Vaccines & Diseases News

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This file includes links to papers published by Eubios Ethics Institute, and some other organizations, in the first section. Next it includes topical extracts from EJAIB and EEIN between January 1994 - 2006 (older news items are in separate files). Last date of updating is referenced in the main News page. Latest news and papers is at the bottom of each of the two sections.

Abbreviations for journals
Eubios Ethics Institute home page

On AIDS vaccine trials, see the AIDS section
To WHO home page, http://www.who.ch/
To FDA home page, http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/list.html
To Health Canada home page, http://ftp.hwc.ca/

EJAIB 13 (2003), 77 Editorial: Ideas of SARS - Darryl Macer

EJAIB 13 (2003), 107-8 SARS: An Asian catastrophe which has challenged the relationships between people in society - My experience in Taiwan - Dena Hsin-Chen Hsin

EJAIB 13 (2003), 108-10 What have we experienced and learned from the outbreak of SARS in Beijing? - Baoqi Su

EJAIB 13 (2003), 142-143 SARS as an ethical test - James Dwyer

EJAIB 13 (2003), 208-9 SARS and Health Care Workers' Duty - Yujin Nagasawa


The decision whether to destroy all the remaining stocks of smallpox virus are discussed in Nature 366 (1993), 711; Science 262 (1993), 1223-6; Lancet 342 (1993), 505-6. An analysis of the genome and virulence is in Nature 366 (1993), 748-51. Commentaries on the eradication of polio in the Americas are in JAMA 270 (1993), 1857-60.

Criticism of the current UK vaccine for Whooping cough is in New Scientist (23 Oct, 1993), 7. On the pertusis vaccine see BMJ 307 (1993), 1430. A recent US National Academy of Sciences report has found that the risks of vaccination are generally very small, but it may be difficult to predict all the side effects and the exact risks due to deficient data; New Scientist (25 Sept, 1993), 9. Major changes are underway in the US vaccination program, JAMA 270 (1993), 1782+.

The July-August issue of World Health focused on the crisis of tuberculosis. Federal control of tuberculosis in the USA is discussed in JAMA 270 (1993), 1903-4. measles vaccination is discussed in BMJ 307 (1993), 1294-5.

The US Army is supporting research aiming to develop a potential vaccine against cholesterol; Science 262 (1993), 1974-5.

Papers with results suggesting some health care workers are at higher risk of not responding to hepatitis B vaccination are in JAMA 270 (1993),2931-4, 2935-9.

The Japanese problems (starting one year or more ago, as reported earlier) with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (the Japanese produced version has many side effects) are discussed it Lancet 343 (1994), 105. In India, there is a dispute over origins of a leprosy vaccine involved in trials; Nature 367 (1994), 403. A report on the vaccination coverage of 2 year old children in the USA revealing major gaps is JAMA 271 (1994), 260-1.

A review of recent research on the immune system and prion disease is PNAS 91 (1994),, 429-32. There is weak evidence that some human disease, Cretzfeld-Jakob disease is linked to the bovine prion disease, Nature 367 (1994), 402. A gene involved in the resistance of tuberculosis to the drug isoniazid is discussed in Science 263 (1994), 172, 227-9. A series of papers and reviews on the immune system is in Cell 76 (1994), 207-332.

News from the development of vaccine producing plants is in Science 263 (1994), 1211. A general review of bacterial vaccine design isTIBTECH 11 (1993), 506-10; and of new vaccine technologies, JAMA 271 (1994), 929-31. A strategy to use intracellular immunization with cytosolic antibodies is reported in S. Biocca et al., "Intracellular immunization with cytosolic recombinant antibodies", Biotechnology 12 (1994), 396-9.

The results of malaria vaccine trials in Tanzania confirm that the Columbian vaccine appears to work; New Scientist (19 Feb, 1994), 7. A paper reporting the antigenic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria, is Science 263 (1994), 961-3.

The finding of tuberculosis in a Peruvian mummy that died about 900 years ago, by finding TB DNA, shows that Columbus was not responsible for introducing TB to South America; Science 263 (1994), 1686-7; BMJ 308 (1994), 808. Meanwhile, TB continues to cause disease and deaths today, Biotechnology 12 (1994), 327; BMJ 308 (1994), 807; JAMA 271 (1994), 665-71, 708-9. The use of BCG vaccine is reported to reduce the risk of TB by 50%, JAMA 271 (1994), 698-702.

The US Childhood Immunization Initiative is discussed, along with the 1993 number of vaccine preventable diseases, in JAMA 271 (1994), 651-2. A survey of children of employees of Johnson and Johnson, who all have insurance, found immunization rates below the desired target; JAMA 271 (1994), 525.

A paper reporting successful vaccination of hepatitis C in chimpanzees is PNAS 91 (1994),, 1294-8. Trials of a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine are reported in JAMA 271 (1994), 859-61. A book review of Emerging Epidemics: A Thinking Person's Guide is Cell 76 (1994),599-601.

The logistics of the world-wide immunisation programmes are discussed in Scientific American (June 1995), 102-4. Six major vaccines are delivered to 110 million children in the world annually, and they cost more for transport and delivery (about ten times!) than to make. Efforts to make cheap, easy to deliver multiple vaccines are discussed. The dangers of donor shortages are discussed in Nature 368 (1994), 784.

A summary of the US Childhood Immunization Initiative is in JAMA 271 (1994), 1230. A call for the selective use of varicella vaccine following safe trial results in several countries is Lancet 343 (1994), 928-9. The relationship between social inequality and vaccination incentives are discussed in R. Reading et al., "Do interventions that improve immunisation uptake also reduce social inequalities in uptake?", BMJ 308 (1994), 1142-4.

A paper reporting the safe use of formalin-inactivated hepatitis A for short-term protection against hepatitis A in Thailand is JAMA 271 (1994), 1328-34, 1363-4. The trial was performed in 40119 children. A procedure for preparation of a potential malaria transmission blocking agent is in Biotechnology 12 (1994), 494-9, 461-2.

A review of the change in the idea of a vaccine to an agent that can also be used to treat a disease, not only prevent it, is in Science 264 (1994), 53-5. Vaccine therapies are currently under trial against herpes, leprosy, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, and hepatitis B. An International Society for vaccines has been founded in the US, Science 264 (1994), 1528.

A conference report on multiple antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria is in NEJM 330 (1994), 1229-30, 1247-51. A review of the problem is in Newsweek (28 March), 34-40; and a special issue of Science (15 April) 264: 327, 359-393 is devoted to the problems. Multidrug resistance in tumors is discussed in PNAS 91 (1994),, 3497-504. Reports on the scare over "flesh-eating bacteria", a strain of streptococcus bacteria that can usually be treated, but if not treated degrades flesh and can kill within 3 days, as seen in 11 deaths in UK this year, are Science 264 (1994), 1665; Time (6 June 1994), 49; Newsweek (20 June 1994), 40-1. A vaccine against the bacteria is reported in New Scientist (4 June 1994), 4.

Book reviews of Alan M. Kraut, Silent Travelers. Germs, Genes, and the Immigrant Menace, Basic Books, NY: 1994, 369pp., US$25, are in Science 264 (1994), 1615-6; Lancet 343 (1994), 1346-7. Other book reviews on disease are in NEJM 330 (1994), 1023-6; Lancet 343 (1994), 1212; see also a TV review of the discovery of the bacteria linked to ulcer is BMJ 308 (1994), 1378. Discussion of the mechanism of prion replication is Science 264 (1994), 528-31; and a review of inherited prion diseases is PNAS 91 (1994),, 4611-4; New Scientist (28 May 1994), 32-7. An editorial looking at human papillomavirus, which is related to warts, and whether the bovine form causes the increased frequency of warts in butchers is Lancet 343 (1994), 1114; Br. J. Dermatol. 130: 9-17. Reports from the cases of human plague in the USA, which indicate a growing role for domestic cats as vectors is JAMA 271 (1994), 1312. A description of post-polio syndrome is in Science 264 (1994), 909.

In the UK all students who have been offered places at medical school will now have to provide certificates to show that they have been immunised against hepatitis B, BMJ 308 (1994), 870-1,876, 1161; Lancet 343 (1994), 927-8. Dental schools will also need to be checked, and at the time of registration in 1996 the students must be shown not to be "infectious". There is some debate... There has also been a call for widespread hepatitis B vaccination in Europe, New Scientist (14 May 1994), 5.

The Ministry of Health and Welfare in Japan has made several changes to the vaccination procedures that are included under the Preventive Vaccination Law. Vaccines for polio and some other diseases will be offered until 7 and a half years of age instead of only until 4 years, and vaccine against Japanese encephalitits can be obtained at 6 months instead of only after 3 years; Yomiuri Shimbun (31 Aug 1994), 17. The outbreak of pertussis in immunised children is analysed in C.D.C. Christie et al., "The 1993 epidemic of pertussis in Cincinnati. Resurgence of disease in a highly immunized population of children", NEJM 331 (1994), 16-21.

The use of historical and serological screening can reduce the need for vaccination in M.J. Ferson et al., "Cost effectiveness of prevaccination screening of health care workers for immunity to measles, rubella and mumps", MJA 160 (1994), 478-82; see also L. Brenzel & P. Claquin, "Immunization programs and their costs", SSM 39 (1994), 527-36. Social inequalities in uptake of vaccines are debated in BMJ 309 (1994), 126-7. The General Accounting Office of the USA has given a bad review on the new "Vaccines for Children" US immunization program, Lancet 344 (1994), 324. Other papers on vaccination include: BMJ 309 (1994), 213-4, 223-5; Lancet 344 (1994), 144-5.

On the general merits of world-wide vaccination, MJA 160 (1994), 459-60; Science 264 (1994), 1864-7; Lancet 344 (1994), 174-5. Parasite disease is discussed in a number of papers in Science (24 June), 1857-77. Malaria vector control is discussed on pp. 1874-5; and on vaccination, Nature 370 (1994), 95-6. Hepatitis B vaccination for medical students is discussed in Lancet 343 (1994), 1571-3. A computer assisted method for vaccine risks analysis is available, Biotechnology 12 (1994), 826-7.

A new vaccine is reported in R.-P. Du et al., "A prototype recombinant vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3", Biotechnology 12 (1994), 813-8.

Efforts to combat drug resistant bacteria are discussed in GEN (July 1994), 1, 14; Science 265 (1994), 589-91; R.F. Breiman et al., "Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States", JAMA 271 (1994), 1831-5, 1875-6. The structure of influenza haemagglutinin is reported in Nature 371 (1994), 37-43. The use of an enzyme blocker against flu is reported in New Scientist (13 Aug 1994), 19. New antibiotics are researched in Science 265 (1994), 60. The use of antibody-targeted photolysis to kill bacteria is reported in Biotechnology 12 (1994), 703-6.

Research on prion diseases is discussed in PNAS 91 (1994),, 6418-22; Cell 77 (1994), 967-8; Nature 370 (1994), 295-7, 327-8. Mice that a devoid of PrP cannot propagate prion disease. A 3-d structure has been suggested, PNAS 91 (1994),, 7139-43. Warts in butchers are discussed in Lancet 343 (1994), 1511-2. On tuberculosis, Lancet 343 (1994), 1445-6 (Russia); 1482-5 (New York); 344: 277-8; NEJM 330 (1994), 1710-6, 1750-1. The use of a high-efficiency filters to protect workers against TB is dismissed as costly and ineffective in NEJM 331 (1994), 169-73. A commentary calling for preparation for emerging infections is Nature 370 (1994), 409-10.

A special issue of Science 265 (2 Sept), 1343, 1371-1404, includes numerous articles on vaccine development and policy. The development of needle-free vaccines is discussed in Science 265 (1994), 1522-4; and general recombinant techniques to make vaccines in Science 265 (1994), 1401-4; J. Pediatrics 125: 339-44. The engineering of poliovirus as a vaccine vector is reported in Science 265 (1994), 1448-51 (and on polio, Lancet 344 (1994), 630-1). A review of mouse models is Malo, D. & Skamene, E. "Genetic control of host resistance to infection", TIG 10 (1994), 365-70.

The outbreak of plague in India is discussed in Nature 371 (1994), 467, 543-4, 547; Time (3 Oct), 46, (10 Oct), 18-21; Science 266 (1994), 22-3. The lack of supply of antibiotics in the infected areas contributed to the spread, but generally it can be treated by antibiotics. Drug-resistant bacteria are discussed in Time (12 Sept), 40-7. The lethal streptococcus infections may be linked to resident viruses, Scientific American (Sept 1995), 26-7. The epidemiology of tuberculosis in the USA is in JAMA 272 (1994), 535-9. Lyme disease is reviewed in Scientific American (Sept 1995), 34-9.

Doubts on the efficiency of influenza vaccination in Japan are in Lancet 344 (1994), 408-9. A study finding cost benefits of influenza vaccination among elderly persons is Nichol, K.L. et al. "The efficacy and cost effectiveness of vaccination against influenza among elderly persons living in the community" NEJM 331 (1994), 778-84, 807-8; NEJM 331 (1994), 778-4. On asthma vaccines, Lancet 344 (1994), 456-8. Japanese B encephalitis vaccine safety is debated in MJA 160 (1994), 795-7. A recommendation that all non-immune travellers to developing countries be inoculated with hepatitis A vaccine is JAMA 272 (1994), 885-9. The new vaccines offer 95% protection for up to 10 years, whereas general immunoglobulin lasts for 3-5 months. Cancer vaccines are discussed in Scientific American (Sept 1995), 102.

Efforts to study the malarial parasites genome, in Tunisia, with French collaboration, are discussed in Nature 371 (1994), 732. On parasite diseases, Science 265 (1994), 1087-90; 1469-70. A discussion of prions and possible therapy is GEN (15 Sept 1994), 36; and on the safety of pituitary extracted growth hormone, Lancet 344 (1994), 612-3.

There has been ethical debate in the UK over the government campaign to immunise all children against measles, and many say a lack of full consent and information, BME 102 (Oct 1994), 3-5; Lancet 344: 174-5; BMJ 309 (1994), 1102-3, 1161-2; NEJM 331 (1994), 1397-1402. There are claims that it is experimental. The ethics of an influenza trial in the elderly are discussed in Govaert, T.M.E. et al. "The efficacy of influenza vaccination in elderly individuals. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial", JAMA 272 (1994), 1661-5, 1700-1; see also FDA Consumer (Nov 1994), 16-9; Science 266: 234-6.

Finland's successful policy is reviewed in Peltola, H. et al. "The elimination of indigenous measles, mumps, and rubella from Finland by a 12 year, two-dose vaccination program", NEJM 331 (1994), 1397-402, 1446-7. The data on Moscow immunisation rates in children are in Lancet 344 (1994), 1366. In general on immunisation policy, AJPH 84 (1994), 1567-8; in the USA, Lancet 344 (1994), 1216.

AIDS vaccine trials are discussed below under AIDS. Positive results are found against cholera in Sanchez, J.L. et al. "Protective efficacy of oral whole-cell/recombinant b-subunit cholera vaccine in Peruvian military recruits", Lancet 344 (1994), 1273-6, 1241-2. Hepatitis B vaccines are discussed in Lancet 344 (1994), 961-2, 1292-3, 1438-9. The policies in Canadian medical schools are discussed in CMAJ 151 (1994), 957+.

The welcome success of the malaria vaccine is in Alonso, P.L. et al. "Randomised trial of efficacy of SPf66 vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children in southern Tanzania", Lancet 344 (1994), 1175-81, 1172; also discussed in New Scientist (5 Nov 1994), 14-5; Science 266 (1994), 724; Lancet 344 (1994), 1172-3. Another method is reported in PNAS 91 (1994),, 9866-70. Malaria is in an outbreak in western India, BMJ 309 (1994), 183-4. On travel vaccinations, BMJ 309 (1994), 918-22; and antibiotics for diarrhoea, Lancet 344 (1994), 1520-1.

Mucosal vaccine progress is reviewed in GEN (15 Nov1994),1, 24, 32. These include live oral delivery vaccines, that avoids the passage through the gut which will degrade many. Fungal diseases are becoming more common, Science 266 (1994), 1632-4.

Production of vaccines to HIV and foot and mouth disease, that are in animal trials, from plant production in cowpea using cowpea virus, GEN (15 Nov1994),1, 26. A malaria vaccine made that way but also not yet confirmed, is Turpen, T.H. et al. "Malarial epitopes expressed on the surface of recombinant tobacco mosaic virus", Biotechnology 12 (1994), 53-8.

The vertical transmission of prion disease is debated in Human Reproduction 9: 1792-800.; and the appearance of small virus-like particles in the human disease is reported in Lancet 344 (1994), 923-4.

Plague in India is discussed in Nature 372 (1995), 119; BMJ 309 (1994), 893- 4, 897-8, 1369; JAMA 272 (1994), 1162, 1571; Lancet 344 (1994), 1033-5, 1298, 1359-60. Some Indians have claimed that it was not plague, and the lack of facilities for analysis of samples may have caused some confusion, but most experts still agree that it was plague, though not all of the 58 deaths and 5559 suspected cases may have been real. On tuberculosis, AJPH 84 (1994), 1729-31.

The UK measles vaccination campaign has stopped, following concerns that it was not really necessary, but the UK Dept. of Health considers that it prevented any measles outbreak; BME 104 (Jan 1995), 3-4; BMJ 310 (1995), 192-3. A call to restrict chickenpox vaccination to those at high risk is BMJ 310 (1995), 2-3. The ethics of an Italian pertussis vaccine trial are defended in JAMA 272 (1994), 1898-9.

Malaria vaccine research is discussed in Science 266 (1994), 1792; 267: 320-3. The first vaccine shown to work, developed by Columbian Manuel Patarroyo, called SPf66, is still controversial, despite some effectiveness in about a third of people tried (which globally could mean 100 million people don't get malaria.

A review of vaccines is Beardsley, T. "Better than a cure", Scientific American (Jan 1995), 88-95. A general view with a focus on Africa is Mulholland, K. "Measles and pertussis in developing countries with good vaccine coverage", Lancet 345 (1995), 305-7, 272. A review of progress towards the use of vaccinia virus as a vaccine vector is JAMA 272 (1994), 1810. On the future of vaccines in the USA, Lancet 345 (1995), 51.

A review is Prusiner, S.B. "The prion diseases", Scientific American (Jan 1995), 48-57. A claim that inadequate research is being done into the effects of prion disease in humans, that may have infected persons from eating beef which later suffered from mad cow disease is Dealler, S. "BSE and the ethics of not doing research", BME 104 (Jan 1995), 13-7. It presents some interesting calculations and projections. The UK Dept. of Health advice on handling instruments used in surgical operations with patients with Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease is debated in Lancet 345 (1995), 194. Results suggesting that Apolipoprotein E4 allele may not be a risk factor for this disease, unlike Lancet 342 (1993), 710-1; are in Lancet 345 (1995), 68-9.

An English report of the summary of the Russian National Committee on Bioethics report on mass vaccination is Yudin, B. "Vaccinoprophylaxis and human rights", IJB 5 (1994), 261.

The reliability of PCR for detection of active tuberculosis is questioned in NEJM 332 (1995), 128-9.

A review of current cancer vaccine efforts is JAMA 273 (1995), 528-30 (see also Gene Therapy section). WHO guidelines to prevent colorectal cancer are in Bulletin WHO 73: 7-10. A discussion of flu vaccines is New Scientist (18 Feb, 1995), 26-31. The method of eating proteins from various sources as specific methods to combat autoimmune disease, or oral tolerance therapy, is evaluated in New Scientist (21 Jan, 1995), 36-40. Some research suggests that inhaling the proteins is more effective than eating them.

