (1999), 1874-5. Obesity has bad health affects, JAMA 282 (1999), 2136-42; Science 286 (1999), 1679-81. Obesity and ethics is discussed in MJA 171 (1999), 611-3. In Pakistan there have been some cases of cattle fodder being sold as food, Lancet 354 (1999), 1982.

The benefits of tea are discussed in Food Today 17 (Sept. 1999), 1; and green tea, Biol. Bull. 197 (1999), 285-6. Chocolate contains additional flavonoids not found in tea, Lancet 354 (1999), 1825. Vitamin C intake is discussed in JAMA 282 (1999), 2118-9. On the dangers of caffeine, NEJM 341 (1999), 1639-44, 88-9. Many people have an allergy to latex, NS (11 Dec. 1999), 9; NEJM 341 (1999), 1858.
A discussion of the impact of the GM food debates on US farmers is JAMA 283 (2000), 188-90. A call for use of genetic engineering is Trewavas, A. "Much food, many problems", Nature 403 (2000), 231-2; NatBio 18 (2000), 247. Technologies to monitor and label GM food are discussed in Science 287 (2000), 431-2. On 19 January the Swiss released their laws on GM food, which includes a 30 year liability period for harm caused by GM foods, Lancet 355 (2000), 388. Japan has announced health tests on GM food will be mandatory from April 2001, Nature 402 (1999), 846. Currently checks are voluntary. A general discussion on safety is Thompson, L. "Are bioengineered foods safe?", FDA Consumer (Jan. 2000), 18-23. On allergens see a 4 page Supplement 127 to NS (22 Jan. 2000). The fears that people and consumers have has made some researchers worry about funding of plant biotechnology projects, Science 287 (2000), 790-1. The FDA is considering approving the first transgenic fish NatBio 18 (2000), 143.

A review of food safety technology is GEN 20 (15 Feb. 2000), 50, 59. How much depends on the value judgements of safety requirement. The European Commission is planning to set up an independent Food Authority to better reassure people, and has accepted the White Paper on Food Safety, Science 287 (2000), 403-4; Lancet 355 (2000), 297. There has been controversy over the UK food standards chief, Nature 403 (2000), 235. Diet and heart disease is discussed in BMJ 320 (2000), 301-5. Vitamin E has no apparent affect on high risk heart disease patients, NEJM 342 (2000), 154-60; Lancet 355 (2000), 383. There is also a lack of impact of phyto-estrogens on health for women for estrogen replacement therapy, Lancet 355 (2000), 163-4. Obesity is discussed in NEJM 341 (1999), 2097-8. There may be a link with depression, AJPH 90 (2000), 251-7. Childhood obesity is also important to prevent, BMJ 320 (2000), 328-9. On the vitamin needs and fortified foods of toddlers, Time (19 Feb. 2000), 56. Brain reward is modulated by leptin, Science 287 (2000), 125-8. Bee behaviour and tracking to food is discussed in Science 287 (2000), 817-8. Nitrates and food safety is discussed in NS (5 Feb. 2000), 48-9.

A US study suggests alcoholic drinking is no longer declining, AJPH 90 (2000), 47-52. About 1 in 4 US children under 18 years is exposed to alcohol abuse or dependence, AJPH 90 (2000), 112-5. Health benefits from moderate alcohol are discussed in Lancet 355 (2000), 123. Fluoride treatment and water is discussed in Lancet 355 (2000), 265-9, 247.

A report from the Codex task Force on Novel Foods Derived from Biotechnology by D. Macer is IAB News 11 (Summer 2000), 5-8. A report on the Codex Committee on Food Labeling hosted by Canada is The Ram's Horn 180 (May 2000), 1-4. On the future of new foods from biotechnology, Splice 6 (May 2000), 4-5, 12. GM fish is discussed in Splice 6 (May 2000), 10-1. On the spirit of science and scientists, NS (17 June 2000), 46-7. From now companies in the USA who want to introduce new GM food will have to submit evidence to the FDA 120 days in advance, and the information must be on the Internet for public scrutiny, Nature 405 (2000), 108.

The need for GM food in developing countries is argued in NS (27 May 2000), 40-3; Science 288 (2000), 1966-7. There are however concerns that GM food is being sent in foreign food aid more to increase the market for GM food, Nature 405 (2000), 875. In general on the GM food issue, Ecologist 30 (2000), 51; Science 288 (2000), 1748-9; SA (April 2000), 42-3.

Ethical issues in anorexia nervosa are discussed in Turkish J. Med. Ethics 7 (1999), 53-9. High fibre diets may not alter recurrence of colorectal adenomas, NEJM 342 (2000), 1149-55, 1156-62, 1206-7. Yeast cells may be a useful food supply, NS (13 May 2000), 13. On the benefits of fruits, Time (15 May 2000), 61. In the USA there was an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption 1990-1994, but little change 1994-1996, AJPH 90 (2000), 777-81. Diets that control insulin are discussed in Science News 157 (2000), 236-8. Dietary treatment of diabetes is discussed in NEJM 342 (2000), 1392-8, 1440-1; Lancet 355 (2000), 1794. A review of the benefits of Soybean is FDA Consumer (May 2000), 13-20. Food fortification to stop pellagra in the 1930s and 1940s appears to have been successful, AJPH 90 (2000), 727-38.

Canada is revising its food and drug regulation, Lancet 355 (2000), 1527. There is insufficient data to support claims that antioxidants help avoid disease, Lancet 355 (2000), 1433; NEJM 342 (2000), 1917-8. Too much flavonoids in supplements can also cause fetuses to develop leukemia, NS (22 April 2000), 7. Coffee may lower risk of Parkinson's disease, JAMA 283 (2000), 2674-9; BMJ 320 (2000), 1492. A pale green tea with double caffeine may aid health, Science News 157 (2000), 251. Against fat, Newsweek (26 June 2000), 53-4; BMJ 320 (2000), 1240-5. Diet quality and morality in women is reviewed in JAMA 283 (2000), 2109-15. On cancer and herbs, NEJM 342 (2000), 1742-3. Some asthma drugs may be useful against food allergens, Lancet 355 (2000), 2055.

FDA proposals for GM foods are discussed in GEN 20 (15 May 2000), 1, 37, 83; (1 June 2000), 1, 47, 64; FDA Consumer (July 2000), 3; and Codex standards in TIBTECH 18 (June 2000), 232-3. The G8 leaders did not agree on GM food, at the Okinawa Summit, Lancet 356 (2000), 408; Nature 406 (2000), 335. GM food is being discussed in popular magazines, She (August 2000; NZ), 106-11; NZ Science Monthly (Feb. 2000), 3. The European Commission is ending its de facto moratorium on GM products, Lancet 356 (2000), 320. A group of scientists are backing GM food for the Third World, Nature 406 (2000), 115; NS (5 Aug. 2000), 48-9.

Counseling about risks of heart disease is discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 49-52; and on the management of risk, Lancet 356 (2000), 266-7, 279-84, 347, 359-65, 366-72. There are racial differences, AJPH 90 (2000), 1128-34. Women who avoid smoking, have a good diet and do exercise have a low risk of heart disease, NEJM 343 (2000), 16-22. Vitamin E may protect against PCBs, Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), A16. The question of whether obesity is caused by a virus is discussed in NS (5 Aug. 2000), 3, 26-30. On obesity, JAMA 284 (2000), 291-3; SA (Aug. 2000), 93; and childhood obesity, Newsweek (3 July 2000), 42-9. Obesity concepts differ between culture, Health & Place 5 (1999), 279-86. Mice treated with fatty acid synthase inhibitors have reduced food intake, Science 288 (2000), 2299-300, 2379-81. Cholesterol is a linear risk factor for heart disease even in young adults, JAMA 284 (2000), 311-8, 365-7. A review on selenium is Lancet 356 (2000), 233-41.

natural medicine from foods is discussed in NS (12 Aug. 2000), 10. A study on the Neanderthal food is PNAS 97 (2000), 7663-6. A review on the birth of the modern diet is SA (August 2000), 76-81. Japan has faced a series of food contamination events in dairy products, Lancet 356 (2000), 232. UNICEF has been accused of forming an alliance with the baby food industry, BMJ 321 (2000), 132; and against Nestle breaches on marketing baby milk, BMJ 321 (2000), 8.

There is concern over the non-approved GM corn variety found in tacos, New York Times (23 Sept. 2000), B1, 15; (30 Sept. 2000), B11, B14; NS (7 Oct. 2000), 3, 6; BMJ 321 (2000), 1041; Nature 407 (2000), 438; NatBio 18 (2000), 1136\7. Japan bound US corn will be tested by Japanese officials from November, 2000; Nature 407 (2000), 126. Claims that the US dumped GM food in food aid for Orissa, India were made by BBC (3 June 2000). On Australian and New Zealand GM food labeling, NatBio 18 (2000), 911. There has been controversy in the Philippines, Science 289 (2000), 1279-80. In the UK protestors are saying that McDonalds is feeding GM-fed feed beef, BBC (19 Nov. 2000). In China however recent licenses for GM plants include for cotton, tomatoes, peppers; and for flowers \ petunias; AgWeb (15 Nov. 2000).

