General Medical Ethics News

This file includes links to papers published by Eubios Ethics Institute, and some other organizations, in the first section. Next it includes topical extracts from EJAIB and EEIN between January 1994 - 2006 (older news items are in separate files). Last date of updating is referenced in the main News page. Latest news and papers is at the bottom of each of the two sections.

This file is separated into two sections: Related Papers on General Medical Ethics from Eubios Ethics Institute Publications; and News listing This file will be edited as time permits. Papers on bioethics education after May 2002 are all listed in Bioethics Education


Back to main News index
Abbreviations for journals
Eubios Ethics Institute home page
Bioethics is Love of Life: An alternative textbook on cross-cultural ethics by Darryl Macer (1998)
Some other useful sites (see also Information Sources)
To Columbia University HealthWise server
To the US President's Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments list of available files
To the " DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments - includes declassified goverment documents Med Web Bioethics Sources
US National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature
Syllabus -exchange - Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Washington, D.C.
Journal of Chinese Medical Ethics - Abstracts
Medicine and Philosophy Journal (China) - Abstracts
Related Papers on General Medical Ethics from Eubios Ethics Institute Publications

Macer, D.R.J. Shaping Genes: Ethics, Law, and Science of Using Genetic Technology in Medicine and Agriculture (Christchurch, N.Z.: Eubios Ethics Institute 1990).
Macer, D.R.J. Attitudes to Genetic Engineering: Japanese and International Comparisons (Christchurch: Eubios Ethics Institute 1992).
Macer, D.R.J. Bioethics for the People by the People (Christchurch, N.Z.: Eubios Ethics Institute 1994).
Fujiki, Norio & Macer, Darryl R.J. (1992) "The Second International Bioethics Seminar in Fukui, Japan", WHO International Digest of Health Legislation 43, 660-2.
Macer, Darryl (1993) "What can bioethics offer to Japanese culture?", Nichibunken Newsletter 15, 3-6.
Macer, Darryl (1994) "Bioethics may transform public policy in Japan", Politics & Life Sciences 13, 89-90.
Macer, D. (1994) "The future of international bioethics", pp. 296-298 in Intractable Neurological Disorders, Human Genome Research and Society, eds., N. Fujiki & D.R.J. Macer (Christchurch: Eubios Ethics Institute, 1994).
Macer, Darryl (1994) "Bioethics from people or philosophers, or both?", Nichibunken Newsletter 18, 7-11.
Fujiki, Norio & Macer, Darryl R.J. (1994) "The Third International Bioethics Seminar in Fukui, Japan", WHO International Digest of Health Legislation 45: 557-8.
Macer, D. "Bioethics: Descriptive or prescriptive?" EJAIB 5 (1995), 144-146
Macer, D. General Comment On A Review of Shaping Genes EEIN 1 (1991), 83-4.
Monte, G. Genetics, Religion and Ethics: Conference Review EEIN 2 (1992), 29-30.
Leavitt, F.J. What is an "Integrated Cross-Cultural approach to bioethics"? EEIN 2 (1992), 58-9.
Leavitt, F.J. An Israeli approach to Cross-Cultural Ethics: Correction and Elucidation? EEIN 3 (1993), 3.
Ors, Y.The Physician's Oath Considered Critically EEIN 3 (1993), 60-1.
Fox, M.J. Bioethics: A Synopsis EEIN 3 (1993), 61.
Leavitt, F.J. Letter: Bioethics in Israeli High Schools EEIN 3 (1993), 44-5.
Morioka, M. Trends in International and Asian Bioethics EEIN 4 (1994), 2.
Sass, H.M.Formulating global posthippocratic health care virtues EEIN 4 (1994), 3.
Sass, H.M.Formulating global posthippocratic health care virtues, part 2 EEIN 4 (1994), 16.
Ors, Y. Bioethics, Culture and Pluralism in the Mediterranean - Yaman Ors EEIN 4 (1994), 3.
Fukui Statement on International Bioethics EEIN 4 (1994), 14.
Macer, D. Editorial EEIN 4 (1994), 14.
Morioka, M. International Bioethics and the North-South Problem EEIN 4 (1994), 16.
Macer, D. Editorial EEIN 4 (1994), 29.
Morioka, M. Bioethics in an aging society - Masahiro Morioka EEIN 4 (1994), 30.
Macer, D.Editorial: Universal Bioethics: Old or New? EEIN 4 (1994), 43.
Morioka, M. Two layers of international bioethics EEIN 4 (1994), 44.
Azariah, J. The symbol OM EEIN 4 (1994), 45.
Macer, D. Editorial EEIN 4 (1994), 57.
Morioka, M. US-Japan Bioethics Congress EEIN 4 (1994), 58.
Macer, D. Editorial: New Journal EEIN 4 (1994), 71.
Leavitt, F.J. The Idea of the Senpo Sugihara Asian Bioethics Centre EEIN 4 (1994), 72.
Morioka, M. Virtual or physical bioethics centers EEIN 4 (1994), 73.
Ors, Y. Music, Physics, and Biopolitics EEIN 4 (1994), 74.
Macer, D. Editorial: Why a New Journal? EJAIB 5 (1995), 1.
Sakamoto, H. New Initiatives in East Asian Bioethics EJAIB 5 (1995), 2.
Alora, A.T. Asian Bioethics: A Philippine View EJAIB 5 (1995), 3.
Byk, C.Asian Bioethics is My Concern EJAIB 5 (1995), 4.
Ors, Y. Ethics, Bioethics, and Morals EJAIB 5 (1995), 5.
Leavitt, F.J. Update on the Senpo Sugihara Asian Bioethics Centre EJAIB 5 (1995), 5.
Macer, D. Editorial: Bioethics has no limits? EJAIB 5 (1995), 29.
Becker, G.K. Asian and Western Ethics: Some Remarks on a Productive Tension EJAIB 5 (1995), 31.
Morioka, M.Commentary EJAIB 5 (1995), 33.
Pelin, S.S. & Ors, Y. Medical Esthetics from a Historical and Ethical Point of View EJAIB 5 (1995), 35.
Lerman, S. Information Centre for Jewish Law (Halacha) and Bioethics EJAIB 5 (1995), 46.
Macer, D. EditorialEJAIB 5 (1995), 57.
East Asian Conference on Bioethics EJAIB 5 (1995), 57.
Zhang JuLetter from China EJAIB 5 (1995), 58.
Arda, B. & Pelin, S.S.Bioethics in Turkey in 1995 EJAIB 5 (1995), 64.
Anees, M.A. Commentary EJAIB 5 (1995), 65.
Leavitt, F.J. Commentary EJAIB 5 (1995), 65.
Leavitt, F.J. Bioethics and the Passover Lamb EJAIB 5 (1995), 69.
Macer, D. Editorial Electronic Eubios Ethics Institute EJAIB 5 (1995), 85.
Leavitt, F.J. As the Dream starts to become reality: More on the Senpo Sugihara Asian Bioethics Centre EJAIB 5 (1995), 86.
Yesley, M.S. Diversity in Bioethics EJAIB 5 (1995), 87.
Arda, B. & Pelin, S.S. Bioethics in a Secular Perspective EJAIB 5 (1995), 95.
Ors, Y.Brain-Scarves EJAIB 5 (1995), 96.
Macer, D. Editorial - Bioethics and Images of West Asia EJAIB 5 (1995), 113.
Leavitt, F.J. Bioethics in Emergency and Disaster EJAIB 5 (1995), 116.
Azariah, J. Biophysics, Biology and bioethics: A Fusion of Horizons EJAIB 5 (1995), 91.

Macer, D. Editorial - Bioethics in East AsiaEJAIB 5 (1995), 141.
East Asian Association for Bioethics - EACB'95 Conference ProgramEJAIB 5 (1995), 142.
East Asian Association for Bioethics ConstitutionEJAIB 5 (1995), 142-3.
Qiu, Renzong Reflections and Conclusions on EACB'95EJAIB 5 (1995), 143-4.
Macer, D.R.J. Bioethics: Descriptive or prescriptive?EJAIB 5 (1995), 144-6.
Morioka, M. Commentary on MacerEJAIB 5 (1995), 146.
Leavitt, F.J. Commentary on Macer EJAIB 5 (1995), 146-7.
J. Chinese Medical Ethics - Abstracts EJAIB 5 (1995), 147-9.
Ors, Y. "Ethico-Drama" and Education in BioethicsEJAIB 5 (1995), 154.
Hare, J.R. Commentary on Ors
EJAIB 5 (1995), 154-5. Leavitt, F.J. Commentary on Ors and Azariah EJAIB 5 (1995), 154-5.
Arda, B. The Ethics Committee of the Turkish Medical Association EJAIB 5 (1995), 155.
East Asian Association for Bioethics Conference 1995, Beijing, Abstracts , , EJAIB 6 (1996), 8-16.
Can psychodrama be a tool in ethics education? - Yaman Ors, D. Phil., M.D. , EJAIB 6 (1996), 16-17.
Are philosophers immune from ethics? - Frank J. Leavitt, Ph.D. , EJAIB 6 (1996), 29-30.
Commentary on Leavitt - Masahiro Morioka, EJAIB 6 (1996), 30.
Foundations of East Asian Bioethics - Hyakudai Sakamoto, EJAIB 6 (1996), 31-2.
Bioethical attitudes of Japanese university doctors, and members of Japan Association of Bioethics - D. Macer, Y. Niimura, T. Umeno, & K. Wakai // Open comments, EJAIB 6 (1996), 33-47.
J. Chinese Medical Ethics - Abstracts, EJAIB 6 (1996), 71-3.
East Asian Association for Bioethics - EACB'95 Conference Abstracts of talks not presented, EJAIB 6 (1996), 73-6.
Editorial - - Myths of Japan - Darryl Macer, Ph.D., EJAIB 6 (1996), 89-90.
Barriers to Informed Consent in Japan- Atsushi Asai, EJAIB 6 (1996), 91-3.
Commentary on Asai - Susan O. Long, EJAIB 6 (1996), 93-4.
Commentary on Asai - Masahiro Morioka, EJAIB 6 (1996), 94.
Are We Reaching the Bottom of the Slippery Slope? Commentary on Asai, Hughes and the Feron Case - Frank J. Leavitt, EJAIB 6 (1996), 101-3.
UNESCO Asian Bioethics Conference, EJAIB 6 (1996), 122.
Commentary on Salvi - Akira Akabayashi, EJAIB 6 (1996), 124.
Bioethics in Korea - Song Sang-yong , EJAIB 6 (1996), 131.
Godot'ian ethics and Godot-syndrome - Yaman Ors , EJAIB 7 (1997), 8-9.
Commentary on Ors: Godot'ian ethics - Frank J. Leavitt , EJAIB 7 (1997), 54. On cross-cultural Bioethics and Tsukuba Bioethics Roundtable 1996

Editorial - Tsukuba Bioethics Roundtable - Darryl Macer, EJAIB 6 (1996), 153.
Report of the Kyoto Bioethics Seminar, and Comments on Comparative Bioethics - Masahiro Morioka , EJAIB 6 (1996), 157.
Bioethics East and West - Jean Kitahara-Frisch
, EJAIB 6 (1996), 157-8.
Short History of Reproductive Medical Problems in Japan - Shinryo N. Shinagawa , , EJAIB 6 (1996), 158-60.
Commentary on Shinagawa - Yutaka Tejima , EJAIB 6 (1996), 160.
Impressions Of East Asia: Science and Spirituality - Frank J. Leavitt , EJAIB 6 (1996), 171-2.
Ethical issues in Japanese clinical settings in 1990's: Attitudes and Experiences of the Japanese - Atsushi Asai and Tsuguya Fukui , EJAIB 7 (1997), 39-43.


Building Bridges - Kerstin Jage-Bowler , EJAIB 7 (1997), 9-10/ Commentary on Jage-Bowler - Frank J. Leavitt , EJAIB 7 (1997), 10.

Editorial - Bioethical lessons from India - Darryl Macer, EJAIB 7 (1997), 33.
Chennai Statement on Bioethics, EJAIB 7 (1997), 34.

Editorial - Asia, North America and Bioethics - Darryl Macer , EJAIB 7 (1997), 1-2.
Appeal for Comments on Ethical Case Histories - Raymond Richard Neutra, John Goldsmith EJAIB 7 (1997), 69-71.
Case Study 1: Hemodialysis for a patient in persistent vegetative state - Atsushi Asai, Masashi Shirahama, Sara Carmel EJAIB 7 (1997), 105-107.
Bioscience Ethics - A New Conceptual Approach To Modern Ethical Challenges - Irina Pollard and Steven Gilbert EJAIB 7 (1997), 131-133.
The Bioethicist of the Future: Commentary on Pollard and Gilbert, and Melanie Rock - Frank J. Leavitt EJAIB 7 (1997), 133-134.
Pollard's Response to Leavitt's Commentary EJAIB 7 (1997), 134-135.
Case Study 2: Disagreement among family members - Masashi Shirahama and Atsushi Asai EJAIB 7 (1997), 135-137.


What ethical dilemmas are Japanese physicians faced with? - Atsushi Asai, Wari Yamamoto, Tsuguya Fukui EJAIB 7 (1997), 162.
Commentary on Asai et al. - Todd S. Elwyn EJAIB 7 (1997), 165.
The Role of Ulama (Islamic Scholars) in Dealing with Bioethical Issues in Indonesia - H. Ahmad Ludjito EJAIB 7 (1997), 166.
Tendency of Nurses to Undertake the Role of Patient Advocate - Nermin Ersoy, Ynsaf Altun, Ayse Beser EJAIB 7 (1997), 167-70.
Commentary on Ersoy et al. - Masahiro Morioka EJAIB 7 (1997), 170.
The Role of Nurses in Ethical Medicine: Commentary on Ersoy, Altun and Beser - Frank J. Leavitt EJAIB 7 (1997), 170-1.
Commentary on Case Studies: (EJAIB 7:4, 5) - Angeles Tan Alora EJAIB 7 (1997), 171.
Transdisciplinarity: a task faced by genetics in the past, and by bioethics education now - Eliane S. AzevÍdo EJAIB 8 (1998), 13-14.
Centre for Asian and International Bioethics in Israel - Frank J. Leavitt EJAIB 8 (1998), 15.
40 Belief and Bioethics: Commentary on Morioka - Frank J. Leavitt EJAIB 8 (1998),
Compassion as Common Ground - Ann Boyd, Pinit Ratanakul, Attajenda Deepudong EJAIB 8 (1998), 34-7.
Universal Ethical Singularity - R.N. Sharma EJAIB 8 (1998), 52-4.
A Constructivist Approach to Intercultural Ethics - Richard Evanoff EJAIB 8 (1998), 84-7.
Commentary on Evanoff - Masahiro Morioka EJAIB 8 (1998), 87.
Have Martial Arts Got Anything To Do With Bioethics? - Frank J. Leavitt EJAIB 8 (1998), 88-9.
Professional and Personal Values of Nursing in Turkey - Nermin Ersoy EJAIB 8 (1998), 72-5.
Ethics in Embryology, Neonatology and Nursing Values: Commentaries - Frank J. Leavitt EJAIB 8 (1998), 83.
Bioethics publications in Brazil. A study of topic preferences and tendencies - Cl·udio Lorenzo & Eliane S. AzevÍdo EJAIB 8 (1998), 148-9.
Case 4: Therapy for a 48 year old alcoholic patient - Masashi Shirahama, and 8 commentators EJAIB 8 (1998), 105-110.
Bioethics in the Former Yugoslavia: The War tragedy and Recent Trends in Croatia - Nenad Hlaca EJAIB 8 (1998), 111-3.
Bioethics in times of Conflict: Commentary on Hlaca - Frank J. Leavitt EJAIB 8 (1998), 113.
Turkish Bioethics Roundtables - Darryl Macer EJAIB 8 (1998), 165-6.
Inspirations of the Ankara Roundtables on Bioethics - Rusen Keles EJAIB 8 (1998), 166.
Teaching Bioethics and Biopolitics in a cross-disciplinary Graduate Context - Yaman Ors EJAIB 8 (1998), 166-9.
Right to Environment: Does it Reflect Environmental Ethics? - Nukhet Turgut EJAIB 8 (1998), 169-71.
Science, Ethics and Ecology - Hunay Evliya EJAIB 8 (1998), 171-2.
Environmental Responsibilities and a New Concept of Citizenship: An Intellectual Approach - Mahir Fisunoglu EJAIB 8 (1998), 172-3.
Assuring Quality In Higher Environmental Education: Med-Campus Project 349 - Ylkden Talay, Nilgul Karadenyz, Sukran Sahin EJAIB 8 (1998), 173-5.
New Approaches to Business Ethics - Cemal Yukselen EJAIB 8 (1998), 176-7.
Evolution versus Creation in Schools - Aykut Kence EJAIB 8 (1998), 177-8.
Ethical Aspects in Genetics Research - Ajlan Tukun and Isik Bokesoy EJAIB 8 (1998), 178-9.
Some Remarks On The Convention For The Protection Of Human Rights And Dignity Of The Human Being With Regard To The Application Of Biology And Medicine - Ergun Özsunay EJAIB 8 (1998), 179-81.
Ankara Roundtables on Bioethics EJAIB 9 (1999), 4.
Biological Diversity in Forest Ecosystems - Barbaros Cetyn EJAIB 9 (1999), 4-6.
What do we Learn from Japanese Feminist Bioethics? - Masahiro Morioka EJAIB 8 (1998), 183-4.
Training in Health and Child Care for Rural Dalit Women EJAIB 8 (1998), 184.
Editorial: Future Development of Bioethics in Asia - Darryl Macer EJAIB 9 (1999), 1-2.
Ethics and Aesthetics - K.K. Verma EJAIB 9 (1999), 12-13.
Reflections on Three Years of Travel for Asian Bioethics - Yeruham Frank Leavitt EJAIB 9 (1999), 13-5.
Mystical Bioethics Network EJAIB 9 (1999), 15-16.
Mystical Bioethics Network: A Humble Approach -Erin Williams EJAIB 9 (1999), 63.
Mystical Bioethics Network EJAIB 9 (1999), 81.

Editorial - Darryl Macer EJAIB 9 (1999), 33.
Bioethics and Global Love - Darryl Macer EJAIB 9 (1999), 34-5.
Theories of Bioethics - Robert M. Veatch EJAIB 9 (1999), 35-8.
Commentary on Macer - Masahiro Morioka EJAIB 9 (1999), 38-9.
Kagandahang loob: Love in Philippine bioethics - Leonardo D. de Castro EJAIB 9 (1999), 39-40.
Love in Medical Ethics in South Asia - V. Manickavel EJAIB 9 (1999), 40-2.
The importance of love in ancient Indian biomedical ethics - Sunil K. Pandya EJAIB 9 (1999), 42-3.
Love and medical ethics in Iran - Alizhera Bagheri EJAIB 9 (1999), 43-5.
Love in Buddhist Bioethics - Pinit Ratanakul EJAIB 9 (1999), 45-6.
Can love be a language of bio-ethics? - Ole Doering EJAIB 9 (1999), 46-7.
Love and the History of Chinese Bioethics - Zhang Daqing EJAIB 9 (1999), 47-9.
Love in Bioethics for Patient Care in Developing Countries - A.K.Tharien EJAIB 9 (1999), 49.
Warfare Fitness Enhancement or Losing Strategy? A Bioscience Ethics Perspective - Irina Pollard EJAIB 9 (1999), 50-4.
Commentary on Pollard - A.K.Tharien EJAIB 9 (1999), 54.
Building religious/cultural bridges between Israeli and Palestinian university students - Ben Mollov, Musa Isa Barhoum EJAIB 9 (1999), 55.
Pacifism and Reality: Commentary - Yeruham Frank Leavitt EJAIB 9 (1999), 56.
Beyond the conventional dichotomy/dualism: Occidental value and Oriental value - Kaori Sasaki EJAIB 9 (1999), 74-6.
Chinese Oath of a Medical Student - Liu Qing EJAIB 9 (1999), 81.
Narrativity in Bioethics: with special reference to medical ethics - N. Yasemin Oguz EJAIB 9 (1999), 130-134.
Earthquakes, plagues and bioethics: Commentary on Yasemin Oguz's narrative approach - Yeruham Frank Leavit EJAIB 9 (1999), 134-5.
Ethical issues in holistic health and healing - Dr. A. K. Tharien EJAIB 10 (2000), 8-9.
History of medical ethics in India - Sunil K. Pandya EJAIB 10 (2000), 40-44.
The Role of A Hindu Cultural Determinism in the Execution of Autonomy in the Modern Health Care System in Nepal - V.Manickavel EJAIB 10 (2000), 51-53.
The concept of universal variable and the question of Bioethics as love of life - Eliane S. Azevedo EJAIB 10 (2000), 82-84.
The Importance of Medical Humanity in Medical Education - Michael Cheng-tek Tai EJAIB 10 (2000), 84-85.
Humanistic Medicine: Commentary on Tai - Yeruham Frank Leavitt EJAIB 10 (2000), 85.
Macer, D. (1998) Bioethics: A challenge for policy-makers, The Critical Lawyer 1: 7-10.
Macer, D. (1999) Bioethics, pp. 34-36 in McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology 2000 (McGraw-Hill 1999).
Macer, D. (1999) Bioethics: a challenge for scientists and for public policy, Indian J. Physiology &. Pharmacology 43: 1-4.

Anagogy of Autonomy - Ann Lewis Boyd , EJAIB 10 (July 2000), 113-9.
Commentary on Boyd - Masahiro Morioka , EJAIB 10 (July 2000), 119.
Attitudes and practices of patients and physicians towards patient autonomy -Batami Sadan and Tova Chajek-Shaul , EJAIB 10 (July 2000), 119-25.
Commentary on Sadan and Chajek-Shaul - Yeruham Frank Leavitt , EJAIB 10 (July 2000), 125.
Bioethics for the Medically Deprived - Yeruham Frank Leavitt , EJAIB 10 (July 2000), 126.
Influence of Truth Disclosure on Quality of Life in Cancer Patients - Raghwesh Ranjan and K.K. Dua , EJAIB 10 (July 2000), 148-51.
Indian people can emotionally stand the truth of cancer, a commentary on the study by Ranjan and Dua - Noritoshi Tanida , EJAIB 10 (July 2000), 151-2.
The Concept of "Third Cultures" in Intercultural Ethics - Richard Evanoff , EJAIB 10 (July 2000), 126-9.
Mystical Bioethics Network , EJAIB 10 (July 2000), 129.
Book Summary: "O Direito de Vir a Ser ap_s o nascimento", EJAIB 10 (July 2000), 130.
International Association of Bioethics London Declaration , EJAIB 10 (Nov 2000), 174.
Why Japanese doctors performed human experiments in China 1933-1945 - Takashi Tsuchiya , EJAIB 10 (Nov 2000), 179-80.
Commentary on Tsuchiya - Masahiro Morioka , EJAIB 10 (Nov 2000), 180-1.
Editorial: What is our Bioethics? - Darryl Macer , EJAIB 11 (Jan 2001), 1-2.
Challenges of Japanese Doctors and human experimentation in China for East-Asian and Chinese bioethics - Jing-Bao Nie > , EJAIB 11 (Jan 2001), 3-7.
Is Asian Bioethics at Fault?: Commentary on Tsuchiya, Morioka,; and Nie - Yeruham Frank Leavitt , EJAIB 11 (Jan 2001), 7-8.
Ethics Committees in the Protection of Human Subjects - Alireza Bagheri > , EJAIB 11 (Jan 2001), 8-10.
A Cross-Cultural Perspective on the Relationship Between Science and Bioethics - Richard Evanoff , EJAIB 11 (Jan 2001), 11-3.
Editorial: Limits on autonomy - Darryl Macer EJAIB 11 (March 2001), 33.
Comments on Inhumanity in the Name of Medicine: Old Cases and New Voices for Responsible Medical Ethics from Japan and China - Ole Doering EJAIB 11 (March 2001), 44-47.
Is Monotheistic Theology an Obstacle to Universal Bioethics? -Avi Gold EJAIB 11 (March 2001), 50-51.
Moving on from a Patient-Centred to a God-Centred Ethics - Siti Nurani Mohamed Nor EJAIB 11 (March 2001), 52-53.

Editorial: Clinical ethics - Darryl Macer EJAIB 11 (May 2001), 65.
Attitudes of people to the truth-telling issue in Turkey - Nermin Ersoy EJAIB 11 (May 2001), 68-74.
Why bring up the past tragedy again? - Rongxia Chen EJAIB 11 (July 2001), 107.

Commentary on Ranjan: Spirituality and Religion, are they Connected? - Frank (Yeruham) Leavitt EJAIB 11 (July 2001), 110-111.
Religion, Education and Bioethical Maturity - Raghwesh Ranjan EJAIB 11 (July 2001), 111.
What is our Body? - V.R.Manoj EJAIB 11 (July 2001), 111-3.
Commentary on Manoj- Erin D. Williams / Commentary on Manoj- Frank (Yeruham) Leavitt EJAIB 11 (July 2001), 113.

Editorial: Religion and global bioethics - Darryl Macer EJAIB 11 (Sept. 2001), 129.

Rethinking patient-health care provider relations: An ethical perspective - Batami Sadan EJAIB 11 (Sept. 2001), 136-141.

Introducing a 'Thin Theory' for Cross-Cultural Hermeneutics in Medical Ethics. Reflections from the Research Project 'Biomedicine and Ethics in China' - Ole Doering EJAIB 11 (Sept. 2001), 146-152.

The Influence of Culture, Ideologies, Religion and Political Boundary Determines Universal Bioethics -Baby Joseph EJAIB 11 (Sept. 2001), 152-156.

Polytheism and development of universal ethics - K. K. Verma and Rashmi Saxena EJAIB 11 (Sept. 2001), 156.

Response to Verma and Saxena -Avi Gold EJAIB 11 (Sept. 2001), 156-7.

A Short Response to Gold, Verma, and Saxena -Masahiro Morioka EJAIB 11 (Sept. 2001), 157.

Forward looking universal bioethics: Polytheism and Monotheism - Jayapaul Azariah EJAIB 11 (Sept. 2001), 157-159.

Challenges of Global Bioethics for Developing Countries - M. K. Tadjudin EJAIB 11 (Sept. 2001), 159.

Religion Obviously Teaches Tolerance, Humbleness and Respect For Fellow Beings - Raghwesh Ranjan EJAIB 11 (Sept. 2001), 159-160.

John Lennon, Love, Religion and Bioethics - Erin D. Williams EJAIB 11 (Sept. 2001), 160.

Reply to Raghwesh Ranjan - Frank J. Leavitt EJAIB 11 (Sept. 2001), 160-161.

The Monotheism-Polytheism Discussion: Commentary on Verma, Saxena, Gold, Morioka and Azariah - Frank J. Leavitt EJAIB 11 (Nov. 2001), 196-197.

2002

Towards the Bioethics of Individual's Health: Introduction of the Cosmist Philosophical Fundamentals - Konstantin S. Khroutski EJAIB 12 (Jan. 2002), 2-9.

Prescription for Life in the Universe - R. N. Sharma EJAIB 12 (Jan. 2002), 9-11.

Editorial: Eubios Ethics Institute as ABA secretariat - Darryl Macer EJAIB 12 (March 2002), 45.

Eubios Declaration for International Bioethics (Open for signature from 1 March 2002) EJAIB 12 (March 2002), 46-48.

9-11: Experiences and Reflections - James Dwyer EJAIB 12 (March 2002), 53-57.

An Essay on the Principle of Informed Consent versus the Significance of Trust for Subjects of Biomedical Research - Jon Vegar Hugaas EJAIB 12 (March 2002), 65-71.

Best wishes from medical students - G.Sivagnanam, M. Rajasekaran, P. Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, K.Namasivayam, C.Jayashree and C.Ravindranath EJAIB 12 (March 2002), 71-72


Disability Movement and Inner Eugenic Thought: A Philosophical Aspect of Independent Living and Bioethics- Masahiro MoriokaEJAIB 12 (May 2002), 94-7.
Loss of Mystery - V.R. Manoj / Commentary on Manoj - Erin D. Williams / Mysticism and bioethics - Frank J. Leavitt EJAIB 12 (May 2002), 105-107.
Initial Signatories to the Eubios Declaration and CommentsEJAIB 12 (May 2002),109-10.
Editorial: Living Bioethics Dictionary Project - Darryl Macer EJAIB 12 (July 2002), 121.
Further comments on the Eubios Declaration for International Bioethics EJAIB 12 (July 2002), 122.
Respiritualizing Medicine? - Barbara Prainsack EJAIB 12 (July 2002), 128-132.
The respiritualization of medicine could go even further: Commentary on Barbara Prainsack - Frank J. Leavitt EJAIB 12 (July 2002),132.
Unknowability and Humility in Clinical Ethical Decisions - Atsushi Asai EJAIB 12 (July 2002), 133-137.

Editorial: ABA4 and TRT8 - Darryl Macer EJAIB 12 (Sept. 2002), 161

What is Bioethics? Commentary on Harris & Sass on The Eubios Declaration, Biswas on Holistic Health Care, Yu Kam Por on Futile Medical Treatment - Frank J. Leavitt EJAIB 12 (Sept. 2002), 162-4

On the technologizing and technocratic trends in bioethics - Y. Michael Barilan EJAIB 12 (Sept. 2002), 176-81

In Search of Solutions: Commentary on Barilan - Jayapaul Azariah EJAIB 12 (Sept. 2002), 181

Doctors on the Internet - Legal and Practical Implications - Rajesh Sivaswamy and Jidesh Kumar EJAIB 12 (Sept. 2002), 185-8.

207-210 Report of the 2002 ABA General Meeting; Letter to IAB Board from ABA Board , EJAIB 12 (2002), 207-10.


The Asian Bioethics Association Constitution, EJAIB 12 (2002), 211.
The Language Barrier Cripples Asian Bioethics - Dena Hsin-Chen Hsin , EJAIB 12 (2002), 211.
The Family's Role in Medical Decision-making from the Point of View of a Physician in the United States - Sumiko Takanami , EJAIB 12 (2002), 216-9.