A study in the UK found that one fifth of the parents who refused vaccination of children gave homeopathy as a reason, Simpson, N. et al. "Parental refusal to have children immunised: extent and reasons", BMJ 310 (1995), 227. A record linkage method to monitor for reactions to MMR vaccine is recommended in Farrington, P. et al. "A new method for active surveillance of adverse events from diptheria/tetanus/pertussis and measles/mumps/rubella vaccines", Lancet 345 (1995), 567-9.

There are world shortages of pneumococcal vaccine, and the shortage of intramuscularly administered immunoglobulin are expected to continue until a hepatitis A vaccine is licensed. Japanese-Chinese collaboration to eradicate polio is reported in Lancet 345 (1995), 455.

A study of which occupational groups in New Zealand should be vaccinated against hepatitis B found that health care workers, and caregivers for the developmentally disabled are two at risk groups, NZMJ 108: 82-4. On the general topic, BMJ 310 (1995), 400.

A review on the prospects for elimination of leprosy, which still has about 2.4 million affected persons, is Bulletin WHO 73: 1-6. An Indian government committee has accepted that it was pneumonic plague which killed 60 people in Surat last year, Science 267 (1995), 1268.

There are reports that a horse-killing virus, Borna disease virus, may transfer to humans and be linked to psychiatric disease, Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 232+; New Scientist (11 March, 1995), 16. PCR was used to show the virus was present in the brains of 6 affected persons (depression, obsessive compulsive disorder and panic disorder) but not in 10 normal persons. Another unknown virus is reported to do also transfer from horses but kills people, Science 268 (7 April 1995).

Another case of gene transfer, bacteria-bacteria, is blamed for an epidemic of cholera that was in Southern India; New Scientist (23 Feb 1995), 14; EMBO J. 14 (1995), 209+.

The threat of Ebola disease in Zaire is now lessening, but it took much attention and is an example of how diseases may suddenly infect large numbers of people, BMJ 310 (1995), 1344-5, 1353; Science 268 (1995), 19, 974-5; Time (22 May 1995), 50-1. The general movement of tropical diseases due to global warming is discussed in BMJ 310 (1995), 1027. Another emerging disease, is morbillivirus, Science 268 (1995), 94-7, 32. A report suggesting Borna disease virus may infect humans is Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 209-10, 232-6. Russia is reporting outbreaks of infectious diseases, especially diptheria and tuberculosis, BMJ 310 (1995), 821; Lancet 345 (1995), 715; Science 268 (1995), 1416-7.

Measles vaccination may have a slight risk of inflammatory bowel disease, though the survey used could have bias, Lancet 345 (1995), 1062-3, 1071+, 1362-4. The debate over the use of hepatitis B vaccine for at risk persons continues, although WHO recommended all infants in countries at moderate risk be vaccinated, Lancet 345 (1995), 1000-1, 1065, 1089-92; NEJM 332 (1995), 1092-3. A study finding low prevalence of hepatitis B markers and measles, mumps and rubella antibodies in Jewish refuges from Russia is JAMA 273 (1995), 954-6. The hepatitis A vaccine has been approved in the USA, JAMA 273 (1995), 906-7.

A chickenpox vaccine has been approved in the USA, which is 70-90% effective, BMJ 310 (1995), 824. The recommended schedule for infant vaccinations in the USA is in JAMA 273 (1995), 693; and the influenza vaccine has reached the year 2000 target coverage, JAMA 273 (1995), 765. A study finding that many Americans do not have immunity to tetanus is NEJM 332 (1995), 761-6, 812-3.

A UK survey of doctor's knowledge of notifiable, reportable and prescribed diseases is BMJ 310 (1995), 1299; and on methods to improve the notification rate of TB, BMJ 310 (1995), 974.

The low vaccination rate among some Australian groups is criticised in BMJ 310 (1995), 760; MJA 162 (1995), 471-5. Comments on the importance of the 8% of children in the UK who miss vaccines for measles is BMJ 310 (1995), 1367-8. Polio eradication is discussed in a series of papers in World Health (Jan/Feb 1995); also BMJ 310 (1995), 894; JAMA 273 (1995), 1407-9; Nature 375 (1995), 663. The theft of expired vaccines in Burma is causing concerns that the potentially dangerous vaccines may be used on the black market; Nature 375 (1995), 669.

The use of a genetically modified bacteria as a vaccine vector is reported in Shien, H. et al. "Recombinant Listeria monocytogenes as a live vaccine vehicle for the induction of protective anti-viral cell-mediated immunity", PNAS 92 (1995), 3987-91. On DNA vaccines, Biotechnology 13 (1995), 420. Conjugated Haemophilus influenzae vaccines for children are discussed in JAMA 273 (1995), 849-53.

Tuberculosis is discussed in BMJ 310 (1995), 954-5, 963-6, 967-9; NEJM 332 (1995), 1106-8; Lancet 345 (1995), 907-10; MJA 162 (1995), 285-6, 287-90; Science 267 (1995), 1763; NS (25 March, 1995), 4; and on airline flights, JAMA 273 (1995), 911-2. The issue of TB and illegal immigrants in the US is discussed in NEJM 332 (1995), 1071-6, 1094-8. Screening for TB and HIV in poor countries poses extra problems, including ethical ones, Lancet 345 (1995), 873. A review: De Cock, K.M. et al. "Preventive therapy for tuberculosis in HIV-infected persons: international recommendations, research, & practice", Lancet 345 (1995), 833-7.

Antitumour vaccines are discussed in Nature 375 (1995), 89; Nature Medicine 1 (May 1995). Infections of Helicobacter and cancer are discussed in Lancet 345 (1995), 874. A commentary looking at whether rheumatoid arthritis is caused by a virus is, Lancet 345 (1995), 1319-20. A review of a conference on leprosy is Lancet 345 (1995), 697-703; and a study finding no genetic link to leprosy in Brazil is AJHG 56 (1995), 1179-85. The law on leprosy in Japan is going to be changed to remove the need for isolation, Yomiuri Shimbun (13 May, 1995), 30. A review of hookworm infection is SA (June 1995), 68+.

A positive vaccine trial from Gambia is Aidoo, M. et al. "Identification of conserved antigenic components for a cytotoxic T lymphocyte-inducing vaccine against malaria", Lancet 345 (1995), 1003-7, 999. More on malaria in Marsh, K. et al. "Indicators of life-threatening malaria in African children", NEJM 332 (1995), 1399-404; and on protective guidelines, BMJ 310 (1995), 709-14. The WHO has signed a deal with the Columbian inventor of a malaria vaccine, Dr Manuel Pataroyo, Science 268 (1995), 791. A vaccine that works in mice against Leishmania is reported in Mougneau, E. et al. "Expression cloning of a protective Leishmania antigen", Science 268 (1995), 563+.

Methods to lower the costs of producing new vaccines include the use of a recombinant adjuvant, GEN (1 June 1995), 6-7. Polyclonal recombinant antibodies against tetanus are reported in Biotechnology 13 (1995), 683-5. The importance of protecting adolescent girls against tetanus is made in BMJ 311 (1995), 73-4. Good results have been obtained for trials of an acellular pertussis vaccine, JAMA 273 (1995), 1892-3; 274 (1995), 446-7; Lancet 346 (1995), 241; Science 269 (1995), 307; and it may be approved in the USA as soon as the end of 1995. There are other problems with child immunisation in the USA, Nature 376 (1995), 707-8. The possibilities for a cancer vaccine are reviewed in Lancet 345 (1995), 1384-5.

A criticism of why the UK government has not released the calculations which it said justified the measles vaccination campaign, is in BME 110 (1995), 1, 3-9. There are reportedly non-specific beneficial effects of measles immunisation, BMJ 311 (1995), 481-4; however, their are some risks and costs. The reforms in the Israeli child immunisation service are reported in JAMA 273 (1995), 1909-12.

Polio eradication is discussed in Nature 376 (1995), 630; Lancet 345 (1995), 1566, 1589; and the current vaccine is still recommended, JAMA 274 (1995), 12-3, 203. The number of cases of polio reported in 1993 was 109, though there was still only 80% vaccination coverage in developing countries.

The need to monitor outbreaks of new diseases is stressed again in MJA 162 (1995), 621. Research has found some genes are common between soft rot in plants and human tissue decay, Rahme, L.G. et al. "Common virulence factors for bacterial pathogenicity in plants and animals", Science 268 (1995), 1899-902, 1850.

Treatment of humans exposed to rabies in a New Hampshire, USA, incident is reported in JAMA 273 (1995), 293-4. The campaigns against tuberculosis in New York City appear to be working, NEJM 333 (1995), 229-33; but there are still problems in other countries, JAMA 274 (1995), 125-8. On global child health goals, JAMA 273 (1995), 103-5. Antigenic variation in malaria is reviewed in Cell 82 (1995), 1-4.

Research to make vaccines against cancer is discussed in Today's Life Science 7 (1995), 48-55. Epstein-Barr virus is linked to types of cancer, NEJM 333 (1995), 693-8, 724-6; and a new herpesvirus, Lancet 346 (1995), 782; NEJM 333 (1995), 797-9; and a review, Morris, J.D.H. et al. "Viral infection and cancer", Lancet 346 (1995), 754-8. A review of Helicobacter pylori, a peptic ulcer agent is JAMA 274 (1995), 1064-6. Certain bacterial Bacterioides and Bifidobacterium species were shown to be associated with risk of colon cancer in a study of Japanese, Caucasians and Africans, Moore, W.E.C. & L.H. "Intestinal floras of populations that have a high risk of colon cancer", AEM 61 (1995), 3202-7.

The funding cuts in the USA are also threatening the Centers for Disease Control, NEJM 333 (1995), 793-4. There is a shortage of funds to study Ebola virus, SA (Sept 1995), 34-5; which is reviewed in SA (Oct 1995), 56-64; and also a shortage of funds for early warning programs for disease outbreaks, Nature 377 (1995), 668. On Lyme disease, Science 270 (1995), 228-9; and the recent plague outbreak in India, Lancet 346 (1995), 765.

MacLeod, K., "Creation of first malaria vaccine raises troubling questions about "intellectual racism", CMAJ 153 (1995), 1319+. The malaria vaccine SPf66 was not shown to be effective in Gambian infants, Lancet 346 (1995), 462-7; Science 269 (1995), 1037. However, the WHO is still supporting it based on results of earlier trials. Inbreeding in some regions affected by malaria may hasten the transfer of drug-resistant parasites, Science 269 (1995), 755, 1670. Mosquito transmitted malaria was reported in 2 persons in New York City in 1993, Lancet 346 (1995), 729-31.

Genotyping of hepatitis D is reported in Lancet 346 (1995), 939-41; and of hepatitis C in NEJM 333 (1995), 800. The rise of hepatitis E is discussed in Lancet 346 (1995), 519-20. A Canadian program for universal hepatitis B vaccination at school is reported to be successful in JAMA 274 (1995), 1209-13; as is an infant program, JAMA 274 (1995), 1201-8, 1242-3, 1081.

Universal screening for tuberculosis in the USA is being considered, JAMA 274 (1995), 652-3. It is done annually in lung X-rays in Japan! TB remains the world's leading cause of death from infectious disease, with 2.7 million fatalities a year, Lancet 346 (1995), 948-9. Also on TB, NEJM 333 (1995), 519-20, 667-9; Lancet 346 (1995), 675-7, 790-1, 809-19.

A series of papers on global vaccination schemes are in SSM 41 (1995), 605-686. Influenza vaccine for healthy adults may not be cost effective, for those at low risk, but has usefulness that increases each year of vaccination, and it is recommended by some studies, NEJM 333 (1995), 889-93, 933-4; Lancet 346 (1995), 591-5; see also JAMA 274 (1995), 1005+. The cost effectiveness of chicken pox vaccine is claimed to save US$5 for every US$1 spent in the USA in SA (Oct 1995), 32-32D. On general vaccination for those over 50 years, JAMA 274 (1995), 789.

Drug resistance is discussed in NEJM 333 (1995), 481-6, 514-5; Lancet 346 (1995), 513-2.

The UK government is spending about 1 million pounds annually into research on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), EBN 213 (1995), 2. A study using transgenic mice suggests that transfer of BSE to humans is unlikely, Collinge, J. et al. "Unaltered susceptibility to BSE in transgenic mice expressing human prion protein", Nature 378 (1995), 779-83, 759, 761-2. The other point of view is Diringer, H. "Proposed link between transmissible Spongiform encephalopathies of man and animals", Lancet 346 (1995), 1208-10. A range of views are in a series of commentaries in BMJ 311 (1995), 1415-21; and on the biology, NS (14 Oct 1995), 16-7; Trends in Microbiology 3 (1995), 141-7. A child who has contracted the human form of prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) suggests some possibility, Lancet 346 (1995), 1155. A local education authority in the UK as banned beef in over 1000 schools, Nature 378 (1995), 654. The resistance of microorganisms to disinfection in dental and medical devices is still a cause of concern, Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 956-7.

A review of the use of child records and privacy is Gostin, L.O. & Lazzarini, Z. "Childhood immunization registries. A national review of public health information systems and the protection of privacy", JAMA 274 (1995), 1793-9.

Influenza virus is discussed in Lancet 346 (1995), 1210-2; and emerging diseases in BMJ 311 (1995), 1378; Trends in Microbiology 3 (1995),64-9; NS (2 Dec 1995), 28-31. Opposition to an inactivated polio vaccine in the USA is delaying its incorporation into childhood vaccinations, JAMA 274 (1995), 1574-5. A summary of polio in South East Asia is JAMA 274 (1995), 1498-500; and world-wide, MJA 163 (1995), 399-400. A technique using heavy water has been developed as a method to keep vaccines cold in third world countries, NS (7 Oct 1995), 2. Vaccine policy in India is summarized in Biotechnology and Development Monitor 25 (Dec 1995), 5-7. The UK has defended its measles vaccination campaign reported last year, when 7 million children between 5-16 years old being vaccinated, BMJ 311 (1995), 1249. A study of vaccinia virus suggests that they have developed the ability to move along the actin filaments between cells, Nature 378 (1995), 636-8.

A short review of genetic engineering of infectious negative-strand RNA viruses as vaccines is Trends in Microbiology 3 (1995), 123-5. Cancer vaccination using live Listeria is reviewed in Trends in Microbiology 3 (1995), 451-3. A review of the use of Herpes simplex viruses as vaccines is Trends in Microbiology 3 (1995), 244-7. Genetic methods to combat malaria are reviewed in Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 745-7; and an altruistic vaccine that may help it passing on to others is being tried, NS (28 Oct 1995), 4.

An international panel of experts has suggested methods to eradicate tuberculosis, JAMA 274 (1995), 1255-7; also see Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 752.

It is commonly said that infectious diseases are no longer so important in the developed world, however the mortality again is increasing, Pinner RW et al. "Trends in infectious diseases mortality in the United States", JAMA 275 (1996), 189-93. Two papers further examining the genetic susceptibility to disease are: "Genetic susceptibility to Leishmania: IL-12 Responsiveness in TH1 Cell Development", "Genetic susceptibility to Leishmania major Infection in Interleukin-4-Deficient Mice", Science 271 (1996), 984-7, 987-990, see also 912. Letters on the disappointing results of the malaria vaccine trial in children are in Lancet 346 (1996), 1554-6; malaria remains a major disease, JAMA 275 (1996), 230-3.

A review of DNA vaccines is NEJM 334 (1996), 42-5. The use of a modified bacteria may improve the effectiveness of a TB vaccine, Science 271 (1996), 447; and on successful trials of acellular pertussis vaccines, NEJM 334 (1996), 341-8, 349-55, 391-2. The problems of keeping vaccines cold are discussed in SA (Feb 1996), 14-5. The success of measles vaccination campaigns in the Americas is reported in JAMA 275 (1996), 224-9; but there is still ethical debate over the measles campaign in the UK, BME 114 (1996), 1-2, 13-23. Also on immunization campaigns, AJPH 85 (1995), 1613.

A report from Gabon has found that 10 people who died from Ebola virus ate chimpanzee meat, and villagers have been advised to stay clear of animals behaving strangely, Nature 379 (1996), 671. On emerging microorganisms as a threat to people's health, JAMA 275 (1996), 176, 300-4, 315-7; Lancet 346 (1995), s27. A review of 25 years of antiviral therapy is in NEJM 333 (1995), 1704-5.

There continues to be discussion of the risks of eating beef in Britain, following some school's banning beef in school lunches, Lancet 347 (1996), 64-6, 195-6. Also on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, BMJ 312 (1996), 180-1. A paper arguing that cross-species prion disease is unlikely is Brandner, S et al. "Normal prion host protein necessary for scrapie-induced neurotoxicity", Nature 379 (1996), 339-43.

The cover page news in many countries has been the link between mad cow disease, bovine spongiform Encephalopathy, and the human form of prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). This has led to bans on the sale of British beef in the EU, and exports, and will lead to the controlled killing of older cattle. The ten new cases of CJD appear to be derived from the bovine form on circumstantial evidence, the new type is in young people; Will PG et al. "A new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK", Lancet 347 (1996), 921-5; NS (30 March 1996), 4-6. There have been criticisms of this blind haste to blame cattle, Nature 380 (1996), 271, 273-4, 370; Science 271 (1996), 1798; BME 116 (1996), 1; EBN 219 (1996), 5; BMJ 312 (1996), 790-3, 795, 843, 1037-9, 1056. France is also addressing the safety issues, NS (20 April 1996), 10. The European Minister's meeting at the end of May addressed methods to start reintroducing British beef into exports.

There is small potential for transmission of BSE via medicinal products, BMJ 312 (1996), 988-9. Mice lacking prion protein have altered circadian rhythms, Nature 379 (1996), 639-42; and those homozygous for the disrupted prion gene loss cerebellar Purkinje cell function, Nature 380 (1996), 528-31. A comparison to sheep scrapie is in NS (6 April), 5; (13 April 1996), 3, 4-5; and on other reports of CJD, Lancet 347 (1996), 482, 616-7, 889, 915-7, 945-8, 966-7. A call for development of a simple test to avert the mass cow slaughter is in NS (6 April 1996), 4.

A review is Clemens, J. et al. "Evaluating new vaccines for developing countries. Efficacy or effectiveness?", JAMA 275 (1996), 390-7. Oral vaccines using Lactococcus lactis, used in cheese-making are being developed, NS (20 April 1996), 23. The use of the Semliki Forest Virus genome for vaccine construction is reviewed in Molecular Biotechnology 5 (1996), 33+. A call for vaccine trials of recombinant proteins of cytomegalovirus is Trends in Microbiology 4 (1996), 34-7.

The ethical issues raised by side effects to hepatitis B vaccine in two children in the UK are debated in BME 115 (1996), 15-19. The cost effectiveness of HBV immunization are discussed in JAMA 275 (1996), 444, 907-9; and on the history of the vaccine, Science 271 (1996), 1213. Justification for revaccination against measles and rubella is made in BMJ 312 (1996), 589-90; and move to use inactivated poliovaccine in the USA has been made, JAMA 275 (1996), 827. Japan is using less influenza vaccinations since the mid-1980s, in contrast to the increase in the USA, Nature 380 (1996), 18.

A vaccine against leprosy made in India can half the recovery time of patients with leprosy, Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 262. A report on efforts to control rabies in Africa is BMJ 312 (1996), 785. A series of papers on infectious disease in Australia is MJA 164 (1996), 60-3. Tuberculosis killed 3 million people in 1995, and the number is growing, NS (3 Feb), 14; (30 March 1996), 8.

