Plant Genetic Engineering News

This file includes links to papers published by Eubios Ethics Institute, and some other organizations, in the first section. Next it includes topical extracts from EJAIB and EEIN between January 1994 - 2006 (older news items are in separate files). Last date of updating is referenced in the main News page. Latest news and papers is at the bottom of each of the two sections.

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Advancement of plant breeding techniques: scientific, social and global impact - Hiroshi Harada , EJAIB 6 (1996), 131-4.
Review of Aspects of the Biosafety of Transgenesis - Martin Hajduch, Jana Libantova , EJAIB 6 (1996), 134-5.
Scientists at the USDA have reported a fast method for genetically engineering wheat. They isolate the small embryos from the kernels, then bombard them with particles with DNA (a particle gun); GEN (15 Nov 1993), 18. The technique is reported to be easy to use for nonspecialists, and is also reported by other workers in Biotechnology 11 (1993), 1553-8. The cloning and expression of cytochrome 450 genes that control plant colour are reported in Nature 366 (1993), 276-9.

An alternative method to protect plants against viruses from the usual methods is the insertion of an antiviral antibody gene, Nature 366 (1993), 469-72. General resistance of tomatoes to disease is discussed in Nature 366 (1993), 508-9. Corn plants engineered with resistance to maize dwarf mosaic virus are in Biotechnology 11 (1993), 1559-64.

A method for elimination of marker genes from tomatoes is reported in Biotechnology 11 (1993), 1286-92. A review in French of Bacillus thuringiensis genes and insect resistance is BioFutur (Oct 1993), 33-4. On the history of plant agriculture, Nature 366 (1993), 523.

A protein kinase that confers disease resistance to Pseudomonas species in tomato is reported in Science 262 (1993), 1432-6. The involvement of activated oxygen molecules in plant systemic resistance that can be induced by systemic acquired resistance is described in Science 262 (1993), 1883-6. General methods for virus resistance and of particular antiviral states is in The Plant Cell 5 (1993), 1749-59.

A method to protect plants against stress caused by high levels of ozone, as are found in polluted cities, is W. Van Camp et al., "Elevated levels of superoxide dismutase protect transgenic plants against ozone damage", Biotechnology 12 (1994), 165-8. When the enzyme was in chloroplasts the tobacco plants could tolerate 3-4 times higher ozone levels.

A review of environmental interest is C. Rosenzweig & M.L. Parry, "Potential impact of climate change on world food supply", Nature 367 (1994), 133-8, 118-9. It discusses farming, and suggests most of the problems will be in developing countries, as others also predict. A general discussion of the hopes for agriculture by increased use of plants having C4 photosynthesis is Nature 367 (1994), 322-3. C4 photosynthetic plants can usually cope with water stress better, and it has now been suggested that they may cope with higher altitudes better because of reduced carbon dioxide at those levels. The changing environmental conditions mean the best plants should be chosen.

A paper reporting genetic engineering for ornamental characters and fragrance in Geraniums is in Biotechnology 12 (1994), 64-8. The US cotton industry, and genetic engineering for pest resistance, is discussed in Biotechnology 12 (1994), 22-3.

The French company Moet & Chandon has transformed the chadonnay grapevine. Although field trials will commence, it may be a decade before it is used for wine. The cultivar was made resistant to Grapevine Fanleaf Virus; GEN (15 March 1994), 1, 3; Science 263 (1994), 1095. This virus is a threat to about 10% of the world's vineyards. A paper on the modification of flower colour is N. Courtney-Gutterson et al., "Modification of flower color in florist's chrysanthemum: Production of a white-flowering variety through molecular genetics", Biotechnology 12 (1994), 268-71. A workshop report on flower engineering and blue roses is TIBTECH 12 (1994), 40-2.

A review is J.I. Yoder & A.P. Goldsbrough, "Transformation systems for generating marker-free transgenic plants", Biotechnology 12 (1994), 263-7. They also discuss the issue of transgenic plants that contain marker genes. Another review is D. McElroy & R.I.S. Brettell, "Foreign gene expression in transgenic cereals", TIBTECH 12 (1994), 62-8. A general review of plant transformation, that claims virtually any plant can be genetically transformed, reviewing the major uses is GEN (15 Feb 1994), 1, 3, 24. A review of interest to breeders is D.P. Matton et al., "Self-incompatibility: How plants avoid illegitimate offspring", PNAS 91 (1994), 1992-7.

The expression of the 24kDa protein osmotin, which accumulates in plants growing in salty environments, can also delay the development of disease; D. Liu et al., "Osmotin overexpression in potato delays development of disease symptoms", PNAS 91 (1994),, 1888-92. A book review of Biotechnology in Plant Disease Control is Science 263 (1994), 1163-4. A minireview of plant disease resistance genes is Cell 76 (1994), 419-22. The use of a "suicide gene", that will kill a cell if a virus appears is reported in New Scientist (19 Feb, 1994), 19.

The future of potato seed, that has been developed by a company ESCA genetics, is discussed in Biotechnology 12 (1994), 347. A general paper describing the production of artificial seeds is J.-M. Dupius et al., "Pharmaceutical capsules as a coating system for artificial seeds", Biotechnology 12 (1994), 385-9. For those who want to make interesting artwork on apples, paint the outside with UV sunblock and irradiate them, and the red colour brought about by the UV light will be blocked, resulting in pictured apples, as recently done in New Zealand; Science 263 (1994), 1095. A paper looking at the control of the expression of photosynthetic enzymes by temperature is Plant Physiol. Biochem. 32: 45-54. A book review of Origin and Geography of Cultivated Plants, is in Nature 368 (1994), 503-4.

A review of interest for tissue culture is G. Alibert et al., "Sunflower tissue and cell cultures and their use in biotechnology", Plant Physiol. Biochem. 32: 31-44. It includes a review of genetic engineering of sunflower, using protoplasts. A paper questioning the idea of biofuels, and reviewing a recent UK discussion paper produced by the SAFE Alliance is EST 28 (1994), 63.

A review is C. Ratledge, "Single cell oils - have they a biotechnological future?", TIBTECH 11 (1993), 278-84. The production of fructose in tobacco can be used to produce biopolymers, M.J.M. Ebskamp et al., "Accumulation of fructose polymers in transgenic tobacco", Biotechnology 12 (1994), 272-5.

An interesting genetic problem is why the wheat genome contains 30 times more DNA than rice. It is even more interesting given that the gene order on the chromosomes has stayed the same; Biotechnology 12 (1994), 276-8. It may also be used to allow gene isolation in wheat, once the rice genetic map position for a gene is known. A general book review of Plant Genomes: Methods for Genetic and Physical mapping, is in TIBTECH 11 (1993), 520-1.

An experiment to measure the effect of unsaturated lipids on the ability of cyanobacteria to tolerate cold stress by introducing a gene for a desaturase enzyme is H. Wada et al., "Contribution of membrane lipids to the ability of the photosynthetic machinery to tolerate temperature stress", PNAS 91 (1994),, 4273-77. The transgenic cyanobacterium was better able to tolerate cold stress, but not heat stress.

The tropical crop sorghum has been transformed using a biolistics approach; GEN (15 April 1994), 1, 29. Sorghum is an important crop for feeding about 300 million people, and it could become more important because it can grow at very high temperatures.

A review of disease resistance mechanisms and R genes in plants is The Plant Cell 6: 461-3. A paper describing a resistant tomato is T. Kunik et al., "Transgenic tomato plants expressing the tomato yellow leaf curl virus capsid protein are resistant to the virus", Biotechnology 12 (1994), 500-4. The CPRO Plant Center in Wagnemagen, the Netherlands has announced that it plans to insert an antibacterial gene into roses to make them last longer; Japan Times (2 July 1994), 12.

A general review of the reasons why repeated insertion of a new gene can lead to turning the gene expression off, is R.B. Flavell, "Inactivation of gene expression as a consequence of specific sequence duplication", PNAS 91 (1994), 3490-6. The use of magnetic sorting for potato cell hybrids is reported in Biotechnology 12 (1994), 511-5. A review is R.L. Phillips et al., "Genetic instability of plant tissue cultures: breakdown of normal controls", PNAS 91 (1994),, 5222-6.

A discussion of the need to monitor the safety of Bacillus thuringiensisis in Biotechnology 12 (1994), 12: 435. A study of factors that can reverse insect resistance to the toxin of Bt may be useful in efforts to stop resistance spreading, B.E. Tabashnik et al., "Reversal of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensisin Plutella xylostella", PNAS 91 (1994),, 4120-4. Reversal of resistance stops after lack of Bt use.

A conference report on sustainable food production is in JRSM 87 (1994), 299-301.

Pea seeds that are genetically engineered to resist weevil attack are reported in R.E. Shade et al., "Transgenic pea seeds expressing the a-amylase inhibitor of the common bean are resistant to bruchid beetles", Biotechnology 12 (1994), 793-6; Science 265 (1994), 739. The protein in the pea triggers the production of a protein that inhibits feeding by the weevil larvae. The expression of chitanase and glucanase genes in tobacco is reported to offer enhanced protection against fungal disease in Biotechnology 12 (1994), 807-12.

A corn pigment gene that regulates colour in corn plants is being used to predict and screen the colour of orchid plants, GEN (15 June 1994), 22, 34. This would avoid the need to grow the orchid plants to test them. A review of floral homeotic genes is Cell 78 (1994), 203-9. Regeneration of transgenic rose from embryogenic tissue is reported in Biotechnology 12 (1994), 609-13.

Calgene has reported successful expression of trehalose in plants, GEN (July 1994), 13. Trehalose helps preserve the structure of cell membranes and proteins in the absence of water, and the flavour, colour and texture of foods associated with fresh counterparts. A study of cotton and heat adaption in traditional breeding is J.W. Radin et al., "Genetic variability for stomatal conductance in Pima cotton and its relation to improvements of heat adaption", PNAS 91 (1994),, 7217-21. The effects of climate change upon maize are reported and debated in Nature 370 (1994), 175-6, 204-5.

The Rice Genome Research Program in Japan moved to a new building at the end of 1993, and the address is: Rice Genome Research Program, STAFF Institute, 446-1 Ippaizuka, Kamiyokoba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, JAPAN. They produce a newsletter, which is available to those who want it. A high density linkage map of rice is close to completion. DNA clones are available from them also.

A discussion of pharmaceutical production in plants is in Lancet 343 (1994), 1513-5; 344: 272. A method for controlled expression of genes in plastids is in PNAS 91 (1994),, 7301-5.

A review of agriculture for developing countries is Scientific American (July 1995), 30-7; and on how they can adapt biotechnology according to their needs, Science 265 (1994), 186-7. A review of biocontrol mechanism is D.N. Dowling & F. O'Gara, "Metabolites of Pseudomonas involved in the biocontrol of plant disease", TIBTECH 12 (1994), 133-41. A book review of E.W. Becker, Microalgae: Biotechnology and Microbiology, New York: Cambridge University Press, is Biotechnology 12 (1994), 707. A discussion of a seed bank in Singapore is New Scientist (11 June 1994), 24. The use of chromosome painting to trace origins of plants is reviewed in New Scientist (13 Aug 1994), 28-31.

Agracetus has reported the production of monoclonal antibodies in soybeans; GEN (15 Sept 1994), 1, 34. It is now making arrangements with pharmaceutical companies for development of production schemes to allow the cheaper production of antibodies. It may still cost about US$1,000 per kg for production, but this is about 10,000 times less than current methods. A review on biofuels is Sharma, D.K. et al., "A review of integrated processes to get value-added chemicals and fuels from petrocrops", Bioresource Tech. 49: 1-6.

A review of how plants inactivate genes transferred to them is Finnegan, J. & McElroy, D. "Transgene inactivation: plants fight back!", Biotechnology 12 (1994), 883-8. Adaptive mutation is debated in Science 265 (1994), 1994-6. An evolutionary study of plants and their flower life is in Nature 371 (1994), 788-91.

A new "superrice" has been announced by the International Rice Research Institute, with 25% increased yield; Washington Post (24 Oct 1994), A1, 14. However it still lacks disease resistance genes and must have such genes added to improve its farm performance. More of the plant is put into grain, And it requires significantly less fertiliser than current varieties. A letter defending the rice variety storage in that institute is in Nature 371 (1994), 470.

A paper describing new methods to improve resistance is Bosch, D. et al., "Recombinant Bacillus thuringiensiscrystal proteins with new properties: Possibilities for resistance management", Biotechnology 12 (1994), 915-8. A paper reporting herbicide resistant turfgrass, often used for golf greens, is Biotechnology 12 (1994), 919-23. A review of efforts to map disease resistance genes in plants is Science 265 (1994), 1804-5, and a paper on a class of such genes is Bent, A.F. et al., "RPS2 of Arabidopsis thaliana: A leucine-rich repeat class of plant disease resistance genes", Science 265 (1994), 1858-60. A paper reporting increased disease susceptibility in plants with less preformed phenylpropanoid products is PNAS 91 (1994),, 7802-6. A discussion of open pollination communities in Taiwan, Korea and Japan is in The Ram's Horn (Sept), 1-7. Fears of pollination problems because of falling honey bee populations are in Science 265 (1994), 1170.

Book reviews on the study of Aspergillus are in Nature 371 (1994), 116-7; and on microbial genetic engineering, TIG 10 (1994), 338-9. One protein that defines period length and temperature compensation of the circadian clock in Neurospora is PNAS 91 (1994),, 7683-7.

A discussion of the Japanese plant biotechnology situation is Science 266 (1994), 1184-5. A portion of the rice genome map from the Tsukuba rice genome team is Kurata, N. et al. "A 300 kilobase interval genetic map of rice including 883 expressed sequences", Nature Genetics 8 (1994), 365-72; see Science 266 (1994), 1186-7. A description of tobacco as a model organisms is in Biotechnology 13 (1995), 22-3. A new marker for gene transfer using a fluorescent signal is reported in Science 266 (1994), 735. Plant genome mapping using nonisotopic in situ hybridization is reviewed in Genome 37: 717-25.

A shortage of organic cotton means high prices, and a good market, New Scientist (24 Sept 1994), 25-9. A naturally occuring chemical of pears, cinnamamide has been used to put pests off eating plants, New Scientist (26 Nov 1994), 23. An editorial on the use of pesticides and adequate supply of fruit and vegetables is Science 266 (1994), 1303. A paper on Bacillus thuriengensis insecticidal protein production is Biotech 13 (1995), 67-71.

New bacterial strains have been found that can colonise roots of cereals and avoid the need for nitrogen fertilisers, New Scientist (17 Dec 1994), 17. Another report on the new 25% higher yielding super-rice is in New Scientist (29 Oct 1994), 4. Hybrid wheat has been produced by Monsanto, Biotech 13 (1995), 15-6. Genetics and rubber production is discussed in Heredity 73: 650-6.

Fungal resistance in genetic engineered tomatoes is reported in Science 266 (1994), 789-93. The role of salicyclic acid in plant defense mechanisms is shown in Science 266 (1994), 1247-50. The prevention of browning in potatoes is reported in Bachem, C.W.B. et al. "Antisense expression of polyphenol oxidase genes inhibits enzymatic browning in potato tubers", Biotechnology 12 (1994), 1101-5.

The production of an enzyme useful in the paper industry is reported in Herbers, K. et al. "A thermostable xylanase from Clostridium thermocellum expressed at high levels in the apoplast of transgenic tobacco has no detrimental effects and is easily purified", Biotechnology 13 (1995), 63-6. A review is van Roojen, G.J.H. & Moloney, M.M. "Plant seed bodies as carriers for foreign proteins", Biotechnology 13 (1995), 72-7. Bioplastics are reported being made in genetically engineered canola at the University of Warwick.

A paper reporting how plants interact with each other to control size is Ballare, C.L. et al. "Signaling among neighbouring plants and the development of size inequalities in plant populations; PNAS 91 (1994),, 10094-8.