A paper on the impact of food safety guidelines on transgenics in Spanish is Eidon 5 (Oct 2000), 74-9. A negative view on GM food safety is Int. J. Biotechnology 2 (2000), 231-8. California may enact a new law that would place a charge on sales of GM rice varieties to cover the cost of segregating, Ram's Horn 184 (Oct. 2000), 3. In general on GM food, Ram's Horn 184 (Oct. 2000), 4-6; Proteus 17 (2000), 3-8; Ecologist 30 (Sept. 2000), 11, 54-6; NS (28 Oct. 2000), 3; Nature 407 (2000), 431; Science 290 (2000), 457-9; Newsweek (9 Oct. 2000), 60.

A collection of news on whether soy is really good for people is Environment & Health News 16 (Summer 2000), 1, 7. Aging can be slowed by food restriction in C. elegans, Science 289 (2000), 2062-3, 2126-9. On food safety in general, Cereal Foods World 45 (2000), 169-72; Agricultural Economics 23 (2000), 231-40. Therapeutic manipulation of gut flora is reviewed in Science 289 (2000), 1311-2.

The relation of insulin, diabetes and obesity is discussed in Science 289 (2000), 2066-7; Lancet 356 (2000), 757-61, 834, 1454-5; NatMed. 6 (2000), 1092-3; NS (12 Aug. 2000), 3; Time (4 Sept. 2000), 51; Newsweek (11 Sept 2000), 36-43. Whole grain reduces risk of diabetes, AJPH 90 (2000), 1409-15. Reducing LDL cholesterol while still eating cake is debated in Lancet 356 (2000), 1006. Melanocortins are involved in body weight regulation, NatGen. 26 (2000), 8-9. Obesity surgery is discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 523-4, 980; NS (16 Sept. 2000), 36-9. On Bulimia, Lancet 356 (2000), 949. A virus Ad-36 boosts fat in chickens and mice, Science News 158 (2000), 87. The health of the heart and food intake is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 867; NEJM 343 (2000), 530-7, 1305-11. Health and diabetes to Aborigines is discussed in SSM 51 (2000), 1457-72. Low fat milk may have higher risk of contamination, NS (30 Sept. 2000), 11.

Community intervention to reduce alcohol use can reduce driving injuries, JAMA 284 (2000), 2341-7. The drug ondansetron can be used to prevent biologically predisposed patients from becoming alcoholic, JAMA 284 (2000), 963-71, 1016. On alcohol dependence, JAMA 284 (2000), 1016-7; and benefits of alcohol for life expectancy, MJA 173 (2000), 116-7, 121-4, 231-2. Fibre and calcium may reduce colorectal recurrence, Lancet 356 (2000), 1286, 1300-6. The question of why caffeine is in fizzy drinks is discussed in NS (19 Aug. 2000), 10. On caffeine and Parkinsonfs disease, JAMA 284 (2000), 1378-9. Beriberi and white rice is discussed in NEJM 343 (2000), 588; Nature 407 (2000), 835-6

The FDA has plans for better scrutiny of biotechnology, New York Times (18 Jan. 2001); but still no mandatory labels.he Canadian Parliament is also against mandatory GM labeling, AgraFood Biotech 43 (15 Nov. 2000), 12.; A review of the issue is Science 290 (2000), 457-9. A US/EU committee has agreed for tighter labeling of GM products, Int. Herald Tribune (19 Dec. 2000). India is likely to ban import of oil from GM oilseeds for economic reasons, Plant Biotech Week (9 Dec. 2000), 1. A proposed labeling level in Asia of 5% GM is different to the 1% in Europe, AgraFood Biotech 44 (29 Nov. 2000), 6. McDonald’s has said it will not use animals that were raised on GM food, Independent (20 Nov. 2000). The company Gardenburger has changed to use non-GM soybean, AgraFood Biotech< 46 (10 Jan. 2001), 18. There have been a number of studies showing that GM feeds to animals does not alter animals, AgraFood Biotech 44 (29 Nov. 2000), 4. In Europe the GA21 maize from Monsanto has been approved as substantially equivalent, however the de facto ban may have to wait before it is introduced to the market, AgraFood Biotech 43 (15 Nov. 2000), 9.

The EPA has re-evaluating the StarLink license to see whether it was safe for human consumption, especially regarding fears of allergy from Cry9C Bt protein, that some people have, NatBio 19 (2001), 11. The Starlink corn has been found widely, AgraFood Biotech. 42 (2000), 2-3. There have been two cases of Starlink contamination found in Japan from random tests of US corn, Plant Biotech Week (13 Jan. 2001), 7; however these are disputed, NatBio 18 (2000), 1136-7. The same gene has also been found in another corn variety, NS (2 Dec. 2000), 11. The EPA has urged further study of the corn, Science 290 (8 Dec. 2000). Farmers have been suing Aventis for damages. A paper on liability for GM contamination is Australian Biotech 10 (Sept. 2000), 37-9.

On dietary vitamin E and atopy, Lancet 356 (2000), 1573-4. Dietary supplements that contain ephedra alkaloids are associated with adverse cardiovascular and CNS events, NEJM 343 (2000), 1833-8. Measurement of peanut and nut allergies is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 87-8. Lifestyle medicines are discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 1341-4; Newsweek (11 Dec. 2000), 36-7. The benefits of fish are discussed in Time (15 Jan. 2001), 48-9.<

The definitions of obesity in different countries are discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 1158-9. The G-2548A polymorphism of the 5’ region of the LEP gene is associated with being overweight, Annals Human Genetics 64 (2000), 391-4. Treatment of obesity is very difficult, Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s42. Dietary cholesterol in Sitosterolemia is caused by mutations in ABC transporters, Science 290 (1 Dec. 2000). The hormone resistin links obesity to diabetes, Nature 409 (2001), 292-3, 307-12. Healthy genes could mean less weight, Time (22 Jan. 2001), 49-50.

Heart treatment is discussed in Time (22 Jan. 2001), 52-3. Social environment is important for physical activity, SSM 52 (2001), 1-10. The global pandemic of cardiovascular diseases is discussed in Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s9. Sudden death can be triggered by vigorous exertion, NEJM 343 (2000), 1355-61, 1409-11. Physical activity may protect against colon cancer, BMJ 321 (2000), 1424-5. On constipation, BMJ 321 (2000), 1586-9.

Baby food lobbies and WHO are discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 1411. In general on the marketing of food, Lancet 356 (2000), 1786-7.

A paper in French on GM food and allergies is La Recherche 339 (Feb. 2001), 87-9. The EU has pledged that tracking GMs will be low cost, AgraEurope (16 Feb. 2001), 5. In Japan at the Scientific Feed Association scientists have said that there is no sign of modified DNA or proteins in chickens fed Starlink GM corn, Nature 409 (2001), 657. On the EPA and Starlink, AgBiotech Reporter (Jan. 2001), 1-2; NatBio 19 (2001), 11; Splice 7 (Nov. 2000), 4-5. The American Medical Association has released a report saying that there are no long-term health effects from GM foods to date, (Dec. 2000); Plant Biotech Week (3 Feb. 2001), 5-8. China may export the world's first Bt rice, AgBiotech Reporter (Jan. 2001), 19. A book review of McHughen. A. Pandora's Picnic Basket: The Potential and Hazards of Genetically Modified Foods (Oxford Univ. Press 2000, 277pp.) is Nature 409 (2001), 559-60. A review of the global imports of GM food and agrobusiness is Goldberg, RA. "The food wars: A potential peace", JLME 28 (Winter 2000), Special Supplement, 39-45. One Islamic view on GM food is Splice 7 (Nov. 2000), 6-7.

Greenpeace has said that it will not halt trials of GM Golden Rice, Independent (10 Feb. 2001); Nature 409 (2001), 551. Developing countries need more food, that GM promises, Tomorrow (Jan. 2001), 20-2. Many US food associations are concerned about proposed Mexican rules on labeling of GM food, Food Chemical News 42 (12 Feb. 2001), 29. Labeling has the potential to increase costs in Canada by 10%, AgraFood Biotech 47 (24 Jan. 2001), 5. In Canada there are calls for tighter controls on transgenic foods, Nature 409 (2001), 749. There may also be tougher rules after a joint UK/US expert group, NatBio 19 (2001), 106. Plans for GM bread are discussed in AgraFood Biotech 47 (24 Jan. 2001), 5. On GM baby food, Plant Biotech Week (20 Jan. 2001), 2.

Management of peanut and nut allergies is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 87-8, 111-5. Children in Tibet have widespread malnutrition, NEJM 344 (2001), 373-4; as are some old disabled women in the USA, AJPH 91 (2001), 68-75. In many places in the world however widespread television and computer game playing are resulting in an obesity epidemic, BMJ 322 (2001), 313-4. On future research to control obesity, NatBio 19 (2001), 25-8. A survey by the UK Food Standards Authority (5 Feb. 2001) found that 14% of the respondents have had at least one case of food poisoning over the past year. Cholesterol reduction may not reduce mortality except for diseases, BMJ 322 (2001), 11-5.

A call to tax foods based on the production costs is NS (27 Jan. 2001), 8. A book review on The Future of Food is BMJ 322 (2001), 115. Citrus foods may have some discussed in NatMed. 7 (2001), 29-30. Use of dietary supplements and reasons why women use them in the UK are reported in SSM 52 (2001), 621-33. Intake of fish reduces risk of stroke in women, JAMA 285 (2001), 304-12.