A report on the UK Gulf War veterans health has been issued in the UK, Lancet 347 (1996), 341. The US Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veteran's Illnesses has recommended the FDA provision to allow use of experimental drugs on combat soldiers in wartime be made permanent, Lancet 347 (1996), 532; BMJ 312 (1996), 1058.

There has been much discussion around the world of the ban on British beef, due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and possible links to the human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), BMJ 312 (1996), 1117, 1313-4; Lancet 347 (1996), 1036, 1332-3, 1635; Nature 381 (1996), 15, 119. After a study of prion proteins in mammals, cows and humans share a couple of unique genetic changes in the region associated with development of disease, although overall cow and sheep prion are most related; Nature 380 (1996), 675. The varied response of the UK government to scientific advice is criticized in Nature 381 (1996), 351; and on the unscientific reactions and government bans of beef, Nature 381 (1996), 353-4. Scientists are calling for greater access to the emerging cases of CJD, Nature 381 (1996), 453. An analysis of an apparent UK dumping of animal feed after the ban on using it in the UK in 1989 is seen, Nature 381 (1996), 544-5. Swiss cattle are also being selectively killed, Lancet 347 (1996), 1035; NS (11 May 1996), 4. The debate over BSE in cows leading to CJD in humans has been dismissed in the US case, but there have been increased sensitivity to food components, Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 598-90. A preclinical test for prion diseases is reported in Nature 381 (1996), 563.

The UK MRC is facing negligence claims over CJD from growth hormone injections, Nature 381 (1996), 661.

A review of the growth in the number of vaccines is BMJ 312 (1996), 1177-8. It is expected that polio can be eradicated by the year 2000, BMJ 312 (1996), 1178-9; Lancet 347 (1996), 1250; though there are some political difficulties in reaching all children, NS (11 May 1996), 7. Designing a vaccine for tuberculosis is discussed in BMJ 312 (1996), 1495-6. Studies of host resistance genes can also be used to make vaccines, JAMA 275 (1996), 1464-5. Trends in infectious disease are sown in Science 272 (1996), 1269; EST 30 (1996), 183A; and on mechanisms, Science 272 (1996), 1261-3.

Seven dead miner's bodies in Norway are being exhumed in order to identify the cause of Spanish flu, a disease which killed 20 million people in 1918, NS (8 June 1996), 11. On the dangers of airline travel and infection, NEJM 334 (1996), 981-2. Interestingly, in some studies first class passengers suffer more food poisoning. However in the class divisions on land, more people in lower class get tuberculosis, for a book review see Science 272 (1996), 1116-7.

A possible explanation for Gulf War syndrome is that a combination of the anti-nerve gas pill, and two insecticides could have caused nerve damage, NS (27 April 1996), 4. There are safety concerns about Lariam, an anti-malaria drug, NS (8 June 1996), 14-5. The debate on whether chlamydia is linked to heart disease is assessed in NS (8 June 1996), 38-42.

Maternal transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has been shown at about 10% rate, Lancet 348 (1996), 393; Nature 381 (1996), 724; NS (10 August 1996), 10-11. A monkey has developed spontaneous prion disease, Lancet 348 (1996), 55; and also on the transmission, Lancet 348 (1996), 56-7, 326; Anderson, RM et al. "Transmission dynamics and epidemiology of BSE in British cattle", Nature 382 (1996), 779-88; 9, 381, 483, 574, 734-5, 743, 755-6; Science 273 (1996), 748; NS (3 August 1996), 3. Ethical guidance on ways to deal with disease outbreaks like BSE are in Nursing Ethics 3 (1996), 259-67. The rate of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in farmers is not significant, BMJ 313 (1996), 562; and on the human disease, Lancet 347 (1996), 1704. On blood donation, BMJ 313 (1996), 441. On the mechanism, JAMA 276 (1996), 438-40; Science 273 (1996), 184-9, 580, 622-6. A self-replicating 32 residue peptide has been made, Nature 382 (1996), 525-8.

DNA vaccination has worked against tuberculosis, Tascon, RE et al. "Vaccination against tuberculosis by DNA injection", Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 888-92; Huygen, K. et al. "Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a tuberculosis DNA vaccine", Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 893-9, 857-9; NS (3 August 1996), 11. A cheap quick method to diagnosis tuberculosis has been reported by the company Biotec Diagnostic, in collaboration with London School of Hygiene and Medicine; EBN 228 (1996), 5. The test will be used in Africa in trials but is still more than the 50 cents per test target of WHO.

Many countries (USA, Germany, Italy, Sweden) are switching to acellular pertusis vaccines, Lancet 347 (1996), 1681. On 20 January 1996 the government of Indian vaccinated 93 million children against polio, the largest ever mass vaccination, and although there were 6179 cases of polio in 1995, it is still hoped the year 2000 will see the end of polio, JAMA 275 (1996), 1718. The SV40 virus which contaminated early batches of polio vaccine has been linked to cancer, NS (24 August 1996), 16. Efforts to develop a cocaine vaccine are being increased in the USA, Nature 382 (1996), 568. Thalassemia is discussed in Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 847-9.

A trial has found a Chinese herbal medicine, artemether is just as effective as quinine against cerebral malaria, NEJM 335 (1996), 69-75; NS (13 July 1996), 3, 4. The drug is injected into the muscles, and 6 80mg doses cost about 9 pounds.

On antibiotic resistance, Lancet 348 (1996), 400; also caused by animal use, NS (27 July 1996), 7. Drugs from an African plant family may be effective against cancer, NS (31 August 1996), 20.

The failure to fully explain the risks involved in a vaccine trial has resulted in a failure in a measles immunization program in children younger than 12 years, JAMA 276 (23 Oct. 1996). The introduction of Standards for pediatric immunization in the USA has increased coverage, JAMA 276 (1996), 626-30, also p.766. A study finding it would not be cost effective to introduce poliovirus into the routine childhood vaccination schedule in the USA is JAMA 276 (1996), 967-71. Economical use of rabies vaccine is discussed in Lancet 348 (1996), 614-5; and on a salmonella vaccine for chickens, NS (5 Oct. 1996), 10.

The global status of hepatitis B vaccination is summed up in Lancet 348 (1996), 696. 80 countries have introduced programs. Hepatitis B virus can survive in the body for decades, Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 1104-8. A campaign in Taiwan has protected most children under 10 from the disease, JAMA 276 (1996), 906-8. Vaccination in jail is discussed in NEJM 335 (1996), 885-6.

Hope for a vaccine from a mice study is Julia, V. et al. "Resistance to Leishmania major Induced by Tolerance to a Single Antigen", Science 274 (1996), 421-3. A genetic locus that controls the intensity of infection from the disease schistosomiasis (which kills 200,000 people a year) has been found, Marquet, S. et al. "Genetic localization of a locus controlling the intensity of infection by Schistosomia mansoni on chromosome 5q31-q33", Nature Genetics 14 (1996), 181-4.

The malaria vaccine using Spf66 has not had good efficacy, and in a Thai study was found to be 0% effective, Lancet 348 (1996), 695, 701-7; Science 273 (1996), 1652. A study has found a high incidence of malaria in alpha-thalassemic children, Nature 383 (1996), 480-1, 522-5; and on the future, Nature 383 (1996), 135. Genetically engineered mosquitoes may help fight infection, Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 820. A new collection on the subject is Camus, E. et al., eds., Vector-borne Pathogens: International Trade and Tropical Animal Disease, Annals N.Y. Academy Sciences 791 (1996), ISBN 0-89766-955-X.

Safer pertussis vaccines for adult use are discussed in Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 941; and a trial of a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis is Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 1116-21; NS (12 Oct. 1996), 18. A therapeutic cocaine vaccine has worked in rats, and may be close to human trials, Fox, BS. et al. "Efficacy of a therapeutic cocaine vaccine in rodent models", Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 1129-32, 1073.

Papers on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) include: 383 (1996), 201, 209, 463, 467, 565, 658, 666-7, 685-90; Lancet 348 (1996), 675. The number of declared cases by May 1996 was 158,866 in the UK; 211 in Switzerland, 125 in Eire, 18 in France, 30 in Portugal, Nature 382 (1996), 4-5. However it is thought that it is throughout Europe. UK scientists have claimed their access to the data has been limited. A case of CJD in a beef farmer, to add to the 3 cases in dairy farmers in the UK, is in Lancet 348 (1996), 610-1. Diagnosing Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is discussed in BMJ 313 (1996), 833-4, 836-7; NEJM 335 (1996), 963-5; Lancet 348 (1996), 955, 835, 846-9; JAMA 276 (1996), 938-9.

In the USA a study shows that 70% of infants get their first course of antibiotics during their first 200 days, Arch Fam Med. 5 (1996); 523-526. Researchers found that otitis media (middle-ear infection) was the most common reason for antibiotic treatment in infants. Amoxicillin was the antibiotic most often prescribed. Letters on use of antibiotics in cold are in Lancet 348 (1996), 754-5. On drug-resistance, Lancet 348 (1996), 928-31; and MRSA, Lancet 348 (1996), 836-7; NS (19 Oct. 1996), 32-5.
The European Union announced in November 1996 that it will spend $63.5 million on research into BSE, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, and scrapie in sheep; Science 274 (1996), 1297-1298. It has spent much more to slaughter cattle infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy--"mad cow disease"--and compensate farmers for their lost herds. The BSE controversy has led to more distrust of regulatory authorities, Nature 384 (1996), 201; SA (Dec 1996), 16, 18. Further on the European debate, Nature 383 (1996), 753; 384 (1996), 8-9. There is still debate over the extent of maternal transmission of BSE, Nature 384 (1996), 17; also see, Lancet 348 (1996), 1174; TIG 12 (1996), 467-71. Derivatives of amphotericin B have been found to delay death in hamsters infected with scrapies, NS (2 Nov 1996), 5; and on links between scrapie and BSE, NS (2 Nov 1996), 4; Lancet 348 (1996), 1157; BMJ 313 (1996), 1100. Marker methods are being improved, Lancet 348 (1996), 1230; Science 274 (1996), 721.

A commentary that vaccine usage patterns suggest that public health policies are necessary for vaccine acceptance is Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1647. A study from Zimbabwe where traditional beliefs can inhibit health education is Pitts, M. et al. "Lay beliefs about diarrhoeal diseases: Their role in health education in a developing country", SSM 43 (1996), 1223-8. A review of Western medicine in India is Lancet 348 (1996), 1075-8. WHO and UNICEF have found vaccines very costly Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1532. A call for the UK government to immunize all over 65 years old for influenza is BMJ 313 (1996), 1162. A letter on polio campaigns is Lancet 348 (1996), 1454.

The mechanism for the extreme sensitivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the antituberculosis drug isoniazid is explained in Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1557-61. Also on TB, JAMA 276 (1996), 1502-7,1512-3. On Teva's MS drug Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1536. Malaria may be susceptible to a drug against its lactate dehydrogenase enzyme, and efforts are being made to test this idea, NS (16 Nov 1996), 17. Also on malaria, SA (Dec 1996), 52, 56; Lancet 348 (1996), 1196-201, 1377-9.

Research on cancer vaccines that are tailor made for each patient are being tested, NS (2 Nov 1996), 24. In general on vaccines, NS (2 Nov 1996), 26-9; and on the burden of disease, Science 273 (1996), 740-3. On Gulf War illness, Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1645; NEJM 335 (1996), 1498-1513, 1525-6; Lancet 348 (1996), 1023. A review of McCormack, JB et al., Virus Hunters of the CDC (Atlanta: Turner 1996, 379pp., US$23, ISBN 1-57036-277-7) is in Lancet 348 (1996), 1433-4.

Letters calling for a ban on animal use of antibiotics for growth promotion because of the emergence of antibiotic resistance is in Lancet 348 (1996), 1454-6.

A review of the problems that drug-resistant bacteria pose to progress in reducing infectious disease is GEN (15 Jan 1997), 6, 29; NS (18 Jan, 1997), 24-7; SA (Feb 1997), 24-5; Lancet 348 (1998), 1703-4. Europe is considering banning use of avoparcin, an antibiotic used on farms, NS (21/28 Dec, 1996), 6. Resistant fungi are also a problem, JAMA 277 (1997), 5-6. On foodborne infections with E.coli, JAMA 277 (1997), 97-8; NS (21/28 Dec, 1996), 5; Nature 385 (1997), 474; BMJ 314 (1997), 241, 249.

A solution to the mystery of Gulf War syndrome appears to have been found. The name now given to the disease is MIRDS - mucocutaneous-intestinal-rheumatic desert syndrome, caused by a microorganism; NEJM 336 (1997), 259-61; JAMA 277 (1997), 215-22, 223-30, 231-7, 238-45; NS (18 Jan. 1997), 8; Nature 384 (1996), 604; 385 (1997), 185, 187; BMJ 314 (1997), 95, 168, 239-40; Probe V (No.9, 1997), 1, 4; Probe V (No.10, 1997), 1, 6.

On litigation on CJD, BME 123 (1996), 16-8. The general there have been changes in the way safety is monitored, Nature 385 (1997), 6-7. Some scientists predict a broader spread of mad cow disease, Time (27 Jan 1997), 48-9; Nature 385 (1997), 197-8, 200. The first German case has been confirmed and reported, Nature 385 (1997), 376. A prion test is being used to identify victims of CJD who caught it from BSE, NS (18 Jan. 1997), 10. Five French physicians are being charged with poisoning through infections of CJD in growth hormone preparations, Nature 385 (1997), 194; BMJ 314 (1997), 166.

Legal issues in controlling tuberculosis are reviewed in Weber, GS. "Unresolved issues in controlling the tuberculosis epidemic among the foreign-born in the United States", AJLM XXII (1996), 503-36. There has been a rise in the number of rabies cases in the USA, FDA Consumer (Nov 1996), 25-9. A review of the first 50 years of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is in AJPH 86 (1996), 1705-8. On the WHO, NS (11 Jan. 1997), 12-3.

The sterile production of monkeys against malaria after administering interleukin-12 is reported in NatMed 3 (1997), 80-83. A sporozoite antigen based vaccine is being evaluated in tests, NEJM 336 (1997), 86-91, 128-9. Background on malaria is in a book review in Lancet 348 (1996), 1717. On the mechanism of resistance of African trypanosomes to cytotoxic human HDL Nature 385 (1997), 823-6.

A discussion of ethics is Preziosi, M.P. et al. "Practical experiences in obtaining informed consent for a vaccine trial in rural Africa", NEJM 336 (1997), 370-3.

On doctors and the plague outbreak in India in 1994, Monash Bioethics Review 16 (1) (1997),35-8. Many doctors also escaped from the city of Surat in the outbreak. A book review of Arrizabalaga, J. et al. The Great Pox: The French Disease in Renaissance Europe (Yale University Press 1997), 352pp., US$35, is in Nature 386 (1997), 343; and further book reviews on disease are Nature 386 (1997), 565; NS (22 March 1997), 46; JAMA 277 (1997), 437-8, 1007-8. Genetic analysis of the remains of virus in dead corpses has found some of the origins of the flu which killed 20 million people in 1918-1919, Taubenberger, JK. et al. "Initial genetic characterization of the 1918 "Spanish" influenza virus", Science 275 (1997), 1793-6, 1739. The Jan-Feb 1997 issue of World Health focuses on infectious diseases. On Zonzo and Ebola in Zaire, Lancet 349 (1997), 621.

A review is Jones, VE. & Mitchell, MS. "Therapeutic vaccines for melanoma: progress and problems", TIBTECH 14 (1996), 349-55. The most complex anticancer vaccine to date is being tested against prostrate cancer in New York, NS (1 March 1997), 20. DNA vaccines are being introduced into clinical trials for hepatitis B, HIV and influenza in GEN (1 April 1997), 6, 36.

On the link between Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD) and BSE, Nature Biotechnology 15 (1997), 295. On BSE, CMAJ 156 (1997), 1043-6; Lancet 349 (1997), 636-41, 715-21. The number of possible CJD cases is still unsure, Lancet 349 (1997), 820, 847. The US FDA has imposed a ruminant-ruminant feeding ban, JAMA 277 (1997), 370. The Canadian Growth Hormone Advisory Committee is continuing its surveillance of patients who were treated with pituitary-derived growth hormone (GH) during childhood. To date, no cases of CJD related to the hormone have been reported in Canada, Japan or Australia. Since 1985, when CJD was reported in young adults who had received GH, more than 70 cases have been reported worldwide, France (40), the UK (15) and the US (15); CMAJ 156 (1997), 971. A review of the politics of mad cow disease in the UK, Newsweek (24 March 1997), 26-9.

Taiwan has a major foot and mouth disease epidemic that will cause slaughtering of 1.6 million of its 11 million pigs, Newsweek (7 April 1997), 32. This is similar to the 1.2 million cows to be killed in the UK out of 12 million. In Netherlands and Germany hundreds of thousands of pigs are being killed to stop swine fever, and a vaccine should be ready by 1998; NS (8 March 1997), 20. On the mechanism of scrapie, Nature 386 (1997), 137. Male hormones make animals less able to resist parasites, whereas estrogen enhances immunity, NS (15 March 1997), 19.

An endogenous retrovirus of pigs has been found to infect humans, raising concerns about xenografts (see Organ Transplant section), Nature Medicine 3 (1997), 282-6. A report from 1897 on infectious disease from domestic animals is JAMA 277 (1997), 361.

A series of reports on the need to control malaria is Nature 386 (1997), 535-8; NS (15 March 1997), 18; Science 275 (1997), 1485+. The parasites Plasmodium have been found to contain plant DNA in their apicoplast.

When an annual program of reviews was introduced in Georgia, USA, there was increased vaccination rates, JAMA 277 (1997), 631-5. The FDA has approved a second acellular pertussis vaccine for infants, JAMA 277 (1997), 783; and an influenza vaccine for infants, JAMA 277 (1997), 620-1. On the rational design of pertussis vaccine by genetic engineering, Nature Medicine 3 (1997), 374-6. Circumcised infants show higher pain response to routine vaccination than uncircumcised, Lancet 349 (1997), 599-603. A UK study found no increase in neurological damage with measles vaccination, Lancet 349 (1997), 730-1.

A discussion of E.coli O157 is in Lancet 349 (1997), 930; which examines how the horizontal transfer of verotoxin DNA may have occurred. Shedding of O157 normally takes 13-29 days, Lancet 349 (1997), 745-6. Following the outbreak in Japan a radish sprout farmer has claimed compensation from the government that issued a report that his farm was the source of the August 1996 outbreak, although there was no scientific evidence or signs of the bacteria, Nature 386 (1997), 211. It is also seen in the USA, AJPH 87 (1997), 176-80. On multidrug resistance, BMJ 314 (1997), 664-5.

On doctors and the plague outbreak in India in 1994, Monash Bioethics Review 16 (1) (1997),35-8. Many doctors also escaped from the city of Surat in the outbreak. A book review of Arrizabalaga, J. et al. The Great Pox: The French Disease in Renaissance Europe (Yale University Press 1997), 352pp., US$35, is in Nature 386 (1997), 343; and further book reviews on disease are Nature 386 (1997), 565; NS (22 March 1997), 46; JAMA 277 (1997), 437-8, 1007-8. Genetic analysis of the remains of virus in dead corpses has found some of the origins of the flu which killed 20 million people in 1918-1919, Taubenberger, JK. et al. "Initial genetic characterization of the 1918 "Spanish" influenza virus", Science 275 (1997), 1793-6, 1739. The Jan-Feb 1997 issue of World Health focuses on infectious diseases. On Zonzo and Ebola in Zaire, Lancet 349 (1997), 621.

A review is Jones, VE. & Mitchell, MS. "Therapeutic vaccines for melanoma: progress and problems", TIBTECH 14 (1996), 349-55. The most complex anticancer vaccine to date is being tested against prostrate cancer in New York, NS (1 March 1997), 20. DNA vaccines are being introduced into clinical trials for hepatitis B, HIV and influenza in GEN (1 April 1997), 6, 36.