The direct delivery of plasmid DNA by direct for genetic engineering is reported in Castillo, A.M. et al. "Rapid production of fertile transgenic plants of rye (Secale cereale L.)", Biotechnology 12 (1994), 1366-71. A study of the mutation rates and dominance levels of genes that effect the total plant fitness that suggests new partially recessive mutations are the cause, and that they arose by inbreeding is Science 267 (1995), 226-9.

The production of bioplastics in higher plants is reported in Nawrath, C. et al. "Targeting of the polyhydroxybutyrate bio-synthetic pathway to the plastids of Arabidopsis thaliana results in high levels of polymer accumulation", PNAS 91 (1994), 12760-4. These plants accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate up to 14% dry weight. A review is Poirier, Y. et al., "Production of polyhydroxyalkan-oates, a family of biodegradable plastics and elastomers, in bacteria and plants", Biotechnology 13 (1995), 142-50. A minireview on antibody production is Conrad, U. & Fiedler, U. "Expression of engineered antibodies in plant cells", Plant Molecular Biology 26: 1023-30.

The US EPA Office of Pesticide Programs has opened a new section, the Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division; EST 29 (1995), 67A. About half of the 1994 new pesticide ingredients that were registered were biopesticides, including naturally occurring plant pesticides, pheromones, microbes, and genetically engineered microorganisms. A book review of Berenbaum, M.R. Bugs in the System. Insects and Their Impact on Human Affairs (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1994, 377pp., US$25) is Science 267 (1995), 548.

A commercial route to manufacture indigo using genetically engineered bacteria is being developed by a US company Genencor, GEN (15 Jan 1995), 1, 22.It provides a cleaner process to the chemical one now used to make blue jeans. As noted last year, other companies are trying to engineer blue cotton, as another way to make more environmentally friendlier blue jeans.

A search is on for excellent varieties of rice, wheat, corn, cassava, and beans, that can grow in poor soils, to find the basis for new varieties adapted for the poorer soils that are becoming more common, New Scientist (11 Feb, 1995), 9. These efforts will also be combined with genetic engineering to make plants better able to shift nutrients like iron available for growth.

A fungal cholesterol oxidase gene isolated from Streptomycetes strains which kills weevils and caterpillars is a new gene for use in insect-resistant plant development, New Scientist (15 March 1995), 15. A procedure for expressing Bacillus thuringiensisinsecticidal protein at levels of 3-5% total cell protein is reported in McBride, K.E. et al. "Amplification of a chimeric Bacillus gene in chloroplasts leads to an extraordinary level of an insecticidal protein in tobacco", Biotechnology 13 (1995), 362-5. A study of tomato has found that an aphid-resistance locus maps very close to a nematode-resistance gene, and could be the same gene, PNAS 92 (1995), 622-5. A letter on the development of plant parasite-resistant crops, Nature 374 (1995), 220-1.

A general method for production of high levels of vaccines in transgenic plants has been developed for a malaria vaccine in Biosource Technologies, California, New Scientist (21 Jan, 1995), 23. The yield reported is up to 1mg per gram of plant. Experiments have shown that Agrobacterium placed intracellularly can transfer DNA to the cell nucleus of a host plant, PNAS 92 (1995), 230-4. A review showing programmed cell death occurs in bacteria is Science 267 (1995), 836-7.

Herbicide-tolerant plants are debated in GenEthics News 5 (1995), 6-7. Not genetic engineering, but of interest is the reported rapid growth of plants in an old mine 360m underground in Canada, GEN (15 March 1995), 1, 24-5. They report three times faster growth of berries and trees.

The use of plants to make orally ingested antibodies is a target of several research teams as previously discussed in EEIN. Tobacco and potato plants with such antibodies that produced oral immunization in mice is reported in Haq, T.A. et al. "Oral immunization with a recombinant bacterial antigen produced in transgenic plants", Science 268 (1995), 714-6. The production of antibodies in tobacco plants is reported in Ma, J.K.C. et al "Generation and assembly of secretory antibodies in plants", Science 268 (1995), 716-9; Thanavala, Y. et al. "Immunogenicity of transgenic plant-derived hepatitis B surface antigen", PNAS 92 (1995),3358-61. The use of plants as a vaccine source is reviewed in Science 268 (1995), 658-60.

Review of transgenic crops include, Staskawicz, B.J. et al. "Molecular genetics of plant disease resistance", Science 268 (1995), 661-7; Topfer, R. et al. "Modification of plant lipid synthesis", Science 268 (1995), 681-6. The cloning of genes for the degradation of herbicides EPTC and atrazine from a Rhodococcus species is reported in AEM 61 (1995), 2061-5. Banana transformation is reported and discussed in Sagi, L. et al. "Genetic transformation of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) via particle bombardment", Biotechnology 13 (1995), 481-5; May, G.D. et al. "Generation of transgenic banana (Musa acuminata) plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation", Biotechnology 13 (1995),486-92; p. 417.

The genetics of circadian rhythms in plants is reviewed in Science 267 (1995), 1091-2. The CONSTANS gene of Arabidopsis is reported to promote flowering, Cell 80 (1995), 847-57. A discussion of sexual selection for plant breeding is PNAS 92 (1995), 1247-50. A review of transgenic plants with altered flower colour is Science 268 (1995), 686-91. A review of the book, Bugs in the System: Insects and their impact on Human Affairs, is NEJM 332 (1995), 1041-2. The problems of grain shortage in China are discussed in Newsweek (15 May 1995), 8-13.

See GMO section for US approval of genetically engineered Bt corn. The 12 genetically engineered crop lines that are now non-regulated by the USDA include corn, cotton, potato, tomato, rapeseed, soybean and a squash (on-line USDA Biotechnology Permits www pages).

The manipulation of chimeric shoot meristems in maize can be used to make germ-line genetic engineering of maize, Biotechnology 13 (1995), 677-82. Sheath blight resistant rice are reported by including a chitanase gene, Biotechnology 13 (1995), 686-91. Plant biotechnology in the Balkan states is expanding due a network, Biotechnology 13 (1995), 760-1. A book review of Bugs in the System: Insects and their Impact on Human Affairs is in SA (August 1995), 104-5.

Genetic engineering of plant membrane lipids to study temperature tolerance is reviewed in Somerville, C. "Direct tests of the role of membrane lipid composition in low-temperature-induced photoinhibition and chilling sensitivity in plants and cyanobacteria", PNAS 92 (1995), 6215-8. A method that can be applied to make low temperature tolerant plants is Moon, B.Y. et al. "Unsaturation of the membrane lipids of chloroplasts stabilizes the photosynthetic machinery against low temperature photoinhibition in transgenic tobacco plants", PNAS 92 (1995), 6219-23.

A process for gene transfer without including the vector is in Carrer, H. & Maliga, P. "Targeted insertion of foreign genes into tobacco plastid genome without physical linkage to the selectable marker gene", Biotechnology 13 (1995), 791-4.

Harvesting blood proteins from grain through genetic engineering is discussed in CMAJ 153 (1995), 427+.

Plant antibodies are the subject of a new EU research project, EBN 208 (1995), 2. A book review examining the lack of genetic diversity in modern crops of Raeburn, Paul, The Last Harvest: The Genetic Gamble that threatens to destroy American Agriculture (Simon & Schuster 1995, 269pp., US$24) is Nature 377 (1995), 297. Similar genetic loci control the genetic traits of sorghum, rice and maize despite their separate selection, Paterson, A.H. et al. "Convergent domestication of cereal crops by independent mutations at corresponding genetic loci", Science 270 (1995), 1714-8.

A field trial finding instability of a gene for herbicide resistance following seedling transplants is Brandle, J.E. et al. "Instability of transgene expression in field grown tobacco carrying the csr1-1 gene for sulfonylurea herbicide resistance", Biotechnology 13 (1995), 994-8. A tradeoff between resistance and tolerance to herbicide damage may be needed for plants that are also resistant to insects and other pests, Nature 377 (1995), 517-20. A persistent spreading weed, Chromolaena odorata is described in Africa, SA (Nov 1995), 24.

On plant disease resistance, PNAS 92 (1995), 7137-9; SA (Sept 1995), 30-2; Science 269 (1995), 843-7, 1027. The expression of a hydrogen peroxide-generating glucose oxidase in potato made them resistant to bacteria soft rot disease, Plant Cell 7 (1995), 1357-68. A review: Avignone-Rossa, C. & Mignone, CF. "Bacillus thuringiensis growth and toxicity", Molecular Biotechnology 4 (1995), 55-71. Baculovirus mediated control, Science 269 (1995), 1834.

Kits for AFLP analysis are being produced by Perkin-Elmer Applied Biosystem Division, following a licensing agreement with Keygene Inc.; EBN 207 (1995), 3-4. A process for simplifying the removal of lignin from cellulose using genetic modification is the subject of a patent application by Zeneca, GEN (1 Sept 1995), 1, 22. A history of the making of papyrus is in Naturwissenschaften 82 (1995), 414-6. Ethylene insensitivity can be conferred by the ERS gene of Arabidopsis, Science 270 (1995), 1712-4.

Genetic engineering of barley, Theor Appl. Genet. 91 (1995), 707-12. An approach to increase sheep wool growth rate is Tabe, L.M. et al. "A biotechnological approach to improving the nutritive value of Alfalfa", J. Animal Science 73 (1995), 2752-9. A review of apomixis, for generation of genetically identical seeds without fertilisation is Plant Physiol. 108 (1995), 1345-52.

Plant genome research is reviewed in GEN (1 Oct 1995), 37, 40. There is a Internet reference page on genome research in agriculture (http://probe.nalusda.gov). On gene mapping in maize, TIG 11 (1995), 477-81; and rice, TIG 11 (1995), 482-7. Plant biotechnology in developing countries is reviewed in TIBTECH 13 (1995),404-9.

Insect resistant plants are reviewed in TIBTECH 13 (1995),362-8; and there is a series of papers on plant biotechnology in the September 1995 issue of TIBTECH 13 (1995). A PCR technique for identification of Bacillus thuringiensis strains is reported in AEM 61 (1995), 3826-31. The insect resistance to the Bt toxin may be due to receptor alteration, Lee, M.K. et al. "Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis CryIA delta endotoxins in a laboratory selected Heliothis virescens strain is related to receptor alteration", AEM 61 (1995), 3836-42. The population genetics of resistance to pesticides is modeled in Science 270 (1995), 1497-9.

Plants have been used to produce a variety of antibodies, reviewed in TIBTECH 13 (1995),522-7; and the seeds can be stored before harvest making the technology assessable to wide-spread farming, NS (28 Oct 1995), 23. Vaccines produced in potato tubers have produced immune response, and a general review of vaccine production is TIBTECH 13 (1995), 388-92. The general use of plants as bioreactors is reviewed in TIBTECH 13 (1995),379-87.

A study of mutations that may be useful for making plants tolerant to salt is Rubio, F. et al. "Sodium-driven potassium uptake by the plant potassium transporter HKT1 and mutations conferring salt tolerance", Science 270 (1995), 1660-2. A review of the efforts to manipulate plant metabolism is TIBTECH 13 (1995), 375-8. A review of gene transfer methods is TIBTECH 13 (1995), 324-31. An autoselective system for maintaining plasmids in modified Rhizobium is reported in AEM 61 (1995), 4051-6.

A variety of flowers have been engineered but there are still some hurdles for commercial use, TIBTECH 13 (1995), 350-5. There are several methods being used to attempt to control pollination, which are also important for seed production, TIBTECH 13 (1995), 344-6.

Because of their large size, slow growth, and large genomes, forest trees have received little benefit from the gene transfer methods that have proved so useful for improving small crop plants. New methods in rapid gene mapping that will aid genetic engineering are reviewed in Science 271 (1996), 760-761. The genes that are being introduced include bacterial genes that confer insect resistance, to increase flowering or decrease production of lignin, a material that must be removed during paper-making, Science 271 (1996), 761. On RNA-mediated viral resistance, Plant Cell 8 (1996), 95-105.

Two new naturally occurring insecticides have been discovered from Calceolaria andina, a South American "slipper" plant; EBN 216 (1996), 4. They are effective against whitefly also. The British Technology Group has applied for patents on these compounds. A Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein with high activity against the family Noctuidae is reported in AEM 62 (1996), 80-6.

A letter explaining the role of trehalose phosphate subunit in drought tolerance in tobacco is in Nature 379 (1996), 683-4. Transformation of Synechococcus with the gene for choline oxidase enhances salt tolerance, Plant Molecular Biology 29 (1995), 897-907. A general review is Flowers TJ & Yeo AR, "Breeding for salinity resistance in crop plants: where next?", Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 22 (1995), 875-84.

Genetic engineering of a bacteria to include a binary toxin from Bacillus sphaericus that kills mosquitoes has been reported from Singapore researchers, Liu, JW. et al. "Efficient synthesis of mosquitocidal toxins in Asticcacaulis excentricus demonstrates potential of gram-negative bacteria in mosquito control", Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 343-7, 265; comment in Lancet 347 (1996), 749. A rice resistant to the yellow stem borer and the striped stem borer has been made, Wunn, J. et al. "Transgenic Indica rice breeding line IR58 expressing a synthetic cryIA(b) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis provides effective insect pest control", Biotechnology 14 (1996), 171-6. There has however been a critical response against this by many, Biotechnology 14 (1996), 140-1.

A discussion of the world needs for food and plant production is NS (30 March 1996), 32-37. A review is Lee, L. "Turfgrass biotechnology", Plant Science 115 (1996), 1-8. Enhanced NaCl stress tolerance using bacterial choline dehydrogenase is found in Biotechnology 14 (1996), 177-80.

The storage of antibodies in tobacco seeds for one year at room temperature as 0.67% of soluble protein, has been obtained Fiedler, U. & Conrad, U. "High-level production and long-term storage of engineered antibodies in transgenic tobacco seeds", Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1090-3. Manipulation of the gluten complex for bread making is reported in Biotechnology 13 (1995), 1185-9.

A discussion of why plants are resistant to neoplastic transformation (cancer) is Nature 380 (1996), 481-2. Methods to change leaf shape and architecture by genetic engineering using a homeobox gene Knotted-1, have been developed, Cell 84 (1996), 735-44. A guide to naming plant genes to avoid duplicity is in Price, CA et al. "A guide to naming sequenced plant genes", Plant Molecular Biology 30 (1996), 225-7.

Methods to improve the nutrition of oil-seed crops are reported in Reddy AS & Thomas TL, "Expression of a cyanobacterial delta-6-desaturase gene results in gamma-linoleic acid production in transgenic plants", Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 639-42; NS (8 June 1996), 21. A general review is Murphy, DJ. "Engineering oil production in rapeseed and other oil crops", TIBTECH 14 (1996), 206-13.

A review of making plants for drought-prone areas is Bohnert, HJ & Jensen RG, "Strategies for engineering water-stress tolerance in plants", TIBTECH 14 (1996), 89-97; and on salt-tolerance, Wu, S-J. et al. "SOS1, a genetic locus essential for salt tolerance and potassium acquisition", The Plant Cell 8 (1996), 617-27. Plants that are resistant to mercury, and can reduce it, have been made by insertion of a bacterial merA gene, PNAS 93 (1995), 3182-7.

Rice plants that contain potato proteinase inhibitor II gene have been found to be resistant to pink stem borer, Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 494-8. Genetic mapping has located a major gene for resistance to fusiform rust disease in loblolly pine, PNAS 93 (1996), 3859-64. Barley that contains a thermostable glucanase enzyme gene has been made, PNAS 93 (1996), 3487-91. On metabolic partitioning and genetic engineering, TIBTECH 14 (1996), 198-205. The suggestion to make potatoes that become infected commit suicide to avoid infecting others has been suggested in NS (11 May 1996), 20.

Apoptosis is used by some plants to ensure that they are healthy, NS (4 May 1996), 15. Organ-identity genes for Arabidopsis have been identified, PNAS 93 (1996), 4063-70. A gene that removes the requirement for male pollination of seeds has been found, PNAS 93 (1996), 5319+; NS (15 June 1996), 17; and on infertility treatment in maize, Science 272 (1996), 1279-80. The use of Agrobacterium to transform grape is reported in Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 624-8. A series of papers on plant biotechnology are in Current Opinion in Biotechnology 7 (1996), 127-86. A genetic manipulation system for oceanic cyanobacteria is in AEM 62 (1996), 1747-51; and a review of possibilities to engineer the rhizosphere is TIBTECH 14 (1996), 83-8.