EJAIB 12 (2002), 219-21. The Status Of Children's Rights in the Field Of Health In Turkish Law - OS Elcioglu,Y Gunay, SO Ozdemir, and AD Erdemir

221-3 Children's Health Rights in Turkey - Nurdan Kirimlioglu and Omur Elcioglu

EJAIB 12 (2002), 228-9 Dharma: Commentary on Leavitt's Commentary - Bhakta Jan Mares

EJAIB 12 (2002), 229-31 Research project on Cultural Issues in Bioethics

EJAIB 13 (2003), 1 Editorial: Geographical diversity, culture and bioethics - Darryl Macer

EJAIB 13 (2003), 2 IAB Executive Response to ABA Board

EJAIB 13 (2003), 6-8 Informed Consent in Gerontology - Rosana Soibelmann Glock and JosŽ Roberto Goldim

EJAIB 13 (2003), 8 Compromised Autonomy, and Asian Autonomy: Commentaries on Glock & Goldim, and Dena Hsin-Chen Hsin - Frank J. Leavitt

EJAIB 13 (2003), 15-19 Introducing the Emergence-Discourse Method to Philosophy of Medicine and Bioethics: In Search for Rational Comprehension of Individual Health- Konstantin S. Khroutski and Eimantas Peicius

EJAIB 13 (2003), 37 Editorial: 50th Issue - After TRT8 - Darryl Macer

EJAIB 13 (2003), 50 Bioethics in Asia and the IAB-ABA letter exchange
EJAIB 13 (2003), Postscript to Darryl Macer's EJAIB Editorial: and IAB-ABA


EJAIB 13 (2003), 51 When did "bioethics" begin in each country? A proposal of a comparative study - Masahiro Morioka

EJAIB 13 (2003), 51-53 A Historical Overview of the Developing Medical Ethics Culture in the New Jewish Settlement in Israel During the Years 1840 - 1914 - Orit Navot

EJAIB 13 (2003), 53-57 Autonomy as a Universal Expectation: A Review and a Research Proposal - Luis Justo and Jorgelina Villarreal

EJAIB 13 (2003), 98 Letter from the Presidents of the ABA and the IAB
EJAIB 13 (2003), 100-2 In The Shadow of the Past Atrocities: Research Ethics with Human Subjects in Contemporary Japan - Takashi Tsuchiya
EJAIB 13 (2003), 102-4 Ambiguities In Judging Cruel Human Experimentation: Arbitrary American Responses to German & Japanese Experiments - Hans-Martin Sass
EJAIB 13 (2003), 104-6 Ethical Lessons of the Failure to Bring the Japanese Doctors' to Justice - Michael Thomas
EJAIB 13 (2003), 106-7 A Call for Further Studies on the Ethical Lessons of Japanese Doctors' Experimentation in Wartime China for Asian and International Bioethics Today - Jing-Bao Nie, T. Tsuchiya, H-M. Sass, K. Tsuneishi
EJAIB 13 (2003), 111-2 Unsolicited Commercial E-Mail, Spam and Terrorism; An Ethical Discussion
EJAIB 13 (2003), 112-3 Spam and Terror, An Insulting Comparison: Commentary on Vinod Scaria - Frank J. Leavitt
EJAIB 13 (2003), 113 A report on "An Initiative on Bioethics from the Islamic World" - Alireza Bagheri
EJAIB 13 (2003), 130-134 The Status of Ethics Committees in Japan - Yasuko Shirai

EJAIB 13 (2003), 134-135 Let's Stop Bashing Japan: Commentary on Tsuchiya, Sass, Thomas, Nie & Tsuneishi - Frank J. Leavitt
EJAIB 13 (2003), 147-151 Ethics in questionnaire-based research - Atsushi Asai, Takeo Nakayama
EJAIB 13 (2003),
EJAIB 13 (2003), 161-2 Editorial: Bioethics dialogue in public -Darryl Macer

EJAIB 13 (2003), 162-6 Let's Never Stop Bashing Inhumanity - Jing-Bao Nie

EJAIB 13 (2003), 166-7 Let's Deal with the Issue: Commentary on Leavitt - Michael Thomas

EJAIB 13 (2003), 167-8 Reply to Leavitt's Commentary "Let's Stop Bashing Japan" - Takashi Tsuchiya
EJAIB 13 (2003), 168 Commentary: Bash Evil in Every Generation, But Don't Bash Innocent Children and Grandchildren - Frank J. Leavitt
EJAIB 13 (2003), 168-175 Medicality: The fifth bioethical principle of medical ethics for the internal morality of medicine - Y. Michael Barilan
EJAIB 13 (2003), 175-6 A discussion on the perspectives of Suicide related Information on the Internet - Vinod Scaria
EJAIB 13 (2003), 176-9 The moral status of patients in Greece - Filimon Peonidis
EJAIB 13 (2003), 183-186 Children Rights and a Sample Study on Accidents in Children Groups Aged 0-5 Years Old in the Light of Parents' Responsibilty in Turkey - OmŸr Elcioglu, Sahin Aksoy, Tarõk GŸndŸz
EJAIB 13 (2003), 186-9 Attitude of health care professionals in clinical care of children in Japan - Ichiro Matsuda and Shoju Onishi
EJAIB 13 (2003), 189-191 Review: Blood And Guts: A Short History Of Medicine - Haim Marantz
EJAIB 13 (2003), 205 Editorial: Open access and working together -Darryl Macer

EJAIB 13 (2003), 209-10 Shadows of Doubt - Denise M. Hise
EJAIB 13 (2003), 213-5 Physician Non-Disclosure & Paternalism in Terminal Care: Ethical Issues for Japanese Nurses - Emiko Konishi and Anne J. Davis
EJAIB 13 (2003), 224-6 Medical Ethics & Reverence for Life - D.S.Sheriff
EJAIB 14 (2004), 1 Editorial: Thanks for ABC5/TRT9-Darryl Macer

EJAIB 14 (2004), 3-4 Presidential Message of ABA for ABC5 - Qiu Renzong

EJAIB 14 (2004), 4-5 Happy New Year: ABA Vice-President's Report - Frank J. Leavitt

EJAIB 14 (2004), 5-10 ABA Country Report for China 2003 - Zhai Xiaomei
EJAIB 14 (2004), 10 A Brief Report on the Bioethical Events associated with the Korean Bioethics Association (KBA) since ABC4 in Seoul - Sang-yong Song
EJAIB 14 (2004), 13-22 Asian and Western Bioethics: Converging, Conflicting, Competing? - Hans-Martin Sass
EJAIB 14 (2004), 41 Editorial: Bioethics for Informed Citizens across Cultures -Darryl Macer

EJAIB 14 (2004), 42-48 A National Survey of Physicians' Attitudes toward Protecting Human Research Participants in Taiwan - Tang Shih et al.

EJAIB 14 (2004), 50-52 Ethics in Domestic Violence Research - Omur Elcioglu,Oztan Oncel, Ilhami Unluoglu
EJAIB 14 (2004), 63-5 Actualisation of the 'Philosophical Functionalism' in Bioethics - Konstantin S. Khroutski
EJAIB 14 (2004), 81 Editorial: UNESCO's Challenge -Darryl Macer

EJAIB 14 (2004), 90-91 Implementation of patients' rights in the Slovak Republic - Alexandra Brazinov‡, Em’lia Jansk‡, Richard Jurkovi
EJAIB 14 (2004), 99-101 Secretary's report of ABA 2003-2004 - Darryl Macer
EJAIB 14 (2004), 101-103 Contribution of ABA to UNESCO IBC "Towards a Declaration on Universal Norms on Bioethics"
Macer, DRJ. (2002) "Geographical issues and IAB Board Membership", International Association of Bioethics Newsletter 14 (Dec. 2002), 15-18.
Macer, D.R.J. (2002) Delays in implementing the lessons from empirical studies of bioethics to ethics committees in Asia, Notizie di Politeia 18: 25-39.
Macer, DRJ. (2003), Bioethics in Asia pp. 277-80 in Encyclopedia of the Human Genome (Nature MacMillan, 2003).
Macer, DRJ. (2003), Regional Perspectives in Bioethics: Japan, pp. 321-337 in Peppin, J. ed., Annals of Bioethics: Foundational Volume on Regional Perspectives (Swets & Zeitlinger, 2003).
Proceedings of the Fourth Asian Bioethics Conference are online.

Darryl Macer, Editorial: Traditions for Today? - , EJAIB 14 (2004), 117.


Aysegul Demirhan Erdemir, The Importance of Besim Omer (Akalin)'s 1906 Article "Doktorlar Ve Avukatlar" (Doctors and Advocates) from the Point of View of the Principles of Medical Ethics , EJAIB 14 (2004), 134-135.


S. Papagrigoriadis and A. Koreli, Interviewing on life threatening issues for research purposes: can it be harmful for the patient? , EJAIB 14 (2004), 135-8.
Pinit Ratanakul, The Buddhist Concept of Life, Suffering and Death, and Related Bioethical Issues , EJAIB 14 (2004), 141-6.
Frank J. Leavitt, Buddhism, Hume & the Ego: Commentary on Ratanakul , EJAIB 14 (2004), 146-7.
Darryl Macer, Editorial: Asian Bioethics Association (ABA) election , EJAIB 14 (2004), 161.


Pinit Ratanakul , Buddhism, Health & Disease - , EJAIB 14 (2004), 162-164.


Pinit Ratanakul, Response to Frank Leavitt in July 2004 EJAIB , EJAIB 14 (2004), 164-165.


F. Peter Omonzejele, Mental health care in African traditional medicine and society: A Philosophical Appraisal, , EJAIB 14 (2004), 165-9.
Frank J. Leavitt, The Self and Mental Illness: Commentary on Omonzejele and Ratanakul , EJAIB 14 (2004), 169-170.
Darryl Macer, Editorial: Asian-Europe Dialogue , EJAIB 14 (2004), 193.
Soraj Hongladarom, Introduction: the ASEAN-EU LEMLIFE Project , EJAIB 14 (2004), 193-194.
Soraj Hongladarom, Asian Bioethics Revisited: What is it?, and is there such a Thing? , EJAIB 14 (2004), 194-197.
[downloading note - since 2005 the articles are available as pdf files of the complete issue of EJAIB]

Darryl Macer, Editorial: Move to Thailand EJAIB 15 (January 2005), 1.
Hadas Gabizon-David and Frank J. Leavitt, Wittgensteinian Philosophy, Anthropology and the Ethics of PsychiatryEJAIB 15 (January 2005), 2-6.
Konstantin S. Khroutski, Three Dimensions of Contemporary Bioethics: Western, Global, CosmistEJAIB 15 (January 2005), 6-9.
Atsushi Asai, Yugo Narita, Etsuyo Nishigaki, Seiji Bito, Taishu Masano, Yukari Take, Yasuhiko Miura, Koichiro Itai, and Shunichi Fukuhara, Perceptions of interpersonal relationships held by patients with obstinate diseaseEJAIB 15 (January 2005), 32-35.
Darryl Macer, Editorial: Across CulturesEJAIB 15 (March 2005), 33.
Merry Osemwegie, Bioethics in Africa: The new human genetics and a case for responsible global governance EJAIB 15 (Sept. 2005), 141-160.
Ann Boyd and Denise Hise, Interpreting Helsinki in a Pluralistic World EJAIB 15 (May 2005), 83-7.
BBRT1 abstracts EJAIB 15 (July, 2005), 100-135.

Darryl Macer, Editorial: ABC6 in Turkey EJAIB 15 (Nov. 2005), 169.
Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights EJAIB 15 (Nov. 2005), 170-178.
Kamal Kumar Dua, Bhagavad Gita on Divine Values: A Pathway for Ethical Evolution EJAIB 15 (Nov. 2005), 183-185.
Report of the 2005 Asian Bioethics Association (ABA) Board Meetings and General Meeting EJAIB 15 (Nov. 2005), 190-1.
Darryl Macer, Report of the First UNESCO Bangkok Bioethics Roundtable (BBRT1) EJAIB 15 (Nov. 2005), 191-5.
Karolyn White, Catherine McGrath, Ian Kerridge, Multicultural medicine: ethical issues encountered when perspectives differ EJAIB 16 (Jan. 2006), 4-6.
Ahmet Güner, A Book on Medical Ethics in Medieval Islam: Al-Tashwîk Al-Tibbî (Encouraging Medicine) of Abu’l-Alâ Sâid B. Al-Hasan Al-Tabîb (1009-1087 A.C) EJAIB 16 (Jan. 2006), 6-9.
David Cummiskey, Confucian Ethics: Responsibilities, Rights, & Relationships EJAIB 16 (Jan. 2006), 9-21.
Darryl Macer, Editorial: Bioethics across the Region EJAIB 16 (March 2006), 29.
Darryl Macer, Editorial: Global dialogue EJAIB 16 (May 2006), 65.
Arthur Saniotis, Health, Illness and Medical Bioethics: An Islamic Perspective EJAIB 16 (May 2006), 71-6.
Darryl Macer, Editorial: Rediscovering our roots EJAIB 16 (July 2006), 97.
Xiaomei Zhai, Informed Consent in Chinese Clinical Research: The Role of Family in Decision-Making EJAIB 16 (July 2006), 98-103.
D.S. Nesy, Report of the Seminar / Workshop on Bioethics (2 – 3, March 2006) Kerala, India EJAIB 16 (July 2006), 123-5.
Lukas Kaelin, Bioethics: A view on the contemporary discussion in Germany compared to Asia - EJAIB 16 (July 2006), 125-31.
Arthur Saniotis, Human Behaviourome as Cross Cultural Tool with Reference to Conflict Resolution, EJAIB 16 (Nov. 2006), 168-71.
Song Sang-yong, ABA Presidential message, EJAIB 16 (Nov. 2006), 168.
Arthur Saniotis, Human Behaviourome as Cross Cultural Tool with Reference to Conflict Resolution, EJAIB 16 (Nov. 2006), 168-71.
Editorial: Towards ABC8 / BBRT2 , EJAIB 17 (Jan. 2007), 1.
Francisco Iturra, Comments Cross Cultural Introduction to Bioethics, EJAIB 17 (Jan. 2007), 22-26.
Akoijam Thoibisana, An Essay on Philosophy and Medicine, EJAIB 17 (Jan. 2007), 26-30.
Darryl Macer, Editorial: The application of bioethics, EJAIB 17 (March 2007), 33.
Eliane S Azevedo, Interdisciplinary Bioethics on the Crossroad of Research Methods, EJAIB 17 (March 2007), 34-35.
Jayapaul Azariah, Welcome to the Eighth Asian Bioethics Conference: All Nations … The Phantom Next Generation (ABA Presidential Address), EJAIB 17 (May 2007), 65-69.
Abstracts of presented papers at the Eighth Asian Bioethics Conference (ABC2007) concurrent with the Second UNESCO Bangkok Bioethics Roundtable (BBRT2), EJAIB 17 (May 2007), 65-94.

Darryl Macer, "The globalization of ethics and balancing cultural diversity with universal bioethics", pp. 31-45 in Cam, Philip, Ibana, Rainier A., and Pham Van Duc, eds., Philosophical Perspectives on Globalization. Korean National Commission for UNESCO; The Asia-Pacific Philosophy Education Network for Democracy (APPEND) 2006.


General Medical Ethics News listing from EJAIB

France is attempting to introduce a Bioethics law again, with much debate, Lancet 342 (1993), 1355; BMJ 307 (1993), 1445; Biotechnology 11 (1993), 1515.

In the USA there have been recent revelations of a series of unethical experiments performed about 40 years ago on mentally incompetent persons involving the use of radioactive markers in dietary studies. Many enquiries are now underway into this, it will no doubt become another example of the past abuses of human beings in biomedical research. There are numerous reports of this in January and late December US newspapers, for example New York Times (1 Jan 1994), 1, 7; Washington Post (2 Jan 1994), A16, 17; (3 Jan), A13. President Clinton has opened government files on radiation experiments. One must note that ethical awareness was considerably less, but even considering that, some trials were clearly unethical.

A recently published OTA Report reported previously, OTA, Biomedical Ethics in US Public Policy - Background Paper (OTA-BP-BBS-105) was discussed in the US Senate in mid-October, with various people calling for the creation of a new committee. The topic and report is also discussed in BME 92 (Oct 1993), 5-6. At least 25 countries have a national commission or committee, while the USA does not. Another call for its creation is K.E. Hanna et al., "Finding a forum for bioethics in US Public Policy", Politics in the Life Sciences 12 (1993), 205-19. A series of reports on ethics committees including: The US Task Force on the life and the law: Surrogate decisions (1992) Executive Summary; from Poland, UK, Slovakia and Italy, are in IJB 4 (1994), 211-231. A report from the Czech Republic's ethics committee is BME 92 (Oct 1993), 16-9.

A reprint of the recent CIOMS International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research involving Human Subjects is BME 93 (Nov 1993), 9-11. Also on research trials see BME 93 (Nov 1993), 13-9, on improvements in use of the results of trials, p. 20-23; and drug industry advice on good trials practice is p. 24-7. Human experimentation is also the subject of a book review in NEJM 329 (1993), 1748. A discussion of the European charter of children's rights is in BME 92 (Oct 1993), 13-5. A report from a recent conference with two children's views of leg lengthening operations which are informative for those who try to make decisions about treatment for children are BME 92 (Oct 1993), 34-6. The use of video surveillance to detect child abuse is discussed in Lancet 342 (1993), 944.

Informed consent and clinical trials are the subject of letters in BMJ 307 (1993), 1494-7; Lancet 342 (1993), 1366-7. The discussion of whether a clinical trial should be stopped before complete in the case of AIDS is discussed in Lancet 342 (1993), 1001-2, 1311-2. The results of clinical trials should be public property and published, BMJ 307 (1993), 1296-7, 1340-1. A paper on research ethics in Europe and discussion of the Helsinki Declaration is K.E. Tranoy, "Research ethics: a European perspective", BME 92 (Oct 1993), 28-33; and on a US theme of research ethics, J. Katz, "Ethics and clinical research revisited: A tribute to Henry K. Beecher", HCR 23(5) (1993), 31-9. A general background discussion of human research is in Bioethics News 12(5), 30-47. The need for a clinical trial to determine the safety of tamoxifen is stressed in BMJ 307 (1993), 1371-2.

A 24pp. supplement on the issue of priorities in mental health services is P.J. Boyle & D. Callahan, "Minds & hearts: Priorities in mental health services", Special Supplement, HCR 23 (5) (1993), 1-25. It is the result of a project on the issue. On new powers of discharge of mentally ill people, BMJ 307 (1993), 1160. A survey on the use of chaperones to accompany young women or girls as a protection against claims of sexual misconduct finds mild use in the UK, BMJ 307 (1993), 986-7, 1353.

A recent book on the conflict between acting ethically and acting in one's own self interest's is Peter Singer, How are we to live? Ethics in an age of self-interest, Text Publishing $A25). A paper in French on the place and role of the person in bioethics is IJB 4 (1994), 187-98. A report on the founding of the Sicilian Institute of Bioethics and its possible roles is IJB 4 (1994), 269-71 (see also the letter from Yaman Ors in this issue).

An editorial in BME 93 (Nov 1993), 1, criticises the publication of a BMJ paper, BMJ 307 (1993), 1199-1201, against informed consent, because that article was inadequately peer reviewed, and did not refer to published studies. It is the role of reviewers to ensure that papers on ethics are subjected to the same scrutiny as scientific papers, and I agree that it represents an unfortunately common belief that ethics is different to science. Rather both should be consistent with the data, when it exists.

The possible trend in more importance being given to the patient in the doctor patient relationship is discussed in Lancet 342 (1993), 1042-3. Patient decision-making is discussed in JAMA 270 (1993), 2432. Letters on non-compliance are in Lancet 342 (1993), 1426-7. A discussion of the participation of physicians in capital punishment is in NEJM 329 (1993), 1346-50.

A paper reflecting on teaching in Turkey is Y. Ors, "Teaching medical ethics in the subjunctive mood", BME 93 (Nov 1993), 31-6. It provides some advice from his experiences over two decades, in teaching in a positivist way. Also on education in medicine and biology see Science 262 (1993), 498-9; and on special entry fees in entry to medical school in India, Lancet 342 (1993), 1227. Such "extra" fees are routine in private Japanese universities (i.e. entry requires a "monetary gift" to the University). A survey of attitudes towards professional courtesy in the USA is NEJM 329 (1993), 1627-31, 1652-3. Almost all physicians offer free or discounted medical care to colleagues.

The difficulty of measuring the quality of care is discussed in NEJM 329 (1993), 1263-4; 1747-8. However a study in the UK does suggest that the existence of guidelines does improve clinical practice, Lancet 342 (1993), 1317-22. The question of what physicians know and their fallibility is discussed in NEJM 329 (1993), 1268-74. The dilemmas of many different job expectations are discussed in JAMA 270 (1993), 1657-9. An editorial in Lancet 342 (1993), 1063-4, asks whether research makes better doctors or not, and says yes.

A new book, R. Gillon, ed., Principles of Health Care Ethics (Nov 1993, 1128pp., John Wiley & Sons) is priced at US$200. This is certainly not including a chapter on the principles of economical (and some say ethical) book pricing (I have received an advertisement only).

A special issue of Science (12 Nov 1993) 262: 1089-1135, is on minorities in Science. A paper on the trends in the acceptance of women in science is in Scientific American (Nov 1993), 68-77.

The controversy over the radiation experiments conducted in the United States since World War II (EEIN 4: 12) continues to be front page news, and is also discussed in a number of scientific journals. Some comments include: BMJ 308 (1994), 77; Lancet 343 (1994), 106; Nature 367 (1994), 4, 303; Science 262 (1993), 1968; 263: 470-3. The DOE has said it will compensate up to 800 known subjects of research, and has been using a telephone hotline to get information. In some of the studies informed consent was not obtained, and in others it is doubtful. Some of the researchers are being named, thought some are already dead. It has stimulated much debate on bioethics. In the UK, more on the use of military volunteers and nerve gas experiments is in Nature 367 (1994), 676.

Privacy in the age of "Smart cards", and the US federal measures to protect it, are discussed in HCR 23(6) (1993), 13-23. Confidentiality and the duty to warn are debated in CMAJ 149 (1993), 1781-6. A discussion of truth telling is G.J. Annas, "Informed consent, cancer, and truth in prognosis", NEJM 330 (1994), 223-5.

A general comment urging doctors to give serious consideration to the adoption of new technology in medicine is in HCR 23(6) (1993), 32-9. It also discusses the problem of exact diagnosis that is becoming possible. Letters on whether doctor's should refuse to give inappropriate treatment that the patient's chose are in NEJM 330 (1994), 144-5. A critique of consumer satisfaction is B. Williams, "Patient satisfaction: A valid concept?", SSM 38 (1994), 509-16. The privilege of caring for obstetrics and gynecology is the subject of an essay in O&G 83 (1994), 1-4. Beneficence is the subject of a paper L.B. Murphy, "The demands of beneficence", Phil. & Public Affairs 22 (1993), 267-92.

A special supplement on "The Birth of Bioethics", reporting from a US conference on this subject is in HCR 23(6) (1993), S1-16. A list of the 48 participants suggests they are all from the US - which makes us ask what is bioethics? Unfortunately many people interpret it to be a modern subject, originated in the USA: let us hope that we recognise the much earlier origins of the concepts being discussed - and of most of the fundamental questions. A discussion of public involvement in decision-making is P.L. Bereano, "Is there a contradiction between the practice of technology assessment and democratic decision-making", IJB 4 (1993), 285-8. A summary of the OTA report on Biomedical Ethics and in US Public Policy by the project director, R. Nishimi, is in JAMA 270 (1993), 2911. A series of comments on the proposal, including one by D. Macer, are in Politics & Life Science 13 (Feb 1994), .

The central role of love in bioethics is explored in A.C. Mermann, "Love in the clinical setting", Humane Medicine 257 (1993), 268-73. A critique of bioethics in general is R.M. Hare, "Methods of bioethics: Some defective proposals", Monash Bioethics Review 13 (1994), 34-47. On patient rights see Lancet 343 (1994), 132. A book review on the use of quality of life research is in SSM 38 (1994), 764-5. Of general interest to medical ethics are JAMA 271 (1994), 247; Nature 367 (1994), 125; Ethics 104: 382-3, 396-9, 404-10.

The CIOMS guidelines for human subject research (1993) are in French and English in IJB 4 (1993), 299-304; and in IDHL 44 (1993), 734-41. The rules of the Norwegian National Ethics Committee are in IJB 4 (1993), 309-10. Islamic guidelines for human reproductive research from a Dec 1991 conference in Egypt are reproduced in IJB 4 (1993), 305-6.

The Pope is to appoint a bioethics committee - made of 70 scientists, with views consistent with "life begins at conception", Nature 368 (1994), 90. WHO is also trying to call on more ethics committees, along with CIOMS and UNESCO, Lancet 343 (1994), 225-6.

The ethical development of medical students in clinical training is discussed in C. Feudtner & D.A. Christakis, "Making the rounds: The ethica; development of medical students in the context of clinical rotations", HCR 24(1) (1994), 6-12. It suggests training could be better made in the context of the practical experiences. On the ethics of speaking up about ethical problems, and others practice see HCR 24(1) (1994), 13-8. Book reviews of three recent books on clinical medical ethics are in HCR 24(1) (1994), 43-4. A review on responsible ethics in research is Acad. Med. 69 (1994), 102-7.

Research in children is discussed in J. Pediatrics 123 (1993), 852-5; JME 19 (1993), 142-7; Lancet 343 (1994), 282. On ethics committees: New Scientist (12 Feb 1994), 3, 12-3; (19 Feb), 3; BMJ 308 (1994), 362. Caring for Jehovah's Witnesses is discussed in AJOG 170 (1994), 452-3. Mental health is debated in BMJ 308 (1994), 43-5, 408-9, 811; Lancet 343 (1994), 781. On informed consent in clinical trials, BMJ 308 (1994), 271-2. A review of ethics in occupational medicine is SSM 38 (1994), 1367-74.

In South Africa a new government has been elected with the introduction of democracy. In 1993 the South African Medical Research Council issued revised Guidelines on Ethics for Medical Research. The report (119pp.) is based on the UK Royal College of Physicians guidelines, and CIOMS.

General papers include: JME 19 (1993), 131-2, 169-74, 183-7; J. Med. & Phil. 18 (4; 1993), 347-426; SSM 38 (1994), 1469-74; BMJ 308 (1994), 144, 591-3, 666; NEJM 330 (1994), 738-43; Lancet 343 (1994), 101; JAMA 271 (1994), 955-6. A list of some recent successive European bioethics research proposals is in BME 95 (Feb 1994),4. A discussion of G. Gillet's book Reasonable Care is in Bioethics 8 (1994), 159-67. General book reviews are in Bioethics 8 (1994), 93-100, 168-71; Politics & Life Science 13 (Feb 1994),133-160. On confidentiality, CMAJ 149 (1993), 1783-5; BMJ 308 (1994), 69, 139, 342-3, 490, 522-3, 612.

A paper on the use of physical restraints in Ontario, Canada, is in Humane Medicine 10 (1994), 17-27. Involvement in torture and capital punishment is debated in Lancet 343 (1994), 743, 785; JME 19 (1993), 133-41; NEJM 330 (1994), 935-6. On attitudes to homo-sexuality, BMJ 308 (1994), 550-1, 586-7, 854-5; JAMA 271 (1994), 714-5; Lancet 343 (1994), 185-6, 674.

Cultural arguments and universal human rights, and ethics of female circumcision are debated in S.A. James, "Reconciling international human rights and cultural relativism: The case of female circumcision", Bioethics 8 (1994), 1-26. He argues against the use of circumcision as a human rights violation. Also on extending human rights to include any information necessary for patient choice over drug trials, Lancet 343 (1994), 485. On human rights, New Scientist (5 March 1994), 10; CMAJ 149 (1993), 1707-8; Science 263 (1994), 1083-4. The Netherlands has passed a law defining the rights of patients, BMJ 308 (1994), 616. Korean and Malaysian charters are also discussed in Lancet 343 (1994), 132.

The degree of consent that is absent from emergency rooms in the US is discussed in a US House Subcommittee Report, Lancet 343 (1994), 1093. The future of physician ethics in light of the new US health care reforms is reviewed in HCR 24(2) (1994), 28-41. Children's consent should be sought much more often because they must live with the consequences, according to BMJ 308 (1994), 1182-3.

A special supplement (no. 22) of JRSM 87 (1994), 1-50, is on "Trust and ethics in medical care: Patients and Their Doctors". A forum on how to manage patients who refuse blood transfusion is BMJ 308 (1994), 1423-6. Non-compliance is discussed in Lancet 343 (1994), 1305; MJA 160 (1994), 305-6.

In Japan truth-telling for terminally-sick patients is not common, however, there are cases when life needs insurance can be paid before death, Yomiuri Shimbun (22 June 1994), 19; making the case for telling them more compelling. A student's bioethics forum has been started in Japan, to try to stimulate bioethics. On truth-telling, JAMA 271 (1994), 1052. Privacy of health data in the USA is discussed in JAMA 271 (1994), 1308.

A review on the importance of placebo effects is JAMA 271 (1994), 1609-14. The ethics of a breast cancer trial being started in the UK is questioned in BME 96 (March 1994), 3-6; and on breast cancer operations, JAMA 271 (1994), 1204-5. On human research, JAMA 271 (1994), 1228-9; Lancet 343 (1994), 958-9, 1209-11. A summary of an AAAS report to the UN on human rights is in Science 264 (1994), 730, IDHL 45: 105-8. Further cases of US radiation experiments were released in late June, also see Nature 368 (1994), 781; Science 264 (1994), 1410-1.

A supplement on ethics committees is in Monash Bioethics Review 13(2) (1994), 1-34.

A new newsletter has appeared as a supplement to BME 96 (March 1994), called the newsletter of the European Association of Centres of Medical Ethics (EACME). There are 33 established centres and institute for medical ethics in 12 European countries included. The secretariat of the association is Centrum voor Bio-Medische Ethik en Recht Kapucijnenvoer 35, 300, Leuven, Belgium. A survey of US health officer's interactions with the media is JAMA 271 (1994), 1285-9; and on health communication, World Health Forum 15 (1994), 175-77; JRSM 87 (1994), 15.

The role of the hospital chaplain in Western countries is one of the origins of counseling, and a paper on this is A.L. Simmonds, "The chaplain as a spiritual and moral agent. Strengthening the process of bioethical decision-making", Humane Medicine 10 (1994) 103-7.

A special supplement of HCR 24(2) (March/April 1994) is on "What do we owe the elderly? Allocating social and health care resources", 12pp. A paper on deciding when to give money for an operation and when not to is T. Hope et al., "'Not clinically indicated': patient's interests or resource allocation?", Monash Bioethics Review 13(2) (1994), 14-8. On futility see Humane Medicine 10: 108-13.

The difficulties of defining mental sickness are discussed in Lancet 343 (1994), 847; and on mental disorders in the developing world, BMJ 308 (1994), 1052-3. Also on mental disease issues, Lancet 343 (1994), 1237-8, 1274; NEJM 330 (1994), 1546-7.

General medical ethics includes: BMJ 308 (1994), 988-9, 1170; Lancet 343 (1994), 1024-5, 1171; JRSM 87 (1994), 197-9, 250-1; JAMA 271 (1994), 1668-70; and on universalism, Ethics 104: 536-57. On sexual misconduct and harassment, BMJ 308 (1994), 1185-6, 1439; NEJM 330 (1994), 1388-9; Science 264 (1994), 1237-9; Nature 369 (1994), 435. Corruption is discussed in BMJ 308 (1994), 1179-80; Lancet 343 (1994), 964. Alberta, Canada is going to closely test all their doctors, Lancet 343 (1994), 965-6. Mistreatment of medical students is discussed in JAMA 271 (1994), 1049-51.

It has been common in Japan not to give the real reason of death on a death certificate, with only 60% of those who "died of heart failure" actually being victims of heart failure. This is used to coverup other diseases, and leads to difficulties in international comparisons. Calls are being made for Japanese doctors to be accurate, and parents are questioning the real causes; Yomiuri Shimbun (23 July 1994), 1. The most common cause of death written is 26% cancer, and next 21% heart disease.

Debate and calls for a national bioethics committee in the UK are in BME 99 (July 1994), 1. CNRS in France is going to look into ethical issues through a new committee, Nature 370 (1994), 88.

A series of papers marking the 25th anniversary of the Hastings Center are in HCR 24(3) (1994), 6-41. Decter MB. A new book is Healing Medicine: Managing Health System Change The Canadian Way. Toronto: McGilligan Books. 1994.

The US radiation experiments are still being revealed, and are stimulating discussion of informed consent, Hospital Ethics (March 1995), 13-5; BMJ 309 (1994), 207-8. An editorial on obtaining informed consent in human experiments in Australasia's past is in Monash Bioethics Review 13 (1994), 1-3. Tobin, B, "An Australian development of the duty to inform and advise patients", Cath. Med. Qtrly XLIV (Feb 1994), 5-8, looks at the Nov. 1992 High Court decision that said that a doctor was negligent in not explaining a 1 in 14,000 chance of losing sight from an operation. A report on the steps undertaken to ensure no repeat of the NZ cervical cancer research which failed to consider the consent of the women, is Strid, J. "Ethical dilemmas: A consumer perspective", Monash Bioethics Review 13(3) (1994), Supplement: 3-14. Also on consent, Lancet 343 (1994), 1558; 344: 211; BMJ 308 (1994), 1638-9.

In Japan a survey has found that 20% of medical facilities do not inform patients of HIV positive results, Mainichi Shimbun (19 July), 3. Another survey of the public in Japan looked at payment of money by patients to doctors and hospitals (corruption in some cases). 34% of people said they had given something to their doctor. Of 483 persons, 149 said they gave it upon entry to hospital, 88 upon leaving, 109 at the seasonal present time, 79 for a particular operation, 48 for kindness or as thanks, and 10 as they were introduced to a new doctor; Yomiuri Shimbun (8 Sept 1994), 22. A debate on Japanese medical ethics between D. Macer and C. Becker is in Nichibunken Newsletter 18: 1-12.

Meslin EM, et al. "Judging the Ethical Merit of Clinical Trials: What Criteria Do Research Ethics Board Members Use?" IRB (1994) 16(4), 6-10. Also on clinical trials, JME 20 (1994), 3-4, 19-22, 75-6; Lancet 344 (1994), 327. On alternative medicine, BMJ 309 (1994), 103-11; and on the placebo effect, BMJ 309 (1994), 69-70.

A general paper on medical ethics is R. Gillon, "Medical ethics: four principles plus attention to scope", BMJ 309 (1994), 184-8. A paper on feminisim in medical ethics is Monash Bioethics Review 13 (1994), 13-9. On confidentiality, JME 20 (1994), 47-9, 69-70. Other mentions of medical ethics include: New Scientist (2 July 1994), 36-7; MJA 160 (1994), 520-1; JAMA 271 (1994), 1792-8; BMJ 308 (1994), 1522; 309: 124-5; Lancet 343 (1994), 1417, 1512; NEJM 331 (1994), 280-1.

A discussion of the issues when a patient with dementia requires life support is, R. Dresser & P.J. Whitehouse, "The incompetent patient on the slippery slope", HCR 24(4) (1994), 6-12. Silberfeld M. "Evaluating Decisions in Mental Capacity Assessment," Int. J of Geriatric Psychiatry 9: 365-371; D.P. Sulmasy, "More talk, less paper: predicting the accuracy of substituted judgements", Amer. J. Med. 96: 432-8; NEJM 330 (1994), 1895-6. A UK High Court judge ordered the feeding of a mentally competent patient, BMJ 309 (1994), 291-2. On nursing ethics, JME 20 (1994), 7-11, 101-7; BMJ 308 (1994), 1687-92; SSM 39 (1994), 655-70.