On the link between Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD) and BSE, Nature Biotechnology 15 (1997), 295. On BSE, CMAJ 156 (1997), 1043-6; Lancet 349 (1997), 636-41, 715-21. The number of possible CJD cases is still unsure, Lancet 349 (1997), 820, 847. The US FDA has imposed a ruminant-ruminant feeding ban, JAMA 277 (1997), 370. The Canadian Growth Hormone Advisory Committee is continuing its surveillance of patients who were treated with pituitary-derived growth hormone (GH) during childhood. To date, no cases of CJD related to the hormone have been reported in Canada, Japan or Australia. Since 1985, when CJD was reported in young adults who had received GH, more than 70 cases have been reported worldwide, France (40), the UK (15) and the US (15); CMAJ 156 (1997), 971. A review of the politics of mad cow disease in the UK, Newsweek (24 March 1997), 26-9.

Taiwan has a major foot and mouth disease epidemic that will cause slaughtering of 1.6 million of its 11 million pigs, Newsweek (7 April 1997), 32. This is similar to the 1.2 million cows to be killed in the UK out of 12 million. In Netherlands and Germany hundreds of thousands of pigs are being killed to stop swine fever, and a vaccine should be ready by 1998; NS (8 March 1997), 20. On the mechanism of scrapie, Nature 386 (1997), 137. Male hormones make animals less able to resist parasites, whereas estrogen enhances immunity, NS (15 March 1997), 19.

An endogenous retrovirus of pigs has been found to infect humans, raising concerns about xenografts (see Organ Transplant section), Nature Medicine 3 (1997), 282-6. A report from 1897 on infectious disease from domestic animals is JAMA 277 (1997), 361.

A series of reports on the need to control malaria is Nature 386 (1997), 535-8; NS (15 March 1997), 18; Science 275 (1997), 1485+. The parasites Plasmodium have been found to contain plant DNA in their apicoplast.

When an annual program of reviews was introduced in Georgia, USA, there was increased vaccination rates, JAMA 277 (1997), 631-5. The FDA has approved a second acellular pertussis vaccine for infants, JAMA 277 (1997), 783; and an influenza vaccine for infants, JAMA 277 (1997), 620-1. On the rational design of pertussis vaccine by genetic engineering, Nature Medicine 3 (1997), 374-6. Circumcised infants show higher pain response to routine vaccination than uncircumcised, Lancet 349 (1997), 599-603. A UK study found no increase in neurological damage with measles vaccination, Lancet 349 (1997), 730-1.

A discussion of E.coli O157 is in Lancet 349 (1997), 930; which examines how the horizontal transfer of verotoxin DNA may have occurred. Shedding of O157 normally takes 13-29 days, Lancet 349 (1997), 745-6. Following the outbreak in Japan a radish sprout farmer has claimed compensation from the government that issued a report that his farm was the source of the August 1996 outbreak, although there was no scientific evidence or signs of the bacteria, Nature 386 (1997), 211. It is also seen in the USA, AJPH 87 (1997), 176-80. On multidrug resistance, BMJ 314 (1997), 664-5.

Mutations associated with infections are reported in Summerfield, JA. et al. "Association of mutations in mannose binding protein gene with childhood infection in consecutive hospital series", BMJ 314 (1997), 1229-32. The virus adenovirus Ad-36 may be a cause of obesity in not only non-human animals, but also humans, Lancet 349 (1997), 1150. PCR can be used for diagnosis of viral infections of the nervous systems, Lancet 349 (1997), 1256. A probable role for bacteria role in chronic arthritis is suggested by PCR studies finding several strains in joint, Lancet 349 (1997), 1038, 1063+. A review of the use of molecular tests for diagnosis, GEN (15 April 1997), 6, 26. Acute arthritis was associated with adverse effects of rubella immuniza-tion in seronegative women, Lancet 349 (1997), 1277-81.

In highly endemic areas of Africa for malaria, methods to reduce parasite transmission operate, Lancet 349 (1997), 1650-4, 1636-7. A meeting report on new strategies for combating malaria is BMJ 314 (1997), 1707-8. On a field trial of an oral cholera vaccine in Vietnam, Lancet 349 (1997), 1253-4; and on oral vaccines, Lancet 349 (1997), 1676. Nasal vaccination is an alternative to influenza vaccines, Lancet 349 (1997), 1150.

The development of vaccines against E.coli urinary tract infections is expected following the results of a genetically modified vaccine, Science 276 (1997), 607+, 533. Some vaccination failures with Haemophilus influenzae type-b conjugate are reported in a UK study, Lancet 349 (1997), 1197-202, 1186. However a Gambian study found that it prevents most cases of pneumonia and meningitis, Lancet 349 (1997), 1191-7. The total synthesis of vaccine has also been achieved, Deshpande, PP. & Danishefsky SJ. "Total synthesis of the potential anticancer vaccine KH-1 adenocarcinoma antigen", Nature 387 (1997), 164-6. On Genzyme's research in cancer vaccines, GEN (1 June 1997), 1, 23, 38. A review of the was genomics is increasing understanding of disease is Strauss, EJ. & Falkow, S. "Microbial pathogenesis: genomics and beyond", Science 276 (1997), 707-12. A list of species and sequencing programs is on-line <http://www.tigr.org> Genentech scientists are developing one shot vaccine formulations using a polymer, polyactic-coglycolic acid, GEN (15 June 1997), 1, 12, 41.

The Japanese government has banned the use of dura mater grafts, 10 years after the FDA (see EJAIB May 1997), for fears that the transmit prion disease, Nature 387 (1997), 5. 43 cases of CJD may have been caused. The WHO had a meeting on evidence for human blood transfer of prions and the conclusion was that there is no known case, but people with CJD be excluded from being donors, Lancet 349 (1997), 1001. On the prion strains in CJD, NatMed 3 (1997), 521-5. Transmission between species may raise the virulence, Science 278 (4 July 1997). There is some evidence that mad cow disease is spreading in Europe but has been hidden, NS (3 May 1997), 14-5. There are doubts over whether gelatin can transmit prion disease, JAMA 277 (1997), 1659-60. The UK has announced that the spinal cord of sheep over one year of age must be removed from the carcasses like cows, and spleens banned for consumption, Nature 387 (1997), 749.

A US initiative on food safety has begun using increased inspections, new methods for detection and combating, JAMA 277 (1997), 1337, 1340-2. The global food markets increase the risks of disease, BMJ 314 (1997), 1645. The Scottish report on O157 has suggested education methods, hygiene, separation of raw and cooked food licenses, Lancet 349 (1997), 1073.

The emptying of airplane toilets at airports into the sewage systems is one way that microbes get transported around the world, NS (17 May 1997), 7. A study in the USA by the Centers for Disease Control found more than a hundred cases of disease caused by mysterious pathogens, NS (7 June 1997), 6. Researchers disagree with a recent WHO claim that the tuberculosis epidemic will soon be under control, NS (19 April 1997), 4; and on TB in Thailand, SSM 44 (1997), 1805-16. A book review on Yellow Fever is SA (May 1997), 112-5. Cockroaches have been linked to asthma, BMJ 314 (1997), 1437; NEJM 336 (1997), 1356-63.

Results in Taiwan show how liver cancer can be prevented by vaccination, Chang, MH. et al. "Universal hepatitis B vaccination in Taiwan and the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in children", NEJM 336 (1997), 1906-7; PNAS 94 (1997), 7121-5; BMJ 350 (1997), 7.

Two papers on the ethics of polio vaccination is AJPH 87 (1997), 913-5, 922-5. The rubella vaccine has been declared safe from chronic joint or nerve problems for use in a study in JAMA (19 August, 1997).

Policy issues for blood transfusion with risks of CJD are discussed in Health Law Review 6 (1997),12-7. In Japan the MHW ordered to removal of many vials of blood products that had been donated from persons with CJD, though most have been already given. However there has been no case of transmission reported in Japan. The ethical and legal problems of recipient notification are discussed in JLME 25 (1997), 34-41. On the risks of BSE, GEN 17(July 1997), 1, 4, 8, 37, 40; Cell 89 (1997), 495-8, 499-510; Int. J. Health Services 27 (1997), 243-6. There is a low chance BSE is mutating into new diseases across species, Lancet 350 (1997), 120, 187-8; Science 277 (1997), 94-8; NS (12 July 1997), 6; Raymond, GJ. et al. "Molecular assessment of the potential transmissibilities of BSE and scrapie to humans", Nature 388 (1997), 285-8, 228-9. On scrapie, PNAS 94 (1997), 4931-6. The Council of Europe conclusions on BSE are in IDHL 48 (1997), 85-6.

On genetic engineering of vaccines, 840, 882-6. A naked DNA vaccine is made in Kim, JJ. et al. Engineering of in vivo immune responses to DNA immunization via codelivery of costimulatory molecule genes, NatBio 15 (1997), 641-6, also p. 619; and on mucosal vaccines, NatBio 15 (1997), 622, and other methods, NatBio 15 (1997), 647-52, 653-57, 658-662. The insects or allergens may also be changed, Takai, T. et al. "Engineering of the major house dust mite allergen Der f 2 for allergen-specific immunotherapy", NatBio 15 (1997), 754-8. On the use of mutant p53 as a cancer vaccine, SA (August 1997), 36-7. On the role of viruses in cancer etiology, PNAS 94 (1997), 4237-8.

Having a more diverse social network gives a person increased resistance to colds, Cohen, S. et al. "Social ties and susceptibility to the common cold", JAMA 277 (1997), 1940-4; Proc. R. Soc. London B 264 (1997), 949-57. A US study found US$22.36 was saved per lost workday for a company investment of $2.58 per dollar invested in an influenza vaccine program, Am. J. Occup. Env. Med. (1997), 408+. On the dangers of E.coli, often involved in food poisoning, Lancet 349 (1997), 1847-8; Science Progress 80 (1997), 3-4. In Japan, 30% of E.coli O157 tested were resistant to at least one antibiotic, Asahi Evening News (22 July 1997), 1.

Malaria research is going to get increased funding, Science 277 (1997), 309; Nature 388 (1997), 211; and on techniques, Lancet 350 (1997), 192; BMJ 315 (1997), 96-7. Letters on the global burden of disease studies are in Lancet 350 (1997), 141-5; also, Nature 388 (1997), 410. On antibiotic resistance, Lancet 349 (1997), 1901-6; NS (26 July 1997), 25; BMJ 315 (1997), 57. There has been a outbreak of monkeypox virus in Congo, Science 277 (1997), 312-3. The flesh rotting disease Buruli is increasing in Ivory Coast. The importance of ecological monitoring for disease is stressed in JAMA 277 (1997), 189-91.

The success of vaccination programs in the US Childhood Immunization Initiative are reported in JAMA 278 (1997), 622-3. The prospects of vaccine development by the year 2000 and beyond are discussed in NatMed 3 (1997), 942, including prospects for removing measles within ten years. A call for a Human Germ Project to focus on all infectious diseases is made in Nature 389 (1997), 21-4; and a comparison of international assistance from different countries is Science 277 (1997), 760. An update on the WHO vaccine trial registry is Bulletin WHO 75 (1997), 295-305. A UNDP funded vaccine institute has started in Seoul, South Korea, Nature 388 (1997), 655. A discussion of the polio eradication efforts, Science 277 (1997), 779-80. Vaccines that generate cellular immunity are being developed, PNAS 94 (1997), 10496-8.

Early BCG vaccination in children does not seem to hasten the development of atopy, Lancet 350 (1997), 400-3. Rubella vaccine has passed a safety review for screening pregnant women, Lancet 350 (1997), 569.

The sandfly-borne parasite, Leishmaniansis tropica is the probable cause of Gulf War syndrome, Probe VI (3, 1997), 1, 4-5; Probe VI (4, 1997), 3-5; JAMA 278 (1997), 383-7. There are plans to revive development of sterile mosquitoes, Nature 389 (1997), 6; and also the genome of the malaria parasite will be sequenced, Nature 388 (1997), 699, 701; Science 277 (1997), 1437. The molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility to malaria is also being discovered, Lancet 350 (1997), 678-9; BMJ 315 (1997), 730-2. On insect control, NEJM 337 (1997), 785-6; virus hunting, NEJM 337 (1997), 577-8.

The question of control of patients and ethics is discussed in Oscherwitz, T. et al. "Detention of persistently nonadherent patients with tuberculosis", JAMA 278 (1997), 843-6. An assessment of world tuberculosis control is Lancet 350 (1997), 624-9.

There appears to be conclusive proof that BSE leads to CJD, Nature 389 (1997), 423, 437-8, 448-50, 498-501. A paper suggesting CJD may not be related to BSE is Coussens, SN. et al. "Sporadic Cretzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK: analysis of epidemiological surveillance data for 1970-96", BMJ 315 (1997), 389-96. The UK government is planning to study more the links between BSE and CJD clusters, BMJ 315 (1997), 331. The age of onset is important for study of CJD, BMJ 315 (1997), 395-6. PrP-expressing tissue is required for transfer of scrapie infectivity from spleen to brain, Nature 389 (1997), 69-73; NS (13 Sept. 1997), 22-3. The discoverer of prions, Stanley Prusiner, received the 1997 Nobel Prize in medicine, Nature 389 (1997), 529. The European Commission may introduce a ban on drugs that have bovine, ovine or caprine ingredients, BMJ 315 (1997), 426. There are US complaints about some of the rules on BSE fears, Nature 388 (1997), 706. A book review on kuru is NatMed 3 (1997), 925.

The question of whether viruses may be involved in mental illness is discussed in SA (Oct. 1997), 38-9; Mestel, R. "Mind-altering bugs", NS (13 Sept. 1997), 42-5. Many drugs used for treatment are also anti-microbial. There is also a claim that a retrovirus may be involved in diabetes, NS (13 Sept. 1997), 6. Coronary artery disease risk can also be decreased in some cases with antibiotics, Lancet 350 (1997), 378.

A case of intentional food contamination in laboratory workers using Shigella dysenteriae is assessed in JAMA 278 (1997), 396-8; and in the community by a salad bar contamination with salmonella, JAMA 278 (1997), 389-95. The FDA is expected to acquire new powers over foods seen as public hazards, including fines, BMJ 315 (1997), 625. The USDA made the largest ever recall of beef on 15 August, in fears of E.coli O157, Lancet 350 (1997), 567. There is a call for a food agency in the UK, BMJ 315 (1997), 619-20. Hot weather also leads to more outbreaks on crowded farms, NS (23 Aug. 1997), 4. Hospital ventilation systems could also harbour many bacteria, NS (13 Sept. 1997), 4.

A vaccine for rotavirus is awaiting approval from FDA, GEN 17 (Dec 1997), 24, 38; Lancet 350 (1997), 1538-41; NatMed 3 (1997), 1324-5; BMJ 315 (1997), 1115; NEJM 336 (1997), 1228-9. The failure to implement mass vaccination against group A meningococcal meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa has lead to another epidemic, despite the vaccine being available, approved and cheap, Lancet 350 (1997), 880-2, 1565. On progress to global measles control, JAMA 278 (1997), 1396-7; and varicella, JAMA 278 (1997), 1495, 1520, 1529-30. US doctors who can give free vaccines do not refer people to public clinics so much, JAMA 278 (1997), 996-1000. Pheumococcal vaccine saves money when elderly people are vaccinated, JAMA 278 (1997), 1333-9.

A resistant strain of whopping cough is going across Europe despite vaccination, NS (11 Oct 1997), 5. In general on vaccine design, Science 278 (1997), 1711-4; also p. 19; Lancet 350 (1997), 1240-4; 1386-92; 1466-70, 1767-70; BMJ 315 (1997), 1595-8. A primer on Allergic and Immunologic diseases-4th edition is in JAMA 278 (10 Dec 1997), 1801-2026. On a trial of two acellular pertussis vaccines, Lancet 350 (1997), 1564-5, 69-77. Human herpes virus 6 is associated with multiple sclerosis, NatMed 3 (1997), 1394-7; BMJ 315 (1997), 1564; Science 278 (1997), 1710. Helicobacter pylori does not appear linked to ischemic heart disease mortality, BMJ 315 (1997), 1199-20.

The US pentagon admitted that unlicensed vaccine was given to 8000 soldiers in the Gulf War, the botulinum toxoid vaccine may be related to Gulf War syndrome, AP 23 Dec 1997. The UK Ministry of Defense was warned at the start of the war that the combination could have health effects, Nature 390 (1997), 3. A letter on the presence and sale of many unsafe expired vaccines in Asia is Nature 391 (1998), 222.

In December a new influenza strain was found in some chickens in Hong Kong, H5N1 virus influenza A, and a million chickens will killed in attempts to control it, while several people were infected and died; Time (12 Jan 1998), 15; Newsweek (12 Jan 1998), 12-7. On migration of people and new diseases, NEJM 336 (1997), 1700.

Guidance on the prevention of malaria for travelers is JAMA 278 (1997), 1767-71. On malaria vaccines, Lancet 350 (1997), 1696-701; and a new one, Gilbert, SC. et al. "A protein particle vaccine containing multiple malaria epitopes", NatBio 15 (1997), 1280-4; NatMed 3 (1997), 1315-6. A review of trials of mefloquine to prevent malaria is BMJ 315 (1997), 1412-6. Resistance mechanisms to chloroquine are reported in Cell 91 (1997), 593-603; Science 278 (1997), 223; see also Science 277 (1997), 1918-9; 278 (1998), 1393-4. Malaria has been acquired 13 times in 1994-1996 in Germany, NEJM 336 (1997), 1636; and South America has an epidemic likely after El Nino, NS (6 Dec 1997), 16. On leprosy after 2000, Lancet 350 (1997), 1717.

On recent trends in the falling number of BSE cases, Nature 389 (1997), 903. The UK banned the sale of beef from the bone, BMJ 315 (1997), 1560; NS (13 Dec 1997), 8; Ecologist 27 (1997), 182-3. The UK was also considering a ban on lamb on the bone, raising concerns from exporters of lamb like New Zealand. CJD disease from a Japanese woman who receive a cadaveric dural graft is reported in Lancet 350 (1997), 865-6; and a UK patient who donated eye tissue to 3 patients has been found to have had CJD, BMJ 315 (1997), 1485, 1553-4. The UK is studying whether a new form of vCJD may be transmitted by blood, Nature 390 (1997), 105, 541; CMAJ 157 (1997), 1367-70; Caulfield, T. et al. "Notifying patients exposed to blood products associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: integrating science, legal duties and ethical mandates", CMAJ 157 (1997), 1389-92. The nvCJD is caused by the same prion strain as BSE, BMJ 315 (1997), 831; JAMA 278 (1997), 1008-11; NEJM 336 (1997), 1821-8; Science 278 (1997), 31, 245-51. There may be prion-linked psychiatric disorders, Nature 390 (1997), 241; Lancet 350 (1997), 903-7, 908-10. B cells may propagate prions, Science 278 (1997), 2050; Nature 390 (1997), 662-3. The cellular prion protein binds copper in vitro, Nature 390 (1997), 684-7; and on prion disease, BMJ 315 (1997), 972; NEJM 336 (1997), 1016-7; Science 278 (1997), 214. Families of 14 young people who died from CJD after growth hormone treatment in the UK have received compensation, BMJ 315 (1997), 1401.