The FAO has announced a 20-point plan to conserve plant genetic resources, secure the 1308 gene banks in the world, and to share the benefits of plant genetics, over the next 10 years, Nature 381 (1996), 640. A call for genetic engineering to provide food for increased population is in Financial Times (18 June 1996), 23.

Transgenic melon (Charentais canteloupe) expressing an antisense ACC oxidase gene to control fruit ripening have been reported, with less than 1% of the native enzyme controlling ripening on and off the vine, Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 862+. Papers on production of transgenic cassava include Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 726-30, 731-5, 736-40.

Plant genetic engineering is discussed in Herbers, K. & Sonnewald, U. Manipulating metabolic partitioning in transgenic plants. TIBTECH 14 (1996), 198-205; Murphy, DJ. Engineering oil production in rapeseed and other oil crops. TIBTECH 14 (1996), 206-13; Prakash CS, Edible vaccines and antibody producing plants. Biotechnology and Development Monitor 27 (June 1996), 10-13.

A single gene mutation in the large subunit of adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (shrunken2) increased corn seed size by 11-18% without altering percentage of starch, Giroux, MJ. "A single gene mutation that increases maize seed weight", PNAS 93 (1996), 5824-9.

The construction of an improved mycoinsecticide is reported in PNAS 93 (1996), 6349-54. Alstad DN. & Andow DA., "Evolution of Insect Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis-Transformed Plants", Science 273 (1996), 1413-4.

On tomato disease resistance genes, Cell 86 (1996), 123-3. Dutch Elm disease resistant Elm trees have been released by the USDA, GEN (August 1996), 26. A review of use of biotechnology in US plant breeding is Biotechnology and Development Monitor 27 (June 1996), 15-7. China is focusing on grain production, Nature 382 (1996), 725. In India there are protests against new food companies for changing the food tastes and agriculture, NS (3 August 1996), 14-5. A review of 2000 crop biotechnology projects in the EU is in GEN (July 1996), 16. The crops with the most projects in order include cereals (210), potatoes, oil seed rape, dried pulses, maize, ornamentals, fruit, tomatoes, sugar beet (about 70). A book review on the origins of agriculture is Nature 382 (1996), 36-7.

A letter on the production of trehalose in tobacco plants by genetic engineering to improve desiccation tolerance is Nature 382 (1996), 502. Research has found hemoglobins in not only animals, but plants, protists and bacteria, PNAS 93 (1996), 5675-9, 5682-7.

Two milestones in crop biotechnology are considered to be transgenic cassava and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maize, Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 677, 702; Taylor, NJ et al. "Development of friable embryogenic callus and embryogenic suspension culture systems in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)", Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 726-30; Schepke, C. et al. "Regeneration of transgenic cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from microbombarded embryogenic suspension cultures", Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 731-5; Li, H-Q. et al. "Genetic transformation of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)", Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 736-740; Ishida, Y. et al. "High efficiency transformation of maize (Zea mays L.) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens", Nature Biotech 14 (1996), 745-50.

A discussion of reasons why we should need to control the ripening of melon is Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 800-2, 828-9: Ayub, R. et al. "Expression of ACC oxidase antisense gene inhibits ripening of cantaloupe melon fruits", Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 862-6. They generated transgenic cantaloupe Charentais melons expressing an antisense ACC oxidase gene; which catalyzes the last step of ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene production of fruit was <1% of control untransformed fruit, and the ripening process was blocked both on and off the vine. The antisense phenotype could be reversed by exogenous ethylene treatment.

The bread-making characteristic of wheat flour is closely related to the elasticity and extensibility of the gluten proteins stored in the starchy endosperm. The quality can now be genetically modified, Altpeter, F. et al. "Integration and expression of the high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 gene into wheat", Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1155-64; Blechl, AE & Anderson OD, "Expression of a novel high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene in transgenic wheat", Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 875-9.

Transgenic overproduction of phytochrome A in tobacco suppresses shade avoidance, causing enhanced allocation to leaves, with an increase in harvest index, Robson, PRH. et al. "Genetic engineering of harvest index in tobacco through overexpression of a phytochrome gene", Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 995-8, 945. This can provide significant improvements in productivity. A general review of problems in plant genetic engineering is Amer. J. Clin. Nutrition 63 (1996), 651-6S.

Ishizaki-Nishizawa, O. et al. "Low-temperature resistance of higher plants is significantly enhanced by a nonspecific cyanobacterial desaturase", Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1003-6; also 946. A broad-specificity Delta9 desaturase gene was cloned from the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans. The enzyme introduces a cis-double bond at the Delta9 position of both 16 and 18 carbon saturated fatty acids linked to many kinds of membrane lipids. The transgenic plants had a highly reduced level of saturated fatty acid content in membranes and increased in chilling resistance.

Genetic engineering has been used to improve natural rubber, GEN (15 Sept. 1996), 1, 8, 41. An optimized protocol has been developed for the efficient and rapid genetic modification of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), Hall, RD. et al. "A high efficiency technique for the generation of transgenic sugar beets from stomatal guard cells", Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1133-8. Transfer of the N gene of tobacco makes tomatoes resistant to TMV, PNAS 93 (1996), 8776-81. On the transfer of intact high molecular weight DNA into plant chromosomes is reported in PNAS 93 (1996), 9975-9. On the production of fertile transgenic barley by bombardment, Plant Science 119 (1996), 79-91.

Ogawa, T. et al. "Virus-induced cell death in plants expressing the mammalian 2,5 oligoadenylate system" Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1566-9, 1538-9. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these two enzyme activities were produced by crossing the transgenic plants expressing RNase L with those expressing 2-5Aase. The double transgenic plants showed complete resistance against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). A new family of nucleotide-binding site sequences has been linked to probable resistance genes in Yu, YG. et al. "Isolation of a superfamily of candidate disease-resistance genes in soybean based on a conserved nucleotide-binding site", PNAS 93 (1996), 11751-6. Comparison of resistance genes in tobacco, Arabidopsis and flax were used to isolate nine classes of resistance genes in soybean in PNAS 93 (1996), 11746-50. Broad range resistance against viruses is described in Tacke, E. at el. "Genetic engineering of potato for broad-spectrum protection against virus infection", Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1597-1601; Leister, D. et al. "A PCR-based approach for isolating pathogen resistance genes from potato with potential for wide application in plants", Nature Genetics 14 (1996), 421-9.

On plant genetic engineering, Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1653. On edible plant vaccines Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1532-3. Some wines are being made from genetically modified grapevines, with altered flavour, colour development, and disease resistance. Australia is now also developing it for their wine industry. The structure of aglobular antifreeze protein from eel is described in Nature 384 (1996), 285-8. Stress signaling in plants through a protein kinase pathway is described in PNAS 93 (1996), 11274-9. Cotton plants that produce warmer fibres for better insulation are being made for jackets, etc., NS (23 Nov 1996), 27; PNAS 93 (1996), 12768+.

Use of genes from wild rice is shown to improve yield in Chinese studies, Nature 384 (1996), 223-4. They screened one wild species, Oryza rufipogon for genes that enhance rice, although in the wild species these benefits are masked by other deleterious genes. There is a need to improve yields of wheat annually as well, and with genetic engineering an annual increase of 2.5% in yield should be sustained, NS (26 Oct 1996), 8; (9 Nov), 6. There is debate between FAO and the UN Convention on Biological Diversity on the control of genebanks, NS (23 Nov 1996), 3, 7.

A special issue of Biotechnology & Development Monitor 29 (Dec 1996), 1-24, is on new approaches in plant breeding. It includes papers on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops, including resistance management strategies. A report from a Bacillus thuringiensis conference in Thailand is NatBio 15 (1997), 225-6. On protein engineering of Bt, PNAS 93 (1996), 14338-43. A method for elimination of antibiotic resistance genes from Bt crops is in AEM 63 (1997), 779-84.A review of plant disease resistance genes, and the avr gene products is in Nature 385 (1997), 397-8. A general review is Estruch, JJ. et al., "Transgenic plants: An emerging approach to pest control", NatBio 15 (1997), 137-41. A study of whether tropical plants have better disease resistance and lower palatability is Ecology 77 (1996), 2269-86.

Transgenic tobacco plants expressing VHb exhibited enhanced growth, on average 80-100% more dry weight after 35 days of growth compared to wild-type controls. Holmberg, N. et al. "Transgenic tobacco expressing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin exhibits enhanced growth and altered metabolite production", NatBio 15 (1997), 244-7. On plant-based vaccines, Dalsgaard, K. et al. "Plant-derived vaccine protects target animals against a viral disease", NatBio 15 (1997), 248-52, 221-2.

Altered tobacco plants are being used to make antigen to test for hepatitis B virus, in a much cheaper production system, NS (18 Jan 1997), 20. A synthetic operon for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis designed to yield high levels of PHA synthase activity in vivo was constructed, Sim, S et al. "PHA synthase activity controls the molecular weight and polydispersity of polyhydroxybutyrate in vivo", NatBio 15 (1997), 63-8. On production of rubber in plants, SA (Feb 1997), 23; and cotton, NS (12 Oct, 1996), 22-4.

Hexokinase has been found to be a sugar sensor in higher plants, Plant Cell 9 (1997), 5-19. The use of natural fibres for production of metal substances, such as cars, is reviewed in NS (1 Feb 1997), 36-9. A review of genes for nodule production in plants is NS (11 Jan 1997), 22-5. The plasticity of phenotype of an annual plant is reported for Abutilon theophrasti in Heredity 78 (1997), 176-81. The first nematode resistance gene has been found, Science 275 (1997), 757, 832-5.
The production of functional tetrameric human hemoglobin has been reported in transgenic tobacco expressing both alpha and beta chains, Nature 386 (1997), 29-30. A review of recent research in cassava is Biotechnology & Development Monitor 30 (March 1997), 16-8. A gene SDLS-2 can make plants destroy their own pips, so it will eliminate pips in citrus fruits for example, NS (8 March 1997), 11.

Resources produced and exuded by a plant host can confer a selective advantage to microorganisms that use the substrate, Savka, MA. et al. "Modification of rhizobacterial populations by engineering bacterium utilization of a novel plant-produced resource", Nature Biotechnology 15 (1997), 363-8. Oger, P. et al. "Genetically engineered plants producing opines alter their biological environment", Nature Biotechnology 15 (1997), 369-72. A device to measure ethylene production from plants, a signal of stress, is being used to monitor transport strategies, NS (8 March 1997), 7.

On the origins of maize, Nature 386 (1997), 443-4. The use of a mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, to convert rice straw and wheat straw for animal feed is reported in Bioresource Technology 59 (1997), 5-8. On nitrogen fixation chemistry, Science 275 (1997), 1442. The cloning of novel enterotoxin genes from Bacillus species is reported in AEM 63 (1997), 1054-7.

The production of functional tetrameric human hemoglobin has been reported in transgenic tobacco expressing both alpha and beta chains, Nature 386 (1997), 29-30. A review of recent research in cassava is Biotechnology & Development Monitor 30 (March 1997), 16-8. A gene SDLS-2 can make plants destroy their own pips, so it will eliminate pips in citrus fruits for example, NS (8 March 1997), 11.

Resources produced and exuded by a plant host can confer a selective advantage to microorganisms that use the substrate, Savka, MA. et al. "Modification of rhizobacterial populations by engineering bacterium utilization of a novel plant-produced resource", Nature Biotechnology 15 (1997), 363-8. Oger, P. et al. "Genetically engineered plants producing opines alter their biological environment", Nature Biotechnology 15 (1997), 369-72. A device to measure ethylene production from plants, a signal of stress, is being used to monitor transport strategies, NS (8 March 1997), 7.

On the origins of maize, Nature 386 (1997), 443-4. The use of a mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, to convert rice straw and wheat straw for animal feed is reported in Bioresource Technology 59 (1997), 5-8. On nitrogen fixation chemistry, Science 275 (1997), 1442. The cloning of novel enterotoxin genes from Bacillus species is reported in AEM 63 (1997), 1054-7.

Research into the potato disease, late blight, using resistant hybrids has began in six test plots around the world, NS (26 April, 1997), 32-6. It will avoid the need for chemical sprays, that poorer people cannot afford. Research on nitrogen-fixing rice has progressed with the discovery of a new bacteria that fixes nitrogen in the roots of Kallar grass, and it has been assigned to a new genus, Azoarcus, NS (7 June, 1997), 7; Plant and Soil (In Press Sept. 1997). Also see , Freiburg, C. et al. "Molecular basis of symbiosis between Rhizobium and legumes", Nature 387 (1997), 394-401, 352-4.

A review of the efforts to make low cost products in plant crops for medicine is Lancet 349 (1997), 1526. A transformation system for the Australian rice cultivar, Jarrah, using biolistics with gold particles has been developed, Aust. J. Plant Physiology 24 (1997), 133-41. The average yield of wheat in Australia has increased 30-50% since 1952 due to climate change, Nicholls, N. "Increased Australian wheat yield due to recent climate trends", Nature 387 (1997), 484-5.

Aluminium is found in acidic soils which are about 40% of arable land in the world, yet it is toxic to many crops. The overproduction of citrate in tobacco and papaya plants made these plants more tolerant, de la Fuente, JM. et al. "Aluminium tolerance in transgenic plants by alteration of citrate synthesis", Science 276 (1997), 1566-8, 1497. Research on drought resistance in Planta GmbH, Germany is discussed in EBN 244 (1997), 4-5. A review on flowering genes, Cell 89 (1997), 821-4.

There are some common ways that plants and animals respond to microorganisms which can be used for disease resistance, Baker, B. et al. "Signaling in plant-microbe interactions", Science 276 (1997), 726-33. A study of the threshold weed levels that affect crops is Nature 387 (1997), 241-2. The phenomenon of gene silencing is related to viral defense, Science 276 (1997), 1558-60. A beet nematode resistance gene is being used in transgenics, NS (31 May 1997), 12. Rice blast fungus can be made non-pathogenic by the alpha-factor of yeast, Science 276 (1997), 1116-8. DNA fingerprinting has shown that the Cabernet Sauvignon grape is the product of a cross between Cabernet franc and Sauvignon blanc, NatGen 16 (1997), 1, 4, 84-7. Also on grape breeding, Nature 387 (1997), 670-1.

A study of the evolutionary trends in chemicals that plants use to prevent insect attack is Becerra, JX. "Insects on plants: Macroevolutionary chemical trends in host use", Science 276 (1997), 253-6. The expression of insecticidal genes is described in Sangthongpitag, K. et al. "Cloning and expression of the Bacillus sphaericus 2362 mosquitocidal genes in a non-toxic unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus PCC6301", Appl. Microbiology & Biotechnology 47 (1997), 379-84. Resistance can develop, as seen in Liu, Y-B. & Tabashnik, BE. "Inheritance of resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin CryC in the Diamondback Moth", AEM 63 (1997), 2218-23. Laboratory selection led to 62-fold greater resistance over 6 generations than the resistant strain isolated in the field in Hawaii.

A new book is K. Watanabe, E. Pehu, ed. Plant Biotechnology and Plant Genetic Resources for Sustainability and Productivity, (Austin, USAR.G. Landes, 1997; 247pp., ISBN 0-12-737145-1). It includes 17 papers with a number on environmental issues, and a paper on ethics, Macer, D. R.J. (1997) "Major concerns on plant biotechnology applications in plants: Safety Issues and bioethics", pp. 87-99. A review of the commercial research into use of plants as bioreactors to make oils and many products for industry is GEN (15 June 1997), 1, 6, 39.

Two papers on insect antifreezes mean that they will start to be used for transgenics more, NatBio 15 (1997), 844, 887-90, 891-5. The antifreeze potential of the spruce budworm thermal hysteresis protein is 10 to 30 times more active than any known fish protein. A review on the origin of antifreeze genes is PNAS 94 (1997), 3485-7.