Medical ethics education is discussed in N.G. Stevens & T.R. McCormick, "What are students thinking when we present ethics cases?: an example focusing on confidentiality and substance abuse", JME 20 (1994), 112-7; K.R. Mitchell et al., "Assessing the clinical ethical competence of undergraduate medical students", JME 19 (1993), 230-6; Hospital Ethics (March 1994), 4-5; (May), 16; Lancet 343 (1994), 1435. General bioethics education is discussed in Research in Science & Technological Education 12: 77-89; J. Moral Education 23 (1994), 61-73 (in Singapore), 183-98; Lancet 344 (1994), 71-2. On open data, BMJ 308 (1994), 1519-20; Lancet 343 (1994), 1581-2; BMJ 309 (1994), 66.

The CMA policy on sexual relationships with patients is in CMAJ 150 (1994), 1884A-C; and a survey of obstetricians and gynecologists views is CMAJ 150 (1994), 1433+. Also on sexual abuse surveys of practice, O&G 84 (1994), 193-206.

A review of recent UK discussion of confidentiality, including extracts from a draft bill governing use and disclosure of personal health information, and Dept. of Health draft guidance, is in BME 100 (Aug 1994), 13-24; BMJ 309 (1994), 360. Clinical trials are discussed in Lancet 344 (1994), 347-8, 417-8, 688-9.

A paper on Japanese attitudes to truth telling is Tanda, N. "Japanese attitudes towards truth disclosure in cancer", Scand. J. Soc. Med. 22 (1994), 50-7. Patients were more positive to knowing the truth than the general public. He reports 13% of doctors in Hyogo College of medicine report the truth to patients with cancer, however in the Annual Japanese Cancer Society meeting held in October, another survey found 50% of doctors tell the truth. In the process of changing attitudes to truth telling the ratio probably depends on hospital location most.

A positive effect of patient choice in surgery is noted in Fallowfield, L.J. et al. "Psychological effects of being offered choice of surgery for breast cancer", BMJ 309 (1994), 448. Acting in medicine and placebo effects are debated in Lancet 344 (1994), 801-2, 767+; BMJ 309 (1994), 667. The ethics of patient satisfaction surveys are debated in Otago Bioethics Report 3(3), 8-9. On consent, Lancet 344 (1994), 617-8; NEJM 331 (1994), 810-3. A letter on managing a Jehovah's witness who agrees to a blood transfusion is BMJ 309 (1994), 612.

The issue of supervision registers for mentally ill persons is raised in BMJ 309 (1994), 551-2; and on their high security, BMJ 309 (1994), 423-4. The New York state plans for surrogate decision-making are discussed in JAMA 272 (1994), 850-1.

A series of papers in French on medical ethics committees is in IJB 5 (Sept 1994, special issue), 6-94. It includes a list of national ethics committees. A review of Australia's ethics committees is reported in Lancet 344 (1994), 811. A letter arguing that no one swears the Hippocratic Oath is BMJ 309 (1994), 414. A call for colleagues to point out sick doctors is BMJ 309 (1994), 557-8.

A new degree, Master in Bioethics and Health Law is being offered by the Bioethics Research Centre, University of Otago, P.O. Box 913, Dunedin, New Zealand. The need for more scientific medical training is made in Nature 371 (1994), 100; and in general, JAMA 272 (1994), 504-5; Macleod, S.M. & McCullough, H.N. "Social science education as a component of medical training", SSM 39 (1994), 1367-73; Feudtner, C. et al. "Do clinical clerks suffer ethical erosion? Students' perceptions of their ethical environment and personal development", Acad. Med. 69 (1994), 670-9; Sainsbury, R. et al. "Do the clinical years change medical students' attitudes to old people"?", Med. Education 28: 307-11. Entry to medical school is discussed in Med. Education 28: 263-4, 265-70; and a list of US and Canadian medical schools is JAMA 272 (1994), 694-701+.

In general, Hill, T.P. "The cultural and philosophical foundations of normative medical ethics", SSM 39 (1994), 1149-54; Hoffmaster, B. "The forms and limits of medical ethics", SSM 39 (1994), 1155-64. On general medical ethics, book reviews are in NEJM 331 (1994), 686-7; IDHL 45: 262-4; JAMA 272 (1994), 829-30; SSM 39 (1994), 1007-8; also Lancet 344 (1994), 616.. The process of decision making and attitude formation is discussed in Brit. J. Soc. Psychology 33: 301-12. Ethics in the Confucian tradition is discussed in Phil. East & West 44: 559-64; and in Saudi Arabia, MJA 161 (1994), 153-9. The formation of ethnic medical associations in the UK is debated in BMJ 309 (1994), 645-7. The NIH Office of Alternative Medicines is being allegedly subjected to senatorial interference, Science 265 (1994), 2000-2.

A study showing positive results from listening to self-chosen music is Allen, K. & Blascovich, J. "Effects of music on cardiovascular reactivity among surgeons", JAMA 272 (1994), 882-4. The problems of gender in academic work is discussed in a book review in Science 265 (1994), 1899; and 266: 51-3; and on violence against women, SSM 39 (1994), 1165-79. Sexuality is discussed in JAMA 272 (1994), 1069.

Human experimentation is discussed in Cocking, C. & Oakley, J. "Medical experimentation, informed consent and using people", Bioethics 8 (1994), 293-311; and in the accompanying editorial. The radiation experiments on healthy persons and patients in the USA have been disclosed in 1994; Lancet 344 (1994), 1498, and in an Australian report, radioactive iodine was given to healthy persons but with consent in Australia also. Quality control in medicine is discussed in New Scientist (17 Sept 1994), 22-6.

Changes in the US health care system could increase the power of Institutional Review Boards (IRB), HCR 24(5) (1994), 2. Local research ethics committees are discussed in Foster, C.G. "Whither local research ethics committee?", Dispatches 5(1), 1-3. The French National Bioethics Committee is producing a newsletter in French, the first issue was October 1994, Les cahiers du ComitŽ Consultatif National d'Ethique pour les sciences de la vie et de la santŽ, 28pp. The first issue contains a series of documents on assisted reproduction. A discussion of ethics committees views across cultures is CQHE 3 (1994), 422-30; and of their role with decisions involving mentally handicapped persons see papers in CQHE 3 (1994), 174-232.

Discussion of the merits and needs for a national bioethics commission in the USA continue in HCR 24(6) (1994), 26-7; JAMA 272 (1994), 1323. Reports from ethical committees in Australia, Denmark, France, Italy, Poland, UK, are in IJB 5 (1994), 121-173. A copy of the application form for research approval from a UK ethics committee is in BME 101 (Sept 1994), 15-28. A list of some European Medical Ethics Centres appears in BME (Sept 1994) in a supplement, the second issue of EACME News.

A review of the growth of the informed consent concept in Japan is Morikawa, I. "Patient's rights in Japan: Progress and resistance", KIEJ 4 (1994), 337-43. The process of drug approval in Japan is being reviewed following the sorivudine deaths (see earlier issues), Lancet 344 (1994), 1075-6.

A study of 50 UK patients within 3 months of an ear, nose and throat operation is Dawes, P.J.D. & Davison, P. "Informed consent: what do patients want to know?", Monash Bioethics Review 13(4) (1994), 20-6. A 15pp. supplement on ethics committees and consent is in Monash Bioethics Review 13(4) (1994). Also on informed consent, McNeill, P.M. et al. "Ethics decision-making in Australian hospitals", MJA 161 (1994), 487-8; CMAJ 151 (1994), 423-7, 736; Hospital Ethics (Sept), 5-6.

Cross-cultural ethics are discussed in several papers in CQHE 3 (1994), 321-71. A survey of Turkish physician attitudes to ethical issues is in BME 102 (Oct 1994), 16-21. Related, Olweny, C. "Bioethics in developing countries: ethics of scarcity and sacrifice", JME 20 (1994), 169-74. Cultural barriers to open discussion of cervical cancer with doctors in the UK are reported in BMJ 309 (1994), 1126-8. On medical ethics in China, Lancet 344 (1994), 1427-8; and in India, Lancet 344 (1994), 1150.

The relationship between doctors and nurses is discussed in Higgins, G.L. "Power and authority in medicine", Humane Medicine 10: 253-61, Storch, J.L. "Division of labour in health care", Humane Medicine 10 (1994), 262-9, 248-50; CMAJ 151 (1994), 19-20, 76-8, 1129-32;JME 20 (1994), 175-80; Lancet 344 (1994), 1077. Several papers on healthcare relationships are in CQHE 3 (1994), 7-80. Ethics consultation is the subject of book reviews, NEJM 331 (1994), 1532- 3; JAMA 272 (1994), 1553-4.

The profession of medicine is reexamined in BMJ 309 (1994), 1100- 1, 1140-3; and the Hippocratic Oath in BMJ 309 (1994), 952-3. A conference review of a big US bioethics meeting is in JAMA 272 (1994), 1642-4. A discussion of meta-analysis in medical policy is Science 266 (1994), 960-2. Practice guidelines are discussed in JAMA 272: 1374-5. The problem of impaired physicians and preventing them from practicing is being addressed more in some US state medical boards, JAMA 272 (1994), 1238. Private medical insurance is changing some practices in the UK including the charging of fellow doctors for medical services, BMJ 309 (1994), 1318-9.

A series of papers on the placebo effect, and its uses is treatment are: Lancet 344 (1994), 925-6, 995-8, 1066-7, 1140-2, 1206- 10, 1279-81, 1347-8, 1436. European programs in caring for mentally handicapped persons are reviewed in BMJ 309 (1994), 1218- 21. Psychiatric patient issues are in JME 20 (1994), 135-8; MJA 161 (1994), 381-4. The process of obtaining false confessions of crime is also an ethical issue, Lancet 344 (1994), 1447-50. The release of hospital mortality tables is discussed in Lancet 344 (1994), 1561.

A view on the origin of the word "bioethics" is Reich, W.T. "The word "Bioethics"; its birth and the legacies of those who shaped its meaning", KIEJ 4 (1994), 319-35. General papers on bioethics include: Goldstein, D.M. "Rejuvenating bioethics, literature and interpretive openness", Humane Medicine 10 (1994), 275-81; JME 20 (1994), 152-6; New Scientist (5 Nov 1994), 49; JRSM 87 (1994), 797; Lancet 344 (1994), 1159-60; and book reviews include IDHL 45 (1994), 427-39; BMJ 309 (1994), 1095; Lancet 344: 1558.

Specific topics include; Primum non nocere, Lancet 344 (1994), 1487- 8; confidentiality, JME 20 (1994), 165-8; CMAJ 151 (1994), 847-8; the right to know in World Health (Sept 1994), 18-9. Feminist bioethics include: Humane Medicine 10 (1994), 282-90; JME 20 (1994), 195-6. Sexism is discussed in CMAJ 151 (1994), 1167-8. The NIH has stopped a proposed study on discrimination, Nature 372 (1995), 3.

A review of religious views on bioethics is Bishop, L.J. & Couts, M.C. "Religious perspectives on bioethics, part 2", KIEJ 4 (1994), 357-86. See also JME 20 (1994), 133-4.

Ethics education is discussed in Hospital Ethics (Sept 1994), 14; CMAJ 151 (1994), 415-7. Swiss medical schools will test aptitude, Lancet 344 (1994), 1424.

Funding for bioethics has reached 2% of the total biomedical research funds available in European collaborative research; BME 104 (Jan 1995), 6. The European Parliament has approved a budget of 336 million ecus for BIOMED 2. The first call will be for 140 Mecus, by 31 March , 1995; and the rest by the following March.

The lessons that could be learnt from unethical experiments and the origins of bioethics in the USA are discussed in Katz, J. "Reflections on unethical experiments and the beginnings of bioethics in the United States", KIEJ 4 (1994), 85-92; and the consequences of the radiation experiments are discussed in KIEJ 4 (1994), 147-54. The issues are also discussed in Katz, J. "Do we need another advisory commission on human experimentation?", HCR 25 (1995), 29-31. This concludes that not a study, but a permanent public review process is needed. An editorial with a UK report on how the public can express concerns about health reforms is BME 104 (Jan 1995), 1.

The Italian national bioethics committee has been in controversy following the resignation of the famous biologist, Rita Levi-Montalcini, in protest over the appointment of 9 new orthodox Roman Catholic members by the out-going Italian prime minister, Nature 373 (1995), 97; Science 267 (1995), 326; Lancet 345 (1995), 182.

Consent and the refusal of medical treatment by Christian scientists is discussed in HCR 25: 15-21. Papers on informed consent are in JLME 22 (1994), 301-13, 314-7; JAMA 272 (1994), 1814; BMJ 310 (1995), 43-8. Mental health and ethics are discussed in NEJM 331 (1994), 1662-3; 332: 196; BMJ 309 (1994), 1590-1; 310: 145-6.

The financial constraints in some countries may not allow the presence of a parent in the operating room to see dying relatives, even if the medical staff support it; Hall, P.A. et al. "Parents in the recovery room:" survey of parental and staff attitudes", BMJ 310 (1995), 163-4. This view was discussed in the Philippines, Bioethics Newsletter of the South East Asian Centre for Bioethics (Dec 1994), 1. A study on the harsh impact of ill health on families is JAMA 272 (1994), 1839-44.

A series of 8 papers, and useful references, on research ethics are in CQHE 3 (1994), 493-577. Placebos are discussed in Science 267 (1995), 25-6; NEJM 332 (1995), 60-1. The use of interior decorating to improve health in hospital is becoming common in the USA, JAMA 272 (1994), 1885-6. The question of how to compare good and bad doctors (in terms of performance) is discussed in Scientific American (Jan 1995), 33-4; BMJ 309 (1994), 1599-600. On the ethics of the NHS in the UK, BMJ 309 (1994), 1640-5; 310: 73-4, 189-91, 198.

Theology and bioethics are discussed in KIEJ 4 (1994), 155-83. A discussion of value theory and best interests is in Bioethics 9 (1995), 50-61. A book review of Fulford, K.W.M. et al., eds., Medicine and Moral Reasoning (Cambridge University Press, 1994, 207pp., £12.95) is in Lancet 345 (1995), 307-8. A book review of The Ethical Ophthalmologist: A Primer is in JAMA 272 (1994), 1869-70. The latest Bibliography of Bioethics Vol. 20, has been released by the Kennedy Institute, Washington D.C., 811pp, US$60. On general issues in medical ethics, BMJ 309 (1994), 1657-9, 1668, 1671-2; Lancet 344 (1994), 1774; JAMA 272 (1994), 1888.

The Declaration of Ixtapa, the statement of the XXVIIIth meeting of CIOMS on "Poverty, vulnerability, the value of human life and the emergence of bioethics", from the meeting held 17-20 April, 1994, is in BME 104 (Jan 1995), 10-11. On WHO, Lancet 345 (1995), 203-4, 312; BMJ 309 (1994), 1566-8. Cross-cultural ethics is discussed in: Jecker, N.S. et al. "Caring for patients in cross-cultural settings", HCR 25 (1995), 6-14. On human rights in Singapore, Asian Survey XXXIV (1994), 933-48. A review of ill treatment is Kosserev, I. & Crawshaw, R. "Medicine and the Gulag", BMJ 309 (1994), 1726-30.

Telemedicne is discussed in Lancet 345 (1995), 73-4; and telephone followup in BMJ 309 (1994), 1527-8. Personal computer networks are being tested for medical records in Hyogo prefecture in Japan in a 2 year project, which will test there practicality for the Ministry of Heath and Welfare before general use.

Also on the issue of women in clinical trials, KIEJ 4 (1994), 117-46. A book review on feminist bioethics is in Bioethics 9 (1995), 72-9. The consequences of past sexual abuse on woman's health could make the call for needing to discover the background that people have, Humane Medicine 11 (1995), 23-8. Incest is specifically discussed in Humane Medicine 11 (1995), 29-33. An interesting comparison, the average wage of a woman in Japan is 51% of that of men.

In the January disaster in Kobe, Japan, the local government refused the offer of the Japanese Emergency Medical Association to send more medical staff. As they later found, when some members went on their own sense of being needed, many lives would have been saved if the local government had accepted their offer, Yomiuri Shimbun (25 Jan 1995), 1.

World parliamentarians at the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) conference in the Madrid meeting approved a resolution on bioethics, saying bioethics should be taught at all levels of education and governments should ''provide their citizens with exact information on issues related to bioethics (and encourage) ongoing debate on these issues.'' The IPU acknowledged that it would be difficult to draw up universally-acceptable guidelines on medical research. But it called for ''an international corpus of common principles which respect diversity of culture, belief, spiritual values and historical heritage.'' It urged non-member states of the Council of Europe to accede to the European Convention on Bioethics, ''thereby giving it a universal character.'' The draft convention bans the creation of embryos for strictly investigative use and the use of human beings for tests other than diagnosis or treatment. Some scientists say biomedical research into many diseases would be seriously hindered if such restrictions on embryo use were adopted worldwide; Reuters World Service (1 April).

China has called for progress in medical science and biotechnology should be used to better serve human beings but care should be taken to prevent misuse, a Chinese delegate told the IPU. Lin Liyun, a member of the standing committee of the Chinese National People's Congress, observed, it is only natural that different countries should have different views and policies on the relationship between bioethics and human rights protection, due to differences in history, religion and culture, as well as the difference in the level of economic development and medical science. Bioethics is a new discipline and "issues related to this new science are often too disputatious to be agreed upon even in the same country. we are opposed to the practice of imposing one's views on others and we are more opposed to making groundless fabrications and wilfully laying charges against other countries under the pretext of protecting human rights," Lin added; The Xinhua News Agency (29 March).

A report on the issues in New Zealand in balancing cultural traditions is Campbell, A.V., "Ethics in a bicultural context", Bioethics 9 (1995), 149-54. It looks at the inclusion of Maori views into research committees. As mentioned in previous issues, sometimes the emphasis on the Maori view may be too great, and it is a lesson that the opinions and input of all cultural groups and minorities should be sought.

Papers on ethics research committees include, BME 105 (Feb), 13-6; IJB 5 (1994), 345-6. Clinical trials are discussed in Gifford, F. "Community-equipose and the ethics of randomised clinical trials", Bioethics 9 (1995), 127-48; Lancet 345 (1995), 469. There are investigations in Germany of several physicians who may have conducted unethical trials, Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 108. On the flaws in regulations in Japan, Fukushima, M. "Clinical trials in Japan", Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 12-3. A debate is Petros, A.J. et al. "Should morbidity replace mortality as an endpoint for clinical trials in intensive care?" Lancet 345 (1995), 369-71.

On quality of life, NEJM 332 (1995), 469-72. A US study finding that after cancer treatment black and white children have the same outcome, JAMA 273 (1995), 633-7.

Nursing ethics are discussed in Otago Bioethics Report 4 (1995), 1-2. Teaching nursing ethics is discussed in University of Minnesota Centre for Biomedical Ethics Newsletter (Spring), 1-2. Teaching medical ethics is discussed in JME 20 (1994), 229-34, 235-8, 239-43, 244-50.

Informed consent and other bioethical issues in three countries are discussed in Annas, G.J. & Miller, F.H. "The empire of death: How culture and economics affect informed consent in the U.S., the UK and Japan", AJLM XX (1994), 357-94. A review of refusals by parents for children's therapy is Elton, A. et al. "Withholding consent to lifesaving treatment: three cases", BMJ 310 (1995), 373-7; BME 105 (Feb), 3-4. Also on children's consent, JME 20 (1994), 205-6.

The UK Law Commission has recommended review of UK law to fill in gaps in the protection of mentally handicapped persons, BMJ 310 (1995), 549. A criticism of the appeals procedure for detention under the Mental Health Law is BMJ 310 (1995), 364-7. On the New Zealand laws, J. Law & Med. 2 (1994), 38+.

The CIOMS Declaration of Ixtapa, which looked at global bioethics, at the XXVIIIth CIOMS conference on "Poverty, Vulnerability, the value of human life and the emergence of bioethics", is in IJB 5 (1994), 359-61.

Other papers on bioethics in general, Bioethics 9 (1995), 155-80; JME 20 (1994), 25-30, 45-8, 57-63; Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 90-1, 97; on ancient Greek ethics, Ethics 105: 241-57, 258-83, 284-95, 352-85; and on cost/benefit analysis, Economics & Philosophy 10 (1994), 151-68, 169-94. On medical practice, New Scientist (21 Jan, 1995), 14-5, 41; JME 20 (1994), 19-24. A recent book on moral reasoning is Gowans, C.W. Innocence Lost. An Examination of Inescapable Moral Wrongdoing (Oxford University Press 1994).

A book review of Oates, S.O., The Good Doctor is NEJM 332 (1995), 755. On psychological effects in healing, Newsweek (13 March), 51; BMJ 310 (1995), 527-8; JME 21 (1995), 31-4; SSM 40 (1995), 724; New Scientist (25 Feb, 1995), 8. Disease and depression on the family is discussed in SSM 40 (1995), 789-97, 829-35, 837-46.

On racial discrimination in medicine, BMJ 310 (1995), 478-9; and on sexual discrimination, New Scientist (7 Jan, 1995), 38-9. A study of UK medical school applicants and entry is Esmail, A. "Acceptance into medical school and racial discrimination", BMJ 310 (1995), 501-2.

A discussion of the origins of the word "bioethics" is Reich, W.T. "The word "bioethics": The struggle over its earliest meanings", KIEJ 5 (1995), 19-34. A series of papers on the theme Beyond Autonomy are in CQHE 4 (1995), 7-79, with a 3 page list of references, pp. 80-82. It also includes a paper on the Japanese situation, Hoshino, K. "Autonomous decision-making and Japanese tradition", CQHE 4 (1995), 71-4. A report on the failure of patient rights in a supreme court case in Japan is Lancet 345 (1995), 1166, 1176. Also on Japan, Lancet 345 (1995), 926, 1574.

A UK BMA group has produced a document, Core Values for the Medical Profession in the 21st Century, the conclusions are in BME 107 (1995), 3-4. The General Medical Council has also given advice on good standards for a doctor, see BME 107 (1995), 4-5; BMJ 310 (1995), 759. The amendments to the Medical Act from the Medical (Professional Performance) Bill are in BME 106 (1995), 10-11. The US debate on medical regulation is in JAMA 273 (1995), 1534-8.

Ethics committees are discussed in IJB 6 (1995), 65-82; CQHE 4 (1995), 83-91; Alderson, P. "A national research ethics committee?", BME 107 (1995), 13-6;BME 107 (1995), 1, 7; BMJ 310 (1995), 735; 1051. A series of papers on the function of research ethics boards in Canada, "Protecting and promoting the human research subject: A review of the function of research ethics boards in Canadian faculties of medicine", is in a Special issue of NCBHR Communique 6 (1995), 1-32.

The code of practice of the NHS in the UK is in BME 107 (1995), 10-11; and the proposed code of conduct for Community Health Councils in the UK, BME 106 (1995), 8-9. A series of papers on clinical practice guidelines are in JLME 23 (1995), 47-81.

A new book is Rogers, A. & Durand de Bousingen, D., Bioethics in Europe (ISBN 92-871-2566-X, 380, Paperback, US$20. A journal looking at international comparisons between health in different places since 1995 is Health & Place, ISSN 1353-8292, Pergamon Publishers. A review of the situation in Russia including medical ethics is Cassileth, B.R. et al. "Health care, medical practice, and medical ethics in Russia today", JAMA 273 (1995), 1569-73, 1622-3. Also on cross-cultural ethics, SSM 40 (1995), 869-72.

In general on ethics, NEJM 332 (1995), 1177-8; BMJ 310 (1995), 856-9; 850-3, 1016-7; JAMA 273 (1995), 1232, 1445-9; World Health Forum 16 (1995), 115-25; SSM 40 (1995), 1013-4. The journal Humane Medicine is now separate from the Canadian Medical Association, yet will continue to be published. A series of papers on clinical ethics are in JMP 20 (1995), 1-106. The Canadian Bioethics report is on-line at the CMA, as listed in the front. BMJ is also going electronic, and on the future of publication, BMJ 310 (1995), 1343-4,1381-90. On religion and bioethics see, Humane Medicine 10 (1995), 57; NEJM 332 (1995), 1523-5. A new book is New Dictionary of Christian Ethics and Pastoral Theology, Inter-Varsity Press 1995 (£30).

Nursing care is discussed in Humane Medicine 10 (1995), 62-5; JME 21 (1995), 82-3; World Health Forum 16 (1995), 127-30. On conflicts between health care workers and managers, BMJ 310 (1995), 1054-6. Gender issues are discussed in McCarrick, P.M., "Gender issues in health care", SCOPE Note 27, KIEJ 5 (1995), 61-82; JAMA 273 (1995), 1022-5, 1056-7.

On consent: BMJ 310 (1995), 935-7, 1277-8, 1315-8, 1355-6; MJA 162 (1995), 443, 497-8; JAMA 273 (1995), 1283-7, 1300-2; SSM 40 (1995), 1433-4, 1573-7; JME 21 (1995), 67-8. The UK Law Commission on mental incapacity summary is in BME 106 (1995), 13-8; see also, BMJ 310 (1995), 1195-6. On taking pills to be happy, NS (1 April, 1995), 14-5, (22 April), 7. Children's consent is discussed in BME 105 (1995), 3-4; BMJ 310 (1995), 373-7; JLME 23 (1995), 5-46; Lancet 345 (1995), 805-6, 1370-1. On language barriers in US medicine, JAMA 273 (1995), 724-8; and a review is Ong, LML. "Doctor-patient communication: A review of the literature", SSM 40 (1995), 903-18.

On medical education, Lancet 345 (1995), 966-8, 1032-4, 1093-5, 1151-3; NEJM 332 (1995), 1507-9; BMJ 310 (1995), 994-6; JAMA 273 (1995), 771, 1061-4, 1533. A case of cheating is reported in Leavitt, F.J. "Cheating in medical school", BMJ 310 (1995), 1014-5. On ethics education, JAMA 273 (1995), 1386-9; JME 21 (1995), 97-103

A critique of the new UK law on doctors' professional performance is in an editorial in BME 108 (1995), 1. British government's proposals on poorly performing doctors are in BMJ 311 (1995), 402; British doctors are asked to report unfit colleagues BMJ 311 (1995), 406-7. On professional attitudes and decorum, Perspectives in Biology & Medicine 38 (1995), 238-53. The role of the UK professional body, the General Medical Council is discussed in BMJ 310 (1995), 1427, 1489, 1515-8; Lancet 345 (1995), 132. A scandal in the Bristol Cancer Help Centre from a study in the late 1980s of complementary therapy is discussed in BME 108 (1995), 3-5.

A sex attitude survey among New Zealand doctors found that 35% found dating and 10% found sexual contact with patients usually or sometimes acceptable, and 4% admitted having sexual contact with a patient at some time, Lancet 346 (1995), 302.

A call to forget the distinction between experiment or treatment and to focus on informed consent is in HCR 25 (July 1995), 6-15. The history of informed consent is reviewed in Friedlander, W.J. "The evolution of informed consent in American Medicine", Perspectives in Biology & Medicine 38 (1995), 498-510. Informed consent for children, CMAJ 153 (1995), 73-6; and for unconscious patients, Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 612; and in post-marketing research in phase IV clinical trials, BMJ 310 (1995), 1660-3; and inadequate medical information, Lancet 346 (1995), 251. The cultural lag and the Hippocratic oath is discussed in Lancet 345 (1995), 1422-4; 346 (1995), 130; BMJ 311 (1995), 196.

Ethics of psychiatric therapies are discussed in BME 109 (1995), 13-7; BMJ 310 (1995), 1422-3, 1549-50. The Revisions to the UK law on mental capacity are documented in Dispatches 5 (No.3, 1995), 3-5; Hodgkinson, D.W. et al. "Doctors' legal position in treating temporarily incompetent patients", BMJ 311 (1995), 115-8. See also, Keyserlingk, E.W. et al, "Proposed guidelines for the participation of persons with dementia as research subjects", Perspectives in Biology & Medicine 38 (1995), 319-362. A series of papers on substituted judgement are in J. Clinical Ethics 6 (1995), 14-52.

The functioning of privatised ethics committees in New Zealand is discussed in BME 110 (1995), 9-10. On ethics committees, BME 110 (1995), 16-8; Health Law Review 4 (1995), 3-43. Monitoring clinical research,CMAJ 152 (1995), 1973-1980; and on clinical trials, Lancet 345 (1995), 1616-9; SSM 41 (1995), 598-9. Medical research in the UK was the subject of a recent House of Lords report, BMJ 310 (1995), 1552.

A report on methods used to train ethics teachers for medical school in Germany is Dressel, R. et al. "Training ethics teachers in Germany", BME 109 (1995), 13-5. An agent centred approach to ethics teaching is discussed in Whitbeck, C. "Teaching ethics to scientists and engineers: Moral agents and moral problems", Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (1995), 299-308; and on values education, Grundstein-Amado, R. "Values education: a new direction for medical education", JME 21 (1995), 174-8. On teaching sociology of medicine, Medical Education 29 (1995), 205-10; Lancet 345 (1995), 1440-1. Evidence-based medicine is called for in Australia,in MJA 163 (1995), 60-1.

A book review calling the fourth edition of Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, the beginning of the end of principalism is in HCR 25 (July 1995), 37-9. A discussion of the principles is also in Gracia, D. "Hard times, hard choices: Founding bioethics today", Bioethics 9 (1995), 192-206. A paper on the subject of principalism is in Monash Bioethics Review 14 (July 1995), 23-30 (reprinted from BMJ. General medical ethics include: J Clin Ethics 6 (1995), 14-19.

Two book reviews on bioethics consultancy are in HCR 25 (July 1995), 39-40. On nursing, BMJ 311 (1995), 303-8, 309-13. On counseling and ethics in medicine, BMJ 310 (1995), 1474, 1551; 311 (1995), 54. Placebos are discussed in Nature 375 (1995), 530.

A series of papers from the International Association of Bioethics Second Congress are in Bioethics 9 (1995), 183-343. It includes several cross-cultural bioethics approaches. In New Zealand the issue of "Cultural safety" classes, which have become compulsory at many education institutes as part of the Nursing Council requirements, are being widely questioned. The classes are intended to teach Maori values, however, the reaction against them may be more detrimental to developing a multicultural society.

On Beijing and the future of women's rights, BMJ 311 (1995), 580-1; Lancet 346 (1995), 195; Newsweek (28 August, 1995), 10-7; and media from the beginning of September. Bisexuality is discussed in Newsweek (17 July, 1995), 36-42.

Capital punishment is discussed in HCR 25 (July 1995), 5. Triage in accident and emergency departments (see comments in editorial and by F. Leavitt in this issue, BMJ 311 (1995), 404; and on psychological debriefing after trauma, BMJ 311 (1995), 1479-80. Removal of violent patient's right to visit a GP is noted in BMJ 311 (1995), 131; NEJM 333 (1995), 134.

A number of topical pamphlets and introductions on different bioethical themes are available from:
Prof. Dr Hans-Martin Sass
Zentrum Medizinische Ethik
Ruhr Universitaet
Postfach 102148
Bochum 4630 , GERMANY


Law & Medical Ethics

Amendments to the Council of Europe's draft convention on bioethics article 7 , 15, 16, 17, and 18 are reported in BME 108 (1995), 5-6.

The guidelines for expediated review of research proposals on humans from the Office for Protection from Research Risks are in BME 109 (1995), 7. On rights and responsibilities, CMAJ 152 (1995), 1955- 6. The definition of significant risk is debated in JAMA 273 (1995), 1906-7.

In the UK a system where the lawyer can charge a proportion of the legal suit award as fees is being established, to the criticism of some, Lancet 345 (1995), 44. On medical negligence, BMJ 310 (1995), 1671; 310 (1995), 267; JAMA 274 (1995), 22-5, 457-61; Science 269 (1995), 295-6. In the UK the House of Lords has ruled against suing in child abuse cases, BMJ 311 (1995), 79.

In general on medical law trends, JAMA 273 (1995), 1688-9. The ownership of medical records in NSW, Australia, is the subject of a High Court case, Lancet 345 (1995), 1429. Trends in scientific evidence in law courts are reviewed in Harvard Law Review 108 (1995), 1482-1606.

There are various reports on the Beijing Women's conference: Reproductive Freedom News (29 Sept, 1995), 5; Monash Bioethics Review 14 (4, 1995), 1-4; BMJ 311 (1995), 1010; Time (11 Sept 1995), 36-45. Also on women's health, Science 269 (1995), 739, 765-801, 1508-9. Reproductive rights continue to be somewhat culturally dependent, as do other interpretations of human rights. The role that the media may play in bioethics debate is discussed in HCR 25 (5, 1995), 40-3.

A new exchange journal is Nursing Ethics, the address is listed later. There are a series of papers on ethical issues in nursing, which could equally apply to all health care works who want to add the human touch. A paper comparing gender differences is Norberg, A. & Uden, G. "Gender differences in moral reasoning among physicians, registered nurses and enrolled nurses engaged in geriatric and surgical care", Nursing Ethics 2 (1995), 233-42. Another paper with a provocative title is artificial personhood, Nursing Ethics 2 (1995), 185-96. A new book is Keatings M., Ethical and Legal Issues in Canadian Nursing. Toronto: Harcourt Brace and Co, 1995.