On GM food safety, SA (April 2001), 38-51. To avoid further Starlink-like contamination, the US EPA has announced that no further GM products will be approved for animal feed unless they also are approved for human consumption, NatBio 19 (2001), 298-9. Japan has set a 5% upper limit on the GM corn that can be included in non GM corn by label, Nature 410 (2001), 507. A comment on voluntary labeling of GM food is Ram's Horn 188 (Feb. 2001), 1-2. Opposing views on GM food also include Splice 7 (Jan 2001), 4-7; or RAFI Communique #67, on the www.rafi.org; GeneWatch 13 (Sept. 2000), 10-5; 14 (March 2001), 2-3.

A review of the UK Food Standards Agency is Nature 410 (2001), 867-8.

A letter on the physical detection limits for GMOs in corn is NatBio 19 (2001), 405; Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment 4 (2000), 195. The reliability of tests are assessed in Int. J. Food Science and Technology 36 (2001), 357; NS (14 April 2001), 16. The ANZFA labeling procedures are discussed in Australian Biotechnology 11 (March 2001), 17-8. The EU will allow sale of foods containing traces of nonapproved GM traits, European Voice (17 May 2001), 1-2; AgraFood Biotech 56 (29 May 2001), 10. China has required more field tests before US companies can sell GM grain there, Int. Hearld Tribune (9 June 2001). In the USA however the areas growing GM soybean and corn are expanding still, AgBiotech Reporter (March 2001), 2. However the USDA called for public comment on segregation of GM food, AgraFood Biotech 50 (7 March 2001), 4-5.

A report from the 29th Session of the Codex Committee on Food Labeling in Ottawa, 1-4 May, 2001 is in Ramfs Horn 190 (May 2001), 1-4. A survey in the US found less than 20% were strongly in favour of labeling GM food, and few were wiling to pay for it, AgraFood Biotech 57 (12 June 2001), 7-8 (see Biotechnology and Public section for opinion surveys). Surveys of foods in US and Germany have found that about 60% of foods contain some GM food, but the amounts are between 1-5%, AgraFood Biotech 51 (21 March 2001), 3. Labeling is also discussed in AgraFood Biotech 51 (21 March 2001), 13. Labeling in pet foods is reviewed in FDA Consumer (May 2001), 26-31. On the traceability discussions at the Codex Task Force on Novel Foods Produced from Biotechnology, AgraFood Biotech 53 (18 April 2001), 12; Food Chemical News (19 Feb. 2001), 23; (12 March 2001), 32. Aventis asked the EPA to consider that 20ppb of Starlink corn was safe for human consumption, Ramfs Horn 190 (May 2001), 4. Starlink will be found in the food chain for some further years it is expected, AgBiotech Reporter (April 2001), 1. Blood tests were used to test people who claimed health problems from Starlink corn, and they were found to be negative; Nature 411 (2001), 878. See also papers in AgraFood Biotech 56 (29 May 2001), 6. Probiotics can reduce the affect of allergies, Lancet 357 (2001), 1057-9. The FDA is making stricter guidelines for allergens in snacks in general, BMJ 322 (2001), 883.

The EPA has said that Bt corn is cost effective but a report from the Union of Concerned Scientists said it is not, AgraFood Biotech 51 (21 March 2001), 23. Monsanto has said that it will stop selling GM potato seed to US and Canadian farmers because most fast food manufacturers have said they do not use it, AgBiotech Reporter (April 2001), 4. A study of animals fed GM corn and soybean at the University of Illinois has found no difference, AgraFood Biotech 55 (15 May 2001), 3; 58 (26 June 2001), 1-2. Also further studies in mice find no modified DNA from food enters the mice, Molecular Genetics and Genomics (March 201); AgraFood Biotech 52 (4 April 2001), 24. A critique of substantial equivalence is Splice 7 (May 2001), 7, 14.

A new WHO book is Foodborne disease: a focus for health education (WHO, 2000, 198pp.). Food security and North American eating habits are discussed in Ramfs Horn 191 (June 2001), 1-3; and on GM food aid, pp. 6-7. Strategic Consulting Inc. has predicted in a report The World Market for GM Food Testing, that public dislike will decrease as people see advantages form GM foods for themselves, www.strategic-consult.com. A way to reduce coffee production costs by biotechnology has been criticized by a UK charity, ActionAid, AgBiotech Reporter (June 2001), 11. On multifunctional foods, TIBTECH 19 (2001), 89-90. Food safety in Europe is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 1276, 1956.

Obesity genes are discussed in NatGen. 28 (2001), 188-91; BMJ 322 (2001), 630-1; Lancet 357 (2001), 1344, 1883; Science News 159 (2001), 238-9. Circumventing leptin resistance for weight control is reported in PNAS 98 (2001), 4279-81, 4652+. Mechanisms of elevated cholesterol are discussed in Science 292 (2001), 1310-2. Updated guidelines on cholesterol management are discussed in JAMA (2001), 2508-9. On obesity, JAMA 285 (2001), 1172-7; BMJ 322 (2001), 631-2, 687-9, 716-20, 1379-80, 1406-9; NEJM 344 (2001), 940-1; Science 291 (2001), 2536-45; Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 21 (2000), 334-6; NatMed 7(2001), 387; MJA 174 (2001), 553-4. Consumption of sugar sweetened drinks is associated with childhood obesity, Lancet 357 (2001), 490-1, 505-8. Childhood obesity is a global epidemic, Lancet 357 (2001), 1989. Reduction in dietary fat reduces cardiovascular risk, BMJ 322 (2001), 757-63; Lancet 357 (2001), 972-3. Dietary trans fatty acids are discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 732-3, 746-51. Predictors of risk factors for atherosclerosis are compared in JAMA 285 (2001), 2481-5. A fatty diet might also impair memory, Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 75 (2001), 179+; NS (3 March 2001), 10. Obesity and inactivity are said to be linked to a global cancer epidemic, BMJ 322 (2001), 945.

On ethical issues, Keywood, K. gMy body and other stories: Anorexia nervosa and the legal politics of embodimenth, Social & Legal Studies 9 (2000), 495-515. The outcome of patients with eating disorders in intervention programs are questioned after 5 years, Lancet 357 (2001), 1254-7.

On marital stress and heart disease, JAMA 285 (2001), 1289-90. Diabetes is on the rise worldwide, Lancet 357 (2001), 815. Treating diabetes in severely obese people is questioned in Lancet 357 (2001), 1357-9. Changing habits is important for prevention, NEJM 344 (2001), 1343-50, 1390-2. Material deprivation is also associated with diabetes, BMJ 322 (2001), 1389-93. Efforts to stop dangerous chemicals entering the food chain are discussed in NS (30 June 2001), 3-4. On the incidence of food borne diseases in the USA in 2000, JAMA 285 (2001), 2071-3. A review of how spices may protect us from food toxins and microorganisms is American Scientist 89 (2001), 142-51. The social phenomenon of bottled water is discussed in Ambio 30 (2001), 118-9.

Vitamin C in the absence of transition metal ions may lead to genotoxins so that it does not prevent cancer, Science 292 (15 June 2001). Vitamin E supplements in healthy persons are questioned by the results in JAMA 285 (2001), 1178-82, 2449-50; Lancet 357 (2001), 631-3. Fish consumption appears to be linked to lower prostrate cancer risk, Lancet 357 (2001), 1764-6. On vitamins to stop muscle wastage, NS (2 June 2001), 5. Lutein may reduce atherosclerosis, Lancet 357 (2001), 2030. A study suggesting that adult consumption of fruits and vegetables is not associated with reduced breast cancer risk is JAMA 285 (2001), 769-76, 799-801. On Brassica vegetables and breast cancer risk, JAMA 285 (2001), 2975-7. Green tea and gastric cancer were not linked in Japan in NEJM 344 (2001), 675-6, 632-6. A book review of Health Food Junkies is JAMA 285 (2001), 2255-6.

A book review of the Cambridge World History of Food is JAMA 285 (2001), 1359. The use of child slaves in production of chocolate is said to be common in Africa, The Independent (22 April 2001), 26; Daily Telegraph (17 April 2001), 4.

A comparison of organic and conventional fresh produce buyers in the Boston area is Risk Analysis 20 (2000), 735+. A study of nutrition behaviour in US consumers is Health Psychology 19 (2000), 479-86. How values about food are passed from mother to daughter are reported in Health Psychology 19 (2000), 376-81. A survey of diet and health attitudes in 35 and 75 year old persons in the USA and Switzerland found different knowledge, AJPH 91 (2001), 418-24. On iron deficiency in children, MJA 174 (2001), 162-3.

Discussion of the EU and Canadian positions on labeling of GM foods is in Ram's Horn 193 (August 2001), 6-8. Criticism of the EU labeling position is in AgraFood Biotech 59 (10 July 2001), 12-3. Britain is attempting to make a deal to avoid a trade war over GM food between North America and Europe, Nature 412 (2001), 257-8. Sri Lanka has delayed indefinitely their proposed ban on GM food imports because of WTO concerns. The theft of three transgenic pig carcasses lead to consumption of the meat by people as sausages in Florida, NS (28 July 2001), 14. Starlink and GM contamination of seeds is widespread in the USA, with Starlink appearing in about 10% of 110,000 grain tests performed by the USDA, NatBio 19 (2001), 613.