Sonnewald, U. et al. "Increased potato tuber size resulting from apoplastic expression of a yeast invertase", NatBio 15 (1997), 794-8. Cytosolic localization gave rise to a reduction in tuber size and an increase in tuber number per plant whereas apoplastic targeting led to an increase in tuber size and a decrease in tuber number per plant. The organ size can be manipulated through modification of sucrose metabolism. The development of drought tolerant barley by the insertion of a yeast gene, Hal1, has been developed, NS (26 July 1997), 16.

The frequency of resistance alleles in a resistant moth population was found to be 0.0015, Gould F. et al. "Initial frequency of alleles for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in field populations of Heliothis virescens", PNAS 94 (1997), 3519-23. A review is Peferoen, M. "Progress and prospects for field use of BT genes in crops", TIBTECH 15 (1997), 173-7. (Also see field trials section below). A review of methods for insect resistance is PNAS 94 (1997), 3488-90; and on mycoinsecticides, TIBTECH 15 (1997), 83-7. Papers on disease resistance include PNAS 94 (1997), 4861-5. A method for reducing the length of inserts required is PNAS 94 (1997), 8261-6. Transgenic peanut plants made by Agrobacterium are reported in Plant Cell Reports 16 (1997), 541-4; and Brassica in Plant Cell Reports 16 (1997), 587-93. On flowering regulation, Cell 89 (1997), 821-4. Methods to evaluate the transgenic status of plants are reviewed in TIBTECH 15 (1997), 141-6.

A Californian company Applied Phytologics is developing rice and other seed crops to produce human proteins in them, NS (12 July 1997), 17. They have put alpha-1-antitrypsin into rice. Another group have inserted the human gene GAD into potatoes and after diabetes model mice consumed them most did not develop the disease, NS (26 July 1997), 18; NatMed 3 (1997), 793-6. Vaccine production is reported in Yusibov, V. et al. "Antigens produced in plants by infection with chimeric plant viruses immunize against rabies virus and HIV-1", PNAS 94 (1997), 5784-8.

The Brazilian FAPESP has created a network of laboratories, the Organization for Nucleotide Sequencing and Analysis that will sequence the genome of the plant pathogenic bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, Nature 388 (1997), 654. The US Congress has given an extra US$40 million for a plant genome initiative, already with $20 million, that started on 1 October, 1997, led by the National Science Foundation. The USDA has started a US$200 million project to identify genes of important food sources, Science 277 (1997), 889.

A 2kg potato has been made using genetic engineering, using transfer of invertase gene from yeast, NatBio 15 (1997), 794+; NS (30 Aug. 1997), 17. The structure of starch in seeds and its application to bioplastics is discussed in Nature 389 (1997), 338-9.

The problems of maintaining monocrop and other farm systems over long periods of time is reviewed in Nature 389 (1997), 126-7. In Africa a new rice that trebles yields is being introduced with a new hybrid or Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima, made using anther culture, NS (20 Sept. 1997), 17. The new seeds of a new green revolution are reviewed in Science 277 (1997), 1038-43. On gene silencing in plants, Nature 389 (1997), 553.

There is debate in the USA over the percentage of non-GMO cotton and corn that should be included in fields to delay the development of insect resistance to Bt toxin, the common biopesticide, Nature 388 (1997), 817. In cotton the EPA says 4% is adequate, but some opponents argue 20-40% is better. In the USA in 1997 about 15% of cotton is so-called BT cotton, and 9% of maize. A paper on how Bt toxins can combat mosquito resistance is PNAS 94 (1997), 10536-40.

A review of horizontal resistance in crops is Biotechnology & Development Monitor 33 (Dec 1997), 1-5, and on their regulation, pp. 6-8. The activity of ribonuclease pac1 from yeast can be harnessed to protect transgenic potato plants from infection by potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd)1, Sano, T et al. "Transgenic potato expressing a double-stranded RNA-specific ribonuclease is resistant to potato spindle tuber viroid", NatBio 15 (1997), 1290-4, 1247. Sequence interchange between tandemly repeated genes at the Cf-4/9 locus of tomato result in novel disease resistance, Cell 91 (1997), 821-32. Properties can also be changed, Barro, F. et al. "Transformation of wheat with high molecular weight subunit genes results in improved functional properties", 1295-9. A review of making rice resistant to disease is SA (Nov 1997), 100-5.

Two new papers provide information about insect resistance to insecticidal proteins of Bt, NatBio 15 (1997), 1324+. PCR can be used to screen Bacillus thuringiensis strains for the presence of cry-group (toxins) specific for different insects, AEM 63 (1997), 4883-90. The improvement of efficiency is reported in Poncet, S. et al. "Improvement of Bacillus sphaericus toxicity against Dipteran larvae by integration, via homologous recombination, of the Cry11A toxin gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis", AEM 63 (1997), 4413-20.

The production of proteins is described in Kusnadi, AR. et al. "Production of recombinant proteins in transgenic plants: Practical considerations", Biotechnology & Bioengineering 56 (1997), 473-84. Human antibodies against herpes simplex virus and other proteins are being produced in plants and have entered clinical trials, SA (Nov 1997), 44. When pollinated parthenocarpic tobacco and eggplants produced fruits containing seeds, Rotino, GL. et al. "Genetic engineering of parthenocarpic plants", 1398-402. On stress signal pathways in plants, Plant Cell 9 (1997), 1881-3.

Comparative mapping of sugarcane and relationships to sorghum and maize are made in PNAS 94 (1997), 14261-6. A report on The First Fungal Genome Workshop at the Center for International Trade and Development of Oklahoma State University is in NatBio 16 (1998), 5. PCR amplification of RuBisCo small subunit genes can be applied to plant tissue identification, Heredity 79 (1997), 557-63. The site of EinKorn wheat domestication has been identified by DNA fingerprinting to be in southeast Turkey, Science 278 (1997), 1312-4; and a general discussion is in pp. 1243-4. A book review of Conway, G. The Doubly Green Revolution: Food for All in the 21st Century (Penguin 1997, 335pp., 10 pds) is in Nature 391 (1998), 139. Africa's farmers are doing more of the green revolution themselves, NS (13 Dec 1997), 53.

A review is Jouanin, L. et al. "Transgenic plants for insect resistance", Plant Science 131 (1998), 1-11. On Bt resistance management, NatBio 16 (1998), 144-6. A review of genetic techniques for rice disease protection in Asia is in a conference review of the International Program of Rice Biotechnology, held in Malacca, Malaysia, GEN 18 (15 Jan 1998), 13, 32. On resistance gene reorganization, PNAS 95 (1998), 370-5. Heat treatment can result in the loss of expression of transgene-encoded activities, Plant Physiol. 115 (1997), 939-47. On regulation of gene expression, PNAS 95 (1998), 376-81.

A discussion of ways to make agriculture more sustainable is NS (17 Jan 1998), 18-9, 30-33. A review of the phosphorus balance of farming systems is J. Appl. Ecology 34 (1997), 1334-47. On ways to fix nitrogen, Science 279 (1998), 506-7. DNA evolution and wheat domestication is discussed in Science 279 (1998), 302-3.

There is increasing attempts at metabolic engineering, TIBTECH 15 (1997), 441-4; Daniell, H. et al. "Containment of herbicide resistance through genetic engineering of the chloroplast genome", NatBio 16 (1998), 345-8. On comparative genetics in grasses, PNAS 95 (1998), 1971-4. Synergism between Bt spores against resistant and susceptible diamondback moths is reported in AEM 64 (1998), 1385-9. Pollinators are dying out, raising fears for crop yields, NS (14 Feb. 1998), 17.

A series of papers on plant genomics are in PNAS 95 (March 1998), and on projects to increase food, PNAS 95 (1998), 1969-70, 86-88, 89-92. The origins of farming in North America are reviewed in Science 279 (1998), 1651-2; and on wheat domestification in Turkey about 8,000 BC is discussed in Science 279 (1998), 1433.

A genetic analysis of naturally resistant goosegrass to the herbicides triflurain and oryzalin has found that the tubulin gene has three base changes, and these changes could be used to confer herbicide resistance to maize, Nature 393 (1998), 260-3. The use of a gene to increase cold tolerance of Arabidopsis to -8C has been reported, Science 280 (1998), 36, 104+. A calcium sensor homologue is required for plant salt tolerance, Science 280 (1998), , 1906-7, 1943-45.

A new wheat variety that can yield 18 tons per hectare has been developed by Mexico's International Wheat and Maize Improvement Centre, Science 280 (1998), 527. It does require a large fertilizer input and still needs some disease resistance genes. The fungus that caused the Irish potato famine has returned and is spreading rapidly, being resistant to metalaxyl, the fungicide that previously worked, SA (June 1998), 20, 26. Overexpression of the NPR1 regulatory gene can generate broad-spectrum disease resistance, PNAS 95 (1998), 6531-6. On plant resistance to bacterial diseases, TIBTECH 16 (1998), 203-10.

A review paper is Schuler, T.H. et al. "Insect-resistant transgenic plants", TIBTECH 16 (1998), 168-75. Rice plants that express synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) genes from Bt are highly toxic to striped stem borer and yellow stem borer, PNAS 95 (1998), 2767-72. Resistance to Bt is discussed in SA (May 1998), 38. Insecticidal toxins have been found in a new bacteria are an alternative, Bowen, D. et al. "Insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens", Science 280 (1998), 2129-32; 2050.

Genetic engineering is being used to make coffee without caffeine, NS (12 March, 1998), 11. The researchers silenced the gene making xanthosine-N-methyl transferase. A new gene mutation has been developed that will prevent seeds germinating, and this could stop farmers from being able to grow their own seed, NS (28 March, 1998), 22. Excess UV radiation makes pollen sluggish in more than half the species tested, Science News (21 March 1998), 183.

A paper on gene transfer to the nucleus and evolution of chloroplasts is Nature 393 (1998), 162-5. A study of evolution in the grass family (Poaceae) by chloroplast DNA is Botanical Review 64 (1998), 1-85. A discussion of florigen that induces flowers is Cell 93 (1998), 491-4. On the Cassava Biotechnology Network, NatBio 16 (1998), 428-30.

A review of viral vectors and plants as bioreactors to produce valuable substances is Chemistry & Industry (21 July 1998), 550-4. IVF techniques could boost the timber industry, NS (18 July 1998), 17; and in some countries somatic embryo technology has been used for some time to produce cloned trees. Genetic engineering to make plants resistant to UV light and desiccation with reduction in active oxygen promises more for plants to green deserts, NS (18 July 1998), 21. A series of papers on the impacts of modern biotechnology in agriculture are in Biotechnology & Development Monitor 35 (June 1998), 2-24.

A conference review of plant biology and genomics is Science 281 (1998), 331-2. A report on a genomic search for insect resistance in maize is Plant Breeding 117 (1998), 193-202; and on the origin of maize, TIG 14 (1998), 327-32. Newer simpler technologies may help farmers counter insect pests using better ways to spread biological control agents, NS (22 August 1998), 17. A new insecticidal toxin has been found in Photorhabdus luminescens which has oral and injectable activities, AEM 64 (1998), 3036-41. Both plants and animals use nitric oxide in their immune systems, NS (15 August 1998), 23; Nature 394 (1998), 525-6. Genes from the biocontrol agent and mycoparasitic fungi, Trichoderma harzaium have been transferred to give fungal resistance, PNAS 95 (1998), 7860-5. The genes encode an antifungal endochitanase, being ThEn-42 and chit42. Lettuce mosaic virus coat protein can give potatoes resistance to potato virus Y, Plant Science 136 (1998), 31-42.

A new US$146 million plant science centre is being made in St. Louis, Science 281 (17 July 1998); Nature 394 (1998), 210-1. On biopolymer production in plants, Chemistry & Industry (21 July 1998), 555-8. Analysis of a glyphosate resistant ryegrass has found that it may have a different mechanism of herbicide tolerance than previously known, maybe impeding the transfer of the herbicide into the chloroplasts, NS (18 July 1998), 7.

A high frequency tone that drives mosquitoes away is included in Radio Salle broadcasts in Germany, with changes in frequency every ten minutes so they do not get acclimatized, Lancet 352 (1998), 634. Perhaps such alternative systems can be used to scar away other insects that cause harm to crops, however, other animals may also perceive it as noise pollution. ladybirds may also be a good alternative to pesticides, NS (26 Sept. 1998), 11. Environmental friendly farming methods can save 40% of costs using integrated farm management, NS (5 Sept. 1998), 13.

A new antifreeze protein has been isolated from carrots, Worrall, D. et al. "A carrot leucine-rich-repeat protein that inhibits ice recrystallization", Science 281 (1998), 1155-7; NS (10 Oct. 1998), 25. Fish genes are another source of such genes, Science News 154 (1998), 183. A review of salicyclic acid and systemic acquired resistance to pathogens is Annals of Botany 82 (1998), 535-40. The World Bank is switching research funds from biological pest control to genetic engineering according to some researchers in Africa, NS (10 Oct. 1998), 4. A new vegetable coating is being used on cut fruit in Australia to prevent oxidation, NS (3 Oct. 1998), 7. Plastic coatings are being used under crops to stop weeds to alter the light received for photosynthesis, NS (24 Oct. 1998), 34-7.

A museum review on the close connection between plants and people at Kew gardens is Lancet 352 (1998), 660. The domestication of tuber-based crops is discussed in Nature 395 (1998), 330-1. A review on evolution of agriculture in ants is Science 281 (1998), 2034-8. Suggestions that duplication of actin genes led to the ability of plants to colonize land have been supported by comparisons of actin genes from different plants, NS (29 August 1998), 13.

A. tumefaciens can also transfer its T-DNA efficiently to the filamentous fungus Aspergillus awamori, demonstrating DNA transfer between a prokaryote and a filamentous fungus. de Groot, MJA. et al. "Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of filamentous fungi", NatBio16 (1998), 839-42, 817. Sugar beet has been made to produce fructans, Svenier R. et al. "High level fructan accumulation in a transgenic sugar beet", NatBio16 (1998), 843-6, 822. The expression and inheritance of multiple transgenes in rice plants is reported in NatBio16 (1998), 1060-1064, 1009-10.

The development of resistance to silver as a biocide is discussed in NatBio16 (1998), 888. It is used in numerous forms, e.g. in hospital and hotel water systems, in chicken farms, postharvest cleaning of oysters, and in silverized activated carbon filters along with ion-exchange resins.

The mode of action of one of the antifreeze genes is revealed in Steponkus, PL. et al. "Mode of action of the COR15a gene on the freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana", PNAS 95 (1998), 14570-5. It alters the inner curvature of the inner membrane of the chloroplast envelope. The use of genetics to alter lignification of cell walls is reported in PNAS 95 (1998), 12742-3, 12803-8. Lignin is a bioresource for production of sorption-active material, Bioresource Technology 67 (1998), 221-8.

Improving crop photosynthesis is possible, Ku, MSB. et al. "High-level expression of maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in transgenic rice plants", NatBio 17 (1999), 76-80, 22-3. Efforts to make forest biotechnology a commercial reality a discussed in NatBio 17 (1999), 27-30. Strategies for bioengineering the development and metabolism of glandular tissues in plants are reviewed in NatBio 17 (1999), 31-36. An experiment using genetically engineering to increase root growth of plants in space was successful to cause a 50% increase in root growth, following a 1998 US shuttle mission, Hartford Courant (Reported in Japan Times (3 January, 1999), 7; conducted by Dr. Yi Lu, University of Connecticut).

Insecticide resistance can result from the absence of a target-site gene product, PNAS 95 (1998), 1404-4. The characterization of 33 different cry-1 type profiles among a Mexican Bacillus thuringiensis collection is reported in AEM 64 (1998), 4965-72. The cry gene product is the insecticidal toxin, and different products have different specificities. A study of the cyt1Aa and Cyt2Aa gene products against three species of sheep blowfly found only the Cyt1Aa form was toxic, AEM 64 (1998), 4060-1. It is also toxic to cottonwood leaf beetle, AEM 64 (1998), 4368-71. See also, AEM 64 (1998), 4174-9. The introduction of Bt cyt1Ab1 gene into Bacillus sphaericus results in better killing of resistant mosquito larva, AEM 64 (1998), 3910-6. Pest resistance is discussed in NatBio 16 (1998), 1315-6.