A series of papers on the issue of principlism in bioethics by T.L. Beachamp, "Principlism and its alleged competitors"; R.M. Veatch, "Resolving conflicts among principles: Ranking, balancing, and specifying"; K.D. Clouser, "Common morality as an alternative to principlism"; A.R. Jonsen, "Casuistry: An alternative or complement to principles?"; and E.D. Pellegrino, Toward a virtue-based normative ethics for the health professions", are in KIEJ 5 (3, 1995), 181-278. Related is the paper, Meslin, E.M. et al. "Principlism and the ethical appraisal of clinical trials", Bioethics 9 (1995), 399-418. Also on theory, NEJM 333 (1995), 885-6.

An editorial looking at the need for cultural sensitivity in informed consent is JAMA 274 (1995), 844-5; following Carrese, J.A. & Rhodes, L.A. "Western bioethics on the Navojo Reservation. Benefit or harm?", JAMA 274 (1995), 826-9. It use of Western means United States concepts. A study on elderly Korean and Mexican Americans also found differences in truth-telling concepts, Balckhall, L.J. et al. "Ethnicity and attitudes toward patient autonomy", JAMA 274 (1995), 820-5. There are also gender differences, SSM 41 (1995), 1255-60. Borins, M., "Native healing traditions must be protected and preserved for future generations", CMAJ 153 (1995), 1356+. Language barriers are discussed in JAMA 274 (1995), 683-4, 1002-4; and deaf patients in JAMA 274 (1995), 794-5.

The issue of whether to waive informed consent in emergency research is discussed in KIEJ 5 (1995), 155-62; JAMA 274 (1995), 1184, 1196; Science 270 (1995), 25-6. Lies and professionalism are discussed in CMAJ 153 (1995), 511+. A right to a second opinion is debated in BMJ 311 (1995), 670-2; a call for patients to examine their doctor is JAMA 274 (1995), 1083. A case study relating to Jehovah's Witness blood transfusion is HCR 25 (5, 1995), 28-9.

A series of papers on clinical practice guideline development are CMAJ 153 (1995), 901+; 1073-1077; 1233-1236. Ethics of clinical trials are discussed in Gifford, F. "Community-equipose and the ethics of randomized clinical trials", Monash Bioethics Review 14 (4, 1995), Ethics Committee Supplement, 3-8. Australian confidentiality controversy, BMJ 311 (1995), 971. On clinical trials, Wager, E. et al. "Get patients' consent to enter clinical trials", BMJ 311 (1995), 734-7; Gallo, C. et al. "Informed versus randomised consent to clinical trials", Lancet 346 (1995), 1060-4, 1047-8; Nature 377 (1995), 691; and on clinical ethics committees, BMJ 311 (1995), 639-40, 659-61, 667-9.

Medical ethics teaching is discussed in JAMA 274 (1995), 767-71, 1084-5. Science education is discussed in Lancet 346 (1995), 627; Nature 377 (1995), 2; Biotechnology 13 (1995), 960-1; Science 269 (1995), 1335-7; 270 (1995), 48-9, 239, 247-9; J. Animal Science 73: 2727-32. Medical education in Lancet 346 (1995), 892; BMJ 311 (1995), 642. Critiques of the word bioethicist are Bioethics 9 (1995), 361-79; BME 111 (Sept 1995), 2. A system of assessment methods and education has been introduced in various countries to attempt to maintain professional standards; JAMA 274 (1995), 700-5. An interesting set of kits is produced by the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (Contact Mr Neil Paget, Director of Education, RACP, 145 Macquarie Street, Sydney NSW 2000, Australia).

A discussion of general practice in the USA, UK, Germany and Canada is in JAMA 274 (1995), 692-5. An examination of the term of alternative medicine psychoneuroimmunology is in Probe IV (1 May, 1995), 1-8. The story of using body energy of "chi" to transfer energy into patients is discussed in Probe IV (1 May, 1995), 1, 4-5. On placebos, Nature 378 (1995), 125; BMJ 311 (1995), 821-2. Mental health is discussed in Nature 377 (1995), 298.

The US is expected to have selected the 15 members of the National Ethics Advisory Committee by 31 January, 1996 - if there are no more budget lock-outs of federal projects, TIBTECH 13 (1995), 1431. A review of the Nuffield Council of Bioethics by D. Shapiro, the secretary is ?", Politics & Life Sciences 14 (1995),263-6. A call for national ethics committees to produce in depth work on ethics is called for in R. Nicholson, "Knowledge comes but wisdom lingers", HCR 25 (6, 1995), 4. On UK local research ethics committees, BMJ 311 (1995), 1570-2; JME 21 (1995), 214-9; and in general, Lancet 346 (1995), 1115-6; Student BMJ 311 (1995), 661. Clinical trials ethics are discussed in Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 1101-2; JAMA 274 (1995), 1308-9, 1456-8; BMJ 311 (1995), 1382-3; Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 734-6; and aftercare in JME 21 (1995),225-8.

A study of consent is Harth, S.C. & Thong, Y.H. "Parental perceptions and attitudes about informed consent in clinical research involving children", SSM 41 (1995), 1647-51; also, Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 1099. Emergency use and altered informed consent requirements are in JAMA 274 (1995), 1578; NS (4 Nov 1995), 6. The social context of consent is discussed in Nursing Ethics 2 (1995), 347-50. A paper on Chinese ethics (see also the abstracts of EACB'95 in this issue) is Guo Zhaojing, "Chinese Confucian culture and the medical ethical tradition", JME 21 (1995), 239-46. The text of the UK General Medical Council booklet "Good Medical Practice" is in BME 113 (1995), 8-11. On clinical practice guidelines, CMAJ 153 (1993), 1423-32, 1575-84. Second opinions are supported in BMJ 311 (1995), 1506-7, 1179-81; and on the limits to physician autonomy, JME 21 (1995),170-3.

A series of papers on the theme Compassion: What Does it Really Mean? is in CQHE 4 (1995), 415-501. The relationship between doctors and patients is discussed in JAMA 274 (1995), 1265-6, 1345-6. A paper on Hippocrates is in World Health Forum 16 (1995), 394-7.

Humane Medicine is changing its name to Humane Health Care: An International Journal of Healing (Multimed Inc., 1120 Finch Ave West, Suite 601, Downsview ON M3J 3H7, USA). The Istituto Siciliano di Bioetica has published a further issue of Bioetica e Cultura IV (1995), 8 (In Italian). Several journals of interest to bioethics and the topics of EJAIB are on line at http://www.bdt.org.br/bioline/ The Institute for Global Ethics has a www page, http://www.sourcemaine.com/ethics They include discussion of business ethics, and general applied ethics. A site of information for Jewish medical ethics is http://www.hia.com/hia/medethic/ The Church of Scotland Society, Religion and Technology Project has a home page at http://webzone1.co.uk/www/srtproject/srtpage3.htm Internet and NEJM is discussed in NEJM 333 (1995), 1077-80.

Bioethics in Canada is discussed in several papers in English and French in IJB 6 (1995), 230-53. Jehovah's witnesses may be helped by new methods to increase blood production before operation, but erythropoietin is expensive, BMJ 311 (1995), 1115-6.

On general medical ethics, BMJ 311 (1995), 1323, 1502, 1617; Cooter, R. "The resistible rise of medical ethics", Social History of Medicine 8 (1995), 257-70; JME 21 (1995), 220-4; Hospital Ethics (Sept/Oct 1995), 4-5; on rights, Phil. & Public Affairs 24 (1995), 83-107108-41; book reviews are in NEJM 333 (1995), 1509-12; ), JAMA 274 (1995), 1637, 1723. Ethical issues of electroconvulsive therapy are discussed in Nursing Ethics 2 (1995), 321-46. Mental disease issues and ethics are discussed in BMJ 311 (1995), 1442-3, 1511-2; MJA 163 (1995), 455-6; and with quality of life in JAMA 274 (1995), 1511-7.

Ways to measure moral reasoning among nurses during training are explored in Nursing Ethics 2 (1995), 303-14. On medical education and society, CMAJ 153 (1993), 1433-6; and medical humanities, Lancet 346 (1995), 1143-5; JAMA 274 (1995), 1738. A US study found literacy was very low in some hospitals, preventing real understanding, JAMA 274 (1995), 1677-82, 1719-20. Ethics education is discussed in JME 21 (1995), 133-4, 174-8, 234-8.

Media attention on sexual abuse cases is reviewed in Sociology of Health & Illness 17 (1995), 458-76. On discrimination, Ferris, L.E. et al., "Do Canadian female surgeons feel discriminated against as women?", CMAJ 154 (1996), 21-30.

One of the main databases within CMA On-line is CPG Infobase the collection of full-text clinical practice guidelines During 1996 it will be enlarged, CMAJ 154 (1996), 295. The American Association of Bioethics has started making a www site (mmiller@src.utah.edu) at

The Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University, Box 1212 Washington DC 20057-1212, USA; has issued the first issue of a Newsletter, as it celebrates its 25th year - the oldest university bioethics institute in the world. The contents include news of their staff activities and book discounts that can be obtained by members. Others may be aware of the academic journal, KIEJ. In general on bioethics, Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 98-9; Lancet 347 (1996), 67-8; NEJM 334 (1996), 60-1; Modern Law Review 59 (196), 145-9; Laine C & Davidoff F, "Patient-centered medicine. A professional evolution", JAMA 275 (1996), 152-6, 147-8. On the Hippocratic Oath, Lancet 347 (1996), 101-2.

The third volume of Forum in Bioethics (Philippines) is Gomez, FB and Bustamante, HF, Relevant Ethical Issues in Healthcare, eds, 141pp., University Santo Tomas Dept. of Bioethics 1996. It is the proceedings of their 1995 Third Postgraduate Course in Bioethics. The title relevant issues is important for a bioethics world that continues to grow with more papers and books. A review of the East Asian Conference of Bioethics is in Newsletter of the Centre for Applied Ethics, Hong Kong Baptist University 3 (2, Dec 1995), 8-9. On Jewish medical ethics, JAMA 275 (1996), 159-60. Bioethics for minorities is discussed in SSM 42 (1996), 301-3; JAMA 275 (1996), 107-10.

A review of D. Macer, Bioethics for the People by the People is in JME 22 (1996), 61. It calls for a further book on the data analysis, which is actually likely, as the analysis is continuing. The analysis of the High School part of that International Bioethics Survey project is in the new book, Macer DRJ et al. Bioethics in High Schools in Australia, New Zealand and Japan published by Eubios Ethics Institute in March 1996 (200pp, see back cover).

The poor understanding of informed consent in the USA is reviewed in BME 114 (1996), 4-5; and on its history, Lancet 346 (1995), 1633. The FDA's new emergency consent rules are debated in Lancet 346 (1995), 1505-6. A study of communication skills is in Medical Education 29 (1995), 424-9; and on the benefits of animal love, JAMA 274 (1995), 1897-9; and music therapy, JAMA 275 (1996), 267-8.

The conference proceedings of the September 1993 symposium on Bioethics and Neurosciences in Paris organized by the Int. Association of Law, Ethics and Science are in IJB 6 (1995), special issue 68pp. There are several papers directly on bioethics, but mainly in French, exceptions include Macer, D. "Medical aspects of the repression of deviating behavior", pp. 38-40. A review of the conference is in IDHL 46 (1995), 572-5. The BMA and Law Society in the UK have agreed on laws for incapacity in a new report, Assessment of Mental Capacity: Guidance for Doctors and Lawyers, BMJ 312 (1996), 203.

The changes resulting from ethics education is discussed in Holm S. et al. "Changes in moral reasoning and the teaching of medical ethics", Medical Education 29 (1995), 420-3. Maturity in medical students is recommended in Lancet 347 (1996), 55-6 The conclusion that most people prefer women doctors is seen in literature since 1322 AD, Br.J.O&G 103 (1996), 2-3. A Mexican survey of factors that influence patients perceived recovery from disease is SSM 42 (1996), 199-207.

For those who can read Italian the journal Itinerarium contains a number of articles, (subscription 40,000lire, Coop. S. Tom. a.r.l., Via del Pozzo 43, cas. post. 28 - 98100 Messina, ITALY).

Clinical trials are discussed in JAMA 274 (1995), 1962-4; Lancet 347 (1996), 171-4; BMJ 312 (1996), 249; and ethics committees in Lancet 347 (1996), 331. Sex abuse in Irish hospitals is being investigated, BMJ 312 (1996), 201-2; see also Modern Law Review 59 (1996), 56-77. Ethical issues in the growing economy in Thailand are discussed in Insights on Global Ethics 6 (1996), 1, 4-7. Elderly persons in the USA and UK have rising suicide risks, BMJ 312 (1996), 135-6, 140-1, 144.

The results of a survey of Israeli nurses regarding their behaviour, and how they face professional ethics questions is Tabak, N. & Reches, R. "The attitudes of nurses and third and fourth year nursing students who deal with ethical issues", Nursing Ethics 3 (1996), 27-38. A paper looking at how to educate nurses about bioethics is Leavitt, FJ. "Educating nurses for their future role in bioethics", Nursing Ethics 3 (1996), 39-52. The effects of ethics education a discussed in Nursing Ethics 3 (1996), 53-64.

The relationships between doctors and patients are discussed in Balint, J. & Shelton, W. "Regaining the initiative. Forging a new model of the patient-physician relationship", JAMA 275 (1996), 887-91. On medical decision-making, SSM 42 (1996), 769-76. The question of patient benefit is raised in Lancet 347 (1996), 379-80.

A report on the extent of public involvement in health decisions in Canada is Jackman, M. "The right to participate in health care and health resource allocation decisions under Section 7 of the Canadian Charter", Health Law Review 4 (2, 1995/1996), 3-11. A supplement to the NCBHR Communique 6 (2, 1995), is a selected bibliography: Bioethics of Research with Human Subjects in the Health Sciences (1983-1993). On patient advocacy, NEJM 334 (1996), 543. On general bioethics, BMJ 312 (1996), 646-7; JAMA 275 (1996), 406-7, 568-9, 1032-37; NEJM 334 (1996), 670-1; Lancet 347 (1996), 746; JME 22 (1996), 8-12; and on business ethics, Philosophy & Public Affairs (1995), 292-313.

The experiences of nurses provide great teachers, as they do for all of us. A paper looking at the increasing attention being paid to experience is Lauritzen, P. "Ethics and experience: The case of the curious response", HCR 26 (1996), 6-14. The origins of cases for ethical discussions is claimed to be driven by particular ethical theories in HCR 26 (1996), 25-32.

Psychology and ethics are discussed in HCR 26 (1996), 17-24; BMJ 312 (1996), 787; NEJM 334 (1996), 791-2; and there are ethnic differences in compulsory psychiatric admissions in the UK, BMJ 312 (1996), 533-7. An analysis of non-responders to surveys is J. Public Health Medicine 18 (1996), 6-12.

The March 1996 (No.5) issue of the Newsletter of European Association of Centres of Medical Ethics is in BME 116 (1996). On the roles and functions of hospital-based ethics committees, CMAJ 154 (1996), 1094-1095.

A review of medical ethics teaching is Arda, B. & Ors, Y. "Teaching medical ethics with an ethics to teach", BME 116 (1996), 19-22. They are from Turkey. Also on education, JME 22 (1996), 3-4, 46-52. The use of poetry on medical rounds is discussed in Lancet 347 (1996), 447-9; also see the papers by Ors and comments by Leavitt and Hare on ethicodrama or psychodrama in EJAIB. The effects of information technologies on medicine is discussed in JAMA 275 (1996), 669-70, 735. Culture also affects the way science is learnt, Int. J. Sci. Educ. 17 (1995), 695-704.

A bioethics report from Argentina is in Bioethics 10 (1996),140-53. A special issue of IJB 6 (1996), 279-314 includes papers in French, Spanish and English from Latin America. A survey of physician attitudes in Soviet Estonia is JME 22 (1996), 33-40. A report on the social study of science and technology suggesting there are about 3000 scholars engaged in the field in China is Bull. Sci. Tech. Soc. 15 (1995), 159-62. On Christian bioethics by H.T. Engelhardt see Bioethics Research Notes 7 (1995), 37-8. A new journal with the same title is H.T. Engelhardt, Lustig, A. & Wildes, K.W., eds, Christian Bioethics. Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality (Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers 1996), ISSN 1380-3603. A review of Keown, Damien, Buddhism and Bioethics (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995, 208pp., ISBN 0-312-12671-9) in Lancet 347 (1996), 601-2.

Letters looking at the origins of informed consent, between the 13th century and 19th century are in Lancet 347 (1996), 410. On the Hippocratic Oath, Lancet 347 (1996), 973; and a review of Conrad, Lawrence I. et al., The Western Medical Tradition, 800 BC to AD 1800 (Cambridge University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-521-47564-3) is NEJM 334 (1996), 608-7.


The Debate on Bioethics Regulation in Brazil -

- Marilia Bernardes Marques
Oswaldo Cruz Foundation - Brazil

The Ministry of Health of Brazil is sponsoring the revision of the present national guidelines for biomedical research involving human beings. Currently, social control is assured by few local or institutional bioethics committees and at the Federal level, by the National Health Council. A multidisciplinary enquete-commission received a mandate to coordinate the national debate. This commission is composed of 16 members and gathers health professionals, religious representatives, women rights movements representative, law people, pharmaceutical industry representatives and health service consumer representatives.

The revision process is supposed to be concluded in August,

1996 and is concentrated on 7 ethical issues: new genetic, artificial techniques for procreation, experimentation involving Brazilian Indians, biosafety, clinical trials for drugs and vaccines, clinical trials for medical equipment and devices, research conducted by investigators and sponsors from developed countries or from developed institutions of developing countries in Brazilian underdeveloped communities.

A further Internet site for obtaining many papers and abstracts of reports on medical ethics, in German and English is from the Center for Medical Ethics, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany . Internet has also been used to recruit patients for clinical trials, Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 620.

On informed consent for research purposes, Monash Bioethics Review 15 (No. 2, 1996), Ethics Committee Supplement 4-15. Consent with mentally impaired is discussed in AJLM 24 (1996), 18-35; and with children, BME 117 (1996), 8-11. A series of papers on issues of consent is in CQHE 5 (1996), 181-247; also see a letter in Science 272 (1996), 1248-9. A (welcome) call for family consent is Kuczewski, MG "Reconceiving the family: The process of consent in medical decision-making", HCR 26 (March/April 1996), 30-7. On ethics committees, Lancet 347 (1996), 1557; and ethics and clinical trials, Lancet 347 (1996), 1118-9, 1324, 1387-8; SA (May 1996), 20-22; JME 22 (1996), 78-82.

The relevance of Western bioethics to Uganda for research studies is debated in Loue, S. et al. "Research bioethics in the Ugandan context: A program summary", AJLM 24 (1996), 47-53. A special issue of Diogenes Vol 43/4 No. 172 (1995), 1-148, is on Problems of Bioethics; and includes papers by N. Lenoir, S. Abou, O. Abel, AM. Moulin, R. Beachy, P. Laszlo and P. Tort. A series of papers on bioethics in Latin America is in IJB 7 (1996), 32-57.

Papers on cross-cultural bioethics include: World Health Forum 17 (1996), 146-9, 150-5; JAMA 275 (1996), 1608-9; Ethics & Medicine 11 (1995), 1-12, 17-20; 12 (No.1 1996), 1. In the journal Issue in Bioethics 4 (1996), 35-6, there is discussion of how some Indian doctors have aided criminals to evade prisons by giving medical excuses, and also the issue of selling organs is discussed, pp. 37-8. The journal published in India includes a number of papers on medical ethics issues (details at the end of the news section). Also see Clooney, FX. "Back to basics: Reflections on moral discourse in a contemporary Hindu community", J.Med.&Phil. 20 (1995), 439-57. Book reviews on medical history are in JAMA 275 (1996), 1206, 1285; BMJ 312 (1996), 1166-7.

The use of community nurses in health promotion is discussed in Nursing Ethics 3 (1996), 97-107. On the role of nurses in Australia, MJA 164 (1996), 520-1. The impact of making home care more high tech is reviewed in NEJM 334 (1996), 1204-5. On the limits of obligations of a nurse, JME 22 (1996), 90-4. Psychological care of diabetes patients is reviewed in NEJM 334 (1996), 1249-53. A special issue of KIEJ 6 (1996), 1-104; is on Feminist Perspectives on Bioethics.

A call for open access to anonymised research data is BMJ 312 (1996), 1241-2. Israel has introduced new guidance on how to ensure confidentiality, BMJ 312 (1996), 1120; Lancet 347 (1996), 1180. Confidentiality in psychotherapy is reviewed in NEJM 334 (1996), 1141. A report on the ethics of electro-shock therapy by the Italian National Commission of Bioethics is in BME 118 (1996), 20-22; and a discussion of the new Russian code of ethics for psychatrists is BME 117 (1996), 13-9. A UK study finding almost all persons wanted to receive more knowledge about their cancer is in BMJ 312 (1996), 1184.

Extracts from the latest International Good clinical practice guidelines are in BME 118 (1996), 13-9. Clinical guidelines in the independent health care sector in the UK are discussed in BMJ 312 (1996), 1554-5. Ethics in emergency medicine are discussed in Lancet 347 (1996), 1028-9.

On complementary medicine, BMJ 312 (1996), 1492-3; Nature 381 (1996), 361; Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 619-20.

New Medical College data in Ontario, Canada finds increasing incidence of sexual abuse by physicians but this could be due to increased reporting, CMAJ 154 (1996), 1553-1554. On women physicians, NEJM 334 (1996), 982-3; and on ethics and caring, JME 22 (1996), 83-9. Gender bias and decision-making is discussed in J. Medical Humanities 16 (1995), 39-53.

Education of communication skills is described in Medical Teacher 18 81996), 35-41.

A paper on bioethics in Africa is Tangwa, GB. "Bioethics: An African perspective", Bioethics 10 (1996), 183-202. He explores the view of the Nso' of the Bamenda Highlands of Kamerun, and calls it an eco-bio-communitarianism, which is an alternative world view. It would disapprove of abortion of suicide, but approve of euthanasia. A paper on Japanese bioethics is Tanida, N. "Bioethics is subordinate to morality in Japan", Bioethics 10 (1996), 201-11. A book review of Keown, D. Buddhism and Bioethics, is in Bioethics 10 (1996), 250-6. On the Hippocratic Oath, Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 723.

A discussion of religious insistence on medical treatment from Christian and Jewish perspectives is in HCR 26 (July/August 1996), 23-30; 31-7. The March-April 1996 issue of World Health is on the theme of Culture and Health, and includes a variety of social issues. The latest issue of Itinerarium 4 (no. 6, 1996), 288pp., contains a number of papers on bioethics and catholic perspectives on the issues. See also Hawaii Medical J. 54 (1996), 468-9. A paper discussing problems of implementing applied ethics is Newsletter of Centre of Applied Ethics, Hong Kong Baptist University 4 (1996), 6-11.

A series of papers on the theme of rejuvenating research ethics in medical research is CQHE 5 (1996), 319-424. Also on research ethics, Lancet 348 (1996), 141, 351-2. The legal issues in Nova Scotia of substitute consent are review in Health Law Review 5 (1996), 6-11; and on Canadian guidelines from Ontario, IDHL 47 (1996), 188-9. A general review is Dresser, R. "Mentally disabled research subjects. The enduring policy issues", JAMA 276 (1996), 67-72; also AJPH 86 (1996), 926-7. The NIH is spending 6 million dollars to improve informed consent, Science 273 (1996), 567; and on consent, Int. Digest Health Legislation 47 (1996), 273-5. On medical responsibilities with children, BMJ 313 (1996), 671-4; Lancet 348 (1996), 68. The importance of patients' consent for publication is discussed in BMJ 313 (1996), 16. On patient rights, NEJM 335 (1996), 136-7.

A review is Ptacek, JT & Eberhardt, TL. "Breaking bad news. A review of the literature", JAMA 276 (1996), 496-502. On truth-telling see, Maguire, CP. et al. "Family members' attitudes toward telling the patients with Alzheimer's disease their diagnosis", BMJ 313 (1996), 529-32; also BMJ 313 (1996), 311-2.

The BMA Medical Ethics Committee report on treating doctors as patients is in BME 119 (1996), 10-11; and on reimbursing patients, JAMA 276 (1996), 27. On ethics consultancy, JAMA 275 (1996), 1866-7. In general on medical ethics, JAMA 275 (1996), 1807-9; CMAJ 155 (1996), 169-80, 189-90; NEJM 335 (1996), 140-1. Moral responsibility to be healthy is discussed in Lancet 347 (1996), 1768; Ethics 106 (1996), 850-3. Philosophical discussion of Derek Parfit's conclusion that philosophy cannot argue rights to future generations, is in Phil. Quarterly 46 (1996), 202-13; Ethics 106 (1996), 754-75.

On nursing ethics, and codes, see Hussey, T. "Nursing ethics and codes of professional conduct", Nursing Ethics 3 (1996), 250-8. There are also several papers on bioethics and caring in Nursing Ethics 3 (1996), 191-201, 212-23; and Health Service J. (11 July 1996), 24-31; SA (Sept 1996), 166. The chance for caring can also be important for medical training, Tracy, J. & Graves, P. "Medical students and people with disabilities: a teaching unit for medical students exploring the impact of disability on the individual and the family", Medical Teacher 18 (1996), 119-24.

The efforts to aid refugees in the USA from political opinion against them is discussed in Lancet 347 (1996), 1816; Silove, D. et al. "Ethical considerations in the management of asylum seekers on hunger strike", JAMA 276 (1996), 410-5. Personal knowledge of the abduction of one of the senior members in the Palestinian Ministry of Police by the Palestinian Secret Service, who is reported tortured and to whom Amnesty International has been refused visits (they have released statements on Major Farrid), makes the call for ethical standards of detention and human rights abuses sound stronger. On torture, JAMA 276 (1996), 375-81, 416-7.

A book review of Tinker, J. et al., Critical Care: Standards and Ethics is in BMJ 313 (1996), 890. On the use of clinical practice guidelines for ethical decisions about risky procedures, Bioethics 10 (1996), 310-33.

A comparison of different patient satisfaction survey methods is BMJ 313 (1996), 841-3. A review of the results of faith on outcome from disease is Hospitals & Health Networks (20 Sept 1996), 22-6. On the relationships of medical staff, JAMA 276 (1996), 1099; and on images of physicians in literature, Lancet 348 (1996), 734-6. Efforts to make more therapy at home, including chemotherapy, are reviewed in MJA 164 (19 Aug. 1996). On patient trust in managed care, JAMA 276 (1996), 951-2. In New Zealand, and the UK, the Medical Associations are redrafting rules to allow doctors to have sexual relationships with former patients, though still outlawing sexual relationships with current ones, Christchurch Press (11 Oct 1996), 2. On the problems of general practice surveys with mail surveys, BMJ 313 (1996), 732-4.

Proxy consent for research is discussed in JAMA 276 (1996), 949-50. See also Corber W, et al. "Bathing incompetent patients", The Canadian Nurse 92 (9, 1996), 55. On children's consent, JLME 24 (1996), 127-38. Papers on the history of consent concepts are in J. Legal Medicine 17 (1996), 1-71.

A series on bioethics includes: Etchells EE, et al. "Bioethics for Clinicians: 2. Disclosure", CMAJ 155 (1996), 387-91; "Bioethics for Clinicians: 3. Capacity", CMAJ 155 (1996), 651-7; "Bioethics for Clinicians: 4. Voluntariness", CMAJ 155 (1996), 1083-6; also see pp. 313, 442-4, 796-7. The principle of autonomy in advanced medical planning is discussed in NEJM 335 (1996), 741-3. Data confidentiality is discussed in BMJ 313 (1996), 1035. In general on medical ethics, SSM 43 (1996), 1031-4.

The case for truth-telling in the UK is stronger following a survey, Benson, J, & Britten, N. "Respecting the autonomy of cancer patients when talking with their families: qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with patients", BMJ 313 (1996), 729-31, 699-700. Truth telling in breast conservation therapy has had little effect on the options used, NEJM 335 (1996), 1035-40; also Lancet 348 (1996), 708-13. A survey presented at the Tenth Asian-Pacific Congress of Gastroenterology (21-23 Sept), held in Yokohama, Japan, surveyed truth-telling in 12 countries around the Asia-Pacific region, Lancet 348 (1996), 879. New Zealand was the country which would tell the truth with a diagnosis of gastric cancer (100%), in Japan 33% would and 1% in Vietnam said so. See also, Asai, A. "Should physicians tell patients the truth?", West J. Med. 163 (1996), 36-9.

On cross-cultural ethics in general a conference report on US/Japanese comparisons is Mastanduno, M. & Ericson, SJ. Prospects for Partnership: The United States and Japan on the Eve of the Twenty-First Century, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA 44pp. Ways to allow religious choice in health care systems are reviewed in JLME 24 (1996), 90-8. A paper on ethics in India is Francis, CM. "Medical ethics in India: ancient and modern (I)", Issues in Medical Ethics 4 (1996), 115-8; and on dharma, Davis, DS. "The role of Dharma in the understanding of professional morality among Hindu physicians in India", ", Monash Bioethics Review 15 (Oct. 1996), Supplement pp. 29-36. On heresy in medicine, SSM 43 (1996), 577-99, 601-4.

A series of papers from the Proceedings of the Canadian NCBHR Workshop 1995 on The Ethics of Human Experimentation: Reinventing the Research Ethics Board is in NCBHR Communique 7 (1996), 1-35. On randomized trials, and the CONSORT statement, Lancet 348 (1996), 596-8; JAMA 276 (1996), 637-9, 649.

Cases of torture of medical workers in Palestine by the Palestinian National Authority are discussed in Lancet 348 (1996), 737-8. That writer was released, there are other colleagues known to us who are still detained.

The Nuremberg Code is discussed in BMJ 313 (1996), 1223; and extensively in the section below under Medical law. On health and human rights, Lancet 348 (1996), 1094.

A study to assess the outcome of 100 general practice based, multicentre research projects submitted to the ethics committee of the Royal College of General Practitioners by pharmaceutical companies or their agents between 1984 and 1989, in Wise, P. & Drury, M "Pharmaceutical trials in general practice: the first 100 protocols. An audit by the clinical research ethics committee of the Royal College of General Practitioners", BMJ 313 (1996), 1245-8. 45 had to be amended, inadequate information or consent sheets, pregnancy safety, the need to discontinue existing therapy, and suboptimal scientific content were major reasons for rejecting studies or asking for amendments. Of the 82 approved studies 8 were not started. Shortfalls of investigators (of 39%) and trial subjects (of 37%) and an overall 23% withdrawal rate were responsible for a significant incidence of inconclusive results. Within the six year follow up interval, only 19 of the studies had been formally published. This audit identified substantial ethical concerns in the process of approving multicentre general practice pharmaceutical research. See also Savulescu, J. et al. "Are research ethics committees behaving unethically? Some suggestions for improving performance and accountability", BMJ 313 (1996), 1390-2.

A study of compassion in doctors is SSM 43 (1996), 1253-61; and an international study on social support is SSM 43 (1996), 1389-97. Book reviews of Eddy, DE., Clinical Decision Making: From Theory to Practice (Jones & Barlett 1996, 356pp., US$30, ISBN 0-7637-0143-2), and Schleiner, W. Medical Ethics in the Renaissance (Georgetown University Press, 1996, 230pp., US$55, ISBN 0-87840-593-3) are in JAMA 276 (1996), 1445-6. Clinical trials also need to be conducted in developing countries, Lancet 348 (1996), 1113, 1128. On research ethics BME 122 (1996), 13-8; Science & Engineering Ethics 2 (Oct 1996), 443-56.

Patients in Massachussets in the USA can now check their doctor's background under a 1996 law, BMJ 313 (1996), 1165. The Australian High Court on 6 Sept. 1996 ruled that doctors have legal copyright of their notes on their private patients, Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 1168-9. Business ethics in China are discussed in two papers in Ethics & Society Newsletter (of Centre for Applied Ethics, Hong Kong Baptist University), 4 (No.2, Nov.1996), 8-16.

On ethics of suspending a nurse and commentaries, BMJ 313 (1996), 1249-50. On ethical dilemmas by nurses in Israel, Nursing Ethics 3 (1996), 294-304. A questioning of the right not to know is Austad, T. "The right not to know - worthy of preservation any longer? An ethical perspective", Clinical Genetics 50 (1996), 85-8. Letters on CPR shown on TV are NEJM 335 (1996), 1605-7. The quality of robot surgeons is questioned in Lancet 348 (1996), 1160. A list of successful projects in the European grant applications BIOMED 2, Area 7: Research on medical ethics, is BME 122 (1996), 4-5.

The FDA allows some breach in consent if a person is unconscious and there is an emergency, Lancet 348 (1996), 1323. On informed consent, BMJ 313 (1996), 1117, 1351; Kent, G. "Shared understandings for informed consent: The relevance of psychological research on the provision of information", SSM 44 (1996), 1517-23. Interviews with 103 patients showed that many factors influence a decision to take part in medical research HCR 26 (5, 1996), 25-9; BMJ 313 (1996), 1431. The main motivation was that the experimental intervention was better than any existing alternative and offered some personal benefit. Many patients thought that they had tried everything else and had little choice. Many of the respondents believed simply that the doctor knows best. Many of the patients interviewed said that they had decided to take part in a trial before they had been given the consent form to sign and that they did not pay attention to the details on the form. A comment on the respect for human rights was reported from the International Summit of National Bioethics Advisory Boards in Nature 384 (1996), 303.