At the July meeting of the Codex Alimentarius Commission it was agreed that the safety of food derived from GMOs should be tested and approved by governments before entering the market, JAMA 286 (2001), 663; Lancet 358 (2001), 132. However there is no consensus o the issue of labeling. The UNDP has noted that developing countries need more food. A general review on food allergies is FDA Consumer (July 2001), 10-16.

A review of the safety procedures for assessment of food additives in the EU is in Food Today 27 (May 2001), 3. The safety of organic foods is debated in Nature 412 (2001), 666; NS (11 August 2001), 15.

UK studies suggest that there is an influence of the season when one is born and risk factors for anorexia, NS (21 July 2001), 6. Risks of diabetes are linked to atherosclerosis, NatMed. 7 (2001), 840-6. Diabetes is affecting a growing number of children, Scrip Magazine (July 2001), 37-9. Calls for a national dietary guideline for sugar are in MJA 175 (2001), 165-6. On prevention of diabetes, BMJ 323 (2001), 63-4. Adiponectin reverses insulin resistance, NatMed. 7 (2001), 941-6. Prevention of cardiovascular disease and diet is discussed in BMJ 323 (2001), 75-81, 246-7; Science 293 (2001), 801-4. A new molecule syndecan-3 has been implicated in appetite control, Science 293 (2001), 190. A paper on body weight and self control in the USA since the 1950s is Social History of Medicine 14 (2001), 79-106.

EU plans for GM labeling is discussed in NatBio 19 (2001), 795. The UK Food Standards Authority has declared that they are unworkable, AgraFood Biotech 65 (2 Oct. 2001), 14. Consumers International has said African consumer groups support the EU plan, AgraFood Biotech 65 (2 Oct. 2001), 10. An EU report has said that biotech. Foods made be safer than conventional foods, Associated Press (9 Oct. 2001). The European Commision has called on a rapid lifting of the moratorium on growing GM food, Independent (8 Oct. 2001). A memo from the Canadian Dept. Agriculture has suggested use of GM wheat will make identity preservation difficult for farmers, AgraFood Biotech 61 (7 August 2001), 8. On the costs at different %GM thresholds of IP, AgraFood Biotech 62 (21 August 2001), 7; 60 (24 July 2001), 7. The response of European Consumer Organisation to the proposed EU GM labeling and tracing procedure is in Parliament Mag. 123 (2001), 36-7.

Canadian growers demanded that organic food manufacturers remove GM-free labels from their produce by 1 September, 2001, Food Chemical News (25 June 2001), 18. Some comments on GM labels in Canada are in Ram's Horn 194 (Sept. 2001), 6. Comments on the growing number of organic fraud cases in the UK are in AgraFood Biotech 58 (26 June 2001), 4-5. Debate over a study of organic food is in Nature 412 (2001), 666. A series of papers on the use of probiotics and prebiotics are in Clinical Nutrition 73 (Feb. 2001), Supplement, 361S-480S. On the European Food Authority, Lancet 358 (2001), 650.

Childhood obesity may be related to father's genes, Lancet 358 (2001), 564. A book review of Vegetarian Nutrition is NEJM 345 (2001), 775-6. Hypertension is discussed in NEJM 345 (2001), 534-5; Lancet 358 (2001), 945-7; MJA 175 (2001),351-2. Hyperkalaemia and apple juice is discussed in Lancet 358 (2001), 841-2. Diabetes mellitus in children is reviewed in JAMA 286 (2001), 1427-30; also, Lancet 358 (2001), 668-9; 739-46. The majority of type 2 diabetes may be prevented by adoption of healthier lifestyles, NEJM 345 (2001), 790-7. Obesity is discussed in JAMA 286 (2001), 921-9; Lancet 358 (2001), 896.

The benefits and risks of vitamin C are discussed in Science 293 (2001), 1993-5. Vitamin D deficiency and ethnic group in Australia is linked, MJA 175 (2001), 236-7. Calcium supplements have mixed affects on prevention of bone loss, MJA 175 (2001), 242-5.

A recent book is Simontacchi, Carol. The Crazy Makers: how food industry is destroying our brains and harming our children. Penguin Putnam Inc. 2000,, 300pp. Food safety and security are discussed in Ram's Horn 195 (Oct. 2001), 2-5; Nature 415 (2002), 117. There have been some alleged deaths from a UNICEF sponsored vitamin A campaign in India from receiving overdoses, causing investigations, Lancet 358 (2001), 1791; BMJ 323 (2001), 1206. However vitamins can reduce risk of vision loss from macular degeneration, Lancet 358 (2001), 1347. Ordinary foods have many useful medicines in them, NS (17 Nov. 2001), 40-3.

The UK government is to use genetic ID GMO tests, AgraFood Biotech. 69 (2001), 13. However a survey of consumer concerns found GM food is low on the level of factors, compared to issues like price, taste, quality, AgraFood Biotech. 66 (16 Oct. 2001), 3. The EU is expanding its demand for non GM food, AgraFood Biotech. 66 (16 Oct. 2001), 3. Traceability is condemned in a EU meeting, AgraFood Biotech. 70 (13 Dec. 2001), 14. In general on the GM food debate, European Voice (22 Nov. 2001), 19; Agro-Food-Industry Hi Tech (July 2001), 9-10; (Sept. 2001), 32-4; NatBio 19 (2001), 897. A report on why the Canadian Bill C-87 that world have required mandatory labeling of GM food was voted down, Ram's Horn 195 (Oct. 2001), 6. A report from the short-lived Sri Lankan ban on GM food, Biotechnology and Development Monitor 48 (Dec. 2001), 24. China has clarified its import of GM soybean from the USA, AgraEurope (7 Dec. 2001), 3.

On heart disease, Nature 415 (2002), 197-247; NEJM 345 (2001), 1583-92; Lancet 358 (2001), 1642. Obesity research is discussed in Science 294 (2001), 979; NEJM 345 (2001), 1345-6; BMJ 323 (2001), 999. Childhood obesity is growing, though programs can help, BMJ 323 (2001), 916-9, 1018-9, 1027-32, 1280-4; JAMA 286 (2001), 2845-8. Appearance and health as motivators for weight loss, JAMA 286 (2001), 2160. Cholesterol is discussed in BMJ 323 (2001), 1286-8. The global implications of the diabetes epidemic are discussed in Nature 414 (2001), 782-7. Vitamin D may reduce risk, Lancet 358 (2001), 1476-7, 1500-3.

A European Food Agency is expected, Lancet 358 (2001), 2060. On liquorice consumption and salivary testosterone concentrations, Lancet 358 (2001), 1613-4. On vitamin D, MJA 175 (2001), 401-5.

Draft guidelines on assessment of food safety produced from biotechnology have reached step 8 in the Codex Alimentarius process after the March meeting of the Task Force on Novel Foods Produced by Biotechnology in Japan (see Codex web site). A public survey from Ghana on attitudes towards consuming fungal and mycotoxin contaminated dried cassava products found 59% would still consume mouldy cassava products, Int. J. Food Science and Technology 36 (2001), 1-10.

Croatia is drafting laws to ban GM food import, AgraFood Biotech 73 (29 Jan. 2001), 17. Italy may have zero tolerance for GM components, AgraFood Biotech 73 (29 Jan. 2001), 5. GM bacteria to help clean teeth are suggested in NS (23 Feb. 2002), 10.


Changes to the way seeds are labeled with GM varieties in Europe are suggested in NatBio 20 (2002), 319, 324-5. Criticism of traceability in the EU are in AgraFood Biotech. 76 (12 March 2002), 10; 77 (26 March 2002), 13. European consumers may buy GM food if it is cheaper, AgraFood Biotech. 79 (23 April 2002), 8. Indian regulators have said an Indian ban on importing GM soybean oil are not enforceable, AgraFood Biotech. 79 (23 April 2002), 13.

Bt maize may reduce fumonism mycotoxin levels, AgraFood Biotech. 77 (26 March 2002), 20. Toxicologists have called GM foods safe, The Scientist (29 April 2002), 22. Eating soya may not prevent cancer, NS (13 April, 2002), 6. Food safety is discussed in Lancet 359 (2002), 91. On the GM food debate, Ecologist 32 (March 2002), 43; AgraFood Biotech. 73 (29 Jan. 2002), 15; NS (16 March 2002), 12. Starlink is discussed in AgraFood Biotech. 71 (25 Dec. 2001), 18.

Obesity is a major health concern around the world, Lancet 359 (2002), 1412; FDA Consumer (March 2002), 8; JAMA 287 (2002), 1382-6; NEJM 346 (2002), 854-5; BMJ 324 (2002), 625-6. Genes and obesity are discussed in The Scientist (29 April 2002), 22-3; Lancet 359 (2002), 681, 1215; Nature 415 (2002), 268-9. Small molecule insulin mimetics can reduce food intake, NatMed. 8 (2002), 179-83. Dietary restriction in long lived flies is reported in Science 296 (2002), 319. Fish oils save the heart, Albert, CM. Et al. "Blood levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids and risk of sudden death", NEJM 346 (2002), 1113-8; 1102-3; JAMA 287 (2002), 1815-21. The residual lifetime risk for hypertension in middle-aged and elderly US persons is 90%, JAMA 287 (2002), 1003-10. Safe amounts of vitamin A, retinol, are discussed following some risks of increased hip fractures, JAMA 287 (2002), 47-54, 102-3. Vitamin C and E retards early progression of transplant-associated coronary ateriosclerosis, Lancet 359 (2002), 1108-13. A review of ateriosclerosis is SA (May 2002), 28-37.