A vaccine for Dutch elm disease has been produced from the fungus that causes the disease, NS (12 Dec. 1998), 7. On plant disease resistance proteins, TIBS 23 (1998), 454-6. Legume-based cropping systems have reduced carbon and nitrogen losses, Nature 396 (1998), 262-5.

The vitamin E content of Arabidopsis seeds has been elevated by including the enzyme y-tocopherol methyltransferase, Shintani D. & DellaPenna, D. "Elevating the vitamin E content of plants through metabolic engineering", Science 282 (1998), 2098-100. However, most transgenic plants are not being so successful despite strong expectations, Science 282 (1998), 2176-8. A report on the isolation of 5,692 ESTs from wood-forming tissue of poplar is PNAS 95 (1998), 13330-5. Transgenic DNA that is integrated into the oat genome is frequently interspersed by host DNA, PNAS 95 (1998), 12106-10. Promiscuous junk DNA has already invaded many plant species genome, NS (28 Nov 1998), 12.

Antibodies are being harvested from plants (see also vaccine section), Science News 154 (5 Dec 1998), 359. Efforts to improve photosynthesis by genetic engineering are reviewed in Science 283 (1999), 310-2, 314-6. Research is finding more of the mechanism of legume's ability for nitrogen fixation through Rhizobium, Science 283 (1999), 774.

Improving nutrient content is obtained in Goto, F. et al. "Iron fortification of rice seed by the soybean ferritin gene" , NatBio 17 (1999), 282 - 286, 230. Altered environmental tolerance is made in Kasuga, M. et al. "Improving plant drought, salt, and freezing tolerance by gene transfer of a single stress-inducible transcription factor" , NatBio 17 (1999), 287 - 291; 229; Plants ectopically expressing the iron-binding protein, ferritin, are tolerant to oxidative damage and pathogens, NatBio 17 (1999), 192-196. Other methods to improve rice production involve crossing naturally occurring varieties, Science 283 (1999), 313-4. Research has revealed some disease-resistance related sequences in common bean, Genome 42 (1999), 41-7. Second and third generation GMO seeds are in research laboratories, e.g. Liberty-link cotton that is glufosinate-tolerant, with reduced pesticide use, GEN (15 Jan. 1999), 17, 41.

There is renewed interest in colour cotton produced by naturally occurring varieties, not only by genetics, SA (April 1999), 112-8. A review on agroforestry and evolution of cropping systems is HortScience 34 (Feb. 1999), 22-4.

The future of vegetable oils as vehicle fuel is discussed in Science News 154 (5 Dec 1998), 364-6. Production of recombinant proteins can be obtained in plant root exudates, NatBio 17 (1999), 427, 466-9.

Overexpression of Bt in chloroplasts confers resistance against susceptible and Bt-resistant insects, PNAS 96 (1999), 1840-5. The mechanism of binding of BT in Diamondback moth is reviewed in AEM 65 (1998), 1413-9. A study of the toxicity of 4 Bt endotoxins against Spodoptera species is AEM 65 (1999), 457-64.

The use of nutrients can alter weed growth, as found in an observation that potassium-depleted soils do not support dandelions, Science 284 (1998), 1249-50. Spiders scare off some insects and help plants boost seed production in exchange for nectar, NS (15 May 1999), 17. A study of subspecies regulation of Bt protoxin genes is AEM 65 (1999), 1849-53.

The results of a symposia on plant mitochondrial genetics are in J. Heredity (May 1999), 333-392+. Papers on hybrid classification are in Ecology 80 (1999), 359-60, 361-70. It is difficult to determine how genes and environment interact to make hybrids resistant to herbivores, Ecology 80 (1999), 382-91. Cost studies of biodiesel production have found that it is still not cost-effective, and new techniques are needed, Bioresource Technology 70 (1999), 1-15, 81-7. Improved stearate phenotype in transgenic canola expressing a modified acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase is reported in NatBio 17 (1999), 593-7. A general review of a book is Lappe, M. & Bailey, B., Against the Grain: The Genetic Transformation of Global Agriculture (Earthscan, 1999, 160pp.) is Nature 399 (1999), 319-20.

Resistance to rice yellow mottle virus has been made by genetic engineering of rice with RYMV transgenes, NatBio 17 (1999), 702-7. A method to prevent cold-induced sweetening of potato tubers by expression of a invertase inhibitor homologue is in NatBio 17 (1999), 708-11. A review of low temperature tolerance in cereals is Crop Science 39 (1999), 626-33. Dinitroaniline herbicide-resistant transgenic tobacco plants are reported in NatBio 17 (1999), 712-6. Salt tolerance can be conferred by overexpression of a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport in Arabidopsis, Science 285 (1999), 1256-8.

On the future of plant biotechnology a Spanish/English paper is Olmedo, FG. "Transgenic plants. Towards a new green revolution", Eidon 1 (Sept 1999), 24-37. A review of plants in India is Ghosh, PK. "Genetically engineered plants in Indian Agriculture", J. Natl. Bot. Soc. 51 (1997), 11-32. Several examples of useful crops for developing countries are in Science 285 (1999), 370-1; and in general, BMJ 318 (1999), 1631. A commentary on why Africa needs biotechnology is Nature 400 (1999), 15-6. A review on US hybrid corn is Crop Science 39 (1999), 601-26. A series of papers on plant genetic resources and biotechnology is Genome 42 (1999), 551-656. Nutritional genomics by altering plants micronutrient levels is proposed in Science 285 (1999), 375-9.

The microorganisms attached to vegetables may be useful for nutrition, NS (7 August 1999), 11. Rice has been engineered to include beta-carotene, Science 285 (1999), 994-5. Improvement of grain quality traits is discussed in Science 284 (1999), 367, 372-5. Engineering of canola to produce new fat may improve diet, Science News 155 (1999), 357. The green revolution genes that led to shorter grains with less stalk have been found to contain mutant gibberellin response modulators, Nature 400 (1999), 256-61. Climate change and crop yield is discussed in Nature 400 (1999), 724. New ways to extract medicines from plants are reviewed in Science 285 (1999), 1347-8; Lancet 354 (1999), 490. Flowers are being used to make vaccines, NS (26 June 1999), 24.

The complete BAC-based physical map of Arabidopsis thaliana genome has been published, NatGen 22 (1999), 219-20, 271-5. A new evolutionary history of plants is discussed in Science 285 (1999), 990-1.

Fertilizer applications alter herbage mineral composition, Animal Science 69 (1999), 1-18. An essay on the invention of the Haber-Bosch process to make ammonia for fertilizer, Nature 400 (1999), 415. The pollution caused by agrochemicals is discussed in Nature 400 (1999), 611-2. Emergency use of pesticides worries some conservationists, NS (3 July 1999), 13. Local technology is discussed from Africa in NS (12 June 1999), 51; Agricultural Economics 20 (1999), 203-14. On the implications of international food aid, Agricultural Economics 20 (1999), 191-201. Bt toxins can be transferred to other Bacillus species for protection, PNAS 96 (1999), 3021-6. On the evolution of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, Nature 400 (1999), 861-4.

Genome-wide mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana is reported in Nature Genetics 23 (1999), 203-7. A review of some expected benefits from plant genomics to improve human health is Trends in Plant Sciences 4 (1999), 164-6. High resolution FISH in plants is reported in Trends in Plant Sciences 4 (1999), 258-63. A new method for gene engineering is discussed in SA (Oct. 1999), 48-9. Fluorescent proteins from nonbioluminescent Anthozoa species are useful as markers, Nature Biotechnology 17 (1999), 969\73. Green fluorescent protein can be used as a marker for expression of a second gene in transgenic plants Nature Biotechnology 17 (1999), 1125-9.

Geneticvally modified rice is expected to help fight malnutrition, JAMA 282 (1999), 1508-9. A study in radishes has found that they inherit protection from their parents who were exposed to caterpilars, NS (4 Sept. 1999), 4. Some crops can trick fungi into mass suicide, NS (18 Sept. 1999), 17. Viral resistance is reviewed in Trends in Plant Sciences 4 (1999), 452-7. On inesct resistance, Hukuhara, T. et al. "Increased baculovirus susceptibility of armyworm larvae feeding on transgenic rice plants expressing an entomopoxvirus gene", Nature Biotechnology 17 (1999),1122-4.

Genetic engineering of the unsaturation of plant membrane fatty acids has altered salt stress tolerance, Trends in Plant Sciences 4 (1999), 249; PNAS 96 (1999), 5862-7. Bioplastics are discussed in Slater, S. et al. "Metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis and Brassica for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) copolymer production", Nature Biotechnology 17 (1999), 1011\6, 960.Methods to improve drought tolerance in maize are reported in Crop Science 39 (1999), 1306-24. Transgenic potatoes that produce an oral HBV vaccine have been made, Lancet 354 (1999), 1707. Plants genetically modified to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones communicate with bacteria, Nature Biotechnology 17 (1999),1017\20; Engineered detoxification confers resistance against a pathogenic bacterium, Nature Biotechnology 17 (1999),1021\4, 958.

A genetically modified rice that has improved iron and vitamin A is described in Food Today 17 (Oct. 1999), 4. Increasing productivity by crossing with wild relatives is discussed in NS (27 Nov. 1999), 13. Plant genomics is revolutionizing agricultural research, Biotech. & Development Monitor 40 (Dec. 1999), 2-6. The Rockefeller Foundation is ending a large rice biotech program, Science 286 (1999), 1468-9.

A colloquim with papers on the enhancement of horticultural crops for improved human health is HortScience 34 (1999), 1156-69. The use of plants to make plastics is discussed in Science News 156 (1999), 246.

Expression of CAX1 gene can increase sensitivity to stress, Plant Cell 11 (1999), 2113-22. The use of blueberry to study control of chilling requirement and cold hardiness is HortScience 34 (1999), 1185-8. Brassica self-incompatibility can be broken down in ARC1 antisense transgenic plants in Science 286 (1999), 1729-31; and on the male determinant, Science 286 (1999), 1697-700. Monsanto roundup ready soybean is not suitable for growth in very hot climates, reports say once soil temperature is 45C, NS (20 Nov. 1999), 25. Cytogenetic analysis of translocations in soybean are discussed in Heredity 90 (1999), 648-53.

Potatoes have been made that are resistant to the fungus that caused the Irish potato famine, NS (11 Dec. 1999), 8. A fungus Ascochyta caulina may be able to kill fat hen, which is useful for organic farms, NS (27 Nov. 1999), 14. The threats of geminiviruses are discussed in Science 286 (1999), 1835. Expression of the Bs2 pepper gene confers resistance to bacterial spot disease in tomato, PNAS 96 (1999), 14153-8. Penicillin may help fight fungal diseases in crops, NS (11 Dec. 1999), 22.

New transgenic plant research is reviewed in GEN 20 (15 Feb. 2000), 8, 35, 43; Science 287 (2000), 412-4; and the USDA has doubled its grants on plant research, Science 287 (2000), 402. A bioreactor is Staub, JM, et al. "High-yield production of a human therapeutic protein in tobacco chloroplasts", NatBio 18 (2000), 333-8.

On resistance to Bt toxin, Science 287 (2000), 42. Transgenic plants with a low level of trienoic fatty acids are better able to tolerate high temperatures, Murakami, Y. et al. "Trienoic fatty acids and plant tolerance of high temperature", Science 287 (2000), 476-9. Using plant metabolic engineering is discussed in Ye, X. et al. "Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm", Science 287 (2000), 303-5, 241-3.

Challenges in order to feed poor people are made in van Wijk, J. "Biotechnology and hunger: Challenges for the biotech industry", Biotechnology & Development Monitor 41 (2000), 2-7. Comments on the lack of money to buy food are in Nature 404 (2000), 222. Local farmer's could produce enough food to feed Africa if they were given a chance according to a letter in Nature 404 (2000), 431.

A review of use of simple biotechnology techniques to aid Henequen production in Mexico is Biotechnology & Development Monitor 41 (2000), 11-5. On herbivore resistance, Ecology 81 (2999), 49-65. Research on fruit design from model systems is discussed in Nature 404 (2000), 711. Enhanced phosphorus uptake is reported in transgenic tobacco that overproduce citrate, NatBio 18 (2000), 450-3.

A rice with 35% increased production by insertion of maize genes is being tested, NS (March 2000), 19. Comments questioning the benefits of genetically engineered rice containing vitamin A are in Ram's Horn 178 (2000), 2-3; Splice 6 (March 2000), 4-5. The use of tobacco plants to produce transgenic proteins offers some advantages over animal cells, GEN 20 (15 March 2000), 20, 29, 54.

The use of nutrients can alter weed growth, as found in an observation that potassium-depleted soils do not support dandelions, Science 284 (1998), 1249-50. Spiders scare off some insects and help plants boost seed production in exchange for nectar, NS (15 May 1999), 17. A study of subspecies regulation of Bt protoxin genes is AEM 65 (1999), 1849-53.

The results of a symposia on plant mitochondrial genetics are in J. Heredity (May 1999), 333-392+. Papers on hybrid classification are in Ecology 80 (1999), 359-60, 361-70. It is difficult to determine how genes and environment interact to make hybrids resistant to herbivores, Ecology 80 (1999), 382-91. Cost studies of biodiesel production have found that it is still not cost-effective, and new techniques are needed, Bioresource Technology 70 (1999), 1-15, 81-7. Improved stearate phenotype in transgenic canola expressing a modified acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase is reported in NatBio 17 (1999), 593-7. A general review of a book is Lappe, M. & Bailey, B., Against the Grain: The Genetic Transformation of Global Agriculture (Earthscan, 1999, 160pp.) is Nature 399 (1999), 319-20.

Genetic Engineering of Animals

A report on the cloning of transgenic goats, one of which produces human antithombin III in its milk, is GEN 19 (15 May 1999), 6, 51; Science 284 (1999), 903. Cloning may cause health defects, Renard, JP. et al. "Lymphoid hypoplasia and somatic cloning", Lancet 353 (1999), 1489-91; BMJ 318 (1999), 1230; NS (8 May 1999), 5. A method for mammalian transgenesis by intracytoplasmic sperm injection is Science 284 (1999), 1180-2. A letter on the 1981 paper by Illmensee on mouse cloning that was rejected is Nature 398 (1999), 19-20; 399 (1999), 13. Norway may ban the cloning of invertebrates, Nature 399 (1999), 98. A method for gender preselection in cattle is described in Biology of Reproduction 60 (1999), 1194-7.

PPL Therapeutics is now looking for funding for its production facility for alpha-1 antitrypsin in US/UK/New Zealand, GEN 19 (1 June 1999), 1, 14, 48. In general on transgenic animals, GEN 19 (1 May 1999), 1, 14, 29.

On mice models: Necdin-deficient mice do not show lethality or obesity and infertility of Prader-Willi syndrome, NatGen 22 (1999), 15-6; mice lacking vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms VEGF164 and VEGF188 have impaired angiogenesis, NatMed 5 (1999), 495+; Alzheimer presenilin 1 mutations lead to increased neurodegeneration, NatMed 5 (1999), 560-4; Mice lacking IKKalpha have limb and skin abnormalities, Science 284 (1999), 313-6; mice lacking IKB Kinase 2 gene have severe liver degeneration, Science 284 (1999), 321+; mice lacking endoglin have defective angiogenesis, Science 284 (1999), 1534-7; A model for achondroplasia was produced by targeting of mast growth factor receptor 3, PNAS 96 (1999), 4455-60. Inhibition of caspase-1 slows disease progression in a mouse model of Huntington's disease, Nature 399 (1999), 263-7.