Book reviews of Phil Fennell, Treatment Without Consent: Law, Psychiatry and the Treatment of Mentally Disordered People Since 1845; Anne Harrington, Reenchanted Science: Holism in Germany Culture from Wilhelm II to Hitler; G R Dunstan, P J Lachmann, eds., Euthanasia: death, dying and the medical duty; and Anne Bayley, One New Humanity: the Challenge of AIDS, are in BMJ 313 (1996), 1494-5. A review of SS. Coughlin & TL. Beauchamp, eds, Ethics and Epidemiology (New York, Oxford University Press, 1996, 312 pp. $49.95. ISBN 0-19-510242-8) is in NEJM 335 (1996), 1773. A special issue of American J. Psychotherapy 50 (3, Summer 1996), 257-387 is on ethics and psychotherapy.

Education is necessary to prevent future abuses. Sonis, J. et al. "Teaching of Human Rights in US Medical Schools", JAMA 276 (1996), 1676-8; surveyed the extent to which human rights issues are included in required bioethics curricula in US medical schools and to identify medical school characteristics associated with the extent of human rights issues covered. Course directors at 113 (90%) of the 125 US medical schools responded to the survey. Medical schools included 45% of 16 human rights issues in their required bioethics curricula. Domestic human rights issues, such as discrimination in the provision of health care to minorities (82% of medical schools), were covered much more frequently than international human rights issues, such as physician participation in torture (17% of schools). Public medical schools included substantially fewer human rights issues than private medical schools (F[1,112]=7.7; P<.01).

A paper version of parts of a Eubios Ethics Institute book <http://eubios.info/BHS.html> has been published, Asada Y, et al. "High school teaching of bioethics in New Zealand, Australia and Japan", J. Moral Education 25 (1996), 401-20. Several book reviews on bioethics and education are in J. Biological Education 30 (1996), 309.

A critique of the American ideology of truth-telling is Lantos, JD. "Should we always tell children the truth?" Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 40 (1997), 78-92. On cancer management, JMG 33 (1996), 977-80. Papers on placebo effects include, J. Law, Medicine & Ethics 24 (No.3, 1996), 243-51, 252-9; SSM 44 (1997), 553-9. A series of papers on social ethics and justice, under the theme "In search of the good society. The work of Daniel Callahan", HCR 26 (No.6, 1996), 3-47. A special supplement to the Hastings Center Report including the work of an international team of researchers is The Goals of medicine. Setting New Priorities, S1-28. On the self image of US bioethicists, Brannigan, M. "Designing ethicists", Health Care Analysis 4 (1996), 206-18. On duties, Philosophical Quarterly 46 (1996), 433-47.

A collection of papers on bioethics and catechism, and general issues in bioethics is available in Itinerarium 4 n. 7 (Nov 1996), 7-287. Papers on bioethics in Mediterranean Islamic countries are in French and English in IJB 7 (1996), 202-17. In general on bioethics, Cherry, MJ. "Bioethics and the construction of medical reality", J.Med. & Phil. 21 (1996), 357-73; Mordacci, R. "What can hermeneutics contribute to bioethics?", BME 123 (1996), 13-5.

Japan should be accepting the ICH-Good Clinical practice guidelines or a revised form of them from April 1997. Calls for strengthened drug-trial guidelines in Japan follow the action of Dr. T. Kishimoto, a professor of psychiatry at Nara Medical University, conducted a 3-month clinical trial in autumn, 1995, on a drug for people with mild Alzheimer's disease. Neither the name of the drug, nor its developer, a large Osaka-based company, have been made public. Japanese government guidelines, on good clinical practice state that a written contract should be drawn up between the drug company and the medical institution conducting the trial, Lancet 349 (22 Feb 1997).

The question whether it ethical to use patients as learning tools for medical students if these patients have not been given a chance to provide truly informed consent is asked in Shooner, C. "The ethics of learning from patients", CMAJ 156 (1997), 535-8. On the use of virtues in moral education of nurses, Nursing Ethics 4 (1997), 3-11. Also on education of bioethics, Nursing Ethics 4 (1997), 29-38, 57-65. On the universality of moral development from a study in Poland, J. Moral Education 25 (1996), 441-54.

On communication, Roter, DL et al. "Communication patterns of primary care physicians", JAMA 277 (1997), 350-6; Suchman, AL. et al. "Model of Empathic Communication in the Medical Interview", JAMA 277 (1997), 678-682. This empirically derived model of empathic communication has practical implications for clinicians and students who want to improve their communication and relationship skills. They conclude that the frequent lack of acknowledgment by physicians of both direct and indirect expressions of affect poses a threat to the patient-physician relationship. Significant differences in communication behaviors of no-claims and claims physicians were identified in primary care physicians but not in surgeons; Levinson, W. et al. , "Physician-Patient Communication: The Relationship With Malpractice Claims Among Primary Care Physicians and Surgeons", JAMA 277 (1997), 553-559. On decision-making, SSM 44 (1997), 85-92, 47-56, 681-92; BMJ 314 (1997), 227. On the relationship of Japanese patient mothers to doctors, SSM 44 (1997), 291-300; and in USA, AJPH 86 (1996), 1809-12. A study of long term relationships with doctors is AJPH 86 (1996), 1742-7. The gag clause has been ruled as illegal in the USA, BMJ 314 (1997), 9.

On mental health, AJPH 86 (1996), 1654-6. Kleinman I, et al. "Informed consent and tardive dyskinesia: long-term follow-up", J. Nervous & Mental Disease 184 (1996), 517-522. A new book, Elliot, C. The Rules of Insanity: Moral Responsibility and the Mentally Ill Offender (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1996). On politicians personalities, Nature 385 (1997), 493.

In general on medical ethics: Checkland D & Silberfeld M. "Mental competence and the question of beneficent interventions", Theoretical Medicine 17 (1996), 121-134; Tobe SW, Senn JS. Foregoing renal dialysis: a case study and review of ethical issues. Amer. J. Kidney Diseases 28 (1996), 147-153; Sumner LW, Boyle J. eds. Philosophical Perspectives on Bioethics (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996); Latimer EJ (ed): "When a Patient is Dying...": A Colloquium on the Care of the Dying Patient. Toronto: Ontario Medical Association, 1996; Lazar NM, et al. "Bioethics for clinicians: 5. Substitute decision-making", CMAJ 155 (1996), 1435-7; Singer PA, et al. "Bioethics for clinicians: 6. Advance care planning", CMAJ 155 (1996), 1689-92; Hébert, PC. et al. "Bioethics for clinicians: 7. Truth telling", CMAJ 156 (1997), 225-228; Kleinman, I. et al. "Bioethics for clinicians: 8. Confidentiality", CMAJ 156 (1997), 521-4; Baylis F. "Women and health research: working for change" J. Clinical Ethics 7 (1996), 229-242. A book review of Spiers, J. Who Owns Our Bodies? Making Moral Choices in Health Care is BMJ 314 (1997), 527. A CMA Policy Summary, "Statement of principles: the sale and use of data on individual physicians' prescribing" is in CMAJ 156 (1997), 424A.

A book looking at the philosophy of relationships and love is Wilson, John. Love between Equals. A Philosophical Study of Love and Sexual Relationships (London: MacMillan Press, 1995, ISBN 0-333-64274-0, 196pp.). A neurological look at ethics is Changeux, J.-P. "A neuroscientist looks at the foundation of ethics, Part II: From the ethical intention to moral values and laws", Humane Health Care International 12 (1996), 162-7. Popular therapeutics and preferences in India are described in Lancet 348 (1996), 1706-9; and India will control research with foreign researchers on Indians, BMJ 314 (1997), 165; and on Norwegian doctors cultural activities, Lancet 348 (1996), 1692-4. On Confucianism, Nature 385 (1997), 110.

The Amnesty International "Declaration on the role of health professionals in the exposure of torture and ill-treatment", and "Principles for medical investigation of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment" are in BME 123 (1996), 9-11.

A statement from UK Catholic bishops on the common good is in BME 125 (1997), 20. Several papers in Italian on Evangelium vitae are in Bioetica e Cultura V (1996) No. 10, 177-196. On liberal rationalism, which could be an opposite view, Bioethics 11 (1997), 115-29. A paper on free will and causality is Walker, M. "Review Essay - Geographies of responsibility", HCR 27 (Jan 1997), 38-42. Too much autonomy is often a criticism of US bioethics, seen in Glick, SM. "Unlimited human autonomy - a cultural bias", NEJM 336 (1997), 954-6; also JME 23 (1997), 26-31. On beneficence, Phil. & Public Affairs 26 (Winter 1997), 80-6; and distributive justice, Phil. & Public Affairs 26 (Winter 1997), 3-30. Moral responsibility and ignorance are discussed in Ethics 107 (1997), 410-26.

The issue of informed choice is reviewed in NCBHR, Facilitating Ethical Research: promoting Informed Choice. Discussion Document, a Supplement to NCBHR Communique 7 (Dec. 1996), 1-28pp. (also in French). A compendium of queries addressed to the NCBHR is in NCBHR Communique 7 (Dec. 1996), 4-24. A journal in French on Ethics, A question of life is Ethique. La vie en question, Le legal et le moral, No. 22, (April 1996), 1-108. Publishers: Editions Eska, 5 Avenue de l'Opera, 75001 Paris, France.

Doctors in India are questioning the ethics of a 1976-1988 study by the Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology in New Delhi, which observed the natural course of precancerous uterine cervical lesions without treatment in women who had not given written consent to take part. In at least nine women the lesions progressed to invasive cancer, and 62 women developed carcinoma in situ of the cervix before they were treated. The study has helped India evolve screening guidelines for the national cancer control programme; BMJ 314 (1997), 1065.

A controversial paper which did not ask people for consent is, Dennis, M. et al. "Evaluation of a stroke family care worker: results of a randomized controlled trial", BMJ 314 (1997), 1071-6; commentaries, 1076-7. On the debate, Doyal, L. "Informed consent in medical research: Journals should not publish research to which patients have not given fully informed consent - with three exceptions BMJ 314 (1997), 1107-11; and on the BMJ present policy, BMJ 314 (1997), 1111-13, 1134-5. The CONSORT statement on the reporting standards of clinical trials is debated in BMJ 314 (1997), 1126-7. On consent, Harrison C. et al. "Bioethics for clinicians: 9. Involving children in medical decisions", CMAJ 156 (1997), 825-30; and surrogates, Lancet 349 (1997), 665-6.

Communication is discussed in Suckman, AL. et al. "A model of empathic communication in the medical interview", JAMA 277 (1997), 678-82. A book review of Bayesian Methods and Ethics in a Clinical Trial Design is in BMJ 314 (1997), 1209; and on consent and research, NEJM 336 (1997), 869-70. On research ethics, NEJM 336 (1997), 882; BMJ 314 (1997), 676-7; JAMA 277 (1997), 369, 922-3, 925-6; Amdur, RJ. & Biddle, C. "Institutional review board approval and publication of human research results", JAMA 277 (1997), 909-14. Mental health issues are discussed in Nature 386 (1997), 346; Lancet 349 (1997), 948-50; FDA Consumer (March 1997), 13-5.

A positive review of Bioethics for the People by the People (Eubios 1994) is in Bioethics 11 (1997), 172-5.

On the Hippocratic Oath, BMJ 314 (1997), 1206; and the BMA revised oath, BME 126 (1997), 3-4. The relationships between doctors and nurses are discussed in BMJ 314 (1997), 617-8, 773. On compliance, BMJ 314 (1997), 691-2. Imagination is called for in JME 23 (1997), 3-4, 45-50.

A conference review of the IAB 3rd World Congress is in Otago Bioethics Report 6 (Feb 1997), 1-4. The media is discussed in BMJ 314 (1997), 910. Community cooperation is important for health programs also, Lancet 349 (1997), 746. Quality of life is discussed in papers in Medical Decision Making 17 (1997), 1-86

Sex and the doctor-patient relationship is discussed in NZMJ 110 (1997), 60-2. The case of Dr. C. Gajdusek and sexual abuse is reported in Lancet 349 (1997), 623. Papers and recommendations on repression of sexual offenders in French are in Les Cahiers 11 (April 1997), 4-17. Death in torture is discussed in Lancet 349 (1997), 627.

A statement from UK Catholic bishops on the common good is in BME 125 (1997), 20. Several papers in Italian on Evangelium vitae are in Bioetica e Cultura V (1996) No. 10, 177-196. On liberal rationalism, which could be an opposite view, Bioethics 11 (1997), 115-29. A paper on free will and causality is Walker, M. "Review Essay - Geographies of responsibility", HCR 27 (Jan 1997), 38-42. Too much autonomy is often a criticism of US bioethics, seen in Glick, SM. "Unlimited human autonomy - a cultural bias", NEJM 336 (1997), 954-6; also JME 23 (1997), 26-31. On beneficence, Phil. & Public Affairs 26 (Winter 1997), 80-6; and distributive justice, Phil. & Public Affairs 26 (Winter 1997), 3-30. Moral responsibility and ignorance are discussed in Ethics 107 (1997), 410-26.

The issue of informed choice is reviewed in NCBHR, Facilitating Ethical Research: promoting Informed Choice. Discussion Document, a Supplement to NCBHR Communique 7 (Dec. 1996), 1-28pp. (also in French). A compendium of queries addressed to the NCBHR is in NCBHR Communique 7 (Dec. 1996), 4-24. A journal in French on Ethics, A question of life is Ethique. La vie en question, Le legal et le moral, No. 22, (April 1996), 1-108. Publishers: Editions Eska, 5 Avenue de l'Opera, 75001 Paris, France.

Doctors in India are questioning the ethics of a 1976-1988 study by the Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology in New Delhi, which observed the natural course of precancerous uterine cervical lesions without treatment in women who had not given written consent to take part. In at least nine women the lesions progressed to invasive cancer, and 62 women developed carcinoma in situ of the cervix before they were treated. The study has helped India evolve screening guidelines for the national cancer control programme; BMJ 314 (1997), 1065.

A controversial paper which did not ask people for consent is, Dennis, M. et al. "Evaluation of a stroke family care worker: results of a randomized controlled trial", BMJ 314 (1997), 1071-6; commentaries, 1076-7. On the debate, Doyal, L. "Informed consent in medical research: Journals should not publish research to which patients have not given fully informed consent - with three exceptions BMJ 314 (1997), 1107-11; and on the BMJ present policy, BMJ 314 (1997), 1111-13, 1134-5. The CONSORT statement on the reporting standards of clinical trials is debated in BMJ 314 (1997), 1126-7. On consent, Harrison C. et al. "Bioethics for clinicians: 9. Involving children in medical decisions", CMAJ 156 (1997), 825-30; and surrogates, Lancet 349 (1997), 665-6.

Communication is discussed in Suckman, AL. et al. "A model of empathic communication in the medical interview", JAMA 277 (1997), 678-82. A book review of Bayesian Methods and Ethics in a Clinical Trial Design is in BMJ 314 (1997), 1209; and on consent and research, NEJM 336 (1997), 869-70. On research ethics, NEJM 336 (1997), 882; BMJ 314 (1997), 676-7; JAMA 277 (1997), 369, 922-3, 925-6; Amdur, RJ. & Biddle, C. "Institutional review board approval and publication of human research results", JAMA 277 (1997), 909-14. Mental health issues are discussed in Nature 386 (1997), 346; Lancet 349 (1997), 948-50; FDA Consumer (March 1997), 13-5.

A positive review of Bioethics for the People by the People (Eubios 1994) is in Bioethics 11 (1997), 172-5.

On the Hippocratic Oath, BMJ 314 (1997), 1206; and the BMA revised oath, BME 126 (1997), 3-4. The relationships between doctors and nurses are discussed in BMJ 314 (1997), 617-8, 773. On compliance, BMJ 314 (1997), 691-2. Imagination is called for in JME 23 (1997), 3-4, 45-50.

A conference review of the IAB 3rd World Congress is in Otago Bioethics Report 6 (Feb 1997), 1-4. The media is discussed in BMJ 314 (1997), 910. Community cooperation is important for health programs also, Lancet 349 (1997), 746. Quality of life is discussed in papers in Medical Decision Making 17 (1997), 1-86

Sex and the doctor-patient relationship is discussed in NZMJ 110 (1997), 60-2. The case of Dr. C. Gajdusek and sexual abuse is reported in Lancet 349 (1997), 623. Papers and recommendations on repression of sexual offenders in French are in Les Cahiers 11 (April 1997), 4-17. Death in torture is discussed in Lancet 349 (1997), 627.

Several books on cross-cultural issues from a Catholic Perspective include: Pontifical Council for Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers, Charter for Health Care Workers (Vatican, 1995; 125pp.); Dolentium Hominum, The Journal of the Pontifical Council for Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers, No. 28 (1996, No. 1), Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference, 24-26 Nov., 1994, To Know, Love and Serve Life 270pp; No. 31 (1996, No. 1), Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference, 23-25 Nov., 1995, Vade et Tu Fac Similiter: From Hippocrates to the Good Samaritan, 258pp. They include papers from a number of Catholic, and some non-Catholic writers.

A positive book review of Macer, D. Bioethics for the People by the People (Eubios 1994) is in AJMG 70 (1997), 102. A recent book on the subject is Monroe, KR. The Heart of Altruism: Perceptions of a Common Humanity (Princeton University Press 1996, 292pp., ISBN 0-691-04355-8). selection of 19 papers from the huge International Association of Bioethics IAB3 Congress in Nov. 1996 in San Francisco is in Bioethics 11 (July 1997), 185-365. It includes 5 papers on Asian perspectives, including de Castro, LD. "Transporting values by technology transfer", Bioethics 11 (1997), 193-205; Fan, R. "Self-determination vs. Family-determination: Two incommensurable principles of autonomy", Bioethics 11 (1997), 309-22; Hamano, K. "Human rights and Japanese bioethics", Bioethics 11 (1997), 328-35; and 2 other papers listed above. A series of papers on medical ethics in Switzerland are in IJB 7 (Dec 1996), 254-325.

President Clinton apologized to the victims of the Tuskegee syphilis experiments on 16 May, Lancet 349 (1997), 1529; and the extracts are in BME 128 (May 1997), 6-7. Professional standards are discussed in BMJ 314 (1997), 1613-5. The role of medical unions is discussed in Lancet 349 (1997), 1404-5; BMJ 314 (1997), 1223, 1564-5.

On the role of ethics committees with a family's right to know, CQHE 6 (1997), 93-99. On the role of trust in medical research, Monash Bioethics Review 16 (3, July 1997), 26-33. An entire Local Ethics Committee in the UK resigned en masse in protest at changes in health research without consultation with them, BME 128 (May 1997), 1, 3-6. In general on committees, BMJ 314 (1997), 1588-90, 1632; BME 127 (April 1997), 3-6; 128 (May 1997), 20-1; Nature 387 (1997), 321; 388 (1997), 110. A series of papers on how to make analysis of decisions are in Medical Decision Making 17 (1997), 123-59.

On informed consent, Lancet 349 (1997), 1455, 1703; BMJ 314 (1997), 1477-83, 1762-3; Science 276 (1997), 17; JAMA 277 (1997), 1680-1. The problems of mental health and consent are discussed in NEJM 336 (1997), 1331-3; BMJ 314 (1997), 1536-9. Experiments on handicapped babies were conducted in the 1970s in several countries, and the ones in Australia were openly published, see comment in Monash Bioethics Review 16 (3, July 1997), 1-2. There was also experiments on children in orphanages in Sydney up to 1970s for 25 years. See Lantos, JD. "Should we always tell children the truth?", Pers. Biol. & Med. 40 (1997), 78-92; and how much to tell parents Lancet 349 (1997), 1267-8.

Disclosure of cancer in Italy is reviewed in SSM 44 (1997), 1433-42; and a book review, BMJ 314 (1997), 1357. The understanding may be a major problem, as found in a survey of cervical smear results, BMJ 314 (1997), 1388-91. Healing and ethics is discussed in NatMed 3 (1997), 590-1; Lancet 349 (1997), 1108, 1483; JAMA 277 (1997), 1265-8; BMJ 314 (1997), 1594-8, 1598-9; Science 276 (1997), 369-70; NS (19 April 1997), 50. Alternative medicine is discussed in SSM 44 (1997), 1341-8; BMJ 314 (1997), 1362.

Medical education is discussed in Issues in Medical Ethics 5 (1997), 37-9; 43-5; BMJ 314 (1997), 1705-6. Literature can be useful for medical stories, Lancet 349 (1997), 1618-20, 1393-4. Nurses in Japan have been found to have a high rate of use of 37% using painkillers constantly, 26% using stomach medicine, 7% sleeping pills (N=65000), Yomiuri Shimbun (10 May 1997), 34. The gender of health professionals is discussed in JAMA 277 (1997), 1404-7; SSM 43 (1997), 1531-40. On female literacy in the world, SA (May 1997), 20. On faculty-student relationships, The Monist 79 (1996), 564-76.

The universal need for bioethics is argued for in Biotechnology & Development Monitor 31 (June 1997), 24. A paper in Italian on the spiritual aspects of medicine and theology is in Bioetica e Cultura 10 (1997), 139-56. A discussion of deliberative democracy and deliberative bioethics (what I have called interactive bioethics), is Gutmann, A. & Thompson, D. "Deliberating about bioethics", HCR 27 (1997), 38-41. On comparative linguistics, Romney, AK. et al. "Cultural universals: Measuring the semantic structure of emotion terms in English and Japanese", PNAS 94 (1997), 5489-94, 6585-90. Clinical pragmatism as a method in bioethics is discussed in KIEJ 7 (1997), 129-52. A review of the new Encyclopedia of Bioethics published in 1995 is HCR 27 (1997), 42-3.

The use of orphans as research subjects in Australia and Ireland has created much controversy, BME 129 (1997), 6-7; BMJ 314 (1997), 1783; Lancet 349 (1997), 1817. Also on drug testing and trial consent, Newsweek Bulletin (29 July 1997), 18-20; NEJM 337 (1997), 282. The UK Mental Health Act Commission statement on research involving detained patients is in BME 129 (1997), 8-11. A criticism of the Israeli Medical Association for not condemning torture is Lancet 350 (1997), 63-4. On the AMA and ethics in JAMA 278 (1997), 163-4; BMJ 314 (1997), 1853. On substituted judgment, JLME 25 (1997), 22-9; NEJM 336 (1997), 1908-10. The UK Court of Appeal said doctors do not need to tell the truth about the death of a child to the parents, BMJ 315 (1997), 79.

A review of reports from UK Local Health Research Ethics Committees is BME 129 (1997), 13-24; BMJ 314 (1997), 1833, 315 (1997), 60-1. A series of papers on healthcare ethics committees and consultants is in CQHE 6 (1997), 251-305.

A new book on nursing is Kuhse, H. Caring. Nurses, Women and Ethics (Sydney, Blackwell Publishers, 0-631-20211-0, A$37.95, July 1997). A paper on views of nurses to privacy in health information is in Health Law Review 6 (1997), 3-7. In general on decision-making, SSM 45 (1997), 419-27; BMJ 315 (1997), 248-54. Sexual harassment of women doctors by patients is reviewed in SSM 45 (1997), 669-76.

Bioethics education and teaching of virtues is discussed in CQHE 6 (1997), 339-55; ad empathy, JAMA 278 (1997), 251; J. Moral Education 26 (1997), 5-20, 45-58. On medical education, BMJ 315 (1997), 6. The use of electronic means for communication is becoming more common, JAMA 278 (1997), 152-9; Lancet 349 (1997), 1781; BMJ 314 (1997), 1875-81; 315 (1997), 231-5; Science 277 (1997), 535-7. Lower mortality rates are found for religious persons, Strawbridge WJ. et al. "Frequent attendance at religious services and mortality over 28 years", AJPH 87 (1997), 957-61; which might be due to improved health practices and stability.

Nature ran a special briefing on bioethics, as the bioethics industry, Nature 389 (1997), 658-63; including mention of Eubios Ethics Institute. A new book including about 40 international papers with a variety of perspectives is Surbone, A. & Zwitter, M., eds., Communication with the Cancer Patient. Information and Truth, Annals of NY Acad. Sci. 1997, Vol. 809, 540pp. On the ethics of deception in testing, HCR 27 (4, 1997), 24-33. On responses to suffering, Kenny, NP. "Ethical implications of human suffering", Humane Health Care International 13 (2, 1997), 27-30, 7-8.

Reflections on monitoring ethics of human research in Canada are in NCBHR Communique 8 (1, 1997), 11-21. A series of papers in French and English on research ethics in Canada are in IJB 8 (1997), 65-172. On how to teach members of ethics committees, Dispatches 7 (3, 1997), 1-4; and on Basingstoke LREC, BME 130 (1997), 13-8. Reporting of IRB approval and patient consent is discussed in JAMA 278 (1997), 477.

There is a language bias in English and German language papers on clinical trials, Lancet 350 (1997), 326-9. Medical editors have made an amnesty for unpublished trials, Lancet 350 (1997), 756; BMJ 315 (1997), 622. On ethics, Edwards, SJL. et al. "Why "underpowered" trials are not necessarily unethical", Lancet 350 (1997), 804-7; and clinical guidelines, BMJ 315 (1997), 324. Informed consent should also be obtained for publication if identifying information may be gained, JAMA 278 (1997), 625-9, 682-3.

Consent for transfusion is reviewed in BMJ 315 (1997), 380-1. The US Bioethics Commission is examining informed consent from the "decisionally incapable", JAMA 278 (1997), 618-9. On the patient advocate, AJO&G 177 (1997), 251-5. An ethical argument against paying people to join in research is McNeill, P. "Paying people to participate in research: Why not", Bioethics 11 (1997), 390-6; and for is Wilkinson, M. & Moore, A. "Inducement in research", Bioethics 11 (1997), 373-89. See also, BMJ 315 (1997), 703-7.

A series of papers on Catholic bioethics for the millenium in Italian are in Itinerarium 5 (8, 1997), 9-264. A series of papers on difficulties of Bible translation in India are in Dharma Deepika (June 1997), 1-98, which illustrate some difficulties in conveying ethical messages across countries. On medical ethics in developing countries, J.Med. Phil. 22 (1997), 629-37. An editorial in PennBioethics 2 (4, 1997), 1-5, asks why in the USA there are mainly white persons doing bioethics research. Perhaps they have to break out into the global community, but within the US it may be a particular problem. On bioethics and cultural pluralism, Humane Health Care International 13 (2, 1997), 31-4; and ethics of clinical research in the Third World, NEJM 337 (1997), 847-9. Medical ethics in the Israeli Medical Association is discussed in Lancet 350 (1997), 669-70.

On competence, Bioethics 11 (1997), 413-26; and on mental disease, BMJ 315 (1997), 473-6, 494, 530-5, 590-2, 733-5. Love as a component of physician's duty is discussed in Humane Health Care International 13 (2, 1997), 12-3; and on empathy, Lancet 350 (1997), 606; NEJM 337 (1997), 715-6; JAMA 278 (1997), 502-9. Religion and spirituality is discussed in JAMA 278 (1997), 792-3. Calls for increased attention to psychopathology are in BMJ 315 (1997), 691-2; Lancet 350 (1997), 457, 473-9. Difficulties can be experienced by a doctor of two persons involved in domestic abuse, JAMA 278 (1997), 851-7. They recommend always to seek the consent of the abused partner before discussing it.

The overemphasis of the curative model of medical care is discussed in JAMA 278 (1997), 761-3, compared to palliative care, JAMA 278 (1997), 733-8. The problems due to relationships in education are reviewed in Christakis, DA & Feudtner, C. "Temporary matters. The ethical consequences of transient social relationships in medical training", JAMA 278 (1997), 739-43.

A general review of bioethics for biotechnology is Macer, D. "Bioethics", Biotechnology & Development Monitor 32 (Sept 1997), 2-4. There is also a letter on bioethics in Africa, and on bioethics workshops at Purdue university.

On informed consent in developing countries with non-western culture, Genome Digest 4 (Nov 1997), 7-8. The papers from the University of Santo Tomas, 4th postgraduate course in bioethics (1996) are in Gomez, FB. et al., ed, Bioethics. The Journey Continues. Forum in Bioethics 4, 174pp., Philippines, University of Santo Tomas 1996. A Newsletter from another Christian group is Dignity, The Newsletter of the Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity, 2065 Half Day Road, Bannockburn, IL 60015, USA <http://wwww.bioethix.org>. The Vatican has published a revised edition of the Catechism, with changes to medical ethics, such as organ transplantation being a noble and worthy deed, Lancet 350 (1997), 874. A paper on Christian ethics is Engelhardt, TH. "Sins, voluntary and involuntary: Recognizing the limits of double effect", Christian Bioethics 3 (Aug 1997), 173-80; see also NEJM 337 (1997), 1768-71. A paper in Italian asking to consider medical care from a psychological aspect as well as physical is Romano, ML. "Vita e qualita della vita. Relazione d'aiuto e volontariato in oncologia", Bioetica e Cultura 12 (1997), 141-62. On medical care ethics in Albania, IAB News 6 (Autumn 1997), 6-7. Jewish and secular medical ethics share themes but diverge on issues such as heroic measures, including the subject of patient autonomy. See a discussion in CMAJ 157 (1997), 1415-6. On Israeli medical ethics, Lancet 350 (1997), 1247.

On medical education, Lancet 350 (1997), 1487; BMJ 315 (1997), 1108-9, 1390-1; Science 278 (1997), 794; and the affect of students on patient's informed consent, BMJ 315 (1997), 1142. . Physician preselection may not be suited to the ideal model of physician-patient relationship, AJLM XXIII (1997), 511-38. On professional identity of students, Medical Education 31 (1997), 408-15; JAMA 278 (1997), 1703. On the clinical aspects of physician-patient relationship JAMA 278 (1997), 2043-8. A call for peer review and better physician accountability in Japan is Nature 390 (1997), 223; and in general, Nature 390 (1997), 133.

A series of 7 papers on the theme of Expanding the Boundaries of Bioethics is CQHE 6 (1997), 365-450. On methods to solve ethnic conflicts see a roundtable and commentaries in Politics and the Life Sciences 16 (1997), 237-78. Kenny NP. "Bioethics and Canadian Dentistry", Can Dental Assoc J. 63 (1997), 690-4.

Extracts from the FDA entry in the federal Register on informed consent are in BME 132 (1997), 9-11. The Indian Council of Medical Research has released a draft Consultative Document on Ethical Guidelines on Biomedical Research involving Human Subjects, which is still in a review process among academics. For more information contact, Dr Vasantha Muthuswamy, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi 110 029, INDIA. It includes specific principles for human genetics, organ transplantation, drug testing, epidemiological research and ARTs.

Surrogate research consent is discussed in HCR 27 (Nov. 1997), 9-16. On research consent and discontent with abuses, CMAJ 157 (1997), 1691-2. On consent from children, HCR 27 (Nov. 1997), 29-40, 41-5; J. Law, Medicine & Ethics 25 (1997), 52-80, 81-96; J. Med. & Phil. 22 (1997), 213-7, 271-89; Rowell M. & Zlotkin S. "The ethical boundaries of drug research in pediatrics", Pediatric Clinics of North America 44 (1997), 27-40; BMJ 315 (1997), 1246-7. The right to refuse treatment is discussed in JME 23 (1997), 154-63. Papers on consent from the mentally incapacitated include, Arboleda-Flórez J, Weisstub DN, "Ethical research with the mentally disordered", Can J Psychiatry 42 (1997), 485-91; Kohut N. et al. "Stability of treatment preferences: Although most preferences do not change, most people change some of their preferences", J. Clinical Ethics 8 (1997), 124-35; Weisstub DN. & Arboleda-Flórez J. "Ethical research with the developmentally disabled", Can J Psychiatry 42 (1997), 492-6; also BME 133 (1997), 3-4, 18-23: Luttrell, S. "Making decisions about medical treatment for mentally incapable adults in the UK", Lancet 350 (1997), 950-3.; Nature 390 (1997), 927-8; BMJ 315 (1997), 1530-2. Also on informed consent, Lancet 350 (1997), 1180-1; JAMA 278 (1997), 1054, 1392-3.

On Ethics committees, BME 133 (1997), 15-7; BMJ 315 (1997), 1464-5. A review of abuse is Gamble, VN. "Under the shadow of Tuskegee: African Americans and health care", AJPH 87 (1997), 1773-8; Hornblum, AM. "They were cheap and available: prisoners as research subjects in twentieth century America", BMJ 315 (1997), 1437-41; and on other experiments, Nature 390 (1997), 669-70. On bioethics in general, Lancet 350 (1997), 897, 1547-9; JAMA 278 (1997), 951, 1291, 1293; NEJM 337 (1997), 1084-6, 1093, 1627-8, 1637. It is important to have an ethical code for all health care workers internationally, BMJ 315 (1997),965, 1633-4; NEJM 337 (1997), 1003-5.