Reducing salt intake would aid the health of most people in the world, Lancet 358 (2001), 2134. A suggestion that diets high in starch may lead to short-sightedness is in NS (6 April, 2002), 9. Iron overload is discussed in Lancet 359 (2002), 786-90. The use of powdered insects as a supplement may be useful, NS (6 April, 2002), 20. The health benefits of red wine are discussed in Lancet 358 (2001), 2135. Areca nut use is associated with oral cancer, BMJ 324 (2002), 799-800. A book review on healthy eating is NEJM 346 (2002), 633. The confusing issues of vitamins are discussed in Time (21 Jan. 2002), 55.

Endocrine-disrupting nonylphenols have been detected in a wide range of foods, EST 36 (2002), 178-80A.

Discussion of whether certain GM bacteria living in a person's gut could be good for their health is in NS (15 June 2002), 26-9. An Indian view of the biosafety regulatory regime in WTO is Asian Biotechnology and Development Review (May 2002), 41-64. The European Parliament compromise on GM labeling and traceability is reported in BioCentury (8 July 2002), A11. USDA policy on country of origin labeling is discussed in Food Chemical News (3 June 2002), 26. The definition of GM food is somewhat arbitrary, NS (6 July 2002), 32-6. There is opposition to GM coffee from major coffee chains, AgraFood Biotech. 81 (21 May 2002), 6.

Reports from the US General Accounting Office, and from the American College of Nutrition, says there is no health risk from GM foods and FDA is doing a good job, AgraFood Biotech. 82 (4 June 2002), 2; 83 (18 June 2002), 4. Discussion on the safety of GM food is in NS (8 June 2002), 42-5. The environmental advantages of GM food are discussed in AgraFood Biotech. 84 (2 July 2002), 5. A survey of US consumers suggests they are willing to pay 5-8% premium for non-GM food, AgraFood Biotech. 81 (21 May 2002), 2-3. Nutritional genomics are discussed in BMJ 324 (2002), 1438-42.

In general on the dangers of foods for health, The Independent on Sunday (14 July 2002), 4. The question of adding extra iron to cereal is discussed in Observer (14 July 2002), 13 (www.ifr.bbsrc.ac.uk). A review of heart benefit foods is AgroFoodIndustry HiTech (Jan. 2002), 2-3. Obesity is discussed in Lancet 359 (2002), 1955. A new patent in the UK is for improving the way food safety is determined, NS (15 June 2002), 23.

An Indian perspective on the WTO policy on trade in GM goods is in Asian Biotechnology and Development Review (May 2002), 41-64. Despite famine Zimbabwe refused for some time to allow import of US food aid that contained GM maize, NS (3 Aug. 2002), 4-5. A study of consumer behaviour in GM food is American Behavioral Scientist 44 (2001), 1405-17. Plans to add drug genes to food crops are criticized in NS (6 July 2002), 3. A study on the uptake of recombinant DNA through food is discussed in NS (27 July 2002), 6.

A study of the modeling of consumer reaction to the mad cow disease is Int. J. Research Marketing 19 (2001), 91-100. Use of ginkgo does not appear to enhance memory, JAMA 288 (2002), 835-40; Lancet 360 (2002), 624. The case of an outbreak of E. coli 0157 among visitors to a diary farm is reported in NEJM 347 (2002), 555-60. Hormone-contaminated waste in the food chain is discussed in Lancet 360 (2002), 235. Acrylamide contamination in food was discussed at a WHO meeting in June 2002, Science 297 (2002), 27. A report from the World Food Summit in June 2002 is Lancet 359 (2002), 2047.

Antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain with a 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism is reported in Lancet 359 (2002), 2086-7. The crisis of childhood obesity is discussed in Lancet 360 (2002), 473-82. Obesity prevention should start in childhood, Lancet 360 (2002), 62. A hormone that turns off the hunger switch has been found, Lancet 360 (2002), 469. Pharmacotherapy for obesity is discussed in NEJM 346 (2002), 2092-3. Weight loss is a key for curing type 2 diabetes, BMJ 325 (2002), 232-5. On obesity and heart disease, NEJM 347 (2002), 305-13, 358-9; Lancet 359 (2002), 1955. Obesity can also prevent women from reproducing, NS (20 July 2002), 52. Optimization of lipid lowering drugs for heart disease is needed to reduce costs, Lancet 359 (2002), 2271-3. Protective effects of n-3 fatty acids are reported in NEJM 347 (2002), 531-3, Adding simvastatin to existing treatments can help reduce cholesterol, Lancet 360 (2002), 2, 7-22. The neurological value of statins has increased, NatMed. 8 (2002), 541.

Safety concerns about kava have been raised, Lancet 359 (2002), 1865. Eating fruits and vegetables is expected to reduce incidence of cardiovascular disease, Lancet 360 (2002), 1969-74, A study of women's perceptions of iron deficiency and anemia in 8 countries is SSM 55 (2002), 529-44. The question between safety of bottled and food water in is discussed in FDA Consumer (July, 2002). The book Aging Well is reviewed in NEJM 347 (2002), 150. Vitamin C is required for many body pathways, NatMed. 8 (2002), 445-6. On vitamins, NEJM 346 (2002), 1914-5.

Book reviews of Food Politics are Lancet 359 (2002), 1785; NEJM 346 (2002), 2017.

A comment on the type of "propaganda" used to promote biotech and irradiated food is Ram's Horn 206 (November 2002), 1-4. Liability concerns of GM food are discussed in Genewatch 15 (Sept. 2002), 5. A report from a series of town meetings in Vermont, USA, where votes were made against GM food is reported in GeneWatch 15 (May 2002), 6. The GM food debate continues, Nature 419 (2002), 327;E(EU) The Parliament Magazine (30 Sept. 2002), 36-7. Papers on GM food are also in GeneWatch 15 (July 2002), 2-11. Research to make safer soybean is suggested in NS (14 Sept., 2002), 7. The ethics of labeling GM food are discussed in Reiss, M. "Labeling GM foods - the ethical way forward", NatBio 20 (2002), 868. A summary of the WE regulation of GMOs and food is in J. Commercial Biotechnology 9 (2002), 27-30.

There is much discussion of the offering of food aid including GM food to Africa, NS (21 Sept., 2002), 3, 5; Nature 418 (2002), 569, 571; 419 (2002), 104; Lancet 360 (2002), 1261; Science 298 (2002), 1153-4; AgraFood Biotech. 89 (10 Sept. 2002), 1-2.It is important to note that in the USA, a major donor, such food is not labeled and has been eaten for 7 years by the general public. This comes at a time when the UN is asking for more food aid for Africa, Lancet 360 (2002), 1305. Japan's wet milling industry is not going to distinguish between GM and non-GM maize, AgraFood Biotech. 91 (14 Oct. 2002), 2. The Canadian government response to the report on GM labeling is to continue voluntary labeling policy, AgraFood Biotech. 94 (26 Nov. 2002), 17.

A suggestion that a well balanced diet may make prisoners and young offenders better behave is discussed in NS (16 Nov., 2002), 3. Zinc is an important mineral, BMJ 325 (2002), 1059-63; as is iron, BMJ 325 (2002), 1125. On functional foods, Current Opinion in Biotechnology13 (2002), 483-5.

A report from the 2002 World Food Summit is Ram's Horn 202 (June 2002), 1-3. Not enough food is also a problem in the USA, JAMA 288 (2002), 1462-3. There is a growing movement in the USA against soft drinks in school, JAMA 288 (2002), 2181. Fears of acrylamide cancer risk in fried food are discussed in JAMA 288 (2002), 2105-6.

Childhood obesity is discussed in JAMA 288 (2002), 2180; Lancet 360 (2002), 959. Methods to stop the trends towards obesity are discussed in JAMA 288 (2002), 1723-7, 1728, 1758, 1772-3, 2176, 2178-9; Science 297 (2002), 1788-9; BMJ 325 (2002), 728-9, 757-61; Lancet 360 (2002), 1249-50, 1400. Obesity mechanisms are discussed in Nature 418 (2002), 595-6; JAMA 288 (2002), 2177. There may be a link between obesity and attention deficit disorder, NS (19 Oct., 2002), 26. Two overweight girls have sued McDonalds, Int. Herald Tribune (22 Nov. 2002), 2. The definition of obesity is also a question, SSM 55 (2002), 1401-13.

Diet and risk of heart disease is discussed in Lancet 360 (2002), 783-9, 1015-8, 1455-61, 1570. Reducing salt is still important advice, BMJ 325 (2002), 628-32. Exercise and plasma lipoproteins are discussed in NEJM 346 (2002), 1483-92. Over the past 50 years in the USA the incidence of heart disease has fallen in women but not men, NEJM 346 (2002), 1397-402. On diet and cancer risk, Lancet 360 (2002), 861-8.On risks of dementia and fish or meat consumption in France, BMJ 325 (2002), 932-3. Coffee consumption was associated with a lower risk of diabetes type 2, Lancet 360 (2002), 1477-8; NS (16 Nov., 2002), 7. The mechanism of caffeine as a stimulant is discussed in Nature 418 (2002), 734-6. On the safety of tea, Lancet 360 (2002), 878.