An age-appropriate sore throat score identified GAS infection in children and adults with sore throat better than usual care by family physicians, with significant reductions in unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics, McIsaac, WJ. et al. "A clinical score to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use in patients with sore throat", CMAJ 158 (1998), 75-83; 92-5. Patient's desires also influences what is given, BMJ 315 (1997), 1211-4, 1506-10. On economic perspectives on reducing resistance, SSM 46 (1998), 29-38. On concerns over growth in resistance, Hiramatsu, K. et al. "Dissemination in Japanese hospitals of strains of Staphylococcus aureus heterogeneously resistant to vanomycin", Lancet 350 (1997), 1670-3, 1644; JAMA 278 (1997), 901-4, 944-5, 2049-50; Lancet 350 (1997), 973-4; Nature 391 (1998), 291-5; Science 278 (1997), 575-6, 1731-2; NS (6 Dec 1997), 5. Household cleaners allow antibiotic resistance to develop, NS (20 Dec 1997), 7. There are variable mutation rates in commensal and pathogenic E. coli, Science 278 (1997), 1833-4.

A review is Levy, SB. "The challenge of antibiotic resistance", SA (March 1998), 46-53. On the medical consequences of agricultural uses of antibiotics, Science 279 (1998), 996-7. Having the genetic blueprints of bacteria may help fight drug-resistance, GEN 18 (15 Jan 1998), 9, 31. Acne treatment can also lead to resistance, Lancet 351 (1998), 422. On methods for long treatment, Guillemot, D. et al. "Low dosage and long treatment duration of b-lactam", JAMA 279 (1998), 365-70, 394-5.

India has approved a leprosy vaccine, BMJ 316 (1998), 414. On cross-immunity for leprosy and TB, AJPH 87 (1997), 1923-7. The genetic structure of the Chinese avian influenza from Hong Kong, H5N1 suggests it will probably not result in a pandemic, BMJ 316 (1998), 91, 325; Science 279 (1998), 324; Lancet 351 (1998), 115, 191; but we do not know when another pandemic will come, NS (31 Jan 1998), 18-9. On typhoid fever vaccines, BMJ 316 (1998), 110-6; and Arakawa, T. et al. "Efficacy of a food plant-based oral cholera toxin B subunit vaccine", NatBio 16 (1998), 292-8.

A genetic vaccine has been made against Ebola in a pig model, Xu, L. et al. "Immunization for Ebola virus infection", NatMed 4 (1998), 37-42, 16-7; Science 279 (1998), 983-4; Lancet 351 (1998), 117. A report on Australian vaccination practice is MJA 167 (1997), 296-7, 299-302; and international calls for vaccination are in NatMed 4 (1998), 1. A study of the impact of anti-vaccine movements on pertussis control is Lancet 351 (1998), 356-61. Communication of vaccine safety is discussed in AJPH 87 (1997), 1919-20. An estimate that 2010 will be the end for poliovirus immunization is Science 279 (1998), 788-9. After 30 years of follow-up the contamination of polioviruses with SV40 in 1955-1963 has not led to more cancer, JAMA 279 (1998), 292-5.

There is a conflict in the UK over the proposed killing of badgers to test whether they are involved in tuberculosis, Science 279 (1998), 817-8; NS (10 Jan 1998), 3, 10-1. On Lyme disease and ecology, Science 279 (1998), 984.

The NIH has opened the 3rd biosafety level 4 lab in the USA, without much local concern, NatMed 4 (1998), 136. A discussion of quarantine rules on animals in the UK and the protection from disease is NS (17 Jan 1998), 14. The food poisoning from E. coli in the UK may have come from Latin America, NS (10 Jan 1998), 12. Partnership between North and South in malaria control is called for in Science 279 (1998), 498-9; and on chloroquine resistance, NatMed 4 (1998), 23-4. The disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa is discussed in Lancet 351 (1998), 208-10. On the role of the media in health information a series of papers are in World Health (Nov. 1997), 1-29. Papers discussing the appointment of Gro Harlem Brundtland as the new WHO director are Lancet 351 (1998), 343, 381; Science 279 (1998), 166-9; and on globalisation of health, Lancet 351 (1998), 434-7.

A review of a UK inquiry on the role of science in BSE outbreak is NatMed 4 (1998), 135. A report on CJD from dura mater grafts in Japan is JAMA 279 (1998), 11-2. On prion disease, Science 279 (1998), 42-3; NS (24 Jan 1998), 24-8; Lancet 351 (1998), 419; NatGen 18 (1998), 94-5; Newsweek (23 Feb. 1998), 52-3. Aberrant synthesis at the ER leading to a transmembrane form of prion will result in neurodegenerative disease, Science 279 (1998), 827-34; also PNAS 95 (1998), 930-2.

Ethical issues are reviewed in Dare, T. "Mass immunization programmes: Some philosophical issues", Bioethics 12 (1998), 125-49; Lee, JW. et al. "Ethical dilemmas in polio eradication", AJPH 88 (1998), 130-1. A new bowel disease in children may be linked to MMR vaccine, and perhaps autism, Wakefield, AJ. et al. "Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis and pervasive developmental disorder in children", Lancet 351 (1998), 637-41, 715-6; 905-6; BMJ 316 (1998), 724. An historical view is Gangarosa, EJ., et al. "Impact of the antivaccine movements on pertussis control: the untold story", Lancet 351 (1998), 356-61. The rate of recurrent collapse after pertussis vaccine may be about 1 in 2000 according to a Dutch study, BMJ 316 (1998), 876, 902-3.

The Japanese Council on Public health has recommended a comprehensive law on infectious diseases be made by April, 1999, covering all major diseases, NatMed 4 (1998), 261. On vaccine safety and risk communication, JAMA 279 (1998), 578; NatMed 4 (1998), 371. Contamination of early polio vaccines with SV40 may be linked to rare tumours, BMJ 316 (1998), 877.

A Christchurch, New Zealand study found good levels of immunization coverage there, NZMJ 110 (1998), 440-2. Universal vaccination against varicella is discussed in NEJM 337 (1998), 683-4; and on rotavirus vaccine in USA, JAMA 279 (1998), 489-90. Cholera vaccination in refugee settings is discussed in JAMA 279 (1998), 552-3. On measles eradication, BMJ 316 (1998), 765-7; AJHG 62 (1998), 215-20. Hepatitis A vaccine may be ready for general use, O&G 91 (1998), 468-71. Variations in the NRAMP1 gene are linked to susceptibility to tuberculosis, NEJM 337 (1998), 640-4; and in general on tuberculosis, NEJM 337 (1998), 677-8; NatBio 16 (1998), 359-63. One fifth of samples of unpasteurized milk in the UK were contaminated with bacteria, BMJ 316 (1998), 625-7.

A survey of attitudes to notification of individuals exposed to CJD in Alberta, Canada found 68% want to know but 54% said it may cause more harm than good, Health Law Review 6 (1998), 20-3. The UK public hearings on BSE suggest many errors occurred, Nature 392 (1998), 532-3. On the mechanism, Nature 392 (1998), 763-4; and detection of CJD, Otto, M. et al. "Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by measurement of S100 protein in serum: prospective case-control study", BMJ 316 (1998), 563-4; and possible vaccination, PNAS 95 (1998), 2520-5. UK blood products have been banned also in case they transmit CJD, BMJ 316 (1998), 726. On attitudes to disease and eradication of dracunculiasis in Africa, SSM 46 (1998), 799-810.

On new vaccine techniques, TIBTECH 15 (1997), 483-4; NEJM 337 (1998), 926-7; and a DNA vaccine, Nature 392 (1998), 408-11. Two new melanoma vaccines are reviewed in NatMed 4 (1998), 269-70, 328+. The mechanism of Ebola is being understood more, NatMed 4 (1998), 388-9; and a vaccine has protected guinea pigs, Science News (10 Jan 1998), 22-3. On emerging diseases, Science 279 (1998), 1629-30. The variety of the malarial parasite is important for its survival, Science 279 (1998), 1173-7; NatMed 4 (1998), 267-8; but a DNA vaccination trial is outlined in NatMed 4 (1998), 397-402; NS (28 Feb. 1998), 15. A leprosy vaccine has been approved in India, Lancet 351 (1998), 501. Mercury in Brazil from gold-mining may be related to reduced immunity to malaria, Science 279 (1998), 1850. Research on the Hong Kong bird flu is reviewed in JAMA 279 (1998), 643-4; Lancet 351 (1998), 467-71, 472-7. On the founding of an Asian Vaccine Institute in South Korea, Science 279 (1998), 2047.

Containment of antibiotic resistance is discussed in Science 279 (1998), 1153-4; JAMA 279 (1998), 579, 593-8, 623-4. The comparative genetics of resistance to viruses is discussed in AJHG 62 81998), 211-4.

The ethics of vaccination programs are discussed in Dare, T. "Mass Immunization programmes: Some philosophical issues", Bioethics 12 (1998), 125-49. The need for childhood vaccination is reemphasized in MJA 168 (1998), 476-7, 487-90; BMJ 316 (1998), 1569-72. A denial of any link between MMR vaccine and autism or inflammatory bowel disease is BMJ 316 (1998), 955, 1824; Lancet 351 (1998), 1327-8, 1355-8; NatMed 4 (1998), 478; NS (7 March 1998), 4; or Crohn's disease, BMJ 316 (1998), 1745-6. On influenza vaccines for children, NEJM 337 (1998), 1459-61. Children who have allergies can also be vaccinated, MJA 168 (1998), 491-4. Thousands of children in India may have been paralyzed due to polio in India because of failed immunization policies, BMJ 316 (1998), 1264.

General discussions on vaccine are in NatMed 4 (May 1998 supplement), 474-536. On economics of Haemophilus influenzae vaccine, Lancet 351 (1998), 1446-7, 1472-6; and of rotavirus immunization, JAMA 279 (1998), 1371-6. On idiotype vaccines, NatMed 4 (1998), 668-9. A vaccine for leprosy is being used in India, NatMed 4 (1998), 548-50. Approval of a vaccine against Lyme disease has been given in the USA, BMJ 316 (1998), 1695. A Cuban vaccine trial for meningitis B is being delayed by the US trade embargo against Cuba, Lancet 351 (1998), 1498. A mutated viral protein may soon enter trials as an asthma vaccine, NS (23 May 1997), 22.

The UK has pledged money for the WHO malaria initiative, Lancet 351 (1998), 1561; Science 280 (1998), 2067-8; and on malaria vaccines, NatMed 4 (1998), 479, 520-4. A paper on genetic modification of mosquito vectors is PNAS 95 (1998), 3349-50. On global disease eradication, JAMA 279 (1998), 897-9. There is an outbreak of Dengue fever in South East Asia, Time (18 May 1998), 51. A book review on cleanliness is NS (30 May 1997), 48-9.

Transgenic plants can be used to produce vaccines that lead to immunogenic responses, Ma, JKC. et al. "Characterization of a recombinant plant monoclonal secretory antibody and preventative immunotherapy in humans", NatMed 4 (1998), 601-6; Tacket, CO. et al. "Immunogenicity in humans of a recombinant bacterial antigen delivered in a transgenic potato", NatMed 4 (1998), 607-9; 502-3, 550-1; BMJ 316 (1998), 1336.

A review of a search for the mechanism of antibiotic resistance is Science 280 (1998), 27; NatMed 4 (1998), 545-6; NEJM 337 (1998), 1376-8. A review of an outbreak of multidrug resistant pneumonia in a nursing home is NEJM 337 (1998), 1861-8. On prescription of antibiotics, JAMA 279 (1998), 881-2. The WHO and US CDC have made a global monitoring system, Lancet 351 (1998), 1264. There is a need for urgent action, also discussed in UK, Lancet 351 (1998), 1298-9; BMJ 316 (1998), 1255-6, 1261. The first death in Japan from an antibiotic resistant bacteria was reported on 14 July, 1998. Some drug resistance can be traced to farm use of vanomycin, NS (21 March 1998), 13. A discussion of whether to treat viral infections or not is NatMed 4 (1998), 664-5. On drug-resistant tuberculosis, NEJM 337 (1998), 1689-90; and herpes, NatMed 4 (1998), 673-8.

A paper asking whether BSE is really a threat to human health is Environmental Health Perspectives 106 (1998), A134-8; BMJ 316 (1998), 1336. The risk of CJD in UK is no different to elsewhere, suggesting BSE may not be linked. There may be other genetic factors in CJD risk, Lancet 351 (1998), 1081-5, 1251. France, Ireland and Portugal have began to deplete leukocytes from donated blood to reduce CJD transmission chance, Lancet 351 (1998), 1112. Dura mater transplants are still allowed in the USA but new guidelines aim to reduce the risk of CJD, Lancet 351 (1998), 1258. The question of compensation for people who fear that they may develop CJD and those who did in the UK is discussed in BMJ 316 (1998), 1629, 1929; Lancet 351 (1998), 1640; and Australians will also receive compensation, Lancet 351 (1998), 1114. Also on BSE, BMJ 316 (1998), 1029, 1190; Nature 393 (1998), 321-2; NS (4 April 1998), 48; (13 June 1998), 4; and mechanism of prion disease, Cell 93 (1998), 203-14. A call to change the name CJD to Jakob's disease is made in Nature 393 (1998), 11.

The world campaign to eradicate polio may be slowed by the mistakes in India's vaccine program, NS (25 July 1998), 18-9. From 1999 poliovirus stock will enter biosafety standard 2 level as the stage towards eradication is made, NatMed 4 (1998), 873. A retrospective paper on smallpox eradication in Africa is in Bulletin WHO 76(1998), 219-32. DNA vaccination protects nonhuman primates against rabies, NatMed 4 (1998), 949-52. Studies finding that OspA vaccine against Lyme disease is effective are NEJM 339 (1998), 209-15, 216-22, 263-4; Lancet 352 (1998), 375. Soon we can expect to have anticancer vaccines being sold, SA (Sept. 1998), 40-1. Progress on identifying epitopes for use in salmonella vaccine development is being made, Science 281 (1998), 565-8. There are claims that hepatitis B vaccine is associated with a significant risk of infection from the disease, Science 281 (1998), 630-1. Discussion of vaccine adverse reactions is in NatMed 4 (1998), 746; BMJ 317 (1998), 159.

The molecule linked to malarial resistance against chloroquine is not like Na/H exchangers, Cell 94 (1998), 285-6. Research is developing new antiparasitic drugs, NatMed 4 (1998), 894-5. India has eradicated guineaworm, Lancet 352 (1998), 464. People exposed to waterways with Pfiesteria toxins may experience learning difficulties, Lancet 352 (1998), 532-9. Development of no-needle vaccines is discussed in GEN (August 1998), 19, 39, 56.

Book reviews of Klitzman, R. A Personal Account of Kuru, Cannibals, and Mad Cow Disease (Plenum Trade 1998, 330pp.) is NatMed 4 (1998), 858-9; Lancet 352 (1998), 75-6; Nature 394 (1998), 239-30; and of Ratzan, S. The Mad Cow Crisis. Health and the Public Good (Univ. College London Press 1998, 256pp.), in Lancet 352 (1998), 584; and of Powell, D. et al. Mad Cows and Mother's Milk. The Perils of Poor Risk Communication (McGill-Queens University Press 1997, 308pp.), Lancet 352 (1998), 583. Also on BSE, Lancet 352 (1998), 252-3, 584-5.

A discussion of ethics is Morabia, A. & Porta, M. "Ethics of ignorance: Lessons from the epidemiological assessment of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("Mad Cow Disease") epidemic", Perspectives in Biology & Medicine 41 (1998), 259-66. Blood supplies in the UK are being treated to reduce risk of prion disease, BMJ 317 (1998), 232. On the replication of yeast prions, Cell 94 (1998), 13-6.

Micro-bacteria less than 0.1 micrometres in size have been found which surround themselves with minerals and may be linked to many diseases, NS (11 July 1998), 11. On pneumonia treatment in Pakistan with co-trimoxazale, Lancet 352 (1998), 270-4. A review on politics and public health in TB control is AJPH 88 (1998), 1014-6, 1105-17. Tests are being conducted in the UK to check whether badgers are really the source of cattle TB, NS (22 August 1998), 13.

Japanese victims of discrimination against lepers have sued the government for 1.5 billion yen, Lancet 352 (1998), 631. Vaccine research on B-cell lymphoma is discussed in GEN (15 Oct. 1998), 22, 43. Giving vaccinations to starving people can be more effective if leptin is also given, and leptin may help the maintenance of the immune system, NS (29 August 1998), 4. There are also problems in refugee vaccinations, Lancet 352 (1998), 1229. A US CDC panel has recommended a global tuberculosis (TB) vaccine effort, NatMed 4 (1998), 1097. Also on TB, BMJ 317 (1998), 671-4. Skin immunization is possible by a cholera toxin, Nature 391 (1998), 851. A plant-based cholera toxin B subunit insulin fusion protein protects against the development of autoimmune diabetes, NatBio16 (1998), 934-8. On better mobilizing host defense and building better vaccines, NatBio16 (1998), 1025-31.

Malaria research funding is discussed in Nature 395 (1998), 417; Science 281 (1998), 1930. Seven antigens may be better for a vaccine trial, Lancet 352 (1998), 1163-4; Wang, R. et al. "Induction of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in humans by a malaria DNA vaccine", Science 282 (1998), 476-80. The mechanism of the 1918 flu pandemic is discussed in NatMed 4 (1998), 1122-3. The role of crowded pig farms in human disease is discussed in NS (10 Oct. 1998), 18-9. On hantaviruses, Lancet 352 (1998), 886. A book review of Hess, DJ. Can Bacteria Cause Cancer? (New York University Press 1998) is NatMed 4 (1998), 1197-8. A promising meningtis B vaccine has been found, BMJ 317 (1998), 770. Prenatal rubella screening and postpartum vaccination is discussed in CMAJ 159 (1998), 119-20.

There are numerous calls to act now on antibiotic resistance, NatMed 4 (1998), 985; NS (12 Sept. 1998), 13; JAMA 280 (1998), 1233+, 1270-1; and a series of papers in BMJ 317 (1998), 609-615, 645-71, 764; This is also from veterinary uses, BMJ 317 (1998), 610-1, 1029-30; Science 281 (1998), 1666-8; CMAJ 159 (1998), 1129-38. Streptogramins are one answer to resistance, Lancet 352 (1998), 591-2. Also on antibiotic resistance genes, NS (29 August 1998), 13. Single genes that bacteria need for survival have been discovered which will lead to new drugs, NS (5 Sept. 1998), 20. Methods for identification of essential bacterial genes are reported in NatBio16 (1998), 851-6, 821.

In July 1995 the Canadian Red Cross Society recalled blood products because of the hypothetical risk of transmission of CJD through those blood products. More than 80% of the respondents said they wanted to be notified and would want to be notified if there were another recall, CMAJ 159 (1998), 817-22. See also, King, SM. et al. "Notifying patients exposed to blood products associate with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: theoretical risk for real people", CMAJ 159 (1998), 771-4, 663.

Protein conformation tests can distinguish prion strain, NatMed 4 (1998), 1125-6, 1157-65. There are many difficulties in methods to estimate the number of people incubating variant CJD, Lancet 352 (1998), 1353-4. In fact some would say there may be as many problems as answers in screening, NS (5 Sept. 1998), 5; Nature 395 (1998), 6-7. This is also due to variability, CMAJ 159 (1998), 1117. The UK safe policy on avoiding blood plasma in blood products to lower prion risk is being used, Nature 392 (1998), 3; however there are still concerns on methods of patient transmission, Lancet 352 (1998), 795. However BSE could be also transmitted via sheep, if the symptoms are similar to scrapie and it is not realized, Lancet 352 (1998), 883; Nature 395 (1998), 1; BMJ 317 (1998), 700. There is prion immunoreactivity in the appendix before the clinical onset of CJD, Lancet 352 (1998), 703-4; BMJ 317 (1998), 617; Science 281 (1998), 1422-3. Portugal reported 60 new cases of BSE in the first half of 1998, third after UK and Ireland, Science 282 (1998), 227. On the inquiry into safety of beef, BMJ 317 (1998), 1031. The mechanism of neurodegeneration may involve chaperones and may be similar to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, Nature 392 (1998), 23-4.