Resistance to rice yellow mottle virus has been made by genetic engineering of rice with RYMV transgenes, NatBio 17 (1999), 702-7. A method to prevent cold-induced sweetening of potato tubers by expression of a invertase inhibitor homologue is in NatBio 17 (1999), 708-11. A review of low temperature tolerance in cereals is Crop Science 39 (1999), 626-33. Dinitroaniline herbicide-resistant transgenic tobacco plants are reported in NatBio 17 (1999), 712-6. Salt tolerance can be conferred by overexpression of a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport in Arabidopsis, Science 285 (1999), 1256-8.

On the future of plant biotechnology a Spanish/English paper is Olmedo, FG. "Transgenic plants. Towards a new green revolution", Eidon 1 (Sept 1999), 24-37. A review of plants in India is Ghosh, PK. "Genetically engineered plants in Indian Agriculture", J. Natl. Bot. Soc. 51 (1997), 11-32. Several examples of useful crops for developing countries are in Science 285 (1999), 370-1; and in general, BMJ 318 (1999), 1631. A commentary on why Africa needs biotechnology is Nature 400 (1999), 15-6. A review on US hybrid corn is Crop Science 39 (1999), 601-26. A series of papers on plant genetic resources and biotechnology is Genome 42 (1999), 551-656. Nutritional genomics by altering plants micronutrient levels is proposed in Science 285 (1999), 375-9.

The microorganisms attached to vegetables may be useful for nutrition, NS (7 August 1999), 11. Rice has been engineered to include beta-carotene, Science 285 (1999), 994-5. Improvement of grain quality traits is discussed in Science 284 (1999), 367, 372-5. Engineering of canola to produce new fat may improve diet, Science News 155 (1999), 357. The green revolution genes that led to shorter grains with less stalk have been found to contain mutant gibberellin response modulators, Nature 400 (1999), 256-61. Climate change and crop yield is discussed in Nature 400 (1999), 724. New ways to extract medicines from plants are reviewed in Science 285 (1999), 1347-8; Lancet 354 (1999), 490. Flowers are being used to make vaccines, NS (26 June 1999), 24.

The complete BAC-based physical map of Arabidopsis thaliana genome has been published, NatGen 22 (1999), 219-20, 271-5. A new evolutionary history of plants is discussed in Science 285 (1999), 990-1.

Fertilizer applications alter herbage mineral composition, Animal Science 69 (1999), 1-18. An essay on the invention of the Haber-Bosch process to make ammonia for fertilizer, Nature 400 (1999), 415. The pollution caused by agrochemicals is discussed in Nature 400 (1999), 611-2. Emergency use of pesticides worries some conservationists, NS (3 July 1999), 13. Local technology is discussed from Africa in NS (12 June 1999), 51; Agricultural Economics 20 (1999), 203-14. On the implications of international food aid, Agricultural Economics 20 (1999), 191-201. Bt toxins can be transferred to other Bacillus species for protection, PNAS 96 (1999), 3021-6. On the evolution of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, Nature 400 (1999), 861-4. Genome-wide mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana is reported in Nature Genetics 23 (1999), 203-7. A review of some expected benefits from plant genomics to improve human health is Trends in Plant Sciences 4 (1999), 164-6. High resolution FISH in plants is reported in Trends in Plant Sciences 4 (1999), 258-63. A new method for gene engineering is discussed in SA (Oct. 1999), 48-9. Fluorescent proteins from nonbioluminescent Anthozoa species are useful as markers, Nature Biotechnology 17 (1999), 969\73. Green fluorescent protein can be used as a marker for expression of a second gene in transgenic plants Nature Biotechnology 17 (1999), 1125-9.

Geneticvally modified rice is expected to help fight malnutrition, JAMA 282 (1999), 1508-9. A study in radishes has found that they inherit protection from their parents who were exposed to caterpilars, NS (4 Sept. 1999), 4. Some crops can trick fungi into mass suicide, NS (18 Sept. 1999), 17. Viral resistance is reviewed in Trends in Plant Sciences 4 (1999), 452-7. On inesct resistance, Hukuhara, T. et al. "Increased baculovirus susceptibility of armyworm larvae feeding on transgenic rice plants expressing an entomopoxvirus gene", Nature Biotechnology 17 (1999),1122-4.

Genetic engineering of the unsaturation of plant membrane fatty acids has altered salt stress tolerance, Trends in Plant Sciences 4 (1999), 249; PNAS 96 (1999), 5862-7. Bioplastics are discussed in Slater, S. et al. "Metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis and Brassica for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) copolymer production", Nature Biotechnology 17 (1999), 1011\6, 960.Methods to improve drought tolerance in maize are reported in Crop Science 39 (1999), 1306-24. Transgenic potatoes that produce an oral HBV vaccine have been made, Lancet 354 (1999), 1707. Plants genetically modified to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones communicate with bacteria, Nature Biotechnology 17 (1999),1017\20; Engineered detoxification confers resistance against a pathogenic bacterium, Nature Biotechnology 17 (1999),1021\4, 958.

A genetically modified rice that has improved iron and vitamin A is described in Food Today 17 (Oct. 1999), 4. Increasing productivity by crossing with wild relatives is discussed in NS (27 Nov. 1999), 13. Plant genomics is revolutionizing agricultural research, Biotech. & Development Monitor 40 (Dec. 1999), 2-6. The Rockefeller Foundation is ending a large rice biotech program, Science 286 (1999), 1468-9.

A colloquim with papers on the enhancement of horticultural crops for improved human health is HortScience 34 (1999), 1156-69. The use of plants to make plastics is discussed in Science News 156 (1999), 246.

Expression of CAX1 gene can increase sensitivity to stress, Plant Cell 11 (1999), 2113-22. The use of blueberry to study control of chilling requirement and cold hardiness is HortScience 34 (1999), 1185-8. Brassica self-incompatibility can be broken down in ARC1 antisense transgenic plants in Science 286 (1999), 1729-31; and on the male determinant, Science 286 (1999), 1697-700. Monsanto roundup ready soybean is not suitable for growth in very hot climates, reports say once soil temperature is 45C, NS (20 Nov. 1999), 25. Cytogenetic analysis of translocations in soybean are discussed in Heredity 90 (1999), 648-53.

Potatoes have been made that are resistant to the fungus that caused the Irish potato famine, NS (11 Dec. 1999), 8. A fungus Ascochyta caulina may be able to kill fat hen, which is useful for organic farms, NS (27 Nov. 1999), 14. The threats of geminiviruses are discussed in Science 286 (1999), 1835. Expression of the Bs2 pepper gene confers resistance to bacterial spot disease in tomato, PNAS 96 (1999), 14153-8. Penicillin may help fight fungal diseases in crops, NS (11 Dec. 1999), 22.

New transgenic plant research is reviewed in GEN 20 (15 Feb. 2000), 8, 35, 43; Science 287 (2000), 412-4; and the USDA has doubled its grants on plant research, Science 287 (2000), 402. A bioreactor is Staub, JM, et al. "High-yield production of a human therapeutic protein in tobacco chloroplasts", NatBio 18 (2000), 333-8.

On resistance to Bt toxin, Science 287 (2000), 42. Transgenic plants with a low level of trienoic fatty acids are better able to tolerate high temperatures, Murakami, Y. et al. "Trienoic fatty acids and plant tolerance of high temperature", Science 287 (2000), 476-9. Using plant metabolic engineering is discussed in Ye, X. et al. "Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm", Science 287 (2000), 303-5, 241-3.
Challenges in order to feed poor people are made in van Wijk, J. "Biotechnology and hunger: Challenges for the biotech industry", Biotechnology & Development Monitor 41 (2000), 2-7. Comments on the lack of money to buy food are in Nature 404 (2000), 222. Local farmer's could produce enough food to feed Africa if they were given a chance according to a letter in Nature 404 (2000), 431.

A review of use of simple biotechnology techniques to aid Henequen production in Mexico is Biotechnology & Development Monitor 41 (2000), 11-5. On herbivore resistance, Ecology 81 (2999), 49-65. Research on fruit design from model systems is discussed in Nature 404 (2000), 711. Enhanced phosphorus uptake is reported in transgenic tobacco that overproduce citrate, NatBio 18 (2000), 450-3.

A rice with 35% increased production by insertion of maize genes is being tested, NS (March 2000), 19. Comments questioning the benefits of genetically engineered rice containing vitamin A are in Ram's Horn 178 (2000), 2-3; Splice 6 (March 2000), 4-5. The use of tobacco plants to produce transgenic proteins offers some advantages over animal cells, GEN 20 (15 March 2000), 20, 29, 54.

A review of biological pest control in India on insect pests is Everyman's Science 34 (1999), 127-31. The relationship between plant growth and nutrition is discussed in NS (27 May 2000), 29-31. The announcement that Monsanto will hand over its rough draft rice DNA sequence to the public project is discussed in Science 288 (2000), 239-40. China has announced it will sequence the genome of its superhybrid rice variety, Science 288 (2000), 1331. Studies of mutant plants for gene function are discussed in Nature 405 (2000), 137-8. A new method for genetic modification that involves modification of a gene rather than insertion of a new one is reported in Science News 157 (2000), 294. A review of gene density in grass genomes is Trends in Plant Sciences 5 (2000), 246-51.

An Argentinan strain of corn, B-96, has resistance to European corn borer, NS (22 April 2000), 12. A spider gene is being incorporated into baculoviruses for possible pest resistance, NS (17 June 2000), 5. Two studies of Bt toxin resistance are J. Econ. Entomology 93 (2000), 133-9; 219-25. The question whether we need more technology to end hunger is discussed in GeneWatch 13 (April 2000), 6-11.

In general on GM plants, and teaching about them, J. Biological Education 34 (1999), 5-12. Genetic engineering of forest trees is discussed in Australasian Science (April 2000), 23-5. On engineering of chloroplasts, TIBTECH 18 (2000), 257-63. DNA microarrays have been used to identify the SAAT gene involved in strawberry flavour, Plant Cell 12 (2000), 647-61. On the function of Bt toxin, AEM 66 (2000), 1559-63. During larval development Bt sites may be lost, AEM 66 (2000), 1553-8. Methods to characterize Bt resistance in Diamondback moth are discussed in AEM 66 (2000), 1509-16.

HSP101 has been found to be a key component in the acquisition of thermotolerance in plants, Plant Cell 12 (2000), 457-60, 479-92. If HSP101 is over-expressed plants are able to survive severe heat stress. Antifreeze protein structure is discussed in Nature 406 (2000), 322-5. High molecular weight inulin from antichokes can be synthesized in GM potatoes, PNAS 97 (2000), 8699-704.

The genome sequence of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, that infects oranges and a variety of other fruit, has been sequenced by Brazilian researchers, Nature 406 (2000), 109, 151-7; NS (22 July 2000), 14, Newsweek (14 August 2000). A series of papers on genetics and conservation of Australian flora are in Aust. J. Botany 48 (2000), 287-416. Herbivores that eat lima beans elicit defense genes that are induced by volatile substances on the herbivores, Nature 406 (2000), 512-5. Plants can overcompensate production at times due to being eaten, Trends Plant Science 5 (2000), 309-13. Genes altering plant growth are discussed in Science 289 (2000), 71-2. A workshop report on Advances in Maize Streak Virus Disease research in Eastern and Southern Africa has been published, ISAAA Briefs 16 (2000).

A review is Gerngross, TU. & Slater, SC. "How green are green plastics?", SA (August 2000), 36-41. Engineering starch for better quantity and quality is reviewed in Trends Plant Science 5 (2000), 291-8. The production of fuel ethanol from corn starch using fluidized-bed bioreactors is cheaper, Bioresource Technology 75 (20000, 99-105. On sustainable production of cocoa, FoodToday 14 (May 1999), 3.

A review on edible vaccines is SA (2000), 66-71. Production of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic plants for oral immunization is reported in NatBio 18 (2000), 1167-71. A review of the use of plants as bioreactors is GEN 20 (1 Sept. 2000), 62, 66, 86; Giddings, G. et al. gTransgenic plants as factories for biopharmaceuticals, NatBio 18 (2000), 1151-6. A review of the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) from 1992 - 2000 has been published, (No. 19, ISAAA 24pp.). On use of biotechnology for sweet potato, Everyman's Science 34 (2000), 185-7. A new variety of sweet potato enriched in beta carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, could help eradicate blindness and disease in Africa, BMJ 321 (2000), 786. Starch grains have revealed native American populations had milling stones with maize starch about 5-7,000 years ago, Nature 407 (2000), 894-7; Nature 408 (2000), 145-6, 190-3.

A review on the horticultural development of Australian native edible plants is Aust. J. Botany 48 (2000), 417-26. There is a need to have people eat alternative foods, NS (2 Sept. 2000), 3. Crop strength can be obtained through diversity, Nature 406 (2000), 681-2; Science 289 (2000), 1122-3. Projections on the future needs for rice and cereals are in Science 290 (2000), 279-80. Detoxifying desert sweet peas is now possible, Science News 158 (2000), 74-6.

Plant genome complexity may be a limiting factor for gene transfer, AEM 66 (2000), 4161-7. A gene FRIGIDA has been found to be a determinant of natural variation in flowering, Science 290 (2000), 344-7. The complete genome sequence of Arabidopsis is almost finished, Science 290 (2000), 32-4. A gene that regulates maturing of grains may have been isolated in Australia, Nature 407 (2000), 826. On the conversion of crops into grains, Nature 408 (2000), 39-40. A gene that helps make caffeine has been isolated, which is one step in the process to make de-caffeinated tea and coffee, Science News 158 (2000), 149. Metabolic engineering of plant carotenoids is discussed in Trends in Plant Sciences 5 (2000), 406-9. Transgenic plants expressing cationic peptide chimeras exhibit broad-spectrum resistance to phytopathogens have been made, NatBio 18 (2000), 1162-6. Transient calcium influx is required for pathogen defense, Plant Cell 12 (2000), 1425-40. In the USA the plant knapweed may use chemicals to inhibit other plants growth from the roots, Science 290 (2000), 421-2.

In general on helping Africa grow enough food, Science 289 (2000), 1685, 2281-3. Development of salt resistant plants is reported in NS (9 Sept. 2000), 9. Molecular markers have been used to investigate the genetic structure of an oil palm breeding program, Heredity 85 (2000), 288-93. The fears that non eaten parts of plants could contain new substances affecting the ecological breakdown of plant wastes are discussed in NS (23 Sept. 2000), 9. On accumulation of plants to freezing temperatures, Plant, Cell & Environment 23 (2000), 893-902.

There has been progress in developing a potato-based vaccine for hepatitis B, and mice given 3 does of 5g of raw potato developed immunity, Lancet 356 (2000), 1661; NatBio 18 (2000), 1141-2. A rabies vaccine has been produced in musk melon in India, AgraFood Biotech 45 (13 Dec. 2000), 23. A review on use of plants to produce industrial raw materials is BBSRC Business (Jan. 2001), 22-3. GM sugar beet could reduce sugar output costs by 15-30% in Europe, AgraEurope (24 Nov. 2000), EP17. Prospects for biotechnology in sweet potato are discussed in Everyman’s Science <34 (Jan. 2000), 185-7. On herbicide tolerant soybean, Biotechnology & Development Monitor 43 (Sept. 2000), 11-5.

In the Middle East about 10,000 years ago the social transition of nomadic groups setting down roots to farm is seen in a new site found in Jordan, Science News 158 (2000), 280; Current Anthropology (August 2000). It is expected that Monsanto’s RoundupReady wheat will be on the market in 2003, Plant Biotech Week (6 Jan. 2001), 3. It is expected that RoundupReady canola will be sold in Australia at the end of 2002.; Merino sheep in Australia fed GM lupin seed have shown a 8% increase in wool growth and a 7% increase in weight gain, AgraFood Biotech 45 (29 Nov. 2000), 10. A joint Indian-US project to create a enhanced oil mustard plant has began, Plant Biotech Week (2 Dec. 2000), 15; and the Indian Review Committee on GM approved ProAgro-PGS India’s plan for GM mustard field trials, AgraFood Biotech 45 (15 Nov. 2000), 14. China has bred enhanced protein soybean using gene transfer from wild species, APBN 4 (2000), 405. The future of GM trees is discussed in Tomorrow (Sept. 2000), 32-3. A report on transgenic crops in China suggests there are 7 GM crops in field trials, to add to cotton, sweet pepper and tomato growing for commercial cultivation, Science 290 (2000), 1505-6.