A discussion on GM food exports to Africa is in Asian Biotechnology and Development Review 5 (Nov. 2002), 61-8; GeneWatch 15 (Nov. 2002), 9-11. India is a dissenter against giving GM food aid to Africa, Nature 421 (2003), 103. Nutrition and the human genome are discussed in Food Today 35 (Nov. 2002), 1-2. The potential for GM contamination of honey is discussed in AgraFood Biotech 92 (29 Oct. 2002), 2-3. Europe is preparing for the arrival of GM foods, Science 298 (2002), 2109-10; Lancet 360 (2002), 1945; and has a network of testing labs, Nature 420 (2002), 596. The USA is not happy with the proposed tough law on GM labeling, NS (7 Dec., 2002), 8. Oregon's November 2002 ballot measure 27 on GM food labeling is in AgraFood Biotech. 91 (14 Oct. 2002), 16-7.

The possibility to make allergen-free food is discussed in SA (Jan. 2003), 13-4. A call for evidence-based claims of health benefits from foods is in Science 299 (2003), 206-7. On functional foods, Brit. J. Nutrition 88 (2002), S233-5. Adverse events associated with dietary supplements are reported in Lancet 361 (2003), 101-6. Antioxidants are discussed in PNAS 99 (2002), 13969-71; Science 298 (2002), 2149-53. Rebuilding the food pyramid is discussed in SA (Jan. 2003), 50-9. Diet and health are discussed in JAMA 288 (2002), 2569-78.  Higher peanut nut and butter consumption may lower the risk of diabetes type 2 in women, JAMA 288 (2002), 2554-60; BMJ 325 (2002), 1322. Obesity is discussed in Lancet 360 (2002), 1948; BMJ 325 (2002), 1318. Mercury level increase from fish may increase risk of heart attack, NEJM 347 (2002), 1747-54. The method of cooking rice affects the amount of arsenic in the food, Lancet 360 (2002), 1839-40.

The debate over GM food is discussed in New Genetics and Society 21 (2002), 131-48; Issues in Science and Technology (Summer 2001), 31-6. On GM foods in Africa, Lancet 361 (2003), 500; NS (1 Feb., 2003), 4. In general on GM food, Newsweek (27 Jan. 2003), 40-45; NS (4 Jan., 2003), 3. In the US there are inquiries on whether some GM animals have entered the food chain, Nature 421 (2003), 682.

E. coli and food safety is discussed in Medico-Legal J. 69 (2002), 85. A call for evidence-based health claims for foods is in Science 299 (2003), 206-7. Benefits of food and mood are discussed in Agro-Food Industry Hi-Tech (Sept. 2002), 21-3.  Management of severely malnourished children is discussed in BMJ 326 (2003), 146-51.

The question of whether fast food is addictive is discussed in NS (1 Feb., 2003), 3, 26-9. The cost effectiveness of ways to lower the incidence of cardiovascular disease globally by 50% is reported in Lancet 361 (2003), 717-25. The risks of heart disease are not made worse by folate and vitamin B-12, BMJ 326 (2003), 131-4. Measures of lipids as indices of coronary risk is discussed in Lancet 361 (2003), 477-85, 777-80. On heart disease, NS (11 Jan., 2003), 36-9; NEJM 348 (2003), 639-41. Acrylamide in food is discussed in Lancet 361 (2003), 361-2.

Obesity is discussed in Science 299 (2003), 781, 846-60; BMJ 326 (2003), 229; Newsweek (27 Jan. 2003), 56; JAMA 289 (2003), 33-4, 76-9, 187-93, 229-30. Eating fish can reduce the risk of stroke, from even once a month, JAMA 289 (2003), 3130-6. Links between dairy food and Parkinson7s disease have been suggested, BMJ 326 (2003), 10. Food portions and sizes have increased in the USA since 1977, JAMA 289 (2003), 450-3. The safety of alcohol is discussed in SA (Feb. 2003), 62-9; NEJM 348 (2003), 109-18, 163-4; JAMA 289 (2003), 579-88. Arkansas has banned the sale of clean urine that is sold to beat drug testing, BMJ 326 (2003), 300.

The Canadian GM food labeling committee history is discussed in Ram's Horn 209 (2003), 1, 2-3. Views on GM food donation to Malawi are in Croatian Medical J. 44 (2003), 102-6. US food aid is still contested because of GM components, NatBio 21 (2003), 346-7; Ram's Horn 210 (April 2003), 1-2. An alliance of companies and NGOs is helping African farmers have access to new technology, Nature 422 (2003), 246.  Denmark is considering co-existence of GM and non-GM crops, AgraFood Biotech. 99 (4 March 2003), 15. Regulation of pharmaceutical producing plants is discussed in NS (1 March 2003), 22-3. No transgenic DNA has been seen in milk from cows feed GM soybean meal, AgraFood Biotech. 102 (15 April 2003), 28-9.

The Codex Alimentarius Task Force on Foods Derived from Biotechnology met in March 2003 in Yokohama, Japan, and approved a third set of guidelines for GM food, which will go with the other two to the General Conference of Codex in June 2003 in Rome. They are on the codex website; NatBio 20 (2002), 423. European GM labeling policy is discussed in NatBio 20 (2002), 753; 21 (2003), 6. India has GM food detection centres, NatBio 20 (2002), 109. On Canadian labeling, CMAJ 167 (2002), 1046. In general on the labeling of GM food, NatBio 20 (2002), 868, 969, 1081-2, 1195-7. Brazil has ended its ban on sales of GM soya, AgraEurope (28 March 2003), 5. Argentina may join the US on its GMO policy, AgraEurope (14 March 2003), 3. There is controversy in Canada over the application by Monsanto for Roundup ready wheat, AgraFood Biotech. 99 (4 March 2003), 3; and in the USA, AgraFood Biotech. 100 (18 March 2003),11. The IFIC in USA has found continued support for biotech. Foods, Food Chemical News (27 Jan. 2003), 6.

Some examples of food bioterrorism are given in Ram's Horn 209 (2003), 4-6. Accidentally contaminated foods make many people ill, NS (1 March 2003), 25; BMJ 326 (2003), 357-60. Biotechnology in animal farming is making food safer, Food Chemical News (17 Feb. 2003), 5-6. WHO is helping countries improve food safety, but some criticize them because they are using food industry funds, BMJ 326 (2003), 414. Potential health benefits of eating GM salmon are discussed in AgraFood Biotech. 100 (18 March 2003), 10. Peanut allergy is discussed in NEJM 348 (2003), 977-85, 1046-8. In Japan further food labeling shams have been uncovered showing that many companies falsely label products, Japan Times (13 March 2003), 2. A report on GMOs in New Zealand is Campbell, H. et al. Strategic Issues for GMOs in Primary Production: Key Economic Drivers and Emerging Issues (CSAFE Discussion Paper No. 1, Oct. 2002), 33.

Coffee may reduce cancer risk in Japanese women, APBN 7 (2003), 156. Caffeine and nicotine may have benefits for the dopaminergic systems, BMJ 326 (2003), 561-2. Increasing fruit and vegetables in low income adults in the UK was achieved by brief counseling, BMJ 326 (2003), 855-8. On vitamin D supplementation, BMJ 326 (2003), 469-72.

Consumption of alcohol in moderate levels may benefit health, NEJM 348 (2003), 1719-22, 1786-95. However excess is associated with mortality, and data from Germany is in SSM 56 (2003), 1385-95. The UK is attempting to restrict alcohol ads for teens, CMAJ 167 (2002), 1157.

Obesity is discussed in Nature 422 (2003), 378-9; Harvard Law Review 116 (2003), 1161-84; NEJM 348 (2003), 1623-38; BMJ 326 (2003), 515, 624-6. Genetic predisposition may also be a factor, NS (29 March 2003), 16; NEJM 348 (2003), 1085+. Blood pressure can be lowered by changes in lifestyle, Lancet 361 (2003), 1442. Increased plasma homocysteine level is a risk factor for myocardial infarction, JAMA 289 (2003), 1251-7. Malnutrition in the developing world is discussed in Science 300 (2003), 251. The world food program is helping Iraq, Lancet 361 (2003), 1189.

The debate over US food aid containing GM food continues, NatBio 21 (2003), 346-7; Nature 423 (2003), 367, 369; NS (24 May 2003), 5; (14 June 2003), 3; Lancet 361 (2003), 1798. On GM food in Germany, NatBio 21 (2003), 351. US GM food regulatioNS are unlikely to change, Nature 423 (2003), 574. A summary of GM products on the market is on whybiotech.com; AgraFood Biotech 102 (15 April 2003), 3-7. In the UK there is a claim that selling GM food will increase food costs, AgraFood Biotech 105 (26 May 2003), 8-9. MEPs have voted for a 0.5% GM threshold, AgraFood Biotech 105 (26 May 2003), 1-2. Sale of products from cloned animals may be allowed in Japan, APBN 7 (2003), 412. Evaluation of GM food allergeNS is discussed in TIBTECH 21 (2003), 249-50.