Methods for screening pathogens are discussed in Science 282 (1998), 219-221. Scientists have documented a case where a single pest, a protozoa, killed off snails in a protected breeding program making the species extinct, Science 281 (1998), 215. E.coli O157 cases may be associated with cattle, Lancet 352 (1998), 1005, 1207-12. Individual sensitivity to the plague may be related to a cell surface receptor, Toll-like receptor 2, Nature 395 (1998), 217-8. On Gulf War illness, JAMA 280 (1998), 1010-1.

African countries also are keeping up with attempts to eradicate polio by the year 2000, JAMA 280 (1998), 1980-1. A study has found that hepatitis B vaccine can be delivered at reasonable costs in US schools, AJPH 88 (1998), 1638-44. However, a French program is being halted because of fears MS can be triggered by the vaccine, NatMed 4 (1998), 1217. A study of ways for education of immunization is made in AJPH 88 (1998), 1821-6; also JAMA 280 (1998), 1482-3. A review of the risks of the 1954 Salk vaccine trials is BMJ 317 (1998), 1233-6. Influenza vaccination may be linked to Guillain-Barre Syndrome, NEJM 339 (1998), 1845-6. Bill Gates has donated a US$100 million fund for children's vaccines in developing countries, Science 282 (1998), 1971.

A plant produced vaccine is Zeitlan, L. et al. "A humanized monoclonal antibody produced in transgenic plants for immunoprotection of the vagina against genital herpes", NatBio 16 (1998), 1361-4. A synthesized live virus vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis has worked in mice, NatMed 4 (1998), 1357-8; NS (5 Dec. 1998), 6. Letters of recruiting volunteers for a typhoid vaccine are in JAMA 280 (1998), 1480-1. An anticancer vaccine using cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor has generated antitumour immunity, PNAS 95 (1998), 13141-6. A DNA vaccine that may work against lymphoma and myeloma is reported in NatMed 4 (1998), 1281-8, 1239-40. However, some anticancer vaccines may not be selective enough, NS (7 Nov. 1998), 26. Naked DNA vaccines are being tested, NatBio 17 (1999), 1304-5. DNA vaccines are also being used for animals, NatBio 16 (1998), 1325-8. A nasal vaccine is being tested against bubonic plague, NS (5 Dec. 1998), 14.

Progress in treating influenza is discussed in JAMA 280 (1998), 1729-30; Lancet 352 (1998), 1877-81; SA (Jan 1999), 78-87. ApoE4 seems to also alter herpes virus entry into cells, NatMed 4 (1998), 1344. Efforts to reduce tuberculosis are discussed in JAMA 280 (1998), 1702-3; PNAS 95 (1998), 13352-4, 13881-6; Lancet 352 (1998), 1886-91; BMJ 317 (1998), 1220-3. A summary of the global burden of disease study is NatMed 4 (1998), 1241-3. A book review of Viruses, Plagues and History is NatMed 4 (1998), 1327-8. Treatment of nonuclear dyspepsia is related to presence of Helicobacter pylori, NEJM 339 (1998), 1869-74, 1875-81, 1928-30. Some E. coli strains can burrow deeply into urinary tissue escaping antibiotics and immune system, and repeating infections, BMJ 317 (1998), 1473. A vaccine against the E. coli strain O157 is being designed, Science 282 (1998), 1404. The possibility that Chlamydia pneumoniae is linked to Alzheimer's disease is discussed in Science News 154 (1998), 325.

On malaria research, NatMed 4 (1998), 1244-5, 1351-3, 1360-2; JAMA 280 (1998), 1978; BMJ 317 (1998), 1506-8. The sequence of chromosome 2 of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum has been published, Science 282 (1998), 1126-32. Italy has offered free therapy for rare diseases, those with less than 1 case per 2000 people, and has made a list of 400 eligible diseases, Lancet 352 (1998), 1997. Only one in five persons develops symptoms to Herpes virus, but companies are encouraging testing, NS (12 Dec. 1998), 24-5.

A paper on the epidemiology of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in the UK is Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B. 265 (1998), 2443-52. A statement by the Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene and the Society of Public Health on the UK Inquiry on BSE is Public Health 112 (1998), 363-4. Prions are discussed in the Nobel Lecture of Stanley Prusiner in PNAS 95 (1998), 11030-1, 133363-83. There are questions why governments do not offer quick testing for BSE in beef, NS (14 Nov. 1998), 22-3. The origins of prion disease and CJD are reviewed in BMJ 317 (1998), 1688-92; p. 1273.

Papers on antibiotic microbial resistance are in Lancet 352 (1998), 1783; NatMed 4 (1998), 1343-4; Public Health 112 (1998), 415-7; FDA Consumer (Nov 1998), 23-25; BMJ 317 (1998), 1521. The question of whether toys and toothbrush and such common items bred resistant bacteria is discussed in SA (Nov 1998), 29. Mutating viruses are likely in chicken farms, NS (5 Dec. 1998), 24. New antimicrobials are being developed, NatBio 16 (1998), 1318.

The plant vaccine company Axis Genetics has entered into a collaborative agreement with Riche Vitamins for evaluating the oral efficiency of Epicoat vaccines, GEN (1 April 1999), 1, 40, 47. Monsanto is also developing vaccines in plants, GEN (15 Feb. 1999), 1, 8, 35. On the dangers of DNA vaccination, NatMed 5 (1999), 126. RNA may be used to make vaccines, SA (Feb. 1999), 42, 44.

There have been some promising trials of a recombinant multivalent malaria vaccine, PNAS 96 (1999), 1167-9, 1615-20; BMJ 318 (1999), 557; Lancet 353 (1999), 648; NS (20 Feb. 1999), 11. The vaccine targets the parasite at several stages of its life cycle. Human immunity to malaria is usually acquired only after 1-2 infections, NatMed 5 (1999), 272-3. On methods malaria escapes immune destruction, Nature 398 (1999), 562-3, 618+.

On polio eradication, JAMA 281 (1999), 221, 223. Development of a vaccine for Pseudomonas aeruginosa is reported in NatMed 5 (1999), 378-9; 392-8. Reports on surviving Ebola infection are reviewed in NatMed 5 (1999), 373-4. Influenza A and B can be prevented to significant degrees in health care professionals by vaccination, JAMA 281 (1999), 908-13. Hepatitis A vaccine can prevent hepatitis A in household contact, Lancet 353 (1999), 1136-9.

Letters on voucher incentives to improve US immunization rates are is JAMA 281 (1999), 702-3. State policies can improve rates but more is needed, AJPH 89 (1999), 164-70. The UN is ending the children's vaccine initiative, but will establish some other coordination if possible, Science 283 (1999), 1992-3. India has increased its funding for vaccines, Nature 398 (1999), 4.

A general comment on infectious disease is Science 283 (1999), 806-9; JAMA 281 (1999), 61-6. North American military personnel who refuse anthrax vaccination are being punished, Lancet 353 (1999), 130. Antibiotic resistant bacteria are discussed in PNAS 96 (1999), 800-1; NatMed 5 (1999), 358-9; NS (13 Feb. 1999), 34-7; NEJM 340 (1999), 556-7. The FDA has proposed to measure antibiotics in animal feed, BMJ 318 (1999), 829.

Tough debates in the UK BSE inquiry are leading to a delay in the expected report to late 1999 or further, BMJ 318 (1999), 558. Deaths from nvCJD are rising, with 9 in the last quarter of 1998 in the UK, BMJ 318 (1999), 829; Lancet 353 (1999), 939, 979. There is evidence of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) in sheep and goats in Italy, Lancet 353 (1999), 560-1. In the UK it is also suspected that the sheep TSE could be BSE that transfered, Nature 398 (1999), 648. In Australia people having 3 medical operations are twice as likely to have CJD than those with no operations, Lancet 353 (1999), 693-7; BMJ 318 (1999), 625. Sterilizing instruments at high temperatures may increase the risk of spreading, NS (13 Feb. 1999), 18. The question of TSEs in blood is discussed in the USA in JAMA 281 (1999), 1157-8; Nature 397 (1999), 376; but Canada has lifted a ban on donors with CJD, Lancet 353 (1999), 132. There are fears that Swiss cattle could have more BSE than thought, NS (6 March 1999), 16. Primates are easily infected with TSEs, Nature 398 (1999), 449; and there have been reported cases in French zoos, Int. Herald Tribune (31 March 1999), 4. A more sensitive test has been developed, Science 283 (1999), 469-70; GEN 19 (15 April 1999), 9, 30. Ethically we can ask do we want to know if we are incubating CJD? NS (23 Jan. 1999), 3, 5.

There is currently no evidence of vaccination leading to diabetes but further studies may be useful, BMJ 318 (1999), 1159-60. Discussion of the future of international vaccination efforts with the closure of the Children's Vaccine Initiative are in NatMed 5 (1999), 469-70; NEJM 340 (1999), 1373; Science 284 (1999), 587; also JAMA 281 (1999), 1366-7, 1482-3. A report on efforts to eradicate the last pools of wild polio in Cambodia and Vietnam are reported in JAMA 281 (1999), 1690-1. There are now efforts to block a gene DNA adenine methylase that is required for disease progression in a number of diseases as a vaccine target, Science 284 (1999), 883. The WHO is targeting malaria (again), Nature 399 (1999), 99. An editorial looking at when we can cure the common cold is JAMA 281 (1999), 1844-5. A study of BCG vaccines by whole genome DNA microarray is Science 284 (1999), 1520-3. To cure disease by vaccine will be best if it is needle free, JAMA 281 (1999), 1879-81.

Some further research on prion disease is reported in NatMed 5 (1999), 486-7; Lancet 353 (1999), 1502. Canadians who visit the UK may be disqualified from giving blood because of fears of CJD, NS (20 May 1999), 20; Lancet 353 (1999), 1775. A book review of Markel, H. Quarantine! East European Jewish Immigrants and the New York City Epidemics of 1892 (John Hopkins University Press 1997) is JAMA 281 (1999), 1758-9. On possible TB vaccines, Science 284 (1999), 1479-80. Reye's syndrome has largely been eradicated in the USA, NEJM 340 (1999), 1423-4; as has a lot of measles cases, Lancet 353 (1999), 1424.

Infections that may lead to cancer are discussed in Science 284 (1999), 1279. An outbreak of haemorrhagic fevers in the Democratic Republic of Congo has been suggested to be Marburg virus (related to Ebola), and suggests that it may be carried by bats, NS (15 May 1999), 12. A study suggests that sex twice a week improves immune function, by boosting IgA, NS (17 April 1999), 6.

A possible vaccine is reported in McKenney, D. et al. "Broadly protective vaccine for Staphylococcus aureus based on an in vivo-expressed antigen", Science 284 (1999), 1523-7. Bacteria resistant to drugs are discussed in GEN 19 (15 May 1999), 1, 19, 50; and a study has found 3% of clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae strains are resistant to vancomycin, Nature 399 (1999), 524-6; Science News 155 (1999), 175. A study found vancomycin-resistant enterococci in imported chickens in Japan, Lancet 353 (1999), 1854. Papers on microbe management are in Science 284 (1999), 1301-32. Less use of antibiotics in ambulatory practice can be safely done, JAMA 281 (1999), 1512-9.

Salmon, DA. Et al. "The health consequences of religious and philosophical exemptions from immunization laws", JAMA 282 (1999), 47-53. The question of the ethics of compulsory childhood vaccination is discussed in JME 25 (1999), 330-4. On reactions to MMR vaccine, MJA 170 (1999), 194-5; BMJ 318 (1999), 1487-8, 1578; Lancet 353 (1999), 1987-8, 2026-9; Times (24 August 1999), 35. Immunization against measles may actually benefit people, BMJ 319 (1999), 4-5. Children who do not have a measles vaccination increase the risks of epidemics as well as having a personal risk of measles much greater than vaccinated children, Lancet 354 (1999), 133. On the 1960 debate over BCG vaccination in Scandinavia, SSM 49 (1999), 1157-67. The children's vaccine initiative is discussed in JAMA 282 (1999), 594. See the US National Vaccine Advisory Committee, "Strategies to sustain success in childhood immunizations - Consensus Statement", JAMA 282 (1999), 363-70. Babies born very premature are no vaccinated as much as those at normal birth, JAMA 282 (1999), 547-53. A discussion of promotion efforts in Mexico is SSM 49 (1999), 921-32; and China, SSM 49 (1999), 1125-7; and in USA, JAMA 282 (1999), 646-50.

A report from the Nipah virus which crossed from pigs to humans in Malaysia is in NS (21 August 1999), 18. A review on the role of the media in BSE debates is SSM 49 (1999), 1239-55. On the US ban on blood from people who lived in the UK between 1980-1996, for fear of CJD, BMJ 318 (1999), 1574; Lancet 353 (1999), 2050; 354 (1999), 754 NatMed 5 (1999), 720. Ireland has reported variant CJD, Lancet 353 (1999), 2221; see Lancet 354 (1999), 317-23. There have been protests by farmers against new Spanish measures to prevent risk of BSE, Lancet 354 (1999), 138. The risk of BSE transmission to humans in the USA is discussed in JAMA 282 (1999), 2330-9. Injections from vets into cow brains may have spread BSE, NS (14 August 1999), 24. On the UK BSE inquiry, Nature 400 (1999), 487, 490. An easier human brain scan method for detecting CJD is being developed, NS (21 August 1999), 16. On prion function to prevent neuronal cell-line death, NS (17 July 1999), 15; Nature 400 (1999), 225-6.

The cost effectiveness of introducing a varicella vaccine to New Zealand is reported in SSM 49 (1999), 763-9. Poor vaccine storage can have bad effects, MJA 170 (1999), 82. Cross-linked protein crystals may allow better vaccines, PNAS 96 (1999), 9469-74. On food-borne infections, BMJ 319 (1999), 1433-4. Risk factors for hantavirus are reviewed in BMJ 319 (1999), 1737-8. Nanobacteria in kidneys are discussed in NS (21 August 1999), 32-6.

The burden of disease among the world's poor have been reestimated, and communicable diseases caused 59% of deaths and disability among the poorest 20%, while among the richest 20% non-communicable diseases caused 85% of death and disability, Lancet 354 (1999), 586-9. Stress can also make diseases have a larger impact, JAMA 281 (1999), 2268-70; see also NatMed 5 (1999), 727; Nature & Resources 35 (No. 2, 1999), 4-15. Conflict areas have risk of polio, BMJ 319 (1999), 214. On the global burden of tuberculosis, JAMA 282 (1999), 677-86; 281 (1999), 2138-9; NatMed 5 (1999), 872-3; NEJM 341 (1999), 459-60. A DNA vaccine against tuberculosis has worked in mice, Nature 400 (1999), 269-71. Malaria control in Nicaragua is discussed in Lancet 354 (1999), 414-8; and malaria control in Africa will require outside aid, Lancet 354 (1999), 378-85. Also on malaria, NatGen 22 (1999), 120-1, 145-50; Nature 400 (1999), 506-7. Mandatory reporting of diseases is surveyed in JAMA 282 (1999), 164-70. Letters on routine screening of children returning home from the tropics is discussed in BMJ 319 (1999), 121-2.

A review on DNA vaccines is NEJM 341 (1999), 277-8; and genetic vaccines, SA (July 1999), 50-7. A potential Alzheimer's vaccine has been designed from a peptide and there is an application to begin phase I clinical trials, GEN 19 (August 1999), 31, 40: BMJ 319 (1999), 145. Lyme disease vaccines are discussed in FDA Consumer (May-June 1999), 12-7. Hepatitis A vaccine targets are discussed in AJPH 89 (1999), 918-21; NEJM 341 (1999), 293. On herpes simplex viruses, JAMA 282 (1999), 379-80. A method to make influenza A vaccine made from scratch has been developed, Lancet 354 (1999), 491. Anthrax vaccine is more expensive than the US Army agreed to pay for it, Lancet 354 (1999), 140. A live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine 89-12 has worked in infants, Lancet 354 (1999), 287-90. On influenza, JAMA 282 (1999), 75-7.

Antibiotic resistance is discussed in MJA 170 (1999), 117-8; BMJ 318 (1999), 1614-8, 1716. A new SA vaccine may be safer, NS (5 June 1999), 11. Animal feed antibiotic use also increases resistance, JAMA 282 (1999), 120-1. There is antibiotic resistant bacteria in waterways, Science News 155 (1999), 356. Breast cancer may be linked to a retrovirus, NS (21 August 1999), 19. Childhood leukemia may be infectious, NS (21 August 1999), 5. A 15 year old study has shown that BCG vaccine is not effective in India, Lancet 354 (1999), 1619. A Hib trial in The Gambia has reduced the prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis, Lancet 354 (1999), 1091. Letters on type 1 diabetes and Hib vaccine are in BMJ 319 (1999), 1133. On risks of MMR vaccine and autism, Lancet 354 (1999), 949-51. On pertussis transmission in France, Lancet 354 (1999), 1699-700. A social study on acceptance of vaccination is SSM 49 (1999), 1705-16. DNA vaccines are discussed in NEJM 341 (1999), 1623-4. There are fears that use of DNA vaccines in fish may lead to food scares in Japan and Europe, if people get confused with GM food, NS (28 Aug. 1999), 4. A universal influenza A vaccine is reported in Nature Medicine 5 (1999), 1119-20, 1157-63; Science News 156 (1999), 228. The anti-flu drug zanamir may not reduce mortality from the flu, BMJ 319 (1999), 659.

The US Congress has been examining childhood vaccine safety, Nature Medicine 5 (1999), 970. A call for more vaccine research is in Nature Medicine 5 (1999), 1089. On cancer vaccine development, Nature Medicine 5 (1999), 1124-5. The idea of painless vaccines is being pursued, Science News 156 (1999), 164. The FDA is considering using tumour cells for vaccine development, Science 285 (1999), 1826-7. A nerve gas antidote is considered to be one possible cause of Gulf War illness, BMJ 319 (1999), 1154; NS (30 Oct. 1999), 16. On the fears of ancient viruses in frozen ice, NS (4 Sept. 1999), 4. Emerging marine diseases are discussed in Science 285 (1999), 1505-10.

A report on the Nipah-virus disease, from pigs to humans, in 1999, is Paton, NI. Et al. "Outbreak of Nipah-virus infection among abattoir workers in Singapore", Lancet 354 (1999), 1253-6; Chua, KB, et al. "Falat encephalitis due to Nipah virus among pig farmers in Malaysia", Lancet 354 (1999), 1257-9, 1222-3. Encephalitis in New York is discussed following a public health response that involved malathion spraying, Lancet 354 (1999), 1221; BMJ 319 (1999), 941; Science 285 (1999), 206-7. The use of rapid malaria test by tourists is reported in Lancet 354 (1999), 1609. There is increased incidence of malaria in Ethiopia for children living near dams, BMJ 319 (1999), 651-2, 663-6. On malaria, Nature Medicine 5 (1999), 969; Lancet 354 (1999), 1123; NS (18 Sept.1999), 13; (2 Oct. 1999), 23; Science News 156 (1999), 148; Science 285 (1999), 1502-3; EST 33 (1999), 444-5A. On tuberculosis, Lancet 354 (1999), 1036; BMJ 319 (1999), 1220. On microbes and cancer, BMJ 319 (1999), 1207; and Helicobacter pylori and heart disease, BMJ 319 (1999), 537-41, 1157-62.