On respect for human values in health care, CMAJ 157 (1997), 1689-90; It discusses the Tri-Council Working Group. Code of ethical conduct for research involving humans [draft]. Ottawa; 1997. <wwwmrc.hwc.ca/ethics/code/english/toc.html>. On patient satisfaction, SSM 45 (1997), 1829-43; JAMA 278 (1997), 1596-9. A new booklet is Tharien, AK. Health, Healing and Wholeness (Evangelical Medical Fellowship of India, 1997, 12pp., contact the author).

On women's rights in science, Nature 390 (1997), 201-4; and racial discrimination, BMJ 315 (1997), 1254. On feminist bioethics, BMJ 315 (1997), 1243. Foot binding caused much disability among Chinese women, still seen in the elderly, AJPH 87 (1997), 1677-9. On patient-physician sexual relationships, Lancet 350 (1997), 942. On human rights abuses in Argentina, Lancet 350 (1997), 1231.

A series of letters on the UK multi-centre research ethics committees is in BME 134 (1998), 13-19; BMJ 316 (1998), 392-3; MJA 168 (1998), 79-82. 174-6. The question of compensation for subjects of medical research is discussed in Monash Bioethics Review 17 (1, 1998), Supplement on Ethics Committees, 4-10, and pp. 10-22, discusses the use of placebos in research. On placebos, Brown, WA. "The placebo effect", SA (Jan. 1998), 90-5. A special issue of IJB 8 (3, 1997), 9-140, includes a number of papers and commentaries on biomedical research and its judges, in French, from a symposium held 21 March, 1996 by the IALES. Protection of human subjects is being considered by the US NBAC, JAMA 279 (1998), 344-5.

A critique of S. Cromwell Crawford, Dilemmas of life and death - Hindu ethics in a North American context, in light of Sri Aurobindo, is Basu, S. "Ethical dilemmas and beyond", NAMAH - New Approaches to Medicine and Health 5 (1, 1997), 9-40. Ethics of research in developing countries are discussed in Lancet 351 (1998), 286-7; and on India's draft code of ethics, Lancet 351 (1998), 347. On bioethics in general, JAMA 279 (1998), 243-4; NatMed 4 (1998), 243.

On making patients a partner in medical decisions, BMJ 316 (1998), 85-6, 130-2. Advances in neuroscience may threaten human rights, Nature 391 (1998), 316. On mental capacity and ethics, BMJ 316 (1998), 90; NEJM 338 (1998), 204-6. Children's perceptions of health are discussed in Health Education J. 56 (1997), 219-30. Protecting adolescents from harm is discussed in JAMA 279 (1998), 353-6. Alleged unethical promotion of opiate detoxification is discussed in Lancet 351 (1998), 218. There is controversy over an Italian trials for cancer therapy, BMJ 316 (1998), 327. On control of sex offenders, Science 279 (1998), 12. An amnesty for unpublished clinical trial data is discussed in MJA 168 (1998), 9. The increasing preference for lethal injection for execution will involve more medical staff in killing, BMJ 316 (1998), 328.

Nursing is discussed in Lancet 351 (1998), 438-40; and the origins of charity from 1912-92 in Social Problems 44 (1997), 425-44. On intuition, NS (17 Jan. 1998), 24-8.

A recently established journal in Chinese and English is J. Medical Education Vol. 1 (No. 1-4, 1997). Enquiries to the Office of Medical Education, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, No. 1 Jen Ai Road, 1st section, Taipei, 100 Taiwan, R.O.C. It includes some papers in English on ethics, M.C. Tai, "Medicine and morality", pp.11-20; M.-B. Lee, et al. "The teaching of medical ethics using a small-group tutorial method", pp. 201-15. A book review of Keown, D. Buddhism and Bioethics (NY: St. Martins Press, 1995, 208pp.) is in HCR 28 (Jan-Feb. 1998), 41-2. A book on feminism is Disch, E. Reconstructing Gender: A Multicultural Anthology (Mayfield Publishing, 1997).

A new book is Bankowski, Z, Bryant, JH. & Gallagher, J., eds., Ethics, Equity and the Renewal of WHO's health-for-all strategy: Proceedings of the XXIXth CIOMS Conference; Geneva, CIOMS 1997 (ISBN 92-9036-0666, 186pp.). It includes papers from a number of well known bioethicists on the renewal process and equity. A review is BME 135 (1998), 24. A related paper is Gunderman, R. "Medicine and the pursuit of wealth", HCR 28 (Jan-Feb. 1998), 8-13.

Another new book is European Network of Scientific Co-operation on Medicine and Human Rights, The human rights, ethical and moral dimensions of health care, 120 practical case studies (Council of Europe, 1998, ISBN 92-871-3055-8). A report from Lagos, Nigeria suggests 30 people were sacrificed to local gods on 20 March, 1997 (AFP). A survey of doctors in the United Arab Emirates on whether doctors should inform terminally ill patients is JME 23 (1997), 101-7. There is also difficulty in telling children that their parents have cancer, BMJ 316 (1998), 880. A paper on bereavement is BMJ 316 (1998), 856-9.

A discussion of cultural issues is MacKlin, R. "Ethical relativism in a multicultural society", KIEJ 8 (1998), 1-22; Turner L. "An anthropological exploration of contemporary bioethics: the varieties of common sense", JME 24 (1998) 127-33. A paper from Japan is Asai, A. et al. "Choices of Japanese patients in the face of disagreement", Bioethics 12 (1998), 162-72. A call for greater consideration of the principle of happiness is Rachels, S. "Is it good to make happy people?", Bioethics 12 (1998), 93-110. On clinical pragmatism, KIEJ 8 (1998), 23-42; and on the nature of agency, Bioethics 12 (1998), 150-61. Nursing ethics is discussed in KIEJ 8 (1998), 43-82; Humane Health Care International 13 (3, 1997), 69-71. On communication, BMJ 316 (1998), 642, 673-6. A book is Williams, D., Communication Skills in Practice. A Practical Guide for Health Professionals (London: Jessica Kigsley Publishers, 1997).

On definitions of health, HCR 28 (Jan-Feb. 1998), 34-7; Lancet 351 (1998), 823-5; BMJ 316 (1998), 637. A European Commission proposal for a good clinical practice guidelines is BME 135 (1998), 6-11. Germany has launched two new programs for funding bioethics research, NatMed 4 (1998), 261.

On research ethics committees, BME 135 (1998), 13-7; NZMJ 111 (1998), 79-81; and the role of patients in medical ethics forums, BME 135 (1998), 18-21. The UK Dept. of health is checking whether many patients are being held illegally in hospitals and nursing homes, BMJ 316 (1998), 497. On ethics consultants, J. Clinical Ethics 8 (1997), 181-198. Informed consent is discussed in Lancet 351 (1998), 885. On decision-making, Nature 392 (1998), 242-3; and professional judgment, BMJ 316 (1998), 545-8, 947. A review on medical history is BMJ 316 (1998), 713.

As announced in the last issue, there are new ethics associations in Korea and India. The Korean Bioethics Association (KBA), founded on 19 February 1998, aims not only at studying bioethics but also at practice. We are discussing about what we should do for those purposes. The Korean Society for Medical Ethics Education was formed last year. The Korean National Commission for UNESCO started a project on bioethics recently. The KBA is going to cooperate with them closely. KBA President: Park Yeemun (philosophy); Vice-Presidents: Kang Bin Goo (physiology); Meng Kwang Ho (preventive medicine); Pak Un Jong (philosophy of law); Song Sang-yong (history and philosophy of science); Chin Kyo-Hun (ethics). Standing Board Members: Hwang Sang-Ik (history of medicine); Kim Hyung Chul (ethics); Kim Hwan-Suk (sociology of science and technology); Kim Sang Jong (microbiology); Secretary: Ku Young-Mo (bioethics). Details contact Sang-yong Song (Email, de1811@sun.hallym.ac.kr).

The All Indian Bioethics Association (AIBA) Executive Council is President: Jayapaul Azariah (zoology); Vice Presidents: A.G. Bansode (biology); Pushpha Dhar (anatomy); K.K. Dua (biology); K.P. Kochhar (physiology); R.R. Kishore (law), R.N. Sharma (chemistry); A.K. Tharien (medicine); Secretary: D.S. Sheriff; Treasurer: V. Balambal. The address for correspondence is Prof. Hilda Azariah, editor, AIBA Newslink, or Prof. Jayapaul Azariah, AIBA, No. 3 8th Lane, 5th Cross Street, Indira Nagar, Chennai 600 020, India (Email: jazaraih@unimad.ernet.in; Fax: Int+91-44-491-0910). Copies of AIBA Newslink will be sent to Indian members of the EJAIB network, and will be put on the Internet shortly.

A discussion of cannibalism that appears to have been common in the Americas over the past 400 years is McKie, R. "The people eaters", NS (14 March 1998), 42-6. A book review of Hoshino, K. ed., Japanese and Western Bioethics: Studies in Moral Diversity (Philosophy and medicine Series 54, Kluwer Academic Publishers Dordrecht, 1997, 255pp., US$127) is in Bioethics 12 (1998), 256-8. It includes papers form the 1994 US-Japan Bioethics Congress. Eubios Ethics Institute just published two new books, Bioethics is Love of Life and Bioethics in Asia (see back page). A paper on Japanese medical ethics is Asai, A. et al. "Choices of Japanese patients in the face of disagreement", Bioethics 12 (1998), 162-72. A paper on a search for new ethics in intercultural relations is Nichibunken Newsletter 31 (March 1998), 1. A former member of Unit 731 from WWII who is one of 30 Japanese on the US watch list of former war criminals was refused entry to the USA to speak at peace meetings, Japan Times (27 June 1998). A book review on history of medicine is NatMed 4 (1998), 735. The Wellcome Trust is funding more social research, NatMed 4 (1998), 542.

A new undergraduate student journal on bioethics is Princeton Journal of Bioethics, first issue Vol. 1: 1-117; Spring 1998 (Contact: Dod Hall, Princeton University, NJ 08544, USA). Another new journal is Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: An International Forum (ISSN 1386-2820) from Kluwer Academic Publishers. Science fiction is often used to discuss ethics, Nature 393 (1998), 511. Book review on general medical ethics include, JAMA 279 (1998), 1123-4; NEJM 338 (1998), 1778.

An update on UK medical ethics committees is BME 138 (May 1998), 13-15. Letters on ethics review and clinical trials are in Lancet 351 (1998), 1065-6. The MRC guidelines for good clinical practice are in BME 137 (April 1998), 7-11. See also, Joseph, KS. "Ethics in clinical research: searching for absolutes", CMAJ 158 (1998), 1303-5. There are new rules on human subject research in Canada which may end the debate, Science 280 (1998), 1521. The death of a healthy volunteer in clinical research in the USA has impacted research in Australia, MJA 168 (1998), 449-51; and on compensation for injured subjects, JAMA 279 (1998), 1854. On randomized clinical trials, BMJ 316 (1998), 1898; and placebos, BMJ 316 (1998), 1397. The tamoxifen breast cancer trail was stopped 14 months early because of success, BMJ 316 (1998), 1187; SA (June 1998), 26-7; while a trial stopped for the other reason is discussed in BMJ 316 (1998), 1182-3. Denmark is tightening controls on research ethics, BMJ 316 (1998), 1189.

On consequentialism, Bioethics 12 (1998), 212-35. Two papers debating whether it is good to make happy people are Bioethics 12 (1998), 93-110, 111-24. Also on the question of what future people want, Bioethics 12 (1998), 173-6. The principle of agency is discussed in Bioethics 12 (1998), 150-61. Book reviews of Callahan, Daniel. False Hopes (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998, 330pp., US$24) are in Lancet 351 (1998), 1822-3; and by R. Nicholson is BME 137 (April 1998), 13-7. A survey in the UK to look at under-performing doctors is BMJ 316 (1998), 1705-8. Hospital death rates will be published in the UK, BMJ 316 (1998), 1759-60, 1767; and there are wide variations between some doctors, BMJ 316 (1998), 1556; Lancet 351 (1998), 967; NEJM 337 (1998), 1068+..

Informed consent and causation in Canadian law in the Arndt v. Smith case is reviewed in Health Law Review 7 (1998), 3-13. In general on informed consent, BMJ 316 (1998), 949-51, 1000-8. Consent can be hard to obtain for incompetent patients when relatives object, BMJ 316 (1998), 1608; NS (20 June 1998), 20-1. On psychosurgery, Nature 393 (1998), 428-9. Ferris, L.E. et al. "Defining the physician's duty to warn: consensus statement of Ontario's Medical Expert Panel on Duty to Inform", L CMAJ 158 (1998), 1473-82. Truth-telling for cancer can also be lost in the modern medical system, BMJ 316 (1998), 1890-3; JAMA 279 (1998), 1709, 1746-8. The question of parental consent in France is discussed in Byk, C. "Which parents should give consent? French law and neonates involved in biomedical research", BME 137 (April 1998), 19-21. Children may have many fears of medicine, BMJ 316 (1998), 1766. On ethics and neuroscience, BME 137 (April 1998), 20-1.

A report on a UK meeting on medical ethics and law education is BME 138 (May 1998), 3-4. Core values in a changing world are discussed in BMJ 316 (1998), 1807-9. General book reviews include BMJ 316 (1998), 1028; and papers, BMJ 316 (1998), 1151-3, 1922; AJO&G 178 (1998), 635+; NEJM 337 (1998), 1318-9; Phil. & Public Affairs 27 (1998), 97-122; Ethics 108 (1998), 463-88. On medical ethics education, BMJ 316 (1998), 1624. On human rights and health, Lancet 351 (1998), 982-3; and sex abuses, JAMA 279 (1998), 1883-8.

Book Review: Spicker, Stuart F. ed., The Healthcare Ethics Committee Experience. Selected Readings from the HEC Forum (Malabar, Florida: Krieger Pub. Co. (Krieger Drive, Malabar, Florida 32950, USA) 1998, ISBN 1-57524-024-6, 452pp.) The HEC Forum is a bimonthly journal since 1989, with 1997 as a quarterly. This selection of papers is very relevant to the discussion of IRBs (see below) that has been underway. It about 50 papers and the lessons from the North American community are relevant to elsewhere in the world, especially those trying to reform or establish ethics committees. Another function of the committees that is emphasized is the educational role, one which is important still.

A narrative methodology for clinical ethics is discussed in CQHE 7 (1998), 315-22. On the use of drama, S. Sahinoglu-Pelin & Y. Ors, "Ethico-drama in the understanding of bioethical issue", BME 139 (1998), 17-9. A book review on Western Medicine: An Illustrated History is JAMA 280 (1998), 1319-20; NEJM 339 (1998), 54; on Making Sense of Illness: Science, Society and Disease, is JAMA 279 (1998), 1665-6; NEJM 339 (1998), 354-5; n Medical Harm, in Lancet 352 (1998), 494; Murphy, EA. et al. Underpinnings of Medical Ethics (John Hopkins University Press 1997), in JAMA 280 (1998), 480-1; Caplan, A. Due Consideration - Controversy in the Age of Medical Miracles (John Wiley & Sons, 1998, 282pp.) is JAMA 280 (1998), 389 and on Jonsen, A. et al. Clinical Ethics: A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine (McGraw-Hill, 1998, 206pp.) is JAMA 279 (1998), 1839-40. On self-harm, BMJ 317 (1998), 133-5, 441-7; NatMed 4 (1998), 973-4.

The growth in ethicists is discussed in Gustafson, JM. "Ethics: An American growth industry", Perspectives in Biology & Medicine 41 (1998), 191-9. A series of papers on ethics of care are in J. Med. & Phil. 23 (1998), 127-224. The partnership with patients is discussed in BMJ 317 (1998), 221, 260-2, 413-4; and patient satisfaction, Research in Nursing & Health 21 (1998), 329-49. Emphasis on MD-patient communication is given in CMAJ 159 (1998), 266-8. A discussion of a basis to ethics called genoethics by S. Shinagawa is J. Health Care, Medicine & Community 12 (Nov. 1997), 42-53; and on universals, Philosophical Studies 91 (1998), 205-19. A series of papers on bioethics and religion in French and English are in IJB 9 (1998), 11-86. A series of papers on bioethics in Italian are in Bioetica e Cultura VII (1998), 25-118.

A paper on etiquette is Martin, J. & Stent, GS., "Bioetiquette", Perspectives in Biology & Medicine 41 (1998), 267-81. A paper on how we might increase average utility without making anyone more happy is Philosophical Studies 91 (1998), 265-74.

On gender and medical ethics in the Arab world, BME 139 (1998), 20-1. A series of papers on Muslim identity is Ethos 26 (June 1998), 115-270+; and on Muslim bioethics IJB 9 (1998), 59-116. Jewish medical ethics is discussed in IJB 9 (1998), 117-26. Health beliefs among Bangladeshi persons in the UK are discussed in BMJ 317 (1998), 412-3; and among Asian and Pacific Island patients in the USA, Health & Social Work 23 (1998), 116-26; and Korean values, Koreana 12 (Spring 1998), 4-27.

A paper on ethics in social work is Jansson, BS. & Dodd, S-J., "Developing a social work research agenda on ethics in health care", Health & Social Work 23 (1998), 17-23. Social problems of a patient are involved in at least one sixth of UK physician consultations, BMJ 317 (1998), 28-32; also information is important, BMJ 317 (1998), 225-6. On ethics in hospitality, Hospitality & Tourism Educator 8 (1996), 7-11. Incorporating clinical research findings in clinical practice is discussed in BMJ 317 (1998), 339-42, 405-9, 531-5. On clinical guidelines, BMJ 317 (1998), 427-8.

A new book is Sherwin, S., ed. (Feminist Health Care Ethics Research Network), The Politics of Women's Health. Exploring Agency and Autonomy (Temple University Press, 1998, ISBN 1-56639-633-6, 321pp.). It includes 10 papers and a number of references that are useful for the study of feminist ethics, and ethics of autonomy in general. A discussion of transsexual changes is, Dreger, AD. "Ambiguous sex or ambivalent medicine? Ethical issues in the treatment of intersexuality", HCR 28 (May 1998), 24-35; also pp. 36-9.

The 1997 report of the Danish Council of Ethics is, Conditions for Psychiatric Patients - A Report, 101pp., attached to their annual report. They discuss the Danish Psychiatry Act, and patient rights. The question of detention in mental health care is discussed in a UK House of Lords case in BME 139 (1998), 22-4; BMJ 317 (1998), 7, 94-5. On consent, JME 24 (1998), 182-7; Health & Social Work 23 (1998), 25-33. Ethics for nurses is discussed in Nursing Outlook 46 (1998), 130-5; Lancet 352 (1998), 249. Empathy is discussed in J. Medical Humanities 19 (1998), 51+; Ethics & International Affairs 12 (1998), 103-120.

A conference report from an IALES 1997 conference on human rights, bioethics and health is IDHL 49 (1998), 412-6. A paper on medical ethics education over medical school is JME 24 (1998), 110-7.

The proceedings of the fifth postgraduate course in bioethics at the University Santo Tomas in the Philippines is published as a collection of 24 papers in Gomez, FB. et al., eds., Conscience, Cooperation, Compassion (University Santo Tomas, Manila, 1998, ISBN 971-506-099-4, 218pp.). The last issue of Humane Health Care International 13 (4, 1997) was published as a 113pp. book, Sharing of Memories 1985-1997, as a celebration and farewell. A letter on Jehovah's witnesses and blood transfusions is Lancet 352 (1998), 824.

Two papers on global bioethics are Baker, R. "A theory of international bioethics: Multiculturalism, postmodernism, and the bankruptcy of fundamentalism", KIEJ 8 (1998), 201-32; Baler, R. "A theory of international bioethics: The negotiable and the non-negotiable", KIEJ 8 (1998), 233-74. Jagger AM, Young IM (eds): A Companion to Feminist Philosophy. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1998. A book review of The New Dictionary of Medical Ethics is BMJ 317 (1998), 1162. On imperialism and research ethics, JME 24 (1998), 221-2.

An ethical analysis of non-medical interventions is Sheldon, S. & Wilkinson, S. "Female genital mutilation and cosmetic surgery: Regulating non-therapeutic body modification", Bioethics 12 (1998), 263-85. Also on plastic surgery, J. Law & Medicine 9 (1998), 334-47. Ethical issues of alternative medicine are discussed in NEJM 339 (1998), 855-6. A record suggesting 5200 year old acupuncture in Central Europe is Science 281 (1998), 242-3; and an example of probably cranial surgery 7100 years ago is Nature 391 (1998), 854.

A discussion of exclusion of risky subjects from research is KIEJ 8 (1998), 307-28; and on IRBs, KIEJ 8 (1998), 329-38; BME 140 (1998), 7-11. In general, Lemmens, T. & Singer PA. "Bioethics for clinicians: 17. Conflict of interest in research, education and patient care", CMAJ 159 (1998), 960-8. Informed consent is discussed in BMJ 317 (1998), 947-51. A UK case where parents could choose their child's treatment is BMJ 317 (1998), 1102. A letter from a physician who considers that they are often asked to assist other passengers in flight is NEJM 339 (1998), 928.

Physician trust is discussed in JAMA 280 (1998), 1102. Mental illness in prisoners raises more issues, BMJ 317 (1998), 1025-6; and on competency, BMJ 317 (1998), 809-10. On angels and spirits in mental illness, Lancet 352 (1998), 1218-9. Related see Weijer, C. et al. "Bioethics for clinicians: 16. Dealing with demands for inappropriate treatment", CMAJ 159 (1998), 829-31; Lancet 352 (1998), 1213-5. A book review on Tuskegee is Lancet 352 (1998), 1075. On medical advice for corporal punishment, BMJ 317 (1998), 939-41; sexual harassment, NatMed 4 (1998), 1199-200; JAMA 280 (1998), 851-3; BMJ 317 (1998), 1088; and human rights and the Taliban, Lancet 352 (1998), 734. A book review of Radium Girls: Women and Industrial Health Reform, 1910-35, is NEJM 339 (1998), 930. On theories of masculinity, BMJ 317 (1998), 1072-5.

The papers from a Medical Ethics Education Conference held 12 April, 1998 in Taiwan are in J. Medical Education 2 (1998), 113-228. They include papers in English by Mary-Jo DelVecchio Good, Darryl Macer, Kuei-Yun Lu et al., and a number of papers in Chinese. Revalidation for doctors in the UK is suggested in BMJ 317 (1998), 1094-5. The role of television drama (ER) in student education is discussed in JAMA 280 (1998), 854-5.

On informal consultation, JAMA 280 (1998), 900-4. The use of questionnaires to diagnosis in developing countries is reviewed in Lancet 352 (1998), 1164-5. Email is being used for communication between doctors and patients, Spielberg, AR. "On call and online. Sociohistorical, legal and ethical implications of E-mail for the patient-physician relationship", JAMA 280 (1998), 1353-9; also pp. 1333-5; and on medicine and Internet, JAMA 280 (1998), 1264-9, 1303+, 1347-52. Nurse telephone consultation was found to be quite successful in the UK, BMJ 317 (1998), 1054-9.

A conference report from an International Symposium on Bioethics and the Concept of Personhood, 11-12 May, 1998, held in Hong Kong is in Ethics & Society (Centre for Applied Ethics, Hong Kong Baptist University) 6 (no.2, 1998), 1-7. A paper on Chinese philosophy is Angle, SC. "Did someone say "rights"? Liu Shipei's concept of quanli", Philosophy East & West 48 (1998), 623-51.

A brief description of some German centres of medical ethics is in BME 142 (1998), 20-1; and on Brazilian centres, IAB News 8 (Autumn 1998), 8-11. A book review of Humber, JM. & Almeder, RF., eds. Alternative Medicine and Ethics (Totowa, NJ. Humana Press, 1998) is JAMA 280 (1998), 1633. On African traditional practices, IDHL 49 (1998), 559. A series of papers on Christine Korsgaard, Creating the Kingdom of Ends (Cambridge University Press 1996) is in Ethics 109 (1998), 1-66. A book review of Kent, Bonnie, Virtues of the Will: The Transformation of Ethics in the Late Thirteenth Century (Catholic Universities of America Press, 1995) is in J. History of Philosophy 36 (1998), 462-3.

Doctor-patient communication is discussed in Edwards, SJL. et al. "Informed consent for clinical trials: In search of the "best" method", SSM 47 (1998), 1825-40; Lancet 352 (1998), 1559-60; JAMA 280 (1998), 2039-42; BMJ 317 (1998), 1741. Doctor-patient working groups are also arising, BMJ 317 (1998), 1374-7. Payment also alters trust, Kao, AC et al. "The relationship between method of physician payment and patient trust", JAMA 280 (1998), 1708-14; pp. 1703-4. Letters on truth-telling are in Lancet 352 (1998), 1787-8; JAMA 280 (1998), 1403-4. Medical leaflets are also important for information, Lancet 352 (1998), 1724. A book review of Grisso, T. & Appelbaum, PS. Assessing Competence to Consent to Treatment: A Guide for Physicians and Other Health Professionals (Oxford University Press, 1998, 211pp.) is NEJM 339 (1998), 1794-5. Theories of consent are discussed in BMJ 317 (1998), 1313-5. A UK general practitioner received 23,000 pounds for producing forged consent forms for clinical research and was struck off the medical register, BMJ 317 (1998), 1475. Computers can aid patient safety, Science 282 (1998), 2295.

Integrity is called for is Miller, FG. et al. "Professional integrity in clinical research", JAMA 280 (1998), 1449-54. A book review of Altman, LK. Who Goes First? The Story of Self-Experimentation in Medicine (Univ. California, Berkeley, 1998, 430pp.) is JAMA 280 (1998), 2043. Also on experimentation, BMJ 317 (1998), 1224-30, 1239-42. Placebo controls are discussed from a historical perspective in Bulletin History Medicine 72 (1998), 389-433. There should be consent obtained for videos and photographs, BMJ 317 (1998), 1522-3. Doctor contentment is discussed in NEJM 339 (1998), 1543-5; BMJ 317 (1998), 1670-1. Two book reviews of the 18th century Scottish doctor John Gregory, who promoted medical ethics, are NEJM 339 (1998), 1792.

Mental health is discussed in Lancet 352 (1998), 1641; BMJ 317 (1998), 1701-3. The US Bioethics Advisory Commission report on guidelines for research on persons with mental problems was revised and then released on 12 November, 1998; Science 282 (1998), 857, 1617. The report Research Involving Persons with Mental Disorders that May Affect Decisionmaking Capacity is now available on the NBAC website at <http://www.bioethics.gov> and can be downloaded and printed. In a recent US research scandal, 29 out of 108 clinical experiments have been suspended and that an additional 50 research protocols failed to justify a scientific objective, Science 283 (1999), 464-5. This is an implicit admission by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) that: (1) its own Institutional Review Board approved scientifically unsound human experiments; (2) NIMH failed to protect disabled human subjects from clinical experiments which needlessly put them at risk of harm; (3) NIMH researchers have been violating ethical and scientific principles. (4) NIMH Administrators are now scrambling to "clean up our house" in an effort to forestall regulatory mandates.

On psychosurgery, JAMA 280 (1998), 1963; NEJM 339 (1998), 1719-20; and determining suitability for psychotherapy, Amer. J. Psychotherapy 52 (1998), 397-411; and attitudes to psychologists, Amer. J. Psychotherapy 52 (1998), 463-88. On ethics in general, BMJ 317 (1998), 1594-5, 1664, 1730-1; Lancet 352 (1998), 1719. Affirmative action is discussed in Columbia Law Review 98 (1998), 1577-1641; and ethnic identity in Political Geography 17 (1998), 939-58. On public space in urban communities, Progress in Human Geography 22 (1998), 479-96.

A Canadian report from a roundtable on the use of placebos in clinical research is NCEHR Communique 9 (Winter 1999), 6-8. Ethical issues in placebo-controlled trials on arthritis are discussed in Lancet 353 (1999), 400-3. Research on perinatal patients is discussed in Otago Bioethics Report 8 (March 1999), 57, 16; and on children, Peart, N. & Holdaway, D. "Legal and ethical issues of health research with children", Otago Bioethics Report 8 (March 1999), 8-12; Lancet 353 (1999), 685; NatMed 5 (1999), 7. A recent book is Weisstub DN, ed. Research on Human Subjects: Ethics, Law and Social Policy (Kidlington, Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd., 1998). Letters on consent and IRBs are in NEJM 340 (1999), 1114-5; Science 283 (1999), 1647-8. A proposal for international research and IRBs is JLME 27 (1999), 87-94. Ethical problems have delayed work at the Veterans Affairs hospital in Los Angeles, Nature 398 (1999), 448. Patient concerns about clinical trials in Japan are discussed in Lancet 353 (1999), 1019-20. Research ethics are also discussed in JAMA 281 (1999), 88-9; Science 283 (1999), 464-5; NatMed 5 (1999), 250-1.

A bibliography on empirical research on informed consent is HCR 29 (No. 1, Jan. 1999), Special Supplement, S1-42. UK GMC guidance on informed consent is in BME 145 (Feb. 1999), 4-6. In general, Kluge, E-H.W. "Informed consent in a different key: physicians' practice profiles and the patient's right to know", CMAJ 160 (1999), 1321-2; Marta J. "Whose Consent is it Anyway? A Poststructuralist Framing of the Person in Medical Decision-Making", Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19 (1998), 353-70; NEJM 340 (1999), 804-7. Substituted consent is discussed in a series of papers in CQHE 8 (1999), 123-212; BMJ 318 (1999), 943. A survey of how much information is given after an unintended injury found patients expect more than doctors think they do, BMJ 318 (1999), 640-1. The amount and type of information may be a problem, BMJ 318 (1999), 318-22. A study suggests that patients quickly forget the risks associated with prophylactic procedures, Lancet 353 (1999), 645.

The question of paying inducements for joining research is debated in Bioethics 13 (1999), 114-30. The method of payment can alter patient trust, JAMA 281 (1999), 1173-4. Ethical guidelines for physician payment are discussed in NEJM 340 (1999), 321-3. The public has mixed views on why research is conducted, BME 146 (March 1999), 16-7. The UK GMC has issued guidance advising doctors to seek consent, BMJ 318 (1999), 553. A series of papers on the doctor-proxy relationship and surrogate decision-making is JLME 27 (1999), 1-86.

The proceedings of a retreat on ethical issues in social sciences is NCEHR Communique 9 (Winter 1999), 11-33; and on sociology and health care, Lancet 353 (1999), 486-9; NEJM 340 (1999), 396-7. The summary in English of an Italian Ethics Committee report on the ethics of electro-shock therapy is in IJB 9 (1999), 117-20. On the ethics of excessive medicalization, Bioethics 13 (1999), 89-113. On autonomy, NEJM 340 (1999), 821-2. On the importance of truth-telling, Social Research 65 (1998), 725-40. A book review of Malignant Sadness is NS (20 Feb. 1999), 44-5.

Problem-based learning is discussed in BMJ 318 (1999), 657-61; and the question of philosophy education for medical students in MJA 170 (1999), 125-7.

Ethics committees have also started to have a role as consensus shapers, BME 145 (Feb. 1999), 13-8. On the roles of ethics committees, Otago Bioethics Report 8 (March 1999), 1-2; MJA 170 (1990), 9-10, 26-8. The question of ethics experts are discussed in HCR 28 (No. 6, Nov. 1998), 6-19. Evidence and ethics is debated in Lancet 353 (1999), 829-31.

A paper on virtue in bioethics in Italian is Bioetica e Cultura 7 (No. 2, 1998), 165-78. A review of the good Samaritan principle is Kirschenbaum, A. "The bystander's duty to rescue in Jewish law", Assia 3 (No. 2, 1998), 52-64. A book review of Noam Zohar, Alternatives in Jewish Bioethics is Bioethics 13 (1999), 73-6. General papers include: Macer, D. "Bioethics: A challenge for policy-makers", The Critical Lawyer 1 (1999), 7-10; Donchin A, & Purdy L, eds. Embodying Bioethics: Recent Feminist Advances. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999; Guidotti, T. "Medical Bioethics: Jane Jacobs Speaks to Medicine", Annals RCPSC 31(1998), 397-400; Beauchamp, G. "General Surgeons and Clinical Ethics: A Survey", Can J of Surgery 41(1998), 451-454; Bloche, MG. "Clinical loyalties and the social purposes of medicine", JAMA 281 (1999), 268-74; JAMA 281 (1999), 849-50; Lancet 353 (1999), 1022-3; Philosophical Studies 93 (1999), 227-46; Public Law (1999), 104-28; EST 33 (1999), 105A; NS (10 April 1999), 49. On cross-cultural issues, Lancet 353 (1999), 910; Millennium: J. International Studies 27 (1998), 447-715.