Inhibition of hypothalamic carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 decreases food intake, NatMed. 9 (2003), 756-61. Obesity in Australia is discussed in MJA 178 (2003), 422-3, 427-32. Drugs for obesity are tested in NEJM 348 (2003), 2082-90. On genetics and obesity, NEJM 348 (2003), 2138-9. In general on obesity, Science 300 (2003), 1091-2; NEJM 348 (2003), 2161-2, 2595-6. Mouse studies suggest that fasting every second day is a good way to reduce weight, NS (3 May 2003), 14-5. The WHO faces difficulties in its diet and health strategy, Lancet 361 (2003), 1707; NS (3 May 2003), 12-3, 23.

Increased vegetable consumption has been urged, nine servings a day of fruit and vegetables for men, BMJ 326 (2003), 1003. Dietary fibre and colorectal cancer is discussed in Lancet 361 (2003), 1487, 1491-5, 1496-501. Salt and hypertension is discussed in Science 300 (2003), 1350. Optimal diets to avoid heart disease are discussed in JAMA 289 (2003), 1509-10. Micronutrient deficiency is a common cause of mortality, Bulletin WHO 81 (2003), 79. Inertia on folic acid supplements may have caused many deaths, BMJ 326 (2003), 1054. WHO and FAO are calling for increased food safety, Bulletin WHO 81 (2003), 315.

Mercury consumption in dolphin and whale meat in Japan is reported in EST 37 (2003), 2681-5.

A genetic polymorphism in DRD2 gene among social drinkers is reported in AJMG 119A (2003), 152-5. A consumption of 1-6 drinks a week is associated with a lower risk of dementia than abstention, JAMA 289 (2003), 1405-13. On alcohol adverts for adolescents, JAMA 289 (2003), 2424-9, 2645-6. Alcohol dependence is a serious disease, Lancet 361 (2003), 1666-7.

Codex has adopted international GM food standards, Lancet 362 (2003), 219. Australia has approved the first GM commercial food crop, a herbicide resistant canola, AgraFood Biotech 110 (4 August 2003), 12. The US WTO claim against Europe is discussed in NatBio 21 (2003), 735-6. Europe has introduced tough labeling laws, Lancet 362 (2003), 135; NatMed. 9 (2003), 984; NS (12 July 2003), 6. GM labeling in China is not so easy, NatBio 21 (2003), 835-6. Discussion of GM food is in The Economist (26 July 2003), 23-5; GeneWatch 16 (May 2003), 11-3; (July 2003), 14-5; Current Biology 13 (2003), R578-9. The UK debate is discussed in Current Biology 13 (2003), R497-8, R625-6; Science 301 (2003), 447-8; NS (26 July 2003), 6-7; Nature 424 (2003), 995. A report for discussion is Rathenau Institute, Genes for your Food - Food for your Genes (The Hague: Rathenau Instittue, ISBN 90-77364-02-1, August 2003, 176pp.). It discusses societal issues and dilemmas in food genomics. Also on food genomics, The Pharmacogenomics J. 3 (2003), 191-3. A book review of another new book on the subject is NS (23 Aug. 2003), 46. The Health Council of the Netherlands recommends that Novel Foods be tested than sold, and also have approved herbicide tolerant maize (NK603), Network 18 (May 2003), 30-2. US academia has been warned from FDA that they are accountable for the fate of the GMOs and GM animals after, NatBio 21 (2003), 720-1.

Brain control of eating is reviewed in NS (9 Aug. 2003), 38-41. The ethics of privacy in treating adolescents with anorexia nervosa is discussed in J. Law & Medicine 10 (2003), 308-21. Binge eating and melanocortin 4 receptor gene mutation is discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 606-9. The FDA is requiring labels on trans-fat amounts on food, Lancet 362 (2003), 218. On healthy eating, BMJ 327 (2003), 121. Antioxidants are discussed in Lancet 361 (2003), 2017-23; Nature 424 (2003), 1013. Obesity risks are discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 182, 212-4; BMJ 327 (2003), 181; NEJM 349 (2003), 502-3. Traditional Mediterranean diet lowers mortality in Greece, NEJM 348 (2003), 2599-608. Doctors should advise eating fruits, BMJ 327 (2003), 1458. Athletes may consume too much fluids, BMJ 327 (2003), 113. Vitamin supplements do not increase cancer or heart disease, Annals of Int. Med. 139 (2003), 51-5; BMJ 327 (2003), 70.

A review of hunger is Black, RE. Et al. "Where and why are 10 million children dying every year", Lancet 361 (2003), 2226-34, 2172. The definition of malnutrition is discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 249.

A new GM soybean may have health advantages, AgraFood Biotech 113 (15 Sept. 2003), 20. Studies on acceptance of Golden rice in the Philippines suggest it may be accepted, NatBio 21 (2003), 971-2. Labeling to manage the marketing of GM foods is discussed in TIBTECH 21 (2003), 389-93; EST 37 (2003), 343A. The EU level for GM presence in seeds will be set between 0.3-0.7% next year, AgraFood Biotech 116 (27 Oct. 2003), 12.

The US FDA has said that GM food from animals is safe for humans, Int. Herald Tribune (31 Oct. 2003), 1, 10. Just days after the Food and Drug Administration announced preliminary findings that meat and milk from cloned animals were safe to consume, a scientific review panel for the agency said that there was not enough data to support that conclusion and asked for more studies. (http://www.nytimes.com/2003/11/05/health/05CLON.html) Analysis of the Codex guidelines for GM foods is in NatBio 21 (2003), 739-41. Debates in Africa on the import of GM food are in The Ram's Horn 214 (Sept. 2003), 1-6. On the estimated market for GM potatoes in China, Curtis KR. Et al. "Is China the market for genetically modified potatoes?", AgBio Forum 5 (4, 2002). Book reviews on GM food include Nature 425 (2003), 454-5; NS (23 Aug. 2003), 46; The Ecologist (Sept. 2003), 60; BMJ 327 (2003), 567.

Infusing a hormone fragment PYY reduces appetite, NEJM 349 (2003), 941-8; BMJ 327 (2003), 578; Lancet 362 (2003), 883; NEJM 349 (2003), 926-8. Oleylethanolaminde regulates feeding through PPAR receptor interactions, Nature 425 (2003), 90-3. PPAR receptors as therapeutic targets are discussed in Science 302 (2003), 406-7. Fussy eating may be genetic, Science 302 (2003), 561. Fast foods may trick the body, NS (25 Oct. 2003), 10. Addiction and sugar is discussed in NS (23 Aug. 2003), 23. Antiviral effects of milk protein lactoferrin are reviewed in AgrofoodIndustry Hi-Tech 14 (March 2003), 43-46; and anti-carcinogenic effects in p. 35-9. On the food antioxidants market, AgrofoodIndustry Hi-Tech 14 (March 2003), 58-60. Prader-Willi syndrome is a type of genetic model of starvation, Lancet 362 (2003), 989-91. Many pets are also obese, Science 301 (2003), 1665. In general on obesity, Science 301 (2003), 1325. A new scanner allows detection of body fat easily, NS (6 Sept. 2003), 14-5. Cities may be designed to help avoid obesity, Lancet 362 (2003), 1046-7. US pediatricians have called for checks on childhood obesity, BMJ 327 (2003), 518.

Ways to combat against obesity are discussed in The Edge (ESRC, UK) 15 (March 2004), 16-21; MJA 179 (2003), 577-9; BMJ 327 (2003), 1125; 328 (2004), 363; Lancet 363 (2004), 182, 211-2, 339; NS (20 March 2004), 5; Nature 428 (2004), 239, 244; JAMA 291 (2004), 1186-8. Some persoNS have surgery for obesity, NEJM 350 (2004), 1075-9. Links between obesity and cancer are being tested, JAMA 290 (2003), 2790-1. APOE and TGF-beta1 genes are associated with obesity phenotypes, JMG 40 (2003), 918-24. Estimates of ideal body-mass index among AsiaNS are discussed in Lancet 363 (2004), 157-63. The US has banned the dietary supplement ephedra because of safety concerns, Nature 427 (2004), 90. The sugar industry has criticized a WHO report on healthy eating, Int. J. Health Science 33 (2003), 831-3; Lancet 363 (2004), 1068-70. The USA has also criticized the proposed new policy on diet, BMJ 328 (2004), 245. On the diet industry, Nature 428 (2004), 252-4. Diabetes may be linked to obesity through adipocytes and macrophages, NatMed. 10 (2004), 126-7. Preventing diabetes in south AsiaNS is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 1059-60.

Coffee consumption has an inverse relationship with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Finnish men, JAMA 291 (2004), 1213-9. Folic acid reduces the risk of ischemic stroke, BMJ 328 (2004), 211-4, 247. Omega-3 fatty acids have benefits for health, and may be in both fish and plants, BMJ 328 (2004), 30-5, 406. They are also suggested for animals, NS (7 Feb. 2004), 18. Junk food is causing many problems however, Lancet 362 (2003), 1593; NS (29 Nov. 2003), 16. However, chocolate can have benefits, Nature 426 (2003), 787. Food high in purines may increase risk of gout, NEJM 350 (2004), 1093-103. Diets high in meat also pose dangers, NS (13 March 2004), 19. There is doubt over a study that claimed multivitamiNS would help postpone Alzheimer disease, BMJ 328 (2004), 67. Functional foods are discussed in Nature 427 (2004), 284-6; BMJ 328 (2004), 190-1.