The risks of BSE from drugs of bovine origin is discussed in Lancet 354 (1999), 1304-5. The FDA banned blood donation from people who lived more than 6 months in the UK between 1980 to 1997, BMJ 319 (1999), 535. Japan followed this decision also, also for fears of BSE or prion disease. France is still resisting to lift the ban on British beef, despite the EC decision to do so, NS (14 Nov. 1999), 14. Stunning methods used in the UK may have a risk of spreading brain tissue around the tissue in the animal, NS (23 Oct. 1999), 6. The question whether prions work with other agents is Science 285 (1999), 660-2.

The overuse of antibiotics in farms threatens human health also, BMJ 319 (1999), 1239-40; and the European Commission is considering an early ban on some, Financial Times (20 Oct. 1999). On antibiotic resistance, Lancet 354 (1999), 1052; Nature 401 (1999), 233. The extent of antibiotic use in Taiwan was measured by antimicrobial activity in urine, Lancet 354 (1999), 1360. However catheters that are impregnated with antibiotics may stop bacteria building up, NS (13 Nov. 1999), 7; and antibiotics can stop trachoma, Science News 156 (1999), 203. Antibiotics may be useful to treat MD, Science News 156 (1999), 84.

The idea of personalized vaccines are coming closer to reality, GEN 19 (Dec. 1999), 1, 25. Combined Hib and DTP vaccine is reviewed in Lancet 354 (1999), 2063-8. Hib in Asia is discussed in Bulletin WHO 77 (1999), 867-8. Individual rights versus community health are discussed in an editorial in BMJ 319 (1999), 1448-9. A call for more use of pneumococcal vaccine in adults, especially in elderly is Lancet 354 (1999), 2011. Predicting the evolution of influenza A is difficult, Science 286 (1999), 1921-5. The single positive finding of human papillomavirus DNA in a Pap smear test confers increased risk of future invasive cervical cancer, NEJM 341 (1999), 1633-8; BMJ 319 (1999), 1454. A mechanism has been suggested for linking atherosclerosis and viruses, Lancet 354 (1999), 1976. On varicella virus, Time (11 Oct. 1999).

The risks of contaminated surgical instruments in CJD is Lancet 354 (1999), 1823-4. The rest of Europe is now having to face their own cases of BSE, NS (4 Dec. 1999), 11. A US electronic statewide system of reporting notifiable disease in Hawaii is reviewed in JAMA 282 (1999), 1845-50. In general on vaccines, Lancet 354 (1999), 2006-7.

Studies of the virus that caused brain inflammation in New York is an immigrant virus from the Middle East, and it has spread at least in birds to Connecticut and Maryland, Science 286 (1999), 1450-1, 2331-3, 2333-7; JAMA 282 (1999), 1806-7; Jia XY. Et al. "Genetic analysis of West Nile New York 1999 encephalitis virus", Lancet 354 (1999), 1971-2. A genetic map of the malaria parasite is Science 286 (1999), 1351-3: 1263-4.

Control of MRSA is discussed in JAMA 282 (1999), 1745-51. Quinupristin/dalfopristin are new drugs to combat resistant bacteria, Lancet 354 (1999), 2012-3. Brain scans have shown that Gulf War syndrome is real, NS (4 Dec. 1999), 10.
Ethics and vaccine research are discussed in Issues in Medical Ethics 8 (Jan. 2000), 7-19. On the end of polio, which still requires some major funds, NS (5 Feb. 2000), 3, 20-1. It is now clear polio vaccine was not the origin of HIV, Nature 403 (2000), 130. It is suggested that healthy children should also be given influenza vaccine, NEJM 342 (2000), 225-31, 232-9, 275-6; Lancet 355 (2000), 473. A review on concerns is Bedford, H. & Elliman, D. "Concerns about immunization", BMJ 320 (2000), 240-3. On MMR and autism risk, BMJ 320 (2000), 389. On the Children's Vaccine Initiative, SSM 50 (2000), 599. The recommended childhood vaccination schedule is in JAMA 283 (2000), 876-7; AJPH 90 (2000), 199-207. There are some sanctions against parents who fail to vaccinate their children, NatMed. 6 (2000), 119.

Global immunization is being urged by the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) formed on 31 January, 2000 in Switzerland, Lancet 355 (2000), 477. The question whether meningococcal disease vaccination should be routine in Africa is discussed in Lancet 355 (2000), 3, 30-. Vaccination against pertussis has reduced both incidence and transmission in the UK, Lancet 355 (2000), 285-6. A call to look at new methods for vaccination is NatMed. 6 (2000), 123-5. A DNA vaccine for hepatitis C has been found, PNAS 97 (2000), 297-302.

The concern about germs is reviewed in Tomes, N. "The making of a germ panic, then and now", AJPH 90 (2000), 191-8. Rotaviruses cause diarrhea by activating the enteric nervous system of the gut to release water, Science 287 (2000), 409-10. Helicobacter pylori is transmitted among siblings of similar age in the Andes, Lancet 355 (2000), 332, 358-62. The bacteria has a unique acid gated membrane channel that allows it to live in stomachs, BMJ 320 (2000), 268. The EU has reversed a decision to fund more malaria research, NatMed. 5 (1999), 1333. Malaria vacines should target mutliple targets, NS (Jan. 2000), 6. A comment on worldwide disease monitoring is AJPH 90 (2000), 22-4, 181-2. On the limits of public health, AJPH 90 (2000), 25-32. The WHO has launched a campaign to eliminate lymphatic filariasis by the year 2020, BMJ 320 (2000), 269. A book review on hantaviruses is NatMed. 6 (2000), 11-12, and on the flu, NatMed. 6 (2000), 12-13.

Drug-resistant bacteria are discussed in GEN 20 (15 Feb. 2000), 6, 4; BMJ 320 (2000), 130-1, 199-200, 213-6. Anew scheme of antibody boosters may lessen the use of antibiotics in chickens, NS (15 Jan. 2000), 9. Denmark is stopping to use antibiotics for pigs, but if the rest of Europe stops it will be very expensive, NS (5 Feb. 2000), 22. A study of social factors that allow acquisition of antibiotics without prescription in India is SSM 50 (2000), 891-903. A weak point in the bacteria causing tuberculosis has been found by X-ray studies of the antigen 85C protein, NS (12 Feb. 2000), 23.

Human BSE may kill thousands of people but it could have been worse, NS (22 Jan. 2000), 5. Transmissible and genetic prion disease share a common pathway of neurodegeneration, Nature 403 (2000), 737-8, 822-6. A letter on the risk of prion disease in JAMA 283 (2000), 2301-2. The way cattle are feed is linked to case clustering of BSE, Prcf. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 267 (2000), 205-15.
Four major US vaccine producers have agreed to donate US$150 million in vaccines towards the Global Vaccine Initiative, BMJ 320 (2000), 736, 952-3; NatMed. 6 (2000), 238; Lancet 355 (2000), 908. Financing is necessary, Lancet 355 (2000), 1269-70. Polio eradication is discussed in JAMA 283 (2000), 1553-4; Lancet 355 (2000), 559, 728. Health concerns over vaccination are discussed in SA (March 2000), 15-6; Vancouver Globe & Mail (11 April 2000), R6; BMJ 320 (2000), 929-32. There must be care that the level of thiomersal (Hg) is kept low, Lancet 355 (2000), 1279-80. The health consequences of exemptions in immunization laws are discussed in JAMA 283 (2000), 1140-42. There is still debate over the relationship between polio vaccine and origin of HIV, Nature 404 (2000), 9. Mutations in the a determinant of hepatitis surface antigen are being found in persons who are vaccinated, Lancet 355 (2000), 812. On long term protection, Lancet 355 (2000), 561-5. Pneumococcal vaccination can be cost effective in children, JAMA 283 (2000), 1460-8. An aerosol vaccination for measles has been found to be equally effective to the injection route, Lancet 355 (2000), 798-803. There are some other benefits of measles immunization given in BMJ 320 (2000), 938-40. An edible vaccine for pigs has been successful, NatBio 18 (2000), 367.

An oral vaccine against a brain protein has been tested that may be useful for epilepsy, Science 287 (2000), 1453-60; NS (4 March 2000), 9. Hybrid cell vaccination for renal cancer is reported in NatMed. 6 (2000), 252-3, 332-6; Lancet 355 (2000), 813. Identification of vaccine candidates against serogroup B Meningococcus have been identified after whole genome sequencing, Science 288 (2000), 1816-20. A report from the New York outbreak of West Nile fever in summer 1999 is SA (2000), 20-1; JAMA 283 (2000), 997-8. In general on vaccines, JAMA 283 (2000), 1280-1, 1339-40. Guidelines for vaccine use in Europe are discussed in Pharmeuropa 12 (2000), 309-311.

Malaria researchers hope for industry to join in the research, Science 287 (2000), 1956-7. The US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases is also helping, Nature 403 (2000), 696-7. In the flood in Mozambique there was disappointment that the government refused a plan to spray blankets with insecticide to curb the mosquito outbreak that is expected to bring malaria, NS (18 March 2000), 19. Research on malaria vaccines is discussed in NatMed. 6 (2000), 234, 241-4. Guinea worm has been eradicated from India, Science 287 (2000), 1917. In general on third world drugs, Science 287 (2000), 1571. On childhood illness in Africa, BMJ 320 (2000), 594-5. Drug resistant TB is spreading, Science 287 (2000), 2391; BMJ 320 (2000), 821. TB develops due to gene-environment interaction, Lancet 355 (2000), 588-9. On TB control lessons from the 1800s, Lancet 355 (2000), 1085-92. WHO is moving to work on more chronic diseases, NS (1 April 2000), 16-7. A letter on the meaning of socially defined diseases is Lancet 355 (2000), 1190.

A recent outbreak of Listeria in France has killed 7 persons, BMJ 320 (2000), 601. A book review of Farmer, P. Infections and Inequalities: The Modern Plaques (Univ. California Press 2000) is BMJ 320 (2000), 655. A review on retroviruses is BioEssays 22 (2000), 161-71. A review on Marburg and Ebola virus infections in laboratory non-human primates is Comparative Medicine 50 (2000), 108+.

Tests have revealed that German sausage does contain brain tissue, putting eaters at risk for BSE exposure, NS (4 March 2000), 7. France is setting up a BSE testing program, Nature 404 (2000), 327. All member states will need to set up programs, Lancet 355 (2000), 1252. Methods to detect scrapie before it mutates or causes CJD are reviewed in Science 287 (2000), 1906-8. In general on prion diseases, NEJM 342 (2000), 983; NatMed. 6 (2000), 258-9; Pharmeuropa 12 (2000), 48-52.

Some bacteria have been found to survive on hospital clothes for more than 3 months, NS (26 Feb. 2000), 5. Quick tests may help doctors decide which antibiotic to prescribe, NS (11 March 2000), 14. The environmental effects on mutations to ameliorate costs of antibiotic resistance are discussed in Science 287 (2000), 1479-82. A potential problem from GM farm animals and antibiotic resistances is discussed in NS (25 March 2000), 14. The use of genomics to search for new antibiotics is reviewed in Science 287 (2000), 1973-6. New drugs may be found from nature to kill drug-resistant bacteria, NS (8 April 2000), 15; and one drug levofloxacin has been licensed for use against penicillin resistant pneumonia, JAMA 283 (2000), 1679. Neonatal intensive care unit policies are discussed in Lancet 355 (2000), 946-7, 973-8. Antibiotic cycling is being tested, Lancet 355 (2000), 992.

A report on a hepatitis E vaccine trial in Nepal where later access to the vaccine by poor persons at risk is guiding policy is Lancet 355 (2000), 1623. The effects of hepatitis B virus mutants on vaccination efficacy is discussed in Lancet 355 (2000), 1382-3. A discussion of the confusion over measles vaccines, MMR and autism is Lancet 355 (2000), 1379. Aluminum as a vaccine booster is reviewed in Science 288 (2000), 1323-4. A review of Gulf War syndromes and vaccinations is BMJ 320 (2000), 1363-7. Vaccine financing changes in the US altered where vaccinations are done, AJPH 90 (2000), 739-45. Travel vaccinations are discussed in JAMA 283 (2000), 226-7; NEJM 342 (2000), 1716-24. On global polio eradication efforts, JAMA 283 (2000), 2651-2.

Symptomless infection with Ebola virus is discussed in Lancet 355 (2000), 2178-9. Human papillomavirus 16 is associated with better outcomes from oral cancer, Lancet 355 (2000), 1700. In general on genetic epidemiology, BMJ 320 (2000), 1257-9. Periodic fevers are open to molecular diagnosis now, BMJ 320 (2000), 1091-2. Laboratory surveillance of Salmonella in the USA has found antibiotic resistance to be rising, JAMA 283 (2000), 2668-73. There have been outbreaks of Staphylococcus aureus food poising in Japan in July, 2000.

The principal target of human immunity to malaria has been identified, NatMed. 6 (2000), 689+. A call by WHO to control malaria to overcome poverty is BMJ 320 (2000), 1161; NatMed. 6 (2000), 612; JAMA 283 (2000), 2510-1. Mosquitoes that transmit malaria have been genetically modified now, opening up chances for new control, Nature 405 (2000), 900-1. On anti-malarial drugs, Lancet 355 (2000), 2245-7. The use of antibiotics without prescription is discussed in Lancet 355 (2000), 1480.

Ethical issues of non-compliance and TB are discussed in JME 26 (2000), 157-9. The US Institute of Medicine has made a report on how to eliminate tuberculosis, JAMA 283 (2000), 2776-7. Suboptimal treatment leading to multi-drug resistance is a global problem, JAMA 283 (2000), 2575-6; also JAMA 283 (2000), 2375-7. Generally on the history of infectious disease, Science 288 (2000), 287-93; NEJM 342 (2000), 1374-5. A report on a pig - human transmissible disease is Goh, KJ. Et al. "Clinical features of Nipah virus encephalitis among pig farmers in Malaysia", NEJM 342 (2000), 1229-35. Emerging infections are discussed in NEJM 342 (2000), 1280-1.

Initials results from a survey of 3000 clinical tonsil and appendix samples in the UK have not picked up the prions from the bovine derived new variant of CJD, Nature 405 (2000), 7; Lancet 355 (2000), 1567, 1619; BMJ 320 (2000), 1226; NS (6 May 2000), 5. In Australia 9 patients have been warned that they may have been exposed to CJD, BMJ 320 (2000), 1296. The methods to survey prion disease carrier status in cows (BSE) are discussed in NS (10 June 2000), 3; JAMA 283 (2000), 2923. Spain has reacted to the EC report that it is at risk of a BSE outbreak, Lancet 355 (2000), 2058. In general on prion formation, Science 288 (2000), 1958-9. The question of whether Alzheimer's and prion disease share a similar pathogenic mechanism is discussed in Lancet 355 (2000), 1434, 2083.

Court martial charges against a member of the Canadian military were stayed on May 5, 2000 in a case that raised issues concerning the right of soldiers to consent or refuse to consent to medical treatment. In 1998, Mike Kipling, a sergeant in the air force, had refused to submit to a mandatory anthrax vaccine prior to serving in Kuwait. He believed that the vaccine could cause symptoms akin to "Gulf War Syndrome". Although Health Canada had granted the military special permission to use the unlicensed and unapproved vaccine, it strongly recommended that the military also seek the soldiers consent. However, the military did not seek the soldiers' consent but ordered them to be injected with the vaccine. For refusing to be inoculated, he was charged under military law with disobeying an order without reasonable excuse. In his decision staying the court martial, the presiding military judge, held that Mr. Kipling had a right to refuse the medical treatment where the vaccine was "unsafe and hazardous". Canadian Bioethics Report (July 2000).

Concerns over immunization are discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 108-9; and on MMR vaccine safety, Lancet 356 (2000), 160-2. The strategies for finishing polio are discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 141, 229, 321. Fetal immunization by a DNA vaccine into the oral cavity has been effective in lambs, NatMed. 6 (2000), 929-32. A vaccine against rotavirus has been delayed in US approval in case it is linked to diabetes, although it would be very effective to stop deaths from diarrhea in developing countries, Lancet 356 (2000), 318; NS (12 August 2000), 4. The cost effectiveness of a pneumococcal vaccine is discussed in JAMA 284 (2000), 440-1. A monetary sanction can increase childhood immunization rate, JAMA 284 (2000), 35-9. On adult vaccination, MJA 173 (2000), 72-3. A beta-amyloid vaccine is discussed in Science 289 (2000), 375. A DNA vaccine against measles is reported in NatMed. 6 (2000), 744-5, 776-81.

The sequence of Vibrio cholerae has been released, Heidelberg, JF. Et al. "DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae", Nature 406 (2000), 477-84; Lancet 356 (2000), 488. Malaysian researchers have traced the Nipah virus outbreak in 1999 to bats, Science 289 (2000), 518-9. The glycoprotein of Ebola is the main determinant of injury, NatMed. 6 (2000), 886-9.

Funding of malaria research is discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 194; Lancet 356 (2000), 144. A review of risks for travelers to get malaria is BMJ 321 (2000), 154-60. DDT house spraying to stop mosquitoes is being recommended by many, see Lancet 356 (2000), 267; 330-2; NatMed. 6 (2000), 729-31. There is a plan in India to sequence Plasmodium vivax, that causes 80% of their malaria cases, Nature 406 (2000), 116. On malaria genome projects, Nature 406 (2000), 121-2. The possibility of competition between mosquitoes to block those which carry malaria is discussed in NS (8 July 2000), 15; also NS (15 July 2000), 32-5; NatMed. 6 (2000), 720, 898-903. In general on the ethics of managing risks of anthropod vectors, Science 288 (2000), 2321-2. The spread of West Nile virus in the Americas is discussed in NS (8 July 2000), 3, 4.

Infection of travelers with TB has been found to be 3/1000 person months for Dutch persons spending 3 months or more in endemic areas, Lancet 356 (2000), 442, 461-5. Approximately 32% of the world's population are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis that causes TB. On drug-resistant TB, Lancet 356 (2000), 22-5. There are susceptibility loci on chromosomes 15q and Xq to TB, PNAS 97 (2000), 8005-9; AJHG 67 (2000), 274-7.

The antibiotic oxytetracycline may cure river blindness, Science News 157 (2000), 389. At the G8 summit in Okinawa in July more efforts to reduce diseases of poverty was called for, Lancet 356 (2000), 408; also NatMed. 6 (2000), 723-4. Over the past three years the Gates Foundation has given US1.7 billion to this cause, Lancet 356 (2000), 153-5.

The incidence of variant CJD in the UK caused 14 deaths in 1999, Lancet 356 (2000), 481-2; and the future deaths depend on the incubation period, Nature 406 (2000), 583-4. One village has been found to have 5 cases, Lancet 356 (2000), 315. On scrapie in the UK during the BSE years, Nature 406 (2000), 584. A second French case is reported in Lancet 356 (2000), 253. Tests are underway on sheep brains from animals killed in the USA, NS (22 July 2000), 3, 5. Cellular prion protein is expressed in the human enteric nervous system, NatMed. 6 (2000), 840-1. In general on prion disease, NatMed. 6 (2000), 751-4; Science 289 (2000), 556-7, 595-8; NS (29 July 2000), 20; (5 August 2000), 11. Blood screening remains unsure, Lancet 356 (2000), 228; BMJ 321 (2000), 17-9. Variant CJD and the Quebec blood supply is discussed in CMAJ 163 (2000), 412-3. On raw animal tissues, NEJM 343 (2000), 304-5. On drug resistant bacteria, GEN 20 (15 May 2000), 1, 38.