A paper related to the idea Bioethics is Love of Life is Velleman, JD. "Love as a moral emotion", Ethics 109 (1999), 338-74. A study on individualism and collectivism in Israeli society found more religious persons were more group orientated, Human Relations 52 (1999), 327-48. On religion and medicine, Lancet 353 (1999), 664-7; SSM 48 (1999), 1291-9. A book review of The Power of Hope is Lancet 353 (1999), 1105; and on compassion, JAMA 281 (1999), 597-8, 1159-61, 1328-9. Patient satisfaction in Indonesia is surveyed in SSM 48 (1999), 989-96.

A report from the Russian National Ethics Committee is IJB 11 (March 2000), 71-4. A paper on the Australian situation is Dodds, S. "Human research ethics in Australia: Ethical regulation and public policy", Monash Bioethics Review 19 (2000), Ethics Committee Supplement (April) 4-21. A series of papers in French and English on bioethics committees is IJB 5 (1999), 9-90. A review is Emanuel, E., "What makes clinical research ethical?", JAMA 283 (2000), 2701-11. Information and papers on clinical trials in Japanese are in Clinical Evaluation 27 (2000), 441-644. An obituary to Benjamin Freedman is HCR (May 2000), 34-9. On the lack of informed consent at North Staffordshire Hospital (see also Fetal Environment section), BMJ 320 (2000), 1291. Also on clinical trials, Lancet 355 (2000), 2177; BMJ 320 (2000), 1491, 1509, 1548; SA (April 2000), 69-75; Science 288 (2000), 1315-6; JAMA 283 (2000), 2787-92. Mulitcentre research ethics committees are discussed in BMJ 320 (2000), 1157-8, 1179-82, 1182-3, 1217. Paying subjects is discussedJME 26 (2000), 126-30.

Autonomy versus social fairness is discussed in CQHE 9 (2000), 391-9. On autonomy and genetic information, J. Med. & Phil. 25 (2000), 114-20. A paper that introduces urban bioethics, a bioethics to broaden individual concerns to social ones is Cecire, VR. Et al. "Urban bioethics", KEIJ 10 (2000), 1-20; also Brock, DW. "Broadening the bioethics agenda", KEIJ 10 (2000), 21-38. A critique of intrinsic value is Bioethics 14 (2000), 228-39. On how to become a bioethicist, BME 157 (2000), 13-20. On the principle do no harm, Lancet 355 (2000), 2007. In general on bioethics, Phil. & Public Affairs 28 (2000), 275-309; BMJ 320 (2000), 1215, 1571-4, 1611; NEJM 342 (2000), 1296, 1458-9; JAMA 283 (2000), 2452-4; and on clinical ethics, J. Med. & Phil. 25 (2000), 3-113. Moves in Japan to allow doctors to get money for longer consultations are discussed in Akabayashi, A. & Fetters, MD. "Paying for informed consent", JME 26 (2000), 212-4.

A paper on tolerance is Wang, Y. "A strategy of clinical tolerance for the prevention of HIV and AIDS in China", J. Med. & Phil. 25 (2000), 48-61. The moral philosophy of Confucius is discussed in Turkish J. Med. Ethics 7 (1999), 5-11. Global bioethics is discussed in IAB News 11 (Summer 2000), 1-5. On study of Japanese health care in the USA, JAMA 283 (2000), 2921-2. A draft code on ethics in social sciences and health research from Mumbai, India is Issues in Medical Ethics 8 (2000), 53-7; and a conference review is Lancet 355 (2000), 2059. Ethics and nursing in Turkey are discussed in Nursing Ethics 7 (2000), 285-95. The implications of an aging nurse workforce in the USA is discussed in JAMA 283 (2000), 2948-54. A call for nurses and doctors to monitor each other is BMJ 320 (2000), 1070-1; also on nursing, BMJ 320 (2000), 1019-1026, 1038+. A study of patient preferences on treatment of atrial fibrillation, BMJ 320 (2000), 1380-4; and on preferences, BMJ 320 (2000), 1246-50, 1530-3; JAMA 283 (2000), 2390-2; JME 26 (2000), 194-7. A database on patient experiences is reported in Lancet 355 (2000), 1540-3.

Improving communication is discussed in BMJ 320 (2000), 1220-10. The use of prayer is discussed in Cohen, CB. Et al. "Prayer as therapy: A challenge to both religious belief and professional ethics", HCR (May 2000), 40-7; NEJM 342 (2000), 1913-6. On psychiatric ethics, Issues in Medical Ethics 8 (2000), 58; Dispatches 10 (May 2000), 10-12. The issue of conscientious objection in assisted suicide and abortion by health care workers is discussed in Bioethics 14 (2000), 205-27. Organizational ethics is discussed in J. Clinical Ethics 10 (1999), 171-246, 263-70. On medical professionalism, NEJM 342 (2000), 1223, 1284-6, 1288-9; and consultants, J. Clinical Ethics 10 (1999), 3-55. On gender and medicine, JAMA 283 (2000), 2849-50. On bioethics education, JME 26 (2000), 83-6, 131-6.

The Adults with Incapacity Act of 2000 from Scotland is in BME 157 (2000), 8-11. Inpatient care of mentally sick in prison is discussed in BMJ 320 (2000), 1031-4; and in general, JAMA 283 (2000), 2802+, 2844-5. On psychiatric ethics, JAMA 283 (2000), 2080, 2169.

The extent of written trial information that is preferred by subjects in clinical trials is compared in BME 159 (June 2000), 13-18. Trials should be relevant to patients in them, BMJ 320 (2000), 1686; 321 (2000), 2-3. Ethics of research in developing countries is discussed in NEJM 343 (2000), 361+. Grey areas of informed consent are debated in Nursing Management (July 2000), 20-5. On treatment without consent, Lancet 356 (2000), 69. The influence of consultation on ethical decision making is explored in Ethics & Behavior 10 (2000), 65-79. On moral canals and Hume, Smith and Genosei, Economics & Philosophy 16 (2000), 21-45. On considerate smokers and ethics, Health & Place 6 (2000), 1-14.

Patient rights are discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 487. The eCode of Medical Ethics is discussed in Issues in Medical Ethics 8 (2000), 93-5. Intercultural ethics are discussed in Reproductive Health Matters 8 (2000), 104-12. Zen Buddhist ethics are discussed in J. Religious Ethics (2000) pp.509-35. Lessons on grief from the Book of Job are discussed in O&G 96 (2000), 151-2. Bioethics in Slovakia is discussed in KIEJ 10 (2000), 165-70. Blood donation in Jehovah's witness is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 8. Advocacy is discussed in Nursing Outlook (May 2000), 103-4.

On compulsory psychiatric treatment, Dispatches 10 (May 2000), 10-1; BMJ 321 (2000), 5-6. Ethical rehabilitation counseling in managed care is discussed in J. Rehabilitation 66 (2000), 9-13. Health care in prison guidelines from Council of Europe are given in BME 159 (June 2000), 7-11. Laughter and medicine is discussed in SA (Aug. 2000), 24. On medical ethics, Can J. Infect Dis. 11 (2000), 72-3; Baylis F (ed): The Roles and Responsibilities of the Ethics Consultant: Analysis of Cases. Frederic, Maryland: University Publishing Group, 2000.

Physician value neutrality is discussed in JLME 28 (2000), 67-80. On professionalism, Lancet 356 (2000), 156-9. In general on medical ethics, BMJ 321 (2000), 282-5; JAMA 284 (2000), 29-31; Oderberg, DS., Applied Ethics. A Non-consequentialist Approach (Blackwell 2000, 243pp.). The virtuous public health physician is discussed in J. Public Health Medicine 22 (2000), 48-53. Public policy ethics is discussed in JAMA 284 (2000), 85-7. On women's opportunities, Science 289 (2000), 378-9; Nature 406 (2000), 451; and women's health, J. Health Politics, Policy & Law 25 (2000), 447-612. On love in nursing, Fitzgerald, L. & van Hooft, S. "A Socratic dialogue on the question 'What is love in nursing'?, Nursing Ethics 7 (2000), 481-91. Differences between moral sensitivity between nurses and physicians are discussed in Nursing Ethics 7 (2000), 520-30. Teamwork is discussed in Human Relations 53 (2000), 1387-1530. A series of 8 articles on rights and strikes in healthcare is in CQHE 9 (2000), 443-523. A new textbook of research ethics has been published by Kluwer Publishers. In Ireland there is said to be a breakdown in trust between doctor and patient, Lancet 356 (2000), 1431-2. A study on concepts of trust among patients with serious disease is SSM 51 (2000), 657-68. Patient desire to be involved in decisions is discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 867-71. Patient-centredness is discussed in SSM 51 (2000), 1087-1110.

The question of healing societies and persons is debated in Thomasma, DC. & Weisstub, DN. "Forgiving and forgetting: A post-Holocaust dialogue on the possibility of healing", CQHE 9 (2000), 542-61. On guidance in particularistic ethics, Bioethics 13 (2000), 287-309. Spirituality is a taboo in development studies, Development in Practice 10 (2000), 31-41. However it is important in medicine, JAMA 284 (2000), 1708; NEJM 343 (2000), 1339-42; Science 290 (2000), 282. In general on medical ethics, NEJM 343 (2000), 588-9, 1426; JAMA 284 (2000), 1444; Lancet 356 (2000), 864; BMJ 321 (2000), 909-10; SSM 51 (2000), 1139-42, 1283-93. The doctrine of double effect is discussed in The Thomist 64 (2000), 423-48. John Rawls is discussed in Ethics 110 (2000), 669-96. The use of utility is discussed in Phil. & Public Affairs 29 (2000), 113-36. On vitalism, Nature 407 (2000), 677. Harming and allowing harm are discussed in Ethics 110 (2000), 749-79.

Book reviews of Macklin, R., Against Relativism: Cultural Diversity and the Search for Ethical Universals in Medicine (Oxford University Press 1999, 304pp.) include CQHE 9 (2000), 577-9; Ethics 110 (2000), 849-50. A cross-cultural ethics is discussed in Nie, J-B. "The plurality of Chinese and American medical moralities: Toward an interpretative cross-cultural bioethics", KIEJ 10 (2000), 239-60. A sociological account of the growth of principlism is HCR 30 (Sept. 2000), 31-8; and a traditional perception of a person in Africa, Tangwa, GB. "The traditional African perception of a person", HCR 30 (Sept. 2000), 39-43. Bioethics and Canadian aboriginal cultures are discussed in CMAJ 163 (2000), 845-50; 833. Hindu and Sikh bioethics are discussed in CMAJ 163 (2000), 1167-70. Papers on Jainism are in Philosophy East & West 50 (2000), 321-459.

On international health research, Dispatches 10 (Oct. 2000), 12-5; BMJ 321 (2000), 777-8, 824-6. The US NBAC has proposed draft rules for such research, Science 290 (2000), 28-9. They will require researchers to not use placebos but an established therapy in a clinical trial. However the FDA is defending placebo-based trials, Lancet 356 (2000), 1086. Long term obligations to human subjects in clinical trials are discussed in JAMA 284 (2000), 960-1. Ethics of placebos in Alzheimerfs research is discussed in MJA 173 (2000), 147-8. A review on the Nuffield Council report on research in developing countries is BME 160 (2000), 3-4. On informed consent and exploitation in human subjects research, Bioethics 13 (2000), 310-39. On protecting the vulnerable, SSM 51 (2000), 969-77. Women in clinical trials are discussed in NEJM 343 (2000), 505-6. A report from the Global Bioethics Forum held in Thailand in October 2000 is Lancet 356 (2000), 1502.

A book review of Blank, R. Brain Policy: How the New Neuroscience will Change our Lives (Georgetown University Press 1999, 197pp.) is Bioethics 13 (2000), 360-3. On ethics committees in Italy, BME 160 (2000), 13-8. A book review of Ethical Dilemmas in Neurology is NEJM 343 (2000), 975-6. Psychological debriefing may do more harm than good, BMJ 321 (2000), 1032-3, 1043. There is concern over alleged psychiatric abuses in China, Lancet 356 (2000), 920. China is planning more use of lethal injection in executions, Lancet 356 (2000), 1012. Stereotyping is discussed in NS (30 Sept. 2000), 38-41. On bias against gay men, JAMA 284 (2000), 1986-7; Lancet 356 (2000), 1281; Modern Law Review (2000), 694+. Sexual orientation may link to handedness, Science News 158 (2000), 53. Minorities in medicine are discussed in JAMA 284 (2000), 1085-92, 1138-9; and gender, SSM 51 (2000), 931-9; BMJ 321 (2000), 1087; Science 290 (2000), 55-6; Lancet 356 (2000), 748. Telling children about parentfs cancer is discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 462-3, 479-82.

Teaching medical ethics is discussed in SSM 51 (2000), 1563-7. Admission to a teaching hospital may be associated with better quality of care, JAMA 284 (2000), 1256-62. Defining quality of care is discussed in SSM 51 (2000), 1611-25. Informed consent in neck injury is discussed in MJA 173 (2000), 213-4. Policy of Jehovah's Witnesses for blood is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 1114-5. Clinical ethics committees are discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 649-50. A new book is Becker, GK., ed., The Moral Status of Persons. Perspectives on Bioethics (Rodopi 2000, 260pp.).

A new book, Tierney, P. Darkness in El Dorado: How scientists and journalists devastated the Amazon, charges that filmmakers and anthropologists in the Amazon are causing the genocide of the Yanomami< people, Newsweek (27 Nov. 2000), 54-6; NS (11 Nov. 2000), 18-9.; On anthropology, Science 290 (2000), 1511-2; Nature 408 (2000), 391, 755.

On bioethics in Croatia, Gosic, N. “Bioethics in Croatia”, Synthesis Philosophica 14 (2000), 183-200. Research bioethics in Uganda is reported in JLME 28 (2000), 165-73. On bioethics in Brazil, IAB News 12 (Winter 2000), 2-9. A Pakistani perspective is Moazam, F. “Families, patients, and physicians in medical decision making: A Pakistani Perspective”, HCR 30 (Nov. 2000), 28-36. A report from the Global Forum for bioethics in research is JLME 28 (2000), 174-5. Paternalism in Norway is surveyd, SSM 52 (2001), 239-48. A book review of Kalupahana, DJ., Ethics in Early Buddhism, is Philosophy East & West 50 (2000), 628-30. A new book is Holmes, R. III. Genes, Genesis, and God: Values and Their Origin in Natural and Human History (Cambridge University Press, 1999), Ethics< (Oct. 2000), 186-9. Religious freedom is discussed in California Law Review 88 (2000), 1709-42. Ivan Segota has written on two persons in bioethics: On Van R. Potter, Synthesis Philosophica 14 (2000), 169-82; and on Darryl Macer, Filozofska Istraazivanja< 20 (2000), 401-10.

The question of diversity of Jehovah witness acceptance of blood donation is discussed in JME 26 (2000), 375-80, 381-6. On informed consent J. Clinical Ethics 11 (2000), 3-13. Views of parents and neonatalogists on consent for clinical trials are discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 2026-7. Results of trials are often not clear, Lancet 356 (2000), 1757-9; BMJ 321 (2000), 1362-3. A book review of Wear, S. Informed Consent, is Ethics (Oct. 2000), 215-6. A book review of Tuskegee’s Truths is NEJM 343 (2000), 1581. A criticism of hospital ethics committees is BMJ 321 (2000), 1414.

Nursing codes are reviewed in Nursing Ethics 8 (2001), 5-18. The question of inter-gender work relations between nurse and doctors are discussed in SSM 52 (2001), 189-202.; On clinical ethics consultations, J. Clinical Ethics 11 (2000), 31-38, 49-55. In general on medical ethics, BMJ 321 (2000), 1295, 1529-31, 1572-6; JAMA 284 (2000), 2526-8; SSM 52 (2001), 171-3, 175-7; Science 290 (2000), 2225. Strikes in South Korea continue over proposed reforms, Lancet 356 (2000), 1583. Doctor-patient relationship is discussed in JAMA 284 (2000), 2793-4. The question of the name, patient or client, is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 2111.

In India high school teachers will soon have a code of ethics, Hindustan Times (7 Feb. 2001). Teaching health care ethics to nursing students in the UK is discussed in Nursing Ethics 8 (2001), 45-56. Teaching literature in medicine is recommended, Lancet 356 (2000), 1920-2, 2001-3. Discussion of bullying in schools and delusion is Brit. J. Social Psychology 39 (2000), 605-28. In general on education, SSM 52 (2001), 203-13. Current psychological de-briefing can do more harm than good, BMJ 321 (2000), 1032-3.


New Book: Becker, GK., ed., The Moral Status of Persons. Perspectives on Bioethics (Amsterdam: Rodopi 2000; ISBN 90-420-1201-3, 250pp.).

Includes 13 chapters on the theme of personhood with views from European and Asian philosophy, especially Confucianism.; After an initial 3 chapters on the Foundations of Personhood (R. Fan, JHC. Sun, M. Quante) , there are 4 chapters on Eastern perspectives (C.Hansen, E. Hui, S. Ohara, R. Qiu), 2 chapters on Christian perspectives (D. McCann, F. Graf), then 4 papers on personal identity in issues including gene therapy (R. Chadwick), human cloning (JKL. Chan), brain injury (DKS. Au), and animals (E. Telfer). The volume is a useful contribution to the debate on what is a person, and benefits from having a cross-cultural approach to these issues.; It is part of the Value Inquiry Book Series.


Four papers (in Japanese) on the roles of contract research organizations in conducting clinical research in Japan are in Clinical Evaluation 28 (2001), 229-54. Catholic ethics methodology is discussed in KIEJ 10 (2001), 353-64. A series of papers on culture and bioethics are in CQHE 10 (2001), 1-78. Caring for Muslim patients is discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 242. A review of the growth of medical ethics in the past 50 years is MJA 174 (2001), 41-4.

A call for integrated modern and traditional medicine is BMJ 322 (2001), 119-20, 121-2. There may need to be more tolerance for ambiguity, JAMA 285 (2001), 88. Many physicians regret that they cannot spend so much time with their patients now, NEJM 344 (2001), 223-5. Promoting well being among doctors is important, BMJ 322 (2001), 252-3. On nurse-doctor triage, Lancet 357 (2001), 323. Predicting patient satisfaction is discussed in SSM 52 (2001), 609-20. A survey of patient perceptions of the capabilities of internists is Am. J. Med. 110 (2001), 111-7. On political correctness, NEJM 344 (2001), 462.

On Aristotle and practical ethics, KIEJ 10 (2001), 287-306, 323-36. On casuistry, KIEJ 10 (2001), 307-22. Balancing autonomy and communitarianism is discussed in KIEJ 10 (2001), 337-52. Discussion of diagnosis of disease is in JAMA 285 (2001), 89-90. On mental distress and health, AJLM 26 (2000), 401-38; BMJ 322 (2001), 2-3; and human healing, BMJ 322 (2001), 120-1; JAMA 285 (2001), 96-7; BMJ 322 (2001), 179. Views of health in history are discussed in JAMA 285 (2001), 94-5.

A questioning of informed consent is Lancet 357 (2001), 149-50. A letter on consent in Bangladesh is NEJM 344 (2001), 460-1. Consent is discussed in NCEHR Communique 10 (Summer 2000), 5-18.Management of patients who deliberately harm themselves is reviewed in BMJ 322 (2001), 213-5. The ethics of a change in policy on Jehovah witnesses refusal of blood in the USA is BMJ 322 (2001), 37-9. Discussion of eth ethics of anthropological research is SA (March 2001), 20-2; Science 291 (2001), 416-21. The development of empathy is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 153.

A series of papers, mainly in French, on whether bioethics is a language for better understanding is IJB 11 (Sept. 2000), 13-264. Medical education in Australia is reviewed in MJA 174 (2001), 25-8.

A survey from Turkey is Pelin SS. & Arda, B. "Physicians' attitudes towards medical ethics issues in Turkey", IJB 11 (2000), 57-68. A historical report from the ethics of Ottoman surgical practice is Turkish J. Med. Ethics 8 (2000), 9-14. A special supplement is Reiser, SJ. et al. A Global Profession. Medical Values in China and the United States, HCR 31 (July 2000), Special Supllement S1-48. A conference report on the First National Symposium on Applied Ethics in China is in Ethics and Society Newsletter 8 (Dec. 2000), 21. A review of the 1990s development of bioethics in Slovakia is Turkish J. Med. Ethics 8 (2000), 75-8. Nurses perceptions of ethical health care in France are discussed in Nursing Ethics 8 (2001), 114-22. On values in Western ethics, Dispatches 10 (Oct. 2000), 1. A general paper on bioethics is Macer, D. "Love, the Environment and Bioethics", Turkish J. Med. Ethics 8 (2000), 1-8.

A new book is Neyorud, Peter and Beckley, Alan. Policing, Ethics and Human Rights. Willan Publishing 2001, 240pp. A report from, the UNU conference on a Global Ethos is in UNU Advanced Perspectives (Fall 2000), 1-3. A report on a lecture by Hans Kung by G. Becker is in Ethics and Society Newsletter 8 (Dec. 2000), 12-16. On the history of medical ethics a series of book reviews by CR. Burns is Medical Humanities Review 14 (2000), 35-41. A recently started journal is the Pakistan J. Medical Ethics (Email: ranatqr@cyber.net.pk).

Models of treating patients with compassion, and the principles of the Belmont Report are discussed in HCR 30 (July 2000), 7-21. On the right to refuse treatment and blood transfusion, BME 165 (Feb. 2001), 13-6. Views from an Italian ethics committee are in BME 164 (Jan. 2001), 13-7.

A book review of Needham, J. & Lu GD., Science and Civilisation in China, part 6: Medicine (Cambridge University Press 2000, 261pp.), is JAMA 285 (2001), 1891-2. On translating the concept of liberty in nineteenth century Japan, J. History of Ideas 62 (2001), 161-81. A Confucian reflection on personhood and doctor-patient relationship is JME 27 (2001), 44-50. Hippocratic influences on Plato on medical ethics are discussed in Turkiye Klinikleri J. History of Medicine 1 (2001), 7-10. A paper on Israeli bioethics is Leavitt, F. "Medical ethics in Beer Sheva", Turkiye Klinikleri J. Medical Ethics 9 (2001), 13-20. A new journal has been launched, the Formosan J. Medical Humanities 1 (Number 1, November 2000). Editorial office Email: tai@mercury.csmc.edu.tw.

A recent and excellent small book on Japanese medical ethics is Shinagawa, SN, Tradition, Ethics and Medicine in Japan (Humitas Verlag, 2000, ISBN 3-928366-68-8, 80pp.) A book review on the history of medicine is NS (12 May 2001), 50-1. A new book is Morgan, Derek, Issues in Medical Law and Ethics (Cavendish Publishing, London, 2001, 281pp.). After general introductions to law and ethics for medicine, it discusses several different issues including the legal status of the embryo, ethics of fetal sex identification, genetics, and ethics of dying. On the bioethics of HT Engelhardt, Itinerarium 9 (18 May 2001), 79-88 (In Italian).

Bioethics and business ethics for bioethics consultants are discussed in HCR 31 (March 2001), 9-21. The question of paying persons for entering clinical trials is discussed in NS (3 March 2001), 50-1; JME 26 (2000), 126-30. The medical profession is discussed in J. Health and Social Behavior 42 (2001), 1-16; MJA 174 (2001), 324-5; Lancet 357 (2001), 867-70. Assessment of clinical competence is reviewed in Lancet 357 (2001), 945-9. A survey in Australia found most patients thought doctors should wear white coats, MJA 174 (2001), 343-4. Letters on the changing length of times for a medical consultation are NEJM 344 (2001), 1476-7. The question of future generations rights is discussed in J. Radiological Protection 21 (2001), 113+. On casuistry as a method, SSM 53 (2001), 71-81. Ethics of stakeholders are discussed in MJA 174 (2001), 405-6.

A paper on the ethical sensitivity of nurses in Turkey is Nursing Ethics 8 (2001), 299-312. Evaluation of research ethics committees in Turkey is reported in JME 26 (2000), 459-61. On ethics of nursing in Botswana, Nursing Ethics 8 (2001), 340-9. Israeli psychiatrists have proposed a new law for forced incarceration of mentally ill patients for treatment, Lancet 37 (2001), 1956. In Kenya many patients have no treatment, Lancet 357 (2001), 1274. A paper from East Asia is Neary, I. gRights and psychiatric patients in East Asiah, Japan Forum 12 (2000), 157-68. A delegation form the Council of Europe has suggested to remove Japan as an observer from the Council of Europe because of the inhumane conditions of prisoners in death row and execution of mentally ill patients, Lancet 357 (2001), 941. A UK survey of what patients expect of psychiatric services is SSM 52 (2001), 985-98. Ethics of concealing medication in patientfs food is debated in Lancet 357 (2001), 1369. On informed consent for cancer registries, Lancet 357 (2001), 1536. On confidentiality for physiotherapy, JME 26 (2000), 447-53.

How consumers can improve clinical trials is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 1721; and on promoting trials to the public in Australia, MJA 174 (2001), 202-3. Monitoring safety in trials is discussed in JAMA 285 (2001), 1201-5, 1206-8; BMJ 322 (2001), 603-6. Placebos generally have no significant health benefit, NEJM 344 (2001), 1594-602, 1630-2. A book review of Severed Trust is BMJ 322 (2001), 1253. A study of doctors action when given direct threats from patients finds they generally comply in Denmark, Lancet 357 (2001), 1258-61. Book reviews on new medical ethics books include JAMA 285 (2001), 1075-6, 2134-5, 2787-8, 3149; J. Health Politics, Policy and Law 25 (2000), 979-87. In general on bioethics, MJA 174 (2001), 269-70; JAMA 285 (2001), 2651-2; Ethics 111 (2001), 523-47.

A survey of the readability of written drug information given in Australia to patients is higher than the average person, MJA 174 (2001), 557-8, 575-8; see also SSM 52 (2001), 1417-32. Doctor-patient-child communication is reviewed in SSM 52 (2001), 839-51. On the use of information booklets, BMJ 322 (2001), 1218-21. A practitioner database for poorly performing doctors is seldom used in the USA, Lancet 357 (2001), 1855. Towards a global definition of patient centred care is discussed in BMJ 322 JME 26 (2000), 444-5. In general on consent, BMJ 322 (2001), 459-60. On dignity of older people in healthcare, BMJ 322 (2001), 668-70.

The question of race in medicine is discussed in Phil. Social Sciences 31 (2001), 20-39. On the heart of human nature, Science 292 (2001), 52-3. Refusals of medical procedures by Jehovahfs Witnesses is discussed in JME 26 (2000), 299-301; BMJ 322 (2001), 1123-4.

A study of the ethical dilemmas that shape the development of medical students ethical view is BMJ 322 (2001), 709-10. Separating medical education from pharmaceutical marketing is important, JAMA 285 (2001), 2009-13. The importance of bioethics education for genetic medicine is made in NatBio 19 (2001), 197. Medical education is discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 685-6; JAMA 285 (2001), 2147-8. A study of the impact of unethical behaviour on medical student values is JME 26 (2000), 462-5. Teaching of medical humanity in Argentina has been done for two decades, JME 26 (2000), 66-70. A call for teaching students the meaning of humanity is Nature 411 (2001), 131. A call to deal with bullying is made in JAMA 285 (2001), 2131-2.

The WHO Director-General on 28 August 2001, while speaking at the African Regional Committee meeting in Brazzaville, proposed the establishment of a WHO Health Ethics Initiative. The cross-WHO initiative would focus on ethics in public health, health research, and biotechnology, including genome related work, stem cell research and cloning. The report of an interview with Takako Mitoh, Chair of Nagano College of Nursing, Japan, is in Nursing Ethics 8 (2001), 393-6. Problems of conducting research in developing countries are discussed in Nursing Ethics 8 (2001), 459-68. The first edition of Revista Latinoamericana de Bioetica (in Spanish) has been published, including 207pp. of papers mainly focusing on the Spanish bioethics doctor Javier Gafo Fernandez. For the journal contact: Manual Sanmiguel Buenaventura, Email: gacrdona@santander.umng.edu.co. A paper in Italian proposing a Mediterranean bioethics is in Bioetica e Cultura 11 (No. 1, 2001), 5-26. On the ethics of anthropology research, SA (June 2001), 25. Evidence-based medicine and ethics is discussed in MJA 175 (2001), 161-4. Consensus on ethical issues is needed for the intensive care team, SSM 53 (2001), 707-19.

A new encyclopedia in French has been published, Hottois, G. & Missa, J-N., eds., Nouvelle encyclopedie de bioethique (De Boeck, 922pp., French, ISBN 2-8041-3712-0). A book review of Making Social Science Matter is Science 293 (2001), 53. On qualitative research guidelines, Lancet 358 (2001), 483-8. A series of papers on Amartya Sen's philosophy and economics are in Economics and Philosophy 17 (2001), 1-88. Volunteer work can increase well being, J. Health & Social Behaviour 42 (2001), 115-31. On feminism in women's health, SSM 53 (2001), 553-67.

A paper on the practicality of bioethics is O'Neill, O. "Practical principles and practical judgment", HCR 31 (July 2001), 15-23. Further papers on moral theory are in HCR 31 (July 2001), 24-31, 32-40. Methodology of bioethics research and literature studies are discussed in HCR 31 (May 2001), 36-43; Science 293 (2001), 605. Scientists often use mathematics to give the illusion of certainty, Nature 412 (2001), 589. Religion and bioethics are discussed in HCR 31 (May 2001), 44-6; Lancet 358 (2001), 429; JAMA 286 (2001), 465-6. On Islamic bioethics, Pakistan J. Medical Ethics 4 (2001), 14-18; Lancet 358 (2001), 159. Democracy is discussed in Byk, C. "Democracy and bioethical controversies", BME 168 (May 2001), 13-5.

The impact of technology on the relationship between doctor and patient is debated in Newsweek (25 June 2001), 53. Letters of condolence are discussed in NEJM 345 (2001), 374-5. The question of a social contract for medicine is discussed in BMJ 323 (2001), 64; Lancet 358 (2001), 253. A report of male physician's narratives from being in ethically difficult care situations is in SSM 53 (2001), 657-67. A book review of Communicating with Today's Patient is JAMA 286 (2001), 725. Also on patient-physician relationship, SSM 53 (2001), 639-56; BMJ 323 (2001), 3-4.

India is trying to stop the recent growth in ill-equipped medical and dental colleges, Lancet 358 (2001), 134. Educating professionalism is reviewed in NEJM 345 (2001), 227-8.

A paper on comparative bioethics is Macer, D. "Bioethics in Japan and East Asia", Turkish J. Medical Ethics 9 (2001), 70-7. Japan has revised its schemes for clinical trials, Nature 413 (2001), 8. The question of Gandhi and non-violence in Nepal is raised in Lancet 358 (2001), 1017. In general on medical ethics, NEJM 345 (2001), 991-3. The question of a clinical ethics service in Australia is discussed in MJA 175 (2001), 211-3. The contribution of Moses Maimonides to the biopsychosocial approach to clinical medicine is reviewed in Lancet 358 (2001), 829-32. The duty to treat is discussed in Oxford J. Legal Studies 21 (2001), 393-413. Catholic bioethics is reviewed in CMAJ 165 (2001), 189-92.

The question of withholding proven treatment in clinical research is discussed in NEJM 345 (2001), 912-4. On the ethics of placebo-controlled trials, NEJM 345 (2001), 915-9. On the ethics of clinical trials, NatMed. 7 (2001), 991; Lancet 358 (2001), 763-4, 839-40; JAMA 286 (2001), 1577-8; MJA 175 (2001), 241; BMJ 323 (2001), 441-2. Recruitment of women to clinical trials is discussed in Lancet 358 (2001), 853. Anderson JA, and Weijer C, "The research subject as entrepreneur", American J. Bioethics 1 (2001), 67-9. Sham neurosurgery in patients with Parkinson's disease is questioned in JME 27 (2001), 151-6.

Obtaining informed consent from patients who take part in the training of medical students is discussed in BMJ 323 (2001), 488, 638. A defense of autonomy in psychiatric health care is Turkish J. Medical Ethics 9 (2001), 59-69. Racial barriers may hamper care of persons with Alzheimer disease in the USA, JAMA 286 (2001), 779-80. Gender can also alter access for mental health problems, SSM 53 (2001), 865-78. Patient informed consent is discussed in BMJ 323 (2001), 414, 466-7, 584-5; Lancet 358 (2001), 523, 571-4. Competence and consent are discussed in MJA 175 (2001), 313-5. On ethics of Mental illness, JME 27 (2001), 297-301.

An investigation of emotional engagement in moral judgment is Science 293 (2001), 2105-7. Ethics in crisis is discussed in Gray JD. "The problem of consent in emergency medicine research", Can J Emergency Med. 3 (2001), 213-8. Truth-telling and patient diagnoses is discussed in JME 27 (2001), 192-7.

A position statement on the ethics core curriculum for Australasian medical schools is in MJA 175 (2001), 205-10. Professional guidelines for doctors are discussed in MJA 175 (2001), 183-4. Teaching human dimensions in clinical care is discussed in JAMA 286 (2001), 1067-74. Bullying is discussed in JAMA 286 (2001), 787-8. A new book is Parker M and Dickenson D. eds., The Cambridge Medical Ethics Workbook. Cambridge University Press, 2001. Revalidation of retired doctors is questioned in BMJ 323 (2001), 701. On sex discrimination, NS (18 August 2001), 13; BMJ 323 (2001), 400-1.