UNICEF has issued another report warning on the dangers of vitamin deficiencies, Lancet 363 (2004), 378; Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 230-1. Studies have shown that there was long term mortality after the severe starvation during the siege of Leningrad, BMJ 328 (2004), 11-4. Childhood stunting from inadequate water and sanitation is great today also, Lancet 363 (2004), 94-1, 112. Yeast life-span extension by calorie restriction is analyzed in Science 302 (2003), 2124-6. Preventing foodborne disease is important, NEJM 350 (2004), 437-40; JAMA 290 (2003), 2788-9.

The EU has defend the new traceability and labeling rules, Food Chemical News (22 March 2004), 5-7; though they are seen as barriers to trade by others, Food Chemical News (15 Dec. 2003), 8-9. In the USA, 77% of consumers said that they would pay more for beef certified free of BSE, and one third of persoNS were very concerned about the BSE finding, Food Chemical News (2 Feb. 2004), 11-2. ConcerNS over salmon are also being raised, Science 303 (2004), 154-5, 226-9; NS (17 Jan. 2004), 3, 8; JAMA 291 (2004), 929-30. Aquaculture should be more sustainable, Nature 426 (2003), 378-9.

The FDA is reconsidering its position on open commercialization of meat and milk from cloned animals, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1444; NatBio 21 (2003), 1415-6. A UK BMA report said more study should be done to prove GM food is really beneficial compared to other food, BMJ 328 (2004), 602. (www.bma.org.uk/GMFoods). The first commercially sold GM-labeled beer in the world is sold in Sweden, NS (7 Feb. 2004), 6; NatBio 22 (2004), 259. On EU GM food regulation, NatBio 22 (2004), 149, 383-4. DNA chips are testing for mixing of meat from different animal sources, NS (6 March 2004), 12-3. Angola has refused GM cereal, Int. Herald Tribune (31 March 2004). A general discussion of GM food is in FDA Consumer (Nov. 2003), 28-33. On the fate of transgenes in the human gut, NatBio 22 (2004), 170-2

The Codex Committee on Food Labelling has still not resolved the issues of mandatory labeling of GM foods, Food Chemical News (5 April 2004), 16-7. Comments on labeling of GM foods in Canada, Brazil and the EU are in Ram's Horn 220 (April 2004), 5-6. Canada has a voluntary labeling policy for "does not contain GE" foods, Food Chemical News (26 April 2004), 5-6. A review of the US-EU trade war on GM foods and the WTO case is J. International Biotechnology Law 1 (2004), 28-31; AgraEurope (30 April 2004), 2-3. A review of methods for identifying GM material in crops in relation to regulatioNS is J. International Biotechnology Law 1 (2004), 81-5. On European GM labeling laws, NatBio 22 (2004), 383-4.
The fate of GM food in the digestive tract of humaNS suggests DNA reaches the gut flora and the gene can pass to bacteria in the human gut, NatBio 22 (2004), 204-9; NatGen 36 (2004), 121. The regulation of peanut allergy labels and children's allergies is discussed in SSM 58 (2004), 825-36. Food irradiation is discussed in NEJM 350 (2004), 1811-2, 1898-902. Active food packaging that changes colour when food is not fresh is being developed, NS (24 April 2004), 26.
FDA labeling policy on traNS fatty acids is discussed in Food Chemical News (3 May 2004), 25-7. A review of organic food is Nature 428 (2004), 792-3. Vitamin D supplements appear to reduce risk of falls, JAMA 291 (2004), 1999-2006. However some dietary supplements we do not know whether they are good or not, NS (10 April 2004), 6-7. Blood pressure has increased in the past decade in children in USA, JAMA 291 (2004), 2107-13. Salt intake advice is debated in JAMA 291 (2004), 1686-9. The WHO made its strategy on diet and health weaker after comments, Lancet 363 (2004), 1373; Food Chemical News (26 April 2004), 23-4. . Obesity in Asia is a large problem, NatMed. 10 (2004), 325-7. A study of women's body dissatisfaction is SSM 58 (2004), 1575-84. Statin treatment to lower lipids is reviewed in JAMA 291 (2004), 1864-70. Obesity is related to socioeconomic class, SSM 58 (2004), 1171-80. On the physiology of obesity and PPARs, NatMed. 10 (2004), 355-61. Also on obesity, NS (10 April 2004), 42-5; (1 May 2004), 20-1.
Selenium status in AustraliaNS is reported in MJA 180 (2004), 373-4, 383-6. A plan to add light-absorbing pigments from spinach to the human retina directly as a cure for blindness has been made, NS (1 May 2004), 8. A socio-ecological autopsy of an E. coli 0157:H7 outbreak in Ontario, Canada is in SSM 58 (2004), 2601-12.

Detection of DNA from GM food in people is discussed in NatBio 22 (2004), 654-5. French consumers appear to often read labels regarding GM food, AgraFood Biotech 117 (10 Nov. 2003), 5. However most persons do not want to go as far as nutrition profiling for each persons optimal food, Nature 426 (2003), 107. Monsanto has decided not to market GM wheat for now, given the threats of boycotts from some countries of all US wheat,  Science 304 (2004), 1088-9; NatBio 22 (2004), 645; NS (15 May 2004), 4. Norwya had also said no, AgraFood Biotech 128 (10 may 2004), 13. Europe has issued a permit to seel GM corn for food, Nature 429 (2004), 335.

Genetics and milk consumption is discussed in Lancet 363 (2004), 1489-90. Adiponectin acts in the brain to decrease body weight, NatMed. 10 (2004), 524-9, 454-5. Healthy eating is discussed in Newsweek (26 Jan. 2004), 438-49; NatMed. 10 (2004), 437. The increase in type 2 diabetes in children in Australia is documented in MJA 180 (2004), 459-61. On the benefits of vitamins, Lancet 363 (2004), 1533, 1660, 1724-7. Obesity is discussed in Science 304 (2004), 1413. Reduction through school education of consumption of carbonated drinks can reduce obesity in children, BMJ 328 (2004), 1237-9. Papers on dental health include AJPH 94 (2004), 698-704, 748-771. Osteoporosis is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 358; NEJM 350 (2004), 2089-90.

There are only a few papers actually published on the health safety of GM foods, Pryme & Lembcke, Nutrition and Health (2003); www.soilassociation.org. Consumer fears are discussed in Bratspies, RM. "Consuming (F)ears of corn: Public health and biopharming", AJLM 30 (2004), 371-404. The US NAS suggests testing all GM foods no matter how they are made for unintended effects, NatBio 22 (2004), 1062. On the science of biotechnology and global politics of regulation, Issues in S&T (Fall 2000), 47-54. The future of GM food in the world is discussed in NS (7 Aug. 2004). Since April 2004 the EU has had the latest regulations on GM food and feed, AgraFood Biotech 127 (26 April 2004), 1. However there is still debate over the seeds threshold for GM seeds because of the costs and sampling, between 0.3% to 0.5%, Food Chemical News (14 June 2004), 9-10; (28 June 2004), 5-6. The Codex Alimentarius task force on novel foods produced from biotechnology is expected to be revived but it is unclear whether it will work on guidelines for food safety from transgenic animals, Food Chemical News (31 May 2004), 12-3. On the FAO report on the State of Food and Agriculture 2003-2004, AgraFood Biotech 129 (24 May 2004), 2; also Nature 430 (2004), 5. Some do not want the WTO to enter the GM debate, AgraFood Biotech 130 (7 June 2004), 5.

Obesity and sugar-sweetened drinks in children are discussed in JAMA 292 (2004), 927-34, 978-9; BMJ 329 (2004), 54; MJA 181 (2004), 82-5. In general on obesity, JAMA 291 (2004), 2828-33, 2847-50, 2978, 3011-2; BMJ 328 (2004), 1327-8; NS (17 July 2004), 42-5; Science 304 (2004), 1413; 305 (2004), 158-9; Lancet 363 (2004), 1775; Annals of Oncology 15 (2004), 850-1. A media leak of the UK House of Commons Select Committee report on obesity is criticized in BMJ 328 (2004), 1503. There were media confusion over the death of a 3 year old child who suffered from a genetic condition, with false claims that it was bad parenting. Genetic prediction of weight reduction under sibutramine therapy by genes is reported in Pharmacogenetics 14 (2004), 387-9. Also on genetics of obesity, Pharmacogenetics 14 (2004), 419-27. Reduction of obesity by targeted ablation of adipose tissue is discussed in NatMed. 10 (2004), 625-32, 581-2. Vitamin E is discussed in JAMA 292 (2004), 671-3, 828-36. Soya supplements do not protect against postmenopausal changes, JAMA 292 (2004), 65-74; BMJ 329 (2004), 68. The Netherlands is advancing measures to clean up diet supplements, Nature 429 (2004), 689. The sociocultural context of women's body image is discussed in SSM 59 (2004), 1047-58. The stigma of obesity is discussed in NatMed. 10 (2004), 563-9.

Freshwater fish is one source of a bacteria Lactibacter hongkongensis associated with diarrhoea, Lancet 364 (2004), 1923, 1941-7. A criticism of the US magazine Consumer reports on food safety and irradiation is in Nature 431 (2004), 117. The ability to live on meat is discussed in NS (29 May 2004), 50-1.


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