As reported in the section on Genome Projects, the complete genome sequence of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been released, Science 290 (2000), 2055-7; Nature 408 (2000), 796+; NS (2 Dec. 2000), 36-9. There is a new ten year plan to create a virtual plant and understand the function of all plant genes by 2010, Science 290 (2000), 2077-8. A report on a Japanese plan to sequence the genome of the plant Lotus japonicus in order to understand nitrogen fixation is in Nature 409 (2001), 272. Repeated recent transfers of a mitochondrial gene into the nucleus of plants is reported in Nature 408 (2000), 354-7. A study has found that widely separated multiple transgene integration sites are brought together at interphase, The Plant J. 24 (2000), 713-23. Predicting the durability of a disease resistance gene is outlined in PNAS 97 (2000), 13500-5. On the use of neem constituents in pest management, <Everyman’s Science 35 (July. 2000), 78-84.

Safety data is called for biological control insects, Science 290 (2000), 1896-7, 2230-1. On organic disease control elicitors, Agro-Food Industry Hi-Tech (Sept 2000), 32-3. Agricultural research priorities are discussed in Biotechnology & Development Monitor 43 (Sept. 2000), 19-22.

Syngenta has released the first genome map of rice, which includes locations of the 50,000 genes that rice has, Financial Times (26 Jan. 2001); Science 291 (2001), 807; NS (3 Feb. 2001), 6. On Sygenta, Splice 7 (Nov. 2000), 8-9. This is ahead of Monsanto and the International Rice Genome Consortium, Nature 409 (2001), 551, 752. However the Syngenta sequence is released through contracts, however they have said they will release data to improve production for farming without royalties or technology fees. The Golden Rice project, to allow vitamin A _€enhanced rice to be given to world farmer's has started with the rice variety being given to the International Rice Institute in the Philippines, Nature 409 (2001), 551.

Discussion of the significance of the Arabidopsis genome sequence is in NatGen 27 (2001), 3-5. Mildew resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana is mediated by two genes, RPW8, Science 291 (2001), 118-20. Overexpression of the Bt cry2Aa2 operon in chloroplasts leads to formation of insecticidal crystals, NatBio 19 (2001), 71-4. Japanese researchers have identified the gene that makes natto sticky and hope that they can modify the stickiness by engineering its expression, Nature 409 (2001), 553.

The iron absorption from a GM low phytate maize (LPM) increased by 50%, Am. J. Clin. Nutrition (2001); AgraFood Biotech 48 (7 Feb. 2001), 18. Expression of wheat purpindoline genes in transgenic rice enhances grain softness, NatBio 19 (2001), 162-6. The question of whether plant biotechnology will help farmers in poor countries is discussed in NatBio 19 (2001), 93. The book Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems: AgroEcosystems (CIAGR) claims that farming is destroying ecosystems, Nature 409 (2001), 969. Wine makers are discussing GM yeasts as well as grapes, AgraFood Biotech 48 (7 Feb. 2001), 6-7. The European Commission is discussing how to cover vegetatively propagated crops like GM vines, NatBio 19 (Jan 2001)..

China is constructing its first transgenic botanical pharmaceutical plant producing hepatitis B vaccine and interferon, AgraFood Biotech 47 (24 Jan. 2001), 5. The xylem may direct water where it is needed, Science 291 (2001), 571-2. A summary of the Fourth International Fructan Symposium is Trends in Plant Science 6 (2001), 8-9.

Suppression of a P450 hydroxylase gene in plant trichome glands enhances aphid resistance, NatBio 19 (2001), 371-4. On molecular pharming with plant P450s, TIPS 5 (2000), 271-2. On metabolic engineering of plant carotenoids, TIPS 5 (2000), 406-9. There is research into making plants release chemicals when attacked that attract pests of the species eating the plant, Nature 410 (2001), 736-7. A review is de Maagd, RA. Et al. "How Bacillus thuringiensis has evolved specific toxin to colonize the insect world", TIG 17 (2001), 193-9.

Plant responses to telomere dysfunction are reviewed in Science 291 (2001), 1797-800. Arabiodopsis may also have lessons for the human genome, Nature 410 (2001), 299. Tree biotechnology has been speed up by genetics, as seen in the case of insertion of two genes from Arabiodopsis which speed up the maturation of citrus trees, NatBio 19 (2001), 215-6; also TIPS 6 (2001), 91-2; GeneWatch 14 (March 2001), 4, 16. Several papers on non-food crops, inclusing trees and cotton are in Biotechnology & Development Monitor 44 (March 2001), 2-12. On microalgae as a source of renewable hydrogen, TIBTECH 18 (2000), 506+.

Some critics claim that the benefits of vitamin A enhanced rice will not be so great, Nature 410 (2001), 503; Splice 7 (Jan 2001), 3; see the report on www.grain.org; GenEthics News 30/31 (2000), 10-1. However others believe that it will help, Biotechnology & Development Monitor 44 (March 2001), 18-22. Some indigenous plant foods can also alleviate vitamin A deficiency, Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ. 3 (2000), 169-79. On the value of the rice genome, NatBio 19 (2001), 189-90. A simple test to show that potatoes are free of virus is being used in China to increase sweet potato yield by 40%, NS (3 March 2001), 15. The first cultivated corn may have been around 6500 years ago, NS (17 Feb. 2001), 13. Strategies for improving the nutritional quality of Phaseolus beans through genetic engineering are reviewed in Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ. 3 (1999), 195-6, 233-6. New less toxic grasspeas have been developed, Env. Health Perspectives 108 (2000), A498.

Potato plants that produce spider silk have been made, AgraFood Biotech. 57 (2001), 16. Discussion of companies making both natural and synthetic bio-based polymers is Industrial Bioprocessing 23 (2001), 314. A gene which can protect plants against high levels of monomers has been found, so that instead of polymers they may be used to make monomers, Industrial Bioprocessing 23 (April 2001), 112.

TMRI and Martek have announced a joint project to identify genes in microalgae, Plant Biotech Week (24 May 2001), 4. On gene discovery in filamentous fungi, PNAS 98 (2001), 5110-5. Methods to correlate phenotype profile to gene function are described in GEN 21 (15 May 2001), 34-5. Genomic interspecies microarray hybridization is described for gene identification in AEM 67 (2001), 1911-21. A review of tracing the wild genetic stocks of crop plants is Genome 44 (2001), 309-10. A theoretical paper showing that sexual selection can eliminate the cost of sex is Nature 411 (2001), 692-5. Human aspects of plant diversity are discussed in Economic Botany 54 (2000), 459-70. GM tomatoes with higher levels of cancer fighting flavonoids are being made, AgraFood Biotech 55 (2001), 13.

Male sterility can be induced in plants by metabolic engineering of the carbohydrate supply, PNAS 98 (2001), 6522-7. A study in tomato finds two distinct mechanisms for salt tolerance, The Plant Cell 13 (2001), 873-87. A survey from Asahi Shimbun in Japan has found that 34 of Japanfs regional governments are investing in genetic engineering of plants, Nature 412 (2001),8-9.

A discussion of the production of pharmaceuticals in plants is Int. Herald Tribune (6 June 2001). It is possible on the area of a table top to grow up specific vaccine for a patient against Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma within 7 weeks, AgraFood Biotech 54 (1 May 2001), 4; and on edible vaccines, p. 17. The US company Large-Scale Biology Corporation has been given permission from the USDA to continue releases of plants for making patient-tailored vaccines. A list of antibodies made in plants is in TIPS 6 (2001), 219-222. Low nicotine tobacco is being grown in farms in the USA for Vector Tobacco, Plant Biotech Week (24 May 2001). A review on new ways to fight plant disease is Science 292 (2001), 2270-2; and a series of papers on plant disease resistance mechanisms are in Science 292 (2001), 2269-2290 and Nature 411 (2001),826-872. CSIRO in Australia has announced a technique to use a natural genetic mechanism to vaccinate plants against diseases, Plant Biotech Week (1 June 2001), 1.

A review is de Maagd, RA. Et al. gHow Bacillus thuringiensis has evolved specific toxins to colonize the insect worldh, TIG 17 (2001), 193-9. Kenyan scientists have found a Bt gene that is effective against a wide variety of local pests, AgBiotech Reporter (April 2001), 30. A study on the mechanism of Bt resistance by insects suggests that high doses need to be maintained so insects are killed and do not survive, because they may evolve resistance otherwise, AgBiotech Reporter (April 2001), 1-2. Expression of animal antiapoptotic genes ay be useful for plant disease resistance, PNAS 98 (2001), 6957-62. A resistance trait to European corn borer has been found in an Argentinian maize, NS (22 April 2000), 12. A report on law suits that Florida residents are filing to stop removal of infected trees with Citrus canker is Science 292 (2001), 2275-6. On RNA silencing in plants, Science 292 (2001), 2277+. A report for Kenya is ISAAA Briefs, The Benefits of Biotechnology for Small-Scale Banana Producers in Kenya (No. 22, 2001, 34pp.). Engineering crops to release more iron-solubilizing chelators may increase their yields in alkaline soils, NatBio. 19 (2001), 417-8.

A review of use of green fluorescent protein in fungal biology is AEM 67 (2001), 1987-94. Genetic fingerprinting has found the fungal strain that caused the Irish potato famine, Ristaino, JB. Et al. gPCR amplification of the Irish potato famine pathogen from historic specimensh, Nature 411 (2001), 695-7; NS (9 June 2001). Russia is facing a potential potato famine, Nature 410 (2001), 1011. Methods for air sampling and DNA analysis of fungal spores are described in AEM 67 (2001), 2453-9. A conference review on analysis of the genomes of plant-associated microbes is The Plant Cell (March 2001), 451-7;and of pant genomes, The Plant Cell (April 2001), 725-32.

A report on use of thioredoxin to make hypoallergenic wheat is in Guardian (24 May 2001). Tokyo government in Japan is planning to give cedar trees plant growth regulator to try to stop pollen production which causes allergies, Nature 411 (2001), 515. Spanish scientists have made a GM orange tree that produces oranges in its first year, AgBiotech Reporter (April 2001), 29.

The question of whether Bt maize is economic is discussed in Agrafood Biotech. 51 (21 March 2001), 23. One possible target for resistance to aphis infestation is hydroperoxide lyase, AgraFood Biotech. 59 (10 July 2001), 16. A series of 6 articles on the race between plant and pathogen are in Science 292 (2001), 2217, 2269-2290. A review of efforts to use genomics to counter fungal pathogens of plant is Science 293 (2001), 2273-4. Expressing the yeast HAL1 gene in tomato increases fruit yield and tolerance to salt stress, Plant, Cell and Environment 24 (2001), 875-80. A gene responsible for controlling water retention has been identified, AgBiotech Reporter (July 2001), 21.The genome sequence of a rhizobium bacteria that forms nodules on legume roots has been sequenced, Sinorhizobium meliloti, Nature 412 (2001), 597-8.

A group of scientists and companies under the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute has agreed to work out the banana genome for future genetic engineering, and make it accessible to all, in the Global Musa Consortium, NS (21 July 2001), 3, 7; Nature 412 (2001), 368; Science 293 (2001), 585-6. A review of the molecular diversity and domestication of grasses is Genetic. Res. 77 (2001), 213-8. Some critics claim that vitamin A enhanced rice is over-rated, Nature 410 (2001), 503; Agrafood Biotech. 58 (26 June 2001), 2..

Use of tobacco to make pharmaceutical products is reviewed in SA (Oct. 2001), 20-1. A report on the use of modified corn as a human contraceptive is discussed in Observer (9 Sept. 2001). GM forests are reviewed in Splice 7 (Sept. 2001), 8-10. A series of papers on nitrogen fixation with non-legumes is in Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 28 (2001), 825-998. Discussion of parasitic plants is in Science 293 (2001), 1434.

Intergenic recombination is used to generate fungal resistance in PNAS 98 (2001), 10493-8. Resistance to a herbivore through engineered cyanogenic glucoside synthesis is reported in Science 293 (2001), 1826-8. Tomatoes that tolerate high salt have been reported in NatBio 19 (2001), 765-8; Science News 160 (2001), 68. Thai researchers have announced chemically induced polyploid rice which has high salt tolerance, up to 3% NaCl in the laboratory, AgraFood Biotech. 64 (18 Sept. 2001), 19. Biofertilisers are reviewed Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 28 (2001), 825-7. A review of The Cambridge World History of Food is NEJM 345 (2001), 550.

A book review of The Green Phoenix: A History of Genetically Modified Plants is in Nature 414 (2001), 397-8. A report on the costs and growth of Bt cotton in South Africa is Biotechnology and Development Monitor 48 (Dec. 2001), 15-9. On the algal biotechnology industry in China, Biology International 42 (Dec. 2001), 34-40. Criticism of the Forestry Stewardship Council ban on GM forest research is in J. Forestry (Dec. 2001), 4-9; NatBio 19 (2001), 1103-4. There are prospects that blue green algae may replace trees as a source of paper, NS (3 Nov. 2001), 21. Transgenic bacteria can prevent some plant root diseases, Industrial Processing 23 (Oct. 2001), 8.

Golden rice research is ongoing with further discoveries, AgraFood Biotech. 69 (27 Nov. 2001), 20. GM chocolate research is discussed in AgraFood Biotech. 67 (30 Oct. 2001), 20. The genome sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been determined, Science 294 (2001), 2317-23, 2323-8. On the genetics of flowers and identity, Nature 414 (2001), 491. Transgenic plants have been used to produce somatotropin, AgraFood Biotech. 68 (13 Nov. 2001), 15. On use of tobacco to make medicines, SA (Oct. 2001), 21-2.

Papers on genetically modified plants are included in RTD Info, 31 (Sept. 2001), 24-34. A review of plant biotechnology in China is Science 295 (2002), 674-6. Chinese scientists have sequenced Indica rice genome, AgraFood Biotech 73 (29 Jan. 2001), 20. The creation of salt tolerant plants is discussed in The Scientist (4 March 2002), 26-7. On forest biotechnology, Science 295 (2002), 1626-9. Use of GM bacteria to fight livestock parasites is being developed in Australia, Food Chemical News (8 Oct. 2001), 27-8.

The genetic cost of reproduction in a self fertilizing plant is reported in Nature 416 (2002), 320-3. Microsatellites are preferentially associated with non-repetitive DNA in plant genomes, NatGen 30 (2002), 194-200. On plant stem cells, Nature 415 (2002), 751-4. The use of miniature plastids is discussed in Science 295 (2002), 258-9.


The draft genome sequences of japonica and indica rice varieties have been published, Science 296 (2002), 76-92, 92-100, 13, 32-8, 45-6, 53, 58-9, 60-62; Nature 416 (2002), 567, 590-1. Two public groups and two private companies are discussing how to merge their results together in a single rice genome project, Nature 416 (2002), 573. Rice genetic engineering is discussed in Nature 416 (2002), 576-8. Science should aim to help alleviate world hunger, Science 296 (2002), 54-6. The genome sequence of maize is said to be half completed, AgraFood Biotech. 78 (9 April 2002), 19.

Researchers in Italy have produced a GM aubergine that is 30% more productive than conventional varieties in field trials, and it is seedless, AgraFood Biotech. 80 (7 May 2002), 21; www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6750/2/4/. A feasibility study on biodiesel fuel is being conducted in the USA, www.admworld.com. Foresters in the USA are less enthusiastic to use GM trees than farmers to use GM crops, Nature 416 (2002), 163.

The susceptibility of plant roots to microorganisms in different settings may affect the distribution of plants, Nature 417 (2002), 32-3.