The Round Table of Ministers of Science on "Bioethics: International Implications" took place from 22-23 October 2001 at UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, France. Priori to the meeting there was an Email forum discussion, and at the meeting the Basic concepts and principles of bioethics. Current issues in bioethics. Institutional and regulatory norms and systems: the rationale for a universal text on bioethics. Consciousness-raising, information, education and public debate; were all discussed. A communique is available on the UNESCO bioethics homepage. The focus is on human rights.

The Eighth Session of the International Bioethics Committee of UNESCO (IBC) took place from 12 - 14 September 2001, at UNESCO House, Paris, France. Advice on the patentability of the human genome was adopted by consensus by the International Bioethics Committee of UNESCO (IBC) at the outcome of its Eighth Session on 14 September 2001. The documents discussed at the meeting are on-line, including draft Reports on the "Collection, Treatment, Storage and Use of Genetic Data", and on the Follow-up of the International Symposium on "Ethics, Intellectual Property and Genomics".

The Report of the COMEST Sub-Commission on The Ethics of Energy, and the Final report on the Meeting of the COMEST Sub-commission on The Ethics of Outer Space UNESCO Headquarters, are accessible at the UNESCO homepage.

A general review is Macer, DRJ. "Bioethics in Japan and East Asia", Turkish Journal of Medical Ethics 9 (2001), 70-77. A series of papers on intercultural communication are published from the International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Crossing Cultural Borders: Towards an Ethics of Intercultural Communication \ Beyond Reciprocal Anthropology, International Symposium 14, 1999. 325pp. The question of how much a physician should inquire about a persons religion is discussed in HCR 31 (Sept. 2001), 29-39. Book reviews on Bioethics in America include HCR 31 (Sept. 2001), 40-45. Universal bioethics is discussed in Bioethics Research Notes 13 (June 2001), 13-14. An interview with Madam Lin Ju Ying, of the Chinese Nurses Association is in Nursing Ethics 8 (2001), 484-6. A series of papers on general bioethics are in Formosan Journal of Medical Humanities 2 (Oct. 2001). It includes a review, Macer, DRJ. (2001) New Technology Ethics. Formosan Journal of Medical Humanities 2 (2001), 41-7. The proceedings of the 1st National Conference on Health Social Science in the Philippines are available on the websitehttp://www.phssa.org/

Informed patients can change the nature of healthcare, Pathways 2 (Oct. 2001), 26-9; BMJ 323 (2001), 1144, 1298-300; Lancet 358 (2001), 1742-3, 1772-7; MJA 175(2001), 537-9; Takayama, T. et al. gRelationship between outpatientsf perceptions of physiciansf communication styles and patientsf anxiety levels in a Japanese oncology settingh, SSM 53 (2001), 1335-50. On the perceptions of patients and doctors, BMJ 323 (2001), 908-11. Trust in healthcare institutions is discussed in HCR 31 (Nov. 2001), 26-33. On empathy, BMJ 323 (2001), 1373; JAMA 286 (2001), 1897-902. Spirituality and well being is explored in SSM 53 (2001), 1503-11.

Global issues can be useful for teaching, Lancet 358 (2001), 1539-42. A paper on ethics education is Watanabe, Y. "Ethics education for pharmacy students", J. Health Care, Med. & Community 20 (2001), 3-11.

A report from Canada is Downie, J. & Cottrell, B. "Community-based research ethics review: Reflections on experience and recommendations for action", Health Law Review 10 (2001), 8-17. Several papers on research in poor countries are in Issues in Medical Ethics 9 (2001), 111-9. A series of papers from a 2001 meeting in Taiwan have been published, National Health Research Institutes (2001), Proceedings of the 2001 Taiwan International Symposium on Applied Ethics in Human Research \ Human Subjects Research, ISBN 957-02-8998-8, 178pp. For copies contact: yts@nhri.org.tw. A review on local ethics review committees in the UK is BME 171 (2001), 13-21. Placeboes are discussed in Science 294 (2001), 785; NEJM 345 (2001), 1276-9. Selecting participants for clinical trials, MJA 175 (2001), 490-1.

On slippery slope arguments, Oxford J. Legal Studies 21 (2001), 629-47. Natural law is discussed in J. History of Ideas (2001), 381-99. On philosophy, Khroutski, K. gIntroducing philosophical cosmologyh, World Futures 57 (2001), 201-12. A new book, Singer, Peter, Writings on an Ethical Life is reviewed in BMJ 323 (2001), 940. In general on bioethics, JAMA 286 (2001), 2656-7.

Medical education in Albania, and in general is discussed in Croatian Med. J 43 (2002), 45-53. Students opinion on the disclosure of true diagnosis in Croatia is reported in Croatian Med. J43 (2002), 75-9.

A series of 7 papers on negotiating consensus in bioethics is in CQHE 11 (2002), 7-67. A new book based on a Ph.D thesis is Salvi, Maurizio. Rationalising Individuality. The notion of individuality in biology, philosophy, (bio)ethics. 300pp. Please contact the author (Maurizio.Salvi@cec.eu.int).


A new report from the Nuffield Council on Bioethics is: The ethics of research related to healthcare in developing countries (London: Nuffield Council on Bioethics, 205pp., April 2002). They recommend that the development of local expertise in the provision of healthcare and in healthcare research should be an integral component of any proposed research. They also discuss local consent criteria, and the need to make researchers aware of the ethical issues related to the research.

A series of 17papers under the theme "The Birth of Tardiness. The Formation of Time Consciousness in Modern Japan", are in Nichibunken Japan Review 14 (2002), 1-238. A series of papers on the legacy of Van R. Potter are in Itinerarium 10 (20, 2002), 77-156. A paper on feminism in China is Nie, J.B., "Foreign lenses and native concerns: Significance of Western feminism for bioethics in China", Ethics and Society Newsletter 9 (Jan. 2002), 3-16.

Teaching ethics for nurses is discussed in Nursing Ethics 9 (2002), 259-68.

The issues of medical ethics for mentally ill persons are reviewed in Schuerich, N. "Moral attitudes and mental disorders", HCR 32 (March 2002), 14-21.

Competence for Alzheimer's patients in research is CQHE 11 (2002), 230-45. Privacy for patients in the forensic department of a psychiatric clinic is discussed in Nursing Ethics 9 (2002), 347-60. Privacy for patients in a Ukrainian prison is reported in Nursing Ethics 9 (2002), 361-72.

A report on bioethics consultations in the private sector is HCR 32 (May 2002), 14-22. Improved health can result from a good hospital environment, NS (22 June 2002), 38-41. Ethics and neuroscience is discussed in The Economist (25 May 2002), 83-6.

A Japanese translation of the Eubios Declaration is in J. Health Care, Medicine and Community 21 (2002), 98-108. On Eubios Ethics Institute, see Perspectives 20 (Spring 2001), 7-9. Informed consent during surgery in the Ottoman empire is discussed in Turkish J. Medical Ethics, Law and History 10 (2002), 163-7. Papers on what is Catholic bioethics are in National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 1 (2001), 7-94. On protestant bioethics, CMAJ 166 (2002), 339-43. On empathy, JAMA 287 (2002), 1052-3. The medical profession and government is discussed in BMJ 324 (2002), 838-42. The ethics of questionnaire based research are discussed in JME 28 (2002), 41-4.

Research in developing countries and a review of the Nuffield Council of Bioethics report is BME 177 (April 2002), 13-7. Limiting factors on first person informed consent in the Philippines are discussed in Developing World Bioethics 2 (2002), 21-7. In other developing countries, Bioethics 15 (2001), 398-412. A paper on rights is Dallmayr, F. "'Asian Values' and global human rights", Philosophy East and West 52 (2002), 173-89. The revised principles of the American Medical Association are in BME 177 (April 2002), 3-4. Risk and human trials are discussed in Bioethics 15 (2001), 341-70. Unethical conduct in the design of underpowered clinical trials is criticized in JAMA 288 (2002), 358-62. It is difficult to know if you are part of a randomized clinical trial, SSM 55 (2002), 709-19; JME 28 (2002), 45-8. The results should be informed, JAMA 288 (2002), 363-5. On autonomy, Economist (18 May 2002), 83. Sometimes decisions by patients will be considered irrational, BMJ 324 (2002), 497-8. In general on bioethics, JAMA 287 (2002), 1582-3. The evolution in the length of time for medical consultations in the UK is discussed in BMJ 324 (2002), 880-2. A study found important knowledge deficits in survivors of childhood cancer, JAMA 287 (2002), 1832-9.

A paper on changes in practical ethics is Beauchamp, TL. "Changes of climate in the development of practical ethics", Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (2002), 131-8. Ethics of research physicians in private practice are discussed in HCR 32 (4) (2002), 22-6. A supplement on Ethics and Trusteeship for Health care discussing the roles of hospital boards is in HCR 32 (4) (2002), S1-28. The guidelines of the St. Thomas hospital bioethics committee are in Southeast Asian Center for Bioethics Bioethics Newsletter 14 (June 2002), 1-2. Discussion of US IRBs is in AJPH 92 (2002), 1067-70; and on Australian committees, Bioethics 15 (2001), 443-60.

A call for China to improve psychiatric standards is in Lancet 360 (2002), 627. The stigma of mental disease in Japan is discussed in Lancet 359 (2002), 1866. Most patients are hospitalized in Japan. Papers on equality and disability are in JME 27 (2001), 361-97. Consent difficulties are discussed in Lancet 359 (2002), 83. The US Supreme Court has decided that mentally retarded prisoners should not be executed, Lancet 359 (2002), 903. One can wonder why it took them so long to recognize the ethical issue. The mistreatment of foreign prisoners by the USA is criticized in BMJ 324 (2002), 187. Telemedicine is discussed in JAMA 288 (2002), 423-5. Ethics of domestic violence research is discussed in Lancet 3590 (2002), 1599-604. Competence in delivery of bad news is discussed in SSM 54 (2002), 1011-23.

Attitudes to bioethics in Sweden are surveyed, SSM 54 (2002), 1333-44. Nursing is discussed in NEJM 346 (2002), 1757-66; NS (8 Dec. 2001), 15. There is declining altruism in medicine, BMJ 325 (2002), 624-5. Workplace bullying in junior doctors is reported in BMJ 324 (2002), 878-9.

A series of 9 papers on early US bioethics, including memoriams to V.R. Potter are in CQHE 11 (2002), 326-400. A memoriam to V.R. Potter is Alpha Omega IV (2001), 587-92.  On the role of physicians in medicine today, Itinerarium 10 (No. 22, Sept. 2002), 57-80; Dispatches 11 (July 2002), 4-11; Becker, GK. "The moral identity of professional medicine", Turkish J. Medical Ethics, Law and History 10 (Nov. 2002), 237-42. . Patient autonomy and patient advocacy arediscussed in Nursing Ethics 9 (2002), 472-82. An edited book on empirical studies is Fernado, LS. & Lorenzo, A.C., eds., Interfaces between Bioethics and The Empirical Social Sciences (PAHO-WHO, 2002, 110pp.).

The Nuffield Council on Bioethics has published many reports and seeks persons to order copies of their reports. They can also be downloaded for free, or obtained on a CD. Bioethics and human rights in Greece are discussed in Law and the Human Genome Review 16 (Jan. 2002), 37-58.

Children's decision making is discussed in Hyun, Insoo, "Waiver of informed consent, cultural sensitivity, and the problems of unjust families and traditions", HCR 32 (Sept. 2002), 14-22. Itinerarium 10 (No. 22, Sept. 2002), 33-56; Nursing Ethics 9 (2002), 583-98. Substituted judgment is discussed in Nursing Ethics 9 (2002), 483-92. A paper on older persons ethical problems involving their health is Nursing Ethics 9 (2002), 537-56. A paper on the physicians response to treating a hunger strike is BME 181 (2002), 13-18.

The Health Council of the Netherlands has published a report Dementia, which can be ordered free of charge or downloaded (www.gr.nl) (Nr. 2002/04E, 12 March 2002). 194pp. The ethical issues of feeding patients suffering from dementia are discussed in Nursing Ethics 9 (2002), 599-611.

A new book is Pollard, Irina, Life, Love and Children: A Practical Introduction to Bioscience Ethics and Bioethics (Kluwer Academic 2002, ISBN 1-4020-7294-5, 268pp.) The Wellcome trust is funding research on ethically sound research in the developing world, BMJ 325 (2002), 986.

A discussion of informed consent for standard and experimental therapy is in AJLM 28 (2002), 361-408. Children's decision making is discussed in AJLM 28 (2002), 409-54. Public preferences for informed choice when faced with risks are discussed in Public Understanding of Science. 11 (2002), 363-72. A discussion of how to check whether ethics review is working is in BME 183 (Nov. 2002), 6-11. A series of papers, mostly from members of the IAB Board, on the empirical relevance of bioethics and international experience on ethics committees are in Notizie di Politeia 18 (No. 67, 2002), 3-200. A paper on Asia is Macer, DRJ. "Delays in implementing the lessons from empirical studies on bioethics to ethics committees in Asia", Notizie di Politeia 18 (No. 67, 2002), 25-39.  Also on ethics committees, BMJ 325 (2002), 1081; AJPH 92 (2002), 1079-83; NEJM 347 (2002), 1402-4.

A paper which describes how many patients are not advised that they could get the same treatments from other doctors without entering the clinical trial raises ethical issues, Lancet 361 (2003), 63-7. A UK court decision has confirmed that patients can refuse medical treatment, JME 28 (2002), 232-3.

A report from the Padua bioethics service is BME 183 (Nov. 2002), 13-5. A anthropological study of the stories of patients and doctors is HCR 32 (Nov. 2002), 14-22.

A discussion of the behaviour of persons with dementia is in HCR 32 (Nov. 2002), 23-8. Japan is considering renaming schizophrenia, Lancet 361 (2003), 181.

Discussion of the behaviourome project of Darryl Macer is in Discover 24 (March 2003), 12. Empirical studies in bioethics are reviewed in BME 184 (Jan. 2003), 13-24.

Violence and mental health is discussed in Issues in Medical Ethics 11 (2003), 13-6. A review of emotions and fear is Discover 24 (March 2003), 32-9. Discussion of doctors treating persons associated with them in personal relationships is discussed in Lancet 361 (2003), 440.

   A paper on China is Dšring, O. " Science and society: China's struggle for practical regulations in medical ethics",  Nature Reviews Genetics 4 (2003), 233-9.

The description in the Book of Daniel in the Bible of a clinical trial is discussed in NEJM 348 (2003), 83.

The under-reporting of clinical trials is considered unethical in Pich, J. et al. "Role of a research ethics committee in follow-up and publication of results", Lancet 361 (2003), 1015-6, 978-9. UK clinical trial regulations are discussed in BME 185 (2003), 2-6, 7-9; 186 (2003), 3-4. Ethics guidelines in Australian NHMRC on research relating to Aboriginal persons research are reviewed in NZ Bioethics J. 4 (Feb. 2003), 14-30.

Informed consent during clinical emergencies of myocardial infarction was tested in Lancet 361 (2003), 918-22. Cross-cultural barriers to informed consent are discussed in Issues in Medical Ethics 11 (2003), 49-51. Ethics for international nursing research are discussed in Nursing Ethics 10 (2003), 122-37.  Papers on autonomy include J. Clinical Ethics 13 (2002), 57-62, 72-7. Paternalism is discussed in Bioethics 16 (2002), 231+. Over-medicalization of problems, or somatic fixation, is discussed in SSM 56 (2003), 1135-8.

Issues in developing countries are discussed in Bhardwaj, M. and Macer, DRJ. (2003) "Policy and ethical issues in applying medical biotechnology in developing countries", Medical Science Monitor 9: RA49-54. Book reviews of Roy Porter, Blood and Guts: A Short History of Medicine (W.W. Norton, 2003, 208pp.) are in Lancet 361 (2003), 975. Bioethics and Orthodox Greek tradition is discussed in Law and the Human Genome Review 17 (July 2002), 75-82.

A new book is Fogel, JA. & Baxter, JC. Historiography and Japanese Consciousness of Values and Norms (International Research Center for Japanese Studies, 2002, 242pp.). A review of the activities of Japan Secret Police in 1937-1945 revealed a similar level of verbal subversion and satire against the war and Emperor compared to other countries, Japan Review 15 (2003), 127-51. A brief paper on bioethics in Japan is in CQHE 12 (2003), 261-4. Japanese nurses ideas on patient advocacy are discussed in Nursing Ethics 10 (2003), 404-13. A comparison is made in Pang, SM. et al. "A comparative study of Chinese, American and Japanese nurses' perceptioNS of ethical role responsibilities", Nursing Ethics 10 (2003), 295-311. Family centred decision making is discussed in CQHE 12 (2003), 196-200.

A call for changing the term lethal disease to something less threatening is made in HCR 33 (March 2003), 37-41. A UK survey found patients prefer to have medical names than common names for diseases, BMJ 326 (2003), 1105. The reasonable limits of use of doctors time are discussed in BMJ 326 (2003), 1277. Papers on medical professionalism are in CQHE 12 (2003), 141-86.

The ethics of clinical research is discussed in HCR 33 (May 2003), 2-3, 19-28; BMJ 326 (2003), 1199-201. The statement of the Pontifical Academy for Life on "Ethics of biomedical research for a Christian Vision" is in Southeast Asian Center for Bioethics Bioethics Newsletter XV (March 2003), 1-4. An English translation of a recent French National Bioethics Committee report on doing phase 1 studies of cytotoxic drugs in cancer patients is BME 187 (2003), 20-1.

The decision making for children in research is discussed in Health Law Review 11 (No. 2, 2003), 20-9. Ethical issues in medical education are discussed in 10 papers in CQHE 12 (2003), 1-115.

The Final Communique from the 9th General Assembly of the Pontifical Academy for Life (PAV) on "Ethics of Biomedical Research for a Christian Vision" is in Southeast Asian Center for Bioethics (SEACB) Bioethics Newsletter 15 (March-April 2003), 1-4. Guidance on applying to a REC in the EU is given in BME 189 (June 2003), 10-11. A report from a clinical trial in Thailand is Issues in Medical Ethics 11 (July 2003), 89-90. Guidance from the European Group on Ethics on ethical aspects of biomedical research in developing countries is in BME 188 (May 2003), 9-11. A comparative survey of the ethical role responsibilities of Chinese, American and Japanese nurses is Nursing Ethics 10 (2003), 295-311. Professionalism is discussed in CQHE 12 (2003), 144-86.

Family-centred decision making is discussed in CQHE 12 (2003), 196-200. A survey in the UK has found that 95% of neonatal units in the UK did not obtain parental consent to what they called routine procedures, including initiation of mechanical ventilation, BME 188 (May 2003), 1, 17-9. On the difficulty to read informed consent forms, BME 188 (May 2003), 3-4. Informed consent is part of scientific research, Lancet 361 (2003), 2171.

Ethics in medical photographs are discussed in Issues in Medical Ethics 11 (July 2003), 83-4.

Research risks can eventually become risks to research, Law and the Human Genome Review 17 (2002), 23-30; and on clinical trials, BMJ 326 (2003), 304, 1456-7; Lancet 361 (2003), 978-9, 1296-7; NEJM 348 (2003), 1377-80, 1383-6; JAMA 288 (2002), 2118-9; Science 298 (2002), 923. On a clinical trial of ventilators, Science 300 (2003), 122-3; 301 (2003), 149.  German guidelines on research ethics are in Law and the Human Genome Review 17 (2002), 57-74. Placebos are discussed in Science 299 (2003), 995; 302 (2003), 1659, 61; BMJ 325 (2002), 560, 1329-31; NEJM 347 (2002), 137-9. Discussion of bioethics committees is in Bioethics 17 (2003), 301-368; JAMA 290 (2003), 360-6; Lancet 361 (2003), 978, 1015-6. Case of an unethical Singapore clinical trial are disclosed in Lancet 361 (2003), 1277.

On informed consent and law, Catholic Medical Quarterly 54 (2003), 12-20; BMJ 327 (2003), 285-6; Lancet 361 (2003), 2171. Informed consent is also discussed in JAMA 289 (2003), 1963-8; European J. Health Law 9 (2002), 287-91, 293-320; BMJ 324 (2002), 39-41; 326 (2003), 1039; 327 (2003), 284-6; NEJM 348 (2003), 1496-7. The readability of informed consent forms is discussed in NEJM 347 (2002), 2134-40; 348 (2003), 2262-3; JME 28 (2002), 45-8; Lancet 360 (2002), 1266, 1301-2. Communicating risks is discussed in BMJ 326 (2003), 1276, 1333-4; 327 (2003), 691-6, 725-8, 728-31, 731-6, 736-41, 741-5, 745-9; Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 3 (2000), 239-275; Prenatal Diagnosis 22 (2002), 1188-94; JAMA 289 (2003), 92, 93, 95. A UK survey found many patients do not know about drugs, BMJ 327 (2003), 180. Patient preferences need to be respected, BMJ 326 (2003), 373-6, 520, 569, 674, 877-9; 327 (2003), 303-4, 542-5; SSM 57 (2003), 1969-80. On protecting the vulnerable in research, Bioethics 17 (2003), 399-416, 460-86; NZ Med. J. 115 (2002), 23-4. Child consent is discussed in Nursing Ethics 10 (2003), 504-11; BMJ 326 (2003), 64-5. Perceptions in mental illness on treatment are discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 697, 824-5; Lancet 361 (2003), 2096-7. On refusals of treatment by mentally ill persons, NEJM 349 (2003), 1392. Refusals by persons with anorexia nervosa is discussed in Bioethics 17 (2003), 261-89.

Responsibility is discussed in The Monist 85 (2002), 398-435. Rawl's defense of the priority of liberty is discussed in Phil. & Public Affairs 31 (2003), 246-71. Papers on G.E. Moore's Principia Ethica are in Ethics 113 (2003), 465-677. On Hegel's love and law, Social Research 70 (2003), 393-432. On idealism and ethics, Philosophical Studies 114 (2003), 1-22. Aristotle on consciousness is reviewed in Mind 111 (2002), 751-816. Reviews of Kass, LR., Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity, are NEJM 348 (2003), 766-8;  JAMA 289 (2003), 2869-70. On the slippery slope, Harvard Law Review 116 (2003), 1026-1137.

Not telling the truth is discussed in Bioethics 17 (2003), 417-24. Patient decision making and Confucianism is discussed in Croatian Medical J. 44 (2003), 558-661. On democracy and Confucian values, Philosophy East & West 52 (2002), 281-310; 53 (2003), 39-63.  Japanese medical ethics is discussed in Lancet 361 (2003), 2058; SSM 55 (2002), 301-11. On Jewish medical ethics, BMJ 327 (2003), 169; NEJM 348 (2003), 1299-300. A series of 4 articles on health care ethics in Turkey are in Nursing Ethics 10 (2003), 459-503.  Reasoning in bioethics is discussed in Bioethics 17 (2003), 243-60; Science 298 (2002), 2335. On conservative bioethics and paradoxes about life, BME 190 (2003), 17-24. A European network on ethics , Eurethnet is described in BIOforum Europe (Aug. 2003), 180-2. Patients are expecting more of doctors according to a recent survey, BMJ 327 (2003), 581.

Bioethics and rural health is discussed in SSM 56 (2003), 2277-88. On cross-cultural medical ethics, Bhardwaj, M. & Macer, DRJ., "Policy and ethical issue sin applying medical biotechnology in developing countries", Medical Science Monitor 9 (2003), RA49-54. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 17 (2003), 3-4; Bulletin WHO 81 (2003), 306; Science 300 (2003), 573-4; Lancet 360 (2002), 1992; 361 (2003), 1309; BMJ 325 (2002), 1493-5; JAMA 289 (2003), 94; NEJM 347 (2002), 1087-9. Interactions between doctors and cancer patients are discussed in SSM 57 (2003), 791-806. On feminist ethics, SSM 56 (2003), 1643-52; Health Care Analysis 9 (2001), 115-246.

Obituaries to Dorothy Wertz include: Bioethics 17 (4, 2003), v; and Dorothy Nelkin, Lancet 362 (2003), 497. Links to drug companies are discussed in BMJ 326 (2003), 1352; Science 297 (2002), 2211.

Papers on gender in India and religion are in Dharma Deepaka 7 (2003), 45-68. A study of books and journals on medical ethics in the Turkish republic period is Turkish J. Medical Ethics 4 (2003), 240-5. Empirical bioethics is discussed in Health Care Analysis 11 (2003), 3-13. Papers on ethics in indigenous health research are discussed in Monash Bioethics Review 22 (Oct. 2003), 8-44.

ObligatioNS of researchers to subjects for clinical care is discussed in HCR 34 (Jan. 2004), 25-33. Divergent standards for consent in research are reviewed in BME 194 (2004), 13-21. The information materials are also often difficult to read for participants, BME 192 (2004), 13-6. The guidelines of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences on research on prisoners are in BME 192 (2004), 7-11. A series of papers from a conference on Placebos: Ethics and Health Care Research are in Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (2004), 1-197. Papers on ethics committees include New Zealand Bioethics J. 4 (2003), 8-15.

The role of Japanese NGOs and the Hermit Crabs Home mental health project is Nursing Ethics 11 (2004), 203-4.

A discussion of human dignity is in CQHE 13 (2004), 7-14.

A common operational guideline for ethical review of translational research is in Rinsho Hyoka (Clinical Evaluation) 31 (2004), 485-96.
A paper on teaching ethics to Mexican AmericaNS is in Formosan J. Medical Humanities 5 (2004), 3-13. Altruistic motives in nursing students and nurses are discussed in Nursing Ethics 11 (2004), 225-289. Papers on the history of philosophy in Portuguese are in Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 60 (2004), 3-214.

           Two volumes of conference proceedings on Turkish medical ethics and international issues in Turkish and English are Erdemir, A.D. et al., eds., Third National Congress of Medical Ethics Congress Proceedings Book (Bursa: F. Ozhan Matbaacilik, 2003; 1232pp.). A comment on global bioethics and European culture by Christian Byk is in BME 196 (2004), 24. Balancing traditional values with those of academic medicine is discussed in Croatian Medical J. 45 (2004), 259-63. On cross cultural medicine, NEJM 349 (2003), 1878; and bioethics, JAMA 291 (2004), 2131-2; and interdisciplinary innovation, JAMA 291 (2004), 1005-6. Ethics for national responsibility are discussed in Ethics 114 (2004), 215-300. Disclosure of details in policy decisions is discussed in  Science 304 (2004), 1447-9.

           Democracy and Confucian values are discussed in Philosophy East & West 53 (2003), 39-63. Spirituality and medicine is discussed in JAMA 290 (2003), 3008; NEJM 350 (2004), 1176-8. A discussion of who is our neighbour and moral distance is in The Monist 86 (2003), 327-515. Compassion is discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1682, 1944; 363 (2004), 1654; MJA 179 (2003), 569-70; Bo Mou, "A reexamination of the structure and content of Confucius' Version of the Golden Rule", Philosophy East & West 54 (2004), 218-48. Ethics in ICU is discussed in JAMA 290 (2003), 3191-2. Dignity is criticized in BMJ 327 (2003), 1419-20. Narrative and ethical reasoning in the clinic is discussed in SSM 58 (2004), 1635-45.

           A discussion and debate over use of 4 principles of medical ethics is in JME 29 (2003), 267-309. A report from the CMA ethicist and ombudsman is in CMAJ 169 (2003), 674-5. Patient satisfaction is discussed in NEJM 350 (2004), 69-75; BMJ 328 (2004), 54, 416-7; SSM 57 (2003), 2465-70. Professional-patient relationships are discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 401, 1114; 328 (2004), 57, 864-7, 1227-9; JAMA 290 (2003), 2543-4; 291 (2004), 2359-66. A case of informed consent is seen in the 1845 Edgar Allen Poe story, The facts of the case of M. Valdemar, Lancet 362 (2003), 1504. On informed consent, BMJ 327 (2003), 1159-61; SSM 58 (2004), 2313-24. The tyranny of choice is discussed in SA (April 2004), 42-7. Cancer patients refusals of treatment is discussed in SSM 58 (2004), 2325-36; also pp. 379-90, 2445-57.

           Consent in clinical trials in the EU is under debate, Lancet 363 (2004), 785; BMJ 328 (2004), 140-1. India is relaxing rules on clinical trials, Lancet 363 (2004), 1528-9; NatMed. 10 (2004), 440. Statistics in clinical trials is discussed in Science 303 (2004), 784-6. Placebos are discussed in Science & Engineering Ethics 10 (2004), 23-8; SSM 58 (2004), 811-24. Ethics in medical research in developing countries is discussed in JME 30 (2004), 68-72; Science 302 (2003), 2056; NatMed. 10 (2004), 321; Nature 429 (2004), 491; and on vulnerable populations, Lancet 362 (2003), 1857-8; Science 303 (2004), 1142-3. A survey of public attitudes to the use of primacy care public patient record data in medical research without consent is JME 30 (2004), 104-9. It is impractical to gain informed consent in some research, as seen in the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network, NEJM 350 (2004), 1414-21. Controversy over phase 3 trials of PolyHeme and lack of consent are in NatBio 22 (2004), 372; NS (24 April 2004), 20-1. Drug companies should publish results of all trials, NS (6 March 2004), 19. Also on ethics of clinical trials, BMJ 327 (2003), 1041-3, 1280-2; 328 (2004), 121-2; SSM 58 (2004), 1689-97; MJA 180 (2004), 63-6, 336-8; Science 304 (2004), 1009-1111.

           On discrimination against women in science and medicine, Science 303 (6 Feb. 2004). Language is a barrier for Chinese Americans seeking mental health, AJPH 94 (2004), 809-14. Research in medical psychiatry is discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1732. Decision models in Japanese psychiatry are reviewed in SSM 59 (2004), 83-91. Self-reports in research with non-English speakers may be a problem if the research is done in English, BMJ 327 (2003), 352-3. Use of socioeconomic evidence in clinical practice guidelines is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 1283-5. US doctors have requested payment for email communication with patients, BMJ 328 (2004), 1155.

A paper looking at Francisco de Vitoria and the pre-Hobbesian roots of natural rights theory is Alpha Omega VII (April 2004), 47-60. A study of why bioethicists seek for informed consent is in HCR 34 (May 2004), 28-34; and on surgical consent, Lancet 364 (2004), 659, 812-3. Research in children is discussed in JME 30 (2004), 176-81. The ethical issues of using child translators for medical decisions are discussed in HCR 34 (May 2004), 10-2. Ethics in different countries are discussed in CQHE 13 (2004), 215-282; Turkish J. Medical Ethics 12 (2004), 92-103. Informed consent in Egypt is discussed in Nursing Ethics 11 (2004), 394-9. Empirical studies on informed consent in China are in J. Clinical Ethics 15 (2004), 61-75; and on India, JME 30 (2004), 318-23. A book review of Crawford, SC. Hindu Bioethics for the Twenty-First Century (SUNY Series in Religious Studies, 226pp.) is JAMA 291 (2004), 2759-60. Medical ethics in Somalia is discussed in BMJ 329 (2004), 119. On a cosmist perspective in biomedicine, Calicut Medical J. 2 (2004), e7.

 Ethical dilemmas found in Turkey are reported in Nursing Ethics 11 (2004), 444-58; and from Hungary, BME 197 (April 2004), 13-7. On truth-telling, Nursing Ethics 11 (2004), 500-13. The UK mental capacity law revision is discussed in BME 199 (July 2004), 13-8. On parental refusal of consent, BME 197 (April 2004), 22-3. Virtue ethics is discussed in Ethics 114 (2004), 458-91. Compassion is discussed in SACB Bioethics Newsletter XVI (Sept. 2004), 1-3; and a book review of The Renewal of Generosity is JAMA 292 (2004), 981-2; BMJ 329 (2004), 355. On medical ethics, BMJ 329 (2004), 126. Clinical guideline development is discussed in Lancet 364 (2004), 392-3, 429-37; Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 551. On the doctor-patient relationship, Sociology of Health & Illness 26 (2004), 135-58. On human health research ethics, Science 305 (2004), 949. Autonomy is discussed in Bioethics 18 (2004), 87-119.

Disparities in participation in cancer clinical trials are discussed in JAMA 292 (2004), 922-3. The benefits and risks of medical treatment are discussed in BMJ 329 (2004), 7-8, 457-9. A clinical trial database is being developed in Europe, NatMed. 10 (2004), 555; and on the ethics of why companies should deposit their trial data, NS (26 June 2004), 5; NatBio 22 (2004), 936. On the ethics of conjoined twins, JAMA 291 (2004), 2761-2. Intellectual disability is discussed in BMJ 329 (2004), 414-5; NS (10 July 2004), 38-41; Romeo-Casabona, CM. "Legal perspectives in novel psychiatric treatment and related research", Poiesis Prax 2 (2004), 315-28; and compulsory psychiatric treatment, BMJ 329 (2004), 136-8. Acute ethics consultation is discussed in MJA 181 (2004), 180-1, 204-6.


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