A review of ways to protect drought-stricken plants is Science 296 (2002), 1226-9. A case of a pest-resistant GM potato that became more sensitive to another sort of insect is discussed in NS (1 June 2002), 17. A dental vaccine against tooth decay has been produced in GM tobacco, AgraFood Biotech. 82 (4 June 2002), 6. German scientists have made hepatitis B vaccine in carrots, AgraFood Biotech. 81 (21 May 2002), 19. A tomato that contains three times the normal level of the antioxidant lycoprene has been made, AgraFood Biotech. 84 (2 July 2002), 20.

Scientists at Purdue University are converting maize stover into ethanol using a new GM yeast, AgraFood Biotech. 84 (2 July 2002), 19. Biodiesel production is growing to almost 100m litres in 2002 in the USA, AgraFood Biotech. 81 (21 May 2002), 4. Biomass energy is discussed in Tomorrow (April 2002), 31-34. Engineering flax and hemp to be alternatives to cotton is reviewed in TIBTECH 20 (2002), 229-30. Transgenic trees may improve the efficiency of pulp production with less ecological effects, NatBio 20 (2002), 557-8; NS (8 June 2002), 15.

There is caution in forestry over the use of transgenic trees, Nature 416 (2002), 463. The Lobolly pine genome has been sequenced, Science 297 (2002), 1637. The nitrogenase enzyme structure has been resolved to 1.16A resolution, Science 297 (2002), 1696-700. The aerial dispersal of plant pathogens is reviewed in Science 297 (2002), 537-41. Genetic methods to make flowers smell better are reviewed in Science 296 (2002), 2327-8.

A book review on GM plants is in Science 298 (2002), 1341-2. On the future of plant biotechnology, J. Commercial Biotechnology 9 (2002), 5-7. The possibility of bioterrorism on plants and agriculture is discussed in Ram's Horn 205 (October 2002), 4. Progress on making vaccines in GM tomatoes is discussed in Time (25 Nov. 2002), 48.

A molecular map of Einkorn wheat is in Genetical Research 80 (2002), 131-43. Fresh analysis of the rice genome is discussed in Nature 420 (2002), 259. The Loblolly pine genome has been analyzed, Science 297 (2002), 1788-9. The use of bioethanol, AgraEurope (22 Nov. 2002), A1. A GM fungus has turned out to be more damaging to crops than the pest it was designed to control, found out before release of the GM fungus in trials, NS (28 Sept., 2002), 7.

A book review of American Agriculture in the Twentieth Century is in Science 298 (2002), 1339-40. The economics of US farming over the last 70 years is summarized in SA (Nov. 2002), 15. Preservation of natural and farmed ecosystems together is considered in Science 298 (2002), 1340-1. Ecological agriculture in China is discussed in Ecological Economics 42 (2002), 359-68. There have been doubts raised over the use of atrazine and frogs development, Nature 420 (2002), 256. Other health concerns of herbicides are discussed in NS (21 Sept., 2002), 10. A single nucleotide mutation that makes mosquitoes resistant to DDT went global quickly, NS (5 Oct., 2002), 15. On other mechanisms of insect pest resistance, NS (19 Oct., 2002), 17; and insecticide resistance, Science 298 (2002), 96-7. Pesticide poisoning is a common problem, especially in the developing world, Lancet 360 (2002), 1163-7, 1574.

In 2001 there were 53 million hectares in GM plants across thirteen countries, James, C. (2002), ISSSA Briefs No.26-2002, International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISSSA). The proportions of harvest of GM crops in the world in 2001 was the United States 68%, Argentina 22%, Canada 6%, and China 3% (James, 2002). European countries and Japan are not so much in favor of cultivating or importing GM crops. The variety of GM crops which are commercialized for human consumption or animal feeds include soy bean (63% of the total global area of transgenic crops in 2001), maize (19%), cotton (13%), canola (5%), and others are such as potato, squash or papaya.

A paper on assessing the value of transgenic crops is Science & Engineering Ethics 8 (2002), 497-512. On plant genetics, Science 298 (2002), 2135-6. A review of African rice is PNAS 99 (2002), 16360-5. Trehalose might be able to allow plants to grow in salty ground, Gard, AK. et al. "Trehalose accumulation in rice plants confers high tolerance levels to different abiotic stresses", PNAS 99 (2002), 15898-903; NS (30 Nov., 2002), 10. Research to overcome the fungus that causes potato blight is discussed in Science 298 (2002), 1702-4.

Organic farming and FAO is discussed in J. Biolaw & Biobusiness Special Supplement (2000), 125-6; among a series of papers on biotechnology in agriculture, pp. 3-128. Directions and challenges of agricultural technology  in 2010 is discussed in Technology in Society 23 (2001), 59-72. Since the 1940s the changing climates may have been a major cause of increased agricultural yields, Science 299 (2003), 997. Study of New World plant domestification are discussed in Science 299 (2003), 1029-30. Hominid land use 1-2 million years ago is discussed in Science 299 (2003), 1217-21.

The future of bananas, which are being subject to many diseases, are reviewed in NS (18 Jan., 2003), 26-9. However genetically modified bananas can find nematode pests, NS (1 Feb., 2003), 15. GM cotton is allowing more conservation tillage, AgraFood Biotech. 97 (3 Feb. 2003), 15. Science and food security in Africa is discussed in Science 299 (2003), 1187-8; and on food security in Brazil, Lancet 361 (2003), 586. On the replacement of older methods of breeding by GM, Nature 421 (2003), 568-70.

The complete rice genome sequence is on the Internet for free access, NS (11 Jan., 2003), 5. Iron fortified rice was chosen as the 1st milestone of 2003 by researchers in a survey, NS (4 Jan., 2003), 24-5. India is planning a protato as a GM potato to alleviate hunger, NS (4 Jan., 2003), 7; Ram's Horn 208 (Jan. 2003), 6-7. Risks of GM trees to forests were assessed in a field trial, NS (25 Jan., 2003), 8. GM wine is discussed in NS (21 Dec. 2002), 33-5.

The ways to use the genome sequence of rice to increase production are discussed in Nature 422 (2003), 796-8. Homologous recombination and gene targeting in rice is described in NatBio 20 (2002),  1030-4. The future of fruit genome projects is discussed in NatMed. 9 (2003), 250. A review of genetic improvements in major US crops is Agricultural Economics 28 (2003), 109-19. The genome sequence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is discussed in NatBio 20 (2002), 129-31. Methods to make transgenic crops nontransgenic are reviewed in NatBio 20 (2002), 215-6. The use of genomic knowledge in better transgenic plant design is reviewed in Science 300 (2003), 61-2.

A paper looking at farmers and language across the globe is Diamond, J. & Bellwood, P., "Farmers and Their Languages: The first expansions", Science 300 (2003), 597-603. The first recorded plant virus disease in Japan from a thousand years ago is reproduced in Nature 422 (2003), 831.  Ways to fight famine by ancestral agriculture are discussed in Environmental health Perspectives 110 (2002), A235. A book review of Biological Warfare Against Crops is NatBio 20 (2002), 656.

Improvement of salt tolerance by overexpression of a plasma membrane sodium aniporter gene is described in NatBio 21 (2003), 81-5. A transgene-based embryo-specific lethality system for insect pest management is reported in NatBio 21 (2003), 64-70. Modification of the starch content and yield by altering the adenylate pools in plants is reported in NatBio 20 (2002), 1256-60. Freeze-thaw stable potato starch has been made, NatBio 20 (2002),  295-9.Boosting production of heterologous proteins in bean seeds is described in NatBio 20 (2002), 1265-8. Altering the polyamine accumulation in tomato enhances the juice quality and vine life, NatBio 20 (2002), 613-8, 558-60. Trees with modified lignification have altered pulping performance, NatBio 20 (2002), 607-11, 557-8. Gene discovery in forestry is discussed in NZ BioScience (Feb 2003), 5+. On altered grapes for wine, NatBio 20 (2002), 565.

A review on plant genomics is NatGen 33 Supplement (2003), 294-304. On the sequence of chromosome 10 of rice, Science 300 (2003), 1514-5, 1566+. The goals of nutrigenomics are reviewed in Nature Reviews 4 (2003), 315-22. A case of chloroplast to nucleus gene transfer has been observed and is being studied, NatGen 33 (2003), 442; NatBio 21 (2003), 374-5. A paper on multiherbicide tolerance is NatBio 21 (2003), 428-33; also, TIBTECH 21 (2003), 192-5. Robots to kill weeds may change pollution risks, NS (7 June 2003), 16. Removing marker genes in vegetables is described in NatBio 21 (2003), 439-42.

Modified grass may lessen allergies people have, NS (21 June 2003), 18. Decaffeinated coffee plants have been produced, Nature 423 (2003), 823. The fitness of GM sunflowers and transgene effects for white rot resistance are reported in Science 300 (2003), 1243-4, 1250: AgraFood Biotech 106 (9 June 2003), 28. On the impact of the Green revolution, Science 300 (2003), 758-62; NS (10 May 2003), 9. The targets for transgenic yields are discussed in TIBTECH 21 (2003), 190-2.

Comments on concerns about GM cotton quality are in Ram's Horn 211 (June 2003), 6-7. A project called Transplant Biopresense is to grow transgenic trees including human DNA from deceased persons, Science 300 (2003), 1501.

Genome-wide insertional mutagenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana is reported in Science 301 (2003), 653-7. A summary of the collection and annotation and mapping of 28,000 cDNA clones from japonica rice is in Science 301 (2003), 376-9. Progress in the maize map is discussed in Nature 424 (2003), 476. Hybrid plants are important in the evolution of plants, NS (16 Aug. 2003), 12-3. On plant polyploidy, Heredity 91 (2003), 91-2. Stem cells in plants are discussed in Cell 113 (2003), 281-3.

The herbicide glyphosphate may make plants more vulnerable to fusarium fungi according to some lab. studies, NS (16 Aug. 2003), 3, 6. Control of seed germination in transgenic plants has been achieved by a 2 component genetic system, PNAS 100 (2003), 6855-9. Fitness effects of transgenic disease resistance in sunflowers are reported in Science 300 (2003), 1250.

Rice to lessen the risk of allergies is being developed in Japan, AgraFood Biotech 113 (15 Sept. 2003), 21. So far biologically little evolution of resistance to Bt toxin has been found, NatBio 21 (2003), 958-9. On insect resistant plants, NatBio 21 (2003), 1152-4; Genetical Research 81 (2003), 169-77. On evolution of plant resistance, Heredity 91 (2003), 345-52. Research to develop resistance to fungal disease and blight by GM or copper is discussed in Nature 425 (2003), 15. Plants containing botulinium A antibodies have been harvested, Canadian Biotech News 12 (28 July 2003), 1. On broad viral resistance in transgenic plants, TIBTECH 21 (2003), 373-5. Transgenes in forest trees are discussed in Trends in Plant Science 8 (2003), 363-5. genome analysis of photosynthetic prokaryotes is possible, Science 298 (2002), 1616-20.

Hormones and the Green revolution are discussed in Science 302 (2003), 71-2; PNAS 100 (2003), 10144-5.  Reasons for touch sensitivity in plants are discussed in Trends in Plant Science 8 (2003), 312-4, 403-4. There are some common functions between hemoglobins in animals and plants, Trends in Plant Science 8 (2003), 387-93. The association between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria is discussed in Nature 425 (2003), 569-70, 585-92. Stress tolerance in plants can be made through over-production of trehalose, Trends in Plant Science 8 (2003), 355-7. Enhanced flower formation in Arabidopsis stressed by salt occurs after genetic engineering glycine betaine, The Plant J. 36 (2003), 165-76. In general on selection of transgenic plants, Trends in Plant Science 8 (2003), 353-4, 357-8, 380-6. Improvements in processing characteristics of potatoes is possible, Trends in Plant Science 8 (2003), 310-2. Vitamin A enriched potato is being developed in Columbia, NS (18 Oct. 2003), 6. Expression and production of bioactive human interleukin-18 is reported in Biotechnology Letters 25 (2003), 1629-35.

Resistance for potato late blight has been engineered that is race nonspecific, Trends in Plant Science 9 (2004), 5-6. A conditional marker allowing both positive and negative selection in plants has been made, NatBio 22 (2004), 455-8. Genetic variation in plants is discussed in Nature Reviews Genetics 5 (2004), 248. Sequencing of a rice centromere has uncovered active genes, NatGen 36 (2004), 138-45.

California is planning to plant drug-producing GM rice, Nature 428 (2004), 591. Indian scientists have made a salt-resistant rice by GM, Science 303 (2004), 308. A company in New Zealand, trees and Technology, is preparing about 3 million cloned Monterey pine trees for planting next year, NatBio 22 (2004), 261. A review of genetic enhancement of soybean oil for industrial uses is AgBioForum 6 (No.1, 2003), 11-3. The future of biotechnology in soybeans is reviewed in AgBioForum 6 (No.1, 2003), 8-10. The development of GM wheat is expected soon, Ram's Horn 218 (Feb 2004), 5.

Production of drugs in crops is debated in NatBio 22 (2004), 507-8; and California has approved a plan to plant 50ha of lactoferrin producing rice, Nature 428 (2004), 591. A review in French of bioplastics is La Recherche 374 (April 2004), 52-4. A field trial with chicory plants expressing more inulin is underway in the Netherlands to produce more stable materials for industry, AgraFood Biotech 120 (19 Jan. 2004), 17-8. GM Arabidopsis for salt tolerance is discussed in Plant Cell 16 (2004), 435-49.
On organic farming methods, Nature 428 (2004), 783, 796-8. Homologous recombination points in wheat and rye chromosomes are reported in Genome 47 (2004), 36-45. Physics of water means the maximum height of trees is 122-130m, NS (24 April 2004), 18.

Production of essential fatty acids (e.g.) in plants is possible by genetic engineering, NatBio 22 (2004), 680-2, 739-44. Early allelic selection in maize has been found from ancient DNA studies, Science 302 (2003), 1206-8. Genetic evidence suggests there was a demic diffusion of agriculture in India,  Science 304 (2004), 1125. A book review of The Art of Rice is  Science 304 (2004), 1112-3.  Bioethanol has been produced for industrial use, NatBio 22 (2004), 646. The antioxidant chlorogenic acid has been expressed in plants, NatBio 22 (2004), 746-54; AgraFood Biotech 128 (10 May 2004), 29. On production of drugs in crops, NatBio 22 (2004), 655-6. Promiscouos maize chromosomes are discussed in Science 303 (2004), 49-50.

A discussion of efforts for a hunger-free world is in Asia-Pacific Perspectives Japan 2 (June 2004), 25-32. Genomic studies of plants are expected to lead to further improvements in crop production, SA (Aug. 2004), 26-33. An orange banana rich in vitamin A is being reintroduced into diets of children in Micronesia after being neglected in the face of imported foods for some time, NS (10 July 2004), 16. On international farm subsidies discussions, NS (7 Aug. 2004), 4. Rice farming is discussed in Nature 429 (2004), 803. On soil degradation, Science 304 (2004), 1616-8. The divergence of rice genomes is discussed in PNAS 101 (2004), 12404-10. Evidence of wheat and barkey milling about 22,000 years ago has been found in Israel, Science 305 (2004), 940.

The race between public and private collaborations to sequence Agrobacterium tumefaciens is described in NatBio 22 (2004), 807-10. China is commercializing GM rice, NatBio 22 (2004), 642. New Zealand HortResearch institute has made about 100,000 apple gene sequences public, AgraFood Biotech 127 (7 June 2004),20.

Plants with higher levels of vitamin E have been made, TIBTECH 22 (2004), 104-7. A pollen free tree to avoid allergies has been made, AgraFood Biotech 127 (26 April 2004), 25. Metabolic engineering of ketocarotenoid formation in higher plants is described in The Plant J. 39 (2004), 477-486; and on engineering of folate levels, AgraFood Biotech 126 (13 April 2004), 29. Use of plants for biofuels is criticized in TIBTECH 22 (2004), 67-71, 211-2. Ethanol-inducible gene expression has been developed, TIPS 9 (2004), 159-61.


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