There are efforts to develop a vaccine to West Nile virus, boosted by the exposure of the US population to the virus now, GEN 20 (1 Sept. 2000), 3, 85; NatMed. 6 (2000), 947. Vaccination to prevent pneumococcal disease is reported in Lancet 356 (2000), 1210-1; and in general MJA 173 (2000), S20-60. On the final stages of global eradication of polio, NEJM 343 (2000), 806-7; Lancet 356 (2000), 1487-8. Results of a trial on intravenous polio vaccine in Oman suggest it is very effective, NEJM 343 (2000), 767-73. Japanese studies suggest there is still a risk of polio while live virus is used as a vaccine, Lancet 356 (2000), 1461-3. A review on when a disease is able to be eradicated is AJPH 90 (2000), 1515-20. The ethics of sanctions that affect childhood immunization is discussed in JAMA 284 (2000), 2056-7. Refuting refusals of vaccination are discussed inCMAJ 163 (2000), 801. Social responsibility of vaccines is discussed in Monist 60 (1977), 81-95.

A booster for Hib vaccination in the UK may not be needed, JAMA 284 (2000), 2334-40. Hib vaccine does not lead to diabetes risk, JAMA 284 (2000), 2307-8. Against a link between MMR vaccine and autism, Lancet 356 (2000), 772, 1273. Rotavirus vaccine is supported for use in developing countries if risks are high, BMJ 321 (2000), 525; however it may be linked to diabetes risk, NS (12 Aug. 2000), 4. In general on support for immunization, Lancet 356 (2000), 1459-60. A needle free powder delivery vehicle for immunization is described in NatMed. 6 (2000), 1187-90.

It is possible that US scientists may have worsened a measles epidemic in the Amazon in the 1960s by administering a live vaccine, Lancet 356 (2000), 1247. The question of whether measles eradication will be soon is discussed in AJPH 90 (2000), 1521-5. Designer cancer vaccines are discussed in NatMed. 6 (2000), 966-8, 1011-7. In Israel a drug company is paying for commercials for chicken pox vaccination, BMJ 321 (2000), 656. A US report suggests there are conflicts of interest in vaccine approval, Lancet 356 (2000), 838. In general on infectious disease, Nature 406 (2000), 759-803.

The question of whether to give powerful antibiotics to patients in regular care or only for emergencies is discussed in NS (14 Oct. 2000), 16-7. Antibiotics affects degradation of pig manure, Bioresource Technology 75 (2000), 205-11. Monitoring of antibiotic resistance should be improved, Nature 407 (2000), 437. There are questions whether tea tree oil can prevent MRSA, MJA 173 (2000), 489. A peptde pyrrhococcin from an insect may be a new weapon against bacteria, NS (4 Nov. 2000), 17. Honey can also be useful, NS (7 Oct. 2000), 32-5. The choice of cleaning agent can have a significant effect on the persistence of Clostridium difficile in hospitals, Lancet 356 (2000), 1324. Skin may be the best place for hospital bugs to grow, on sweat, NS (30 Sept. 2000), 6.

A call for people with extreme gastroenteritis from playing contact sports is made in NEJM 343 (2000), 1223-7. A US study suggests rabies postexposure prophlylaxis treatment is often given when inappropriate, JAMA 284 (2000), 1001-7.

On genetic susceptibility to disease, BMJ 321 (2000), 1061-5. Genetic predisposition to clinical TB is reviewed in AJHG 67 (2000), 274-7. A South African mining study suggests ongoing transmission of TB from resistant individual cases is a substantial infection route, Lancet 356 (2000), 1066-71. Processing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis medical waste ca lead to infection, JAMA 284 (2000), 1683-8. Nucleic acid tests for TB are discussed in JAMA 284 (2000), 826. There is research to develop a new TB vaccine, NatMed. 6 (2000), 955-60; also on drugs, NS (19 Aug. 2000), 13; (30 Sept. 2000), 18; Science 289 (2000), 1123-5; Nature 406 (2000), 670-3.

Ebola has been killing people again in Ghana, BMJ 321 (2000), 1037; Lancet 356 (2000), 1499. Also on Ebola, JAMA 284 (2000), 1371; NS (28 Oct. 2000), 17. Generally influenza vaccination is not cost effective in adults under 65 years according to a UK study, JAMA 284 (2000), 1655-63. There is research on recovering some of the 1918 Spanish flu virus in order to develop a vaccine, NS (14 Oct. 2000), 28-31. Human diseases are threatening great apes, Science 289 (2000), 1277-8. Hunting and logging are linked to emerging infectious diseases, Lancet 356 (2000), 1173.

Malaria is predicted to spread more in a warmer world, Science 289 (2000), 1763-6; Science 289 (2000), 1697-8. Papers on malaria include NatMed. 6 (2000), 941; Science 289 (2000), 428-38; Nature 406 (2000), 949-50. A DNA vaccine is under trial in Gambia, Nature 407 (2000), 280. Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes can interfere with developing parasites, Nature 407 (2000), 961-2.

France is now facing a BSE epidemic, with maybe 0.15% of cows in France being infected, Nature 407 (2000), 122; NS (28 Oct. 2000), 6. The latest estimate of deaths by vCJD in the UK is thought to be 136,000 people, BMJ 321 (2000), 469; Science 289 (2000), 849, 1452-4, 1663-6. In the UK an apparent case of mother to fetal transmission of CJD has been reported, Times (18 Sept. 2000), 11; Lancet 356 (2000), 1085. On childhood cases of variant CJD, Lancet 356 (2000), 1224-7. Blood transfusion in sheep transmits BSE, Lancet 356 (2000), 955-6, 999-100; BMJ 321 (2000), 721; NS (23 Sept. 2000), 6. Having healthy carriers will increase risk of spread of CJD, Lancet 356 (2000), 833. In the USA from 1979 to 1998 4751 deaths were ascribed to CJD, JAMA 284 (2000), 2322-3. The FDA has said bovine based vaccines are safe, JAMA 284 (2000), 1231-2. Scrapie is reviewed in Proc. Roy. S. London 267 (2000), 2029-35. In general on mechanism of prion disease, Science 289 (2000), 1925-8; Nature 407 (2000), 457-8, 477-83. There may be some other factor in addition to mutated prion to develop prion disease, NS (2 Sept. 2000), 11. The lessons from the UK BSE inquiry are discussed in Nature 407 (2000), 929, 932; 408 (2000), 1, 3-5; NS (4 Nov. 2000), 3-9.

The WHO has persuaded a UN Conference in South Africa to make an exception to the ban on persistent organic chemicals to allow continued use of DDT in 25 countries where it is most useful for malaria control, Lancet< 356 (2000), 2076; BMJ 321 (2000), 1403-5. On malaria prophylaxis methods, Lancet 356 (2000), 1582, 1864-5, 1888-94. Malaria can be eliminated on isolated islands, as shown in Aneityum Island in Vanuatu, Lancet 356 (2000), 1560-4. Challenges of malaria control are discussed in Bulletin of WHO 78 (2000), 1376-7; Science 290 (2000), 1508-9. A new vaccine has been working in chimpanzees, NatMed. 6 (2000), 1218-9; Science News 158 (2000), 310; Lancet 356 (2000), 1660. Others are being tested, BioCentury (18 Dec, 2000), A8-9.

An Irish report has questioned the ethics of vaccine trials 30 years go there, Lancet 356 (2000), 1747. They are still discussing the merits of MMR vaccine, Lancet 356 (2000), 1665; Independent (13 Jan. 2001).; In general on vaccination programs, Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s21-22. A issues of state mandated childhood immunization are discussed on JAMA 284 (2000), 3171-3; and on individual exceptions, JAMA 284 (2000), 3145-50.; Transcutaneous immunization using a patch has been reported, NatMed. 6 (2000), 1403-10. In general vaccine injections should be into muscle, BMJ 321 (2000), 1237-8.

On the eradication of polio, Lancet 356 (2000), 1682-3. Polio has been eradicated in the Western Pacific, Bulletin of WHO 78 (2000), 1375. Discussion of a Caribbean< outbreak of polio is in Nature< 409 (2001), 269, 278-80; NS (18 Nov. 2000), 7; Science 290 (2000), 1867-9. Mumps and rubella have been eliminated from Finland, JAMA 284 (2000), 2643-7. DNA vaccines are discussed in Nature 408 (2000), 659-60. On the use of Varicella vaccine, NatMed. 6 (2000), 1298-9. Congenital rubella is epidemic in Greece, BMJ 321 (2000), 1287. It has been found that hepatitis B vaccinations may last longer than was thought which will lower costs, NS (9 Dec. 2000), 21.; Also see the Plant Genetic Engineering section for production of edible vaccines. Fighting leprosy is discussed in Pathways 2 (Jan. 2001), 1-2, 14-9.

In the USA the control of TB is said to depend on reducing the impact of TB in foreign-born persons, JAMA 284 (2000), 2894-900. There are gender differences in seeking treatment for coughs and TB, Lancet 356 (2000), 1823-4. A book review of From Chaos to Coercion: Detention and the Control of Tuberculosis is BMJ 321 (2000), 1536. TB vaccine benefits and additional benefits of vaccines in Guinea-Bissau are discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 1423-4, 1435-9. TB DNA is left after TB is finished which may allow latent infection, Lancet 356 (2000), 2113, 2133-8; NatMed. 6 (2000), 1327-9. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is being examined for methods to fight TB, Science News 158 (2000), 270-1; NatMed. 6 (2000), 11-2. On TB research, NatMed. 6 (2000), 1330-3; Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s62.; Autoclaved Leishmania major vaccine may not be effective compared to BCG alone, Lancet 356 (2000), 1565-9. Leishmaniasis has been found in over 1000 hunting dogs in the USA, Science< 290 (8 Dec. 2000). A case of anthrax contamination of heroin is reported, Lancet 356 (2000), 1574-5.

DNA tests in doctor clinics may help identify which bacteria are causing an infection, NS (25 Nov. 2000), 26. On Japanese encephalitis, BMJ 321 (2000), 1484-5; and West Nile virus, Science 290 (2000), 1482-4. Tropical diseases are discussed in Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s63. Discussion of Ebola vaccine is in NatMed<. 6 (2000), 1322-3; Science 290 (2000), 923-5; Nature 408 (2000), 527-8; Newsweek (11 Dec. 2000), 61. A recent outbreak has claimed many lives in Uganda, BMJ 321 (2000), 1037.

Susceptibility to infection is discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 1061-5. Promiscuity and the primate immune system is discussed in Science 290 (2000), 1168-70. The SAFE program to eliminate Chlamydia is described in Economist (9 Dec. 2000). A model of bubonic plaque is in Science News 158 (2000), 262. In ICMR thieves selectively took hard drives of computers with disease data, Science 290 (2000), 1668-9.; On economics of immunity, Science 290 (2000), 1104-5.

Antibiotic resistance is reviewed in NS (Dec. 2000), 24-7. Babies are suffering from resistant bacteria, NS (23 Dec. 2000), 9. Hospital acquired infections kill 5000 patients a year in England, BMJ 321 (2000), 1370. Multidrug resistance Streptococcus pneumoniae is increasing in the USA, NEJM 343 (2000), 1917-24, 1961-3. Also on resistance, JAMA 284 (2000), 2998-9. The Union of Concerned Scientists has urged for monitoring the use of antibiotics in livestock, Nature 409 (2001), 273. Addition of GM bacteria to wounds could ward off dangerous infections, NS< (23 Dec. 2000), 12; Nature 408 (2000), 284-6; Australian Biotech.< 10 (Sept. 2000), 5-6. An antibiotic clioquinol is being tested for Alzheimer’s disease, Science 290 (17 Nov. 2000).

Bacterial DNA has unmethylated CpG nucleotides which stimulate mammalian immune systems, Nature 408 (2000), 740-2. The hygiene hypothesis is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 1699-700. Mould may be causing sneezing, Newsweek (11 Dec. 2000), 60. Ideas on personal hygiene and contamination in Guatemala are reported in SSM 52 (2000), 53-69.

Because animal bone meal has a risk of BSE, GM soya may replace it as a protein supplement, which Greenpeace is against, AgraFood Biotech 46 (10 Jan. 20001), 6. There is a UK study underway to test if there is any BSE risk from milk, using infected cows to feed cows, rather than rodents, as earlier trials had used, Agra Europe (19 Jan. 2001), 12. The question of where BSE came from, and the finding that it is not from scrapie are discussed in NS (16 Dec. 2000), 45-7. The development of tests for mutant prions is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 1826; NS (18 Nov. 2000), 3. In Ireland one donor involved in the polio vaccine pool in 1998 has been found to be CJD, however there is little risk according to authorities, Lancet 356 (2000), 2167. Switzerland has banned persons who lived more than 6 months in the UK between 1980 and 1996 from being blood donors, Lancet 356 (2000), 1746.; Genetic risks to be susceptible to CJD are discussed in NS< (18 Nov. 2000), 5.

France and Spain are expecting more cases of vCJD, Nature 408 (2000), 767, 787-8; BMJ 321 (18 Nov 2000); NS (2 Dec. 2000), 7; Science 290 (2000), 1671-2. Spain put an embargo on French and Irish beef imports because of BSE concerns, Lancet 356 (2000), 1746. On European precautions which include a ban on all meat-based animal feed, NatMed. 6 (2000), 1301. A UK Inquiry Report has been released in the errors made during the BSE scandal, BMJ 321 (2000), 1091-2, 1097; Lancet 356 (2000), 1535, 1579-80; Nature 408 (2000), 902-3; 409 (2001), 6; Science 290 (2000), 911-2; Current Biology 10 (2000), R847-8. Also on vCJD risk, Lancet< 357 (2001), 3; NS (18 Nov. 2000), 5; (25 Nov. 2000), 4 Time (11 Dec. 2000), 38-40. On the 26 January, 2001, the U.S. quarantined some Texas cattle because of rules on BSE prevention (Reuters). The FDA was investigating whether the cattle were accidentally fed meat and bone meal made from other U.S. cattle.

There is still controversy over the use of MMR vaccine, even though most studies have found it safe and it is widely used, BMJ 322 (2001), 82-5, 129, 183-4; Lancet 357 (2001), 290. The right to chose vaccination and risks, NS (13 Jan. 2001), 3; (3 Feb. 2001), 3, 8-11; ; NEJM 344 (2001), 372-3. On polio immunization, NEJM 344 (2001), 61-3; JAMA 285 (2001), 528-9; NatMed. 7 (2001), 131. A report from controversy in the 1901-3 smallpox epidemic in Boston over vaccination is NEJM 344 (2001), 375-9; and on a book review, NatMed. 7 (2001), 15-6. Research on rotavirus vaccine is discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 106-7.

A report from the US on the safety of bovine-derived vaccines is JAMA 285 (2001), 532; BMJ 322 (2001), 128. Despite the FDA requesting companies not to use bovine sources from unsafe countries 4 major companies did, Int. Herald Tribune (9 Feb. 2001). Lessons from routine vaccination and child survival in Guinea-Bissau are discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 360-1. A cholera outbreak in South Africa is reported in BMJ 322 (2001), 71; Lancet 357 (2001), 290. On the global alliance for vaccines, Nature Immunology 1 (2000), 5-8.

A review on Paul Ehrlich's experiments on maternal-fetal transfer of immunity is Nature Immunology 1 (2000), 93-4. Childhood infections do protect against later disease, BMJ 322 (2001), 376-7. In general a book review on Vaccines is JAMA 285 (2001), 95-6; and on childhood diseases, Lancet 357 (2001), 299-301. Vaccination in Australia is reviewed in MJA 174 (2001), 37-40. Electrodermal testing is not good for testing environmental allergens, BMJ 322 (2001), 131-4.

Use of insecticide treated bed nets to prevent malaria is plagued by implementation, BMJ 322 (2001), 249-50, 270-3. A molecular marker for chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria has been reported, NEJM 344 (2001), 257-63. Also on malaria, Science 291 (2001), 24-5, 435-6; NatMed. 7 (2001), 149-50; Nature 409 (2001), 550. A mouthwash component, triclosan, may help treat malaria, BMJ 322 (2001), 316. On Gulf War illness, Science 291 (2001), 812-7.

Amyloid beta vaccination in mice improved cognition in Alzheimer's disease model mice, NatMed. 7 (2001), 18-9; NatBio 19 (2001), 104-5; Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 22 (2001), 2-3. The question why great apes are resistant to dementia is discussed in NS (27 Jan. 2001), 18. Research on infectious links to MS are questioned, JAMA 285 (2001), 279-80. Vaccination does not increase short-term risk in MS, NEJM 344 (2001), 319-26, 327-32. Viruses and human cancers are reviewed in Lancet 357 (2001), 381-4.

Search for a cure for CJD is discussed in Nature 409 (2001), 660-1. UK hospitals are spending 200 million pounds to attempt to prevent spread of vCJD, BMJ 322 (2001), 68. Possibly BSE has been spread across the globe by feed exports, NS (10 Feb. 2001), 3, 10-11; AgraEurope (2 Feb. 2001), 1-2. In Europe at least two million cattle are being burnt to attempt to control BSE. The need for BSE tests is reviewed in Nature 409 (2001), 649, 658-9; NS (27 Jan. 2001), 5. It will be difficult to keep the USA free of BSE, if it really is, Nature 409 (2001), 441-2. On BSE, Lancet 357 (2001), 397-8; JAMA 285 (2001), 397-8; Nature 409 (2001), 549.

On antibiotic resistance caused by overuse in animals, Science 291 (2001), 397.

In Japan vaccination against influenza has an extra benefit of helping prevent deaths in elderly persons who live with them, as well, NEJM 344 (2001), 889-96. A live Varicella vaccine has been very effective against chicken pox in the USA in the past 5 years, NEJM 344 (2001), 955-60, 1007-9. A California study suggests no link between autism and MMR vaccine, JAMA 285 (2001), 1183-5; as does a UK study, BMJ 322 (2001), 460-3. A UK study finds that the UK accelerated immunization program helps lessen the rate of sudden infant death syndrome, BMJ 322 (2001), 822-5. Exposure to cat allergen can help protect against asthma, Lancet 357 (2001), 752-6; Science 291 (2001), 2547. Efforts to vaccinate children at a younger age before they die of disease are important, Lancet 357 (2001), 1022. Letters on the risks of not vaccinating children are debated in JAMA 285 (2001), 1573-4. On the question of why vaccinate children with hepatitis B first, Int. J. Health Services 30 (2000), 763-9. The global vaccine initiative may create some inequity because the additional vaccines are being sent to countries which already have some vaccination program while others remain with none, BMJ 322 (2001), 754-5. A new vaccine against nosocomial infections is hoped to reduce Staphylococcus aureus infections, JAMA 285 (2001), 1565-6.

A major leprosy susceptibility locus in India maps to chromosome 10p13, NatGen 27 (2001), 439-41. New vaccines are needed, Lancet 357 (2001), 203. A mutant measles virus is outbreaking in parts of India causing encephalitis, BMJ 322 (2001), 693. Disease control in the information era is discussed in MJA 174 (2001), 241-3. Some individuals have more infections than others because of genetic determinants, JAMA 285 (2001), 1348-9. Relatives from rich countries who return to visit their relatives in developing countries often get sick, Lancet 357 (2001), 862. Common chronic infection is linked to atherosclerosis, Lancet 357 (2001), 693; NS (31 March 2001), 18.

In insecticide resistance and mosquito-borne disease, Lancet 357 (2001), 656. The genome of Anopheles mosquites will be sequenced soon, as will the genome of rat, Nature 410 (2001), 137; Science 291 (2001), 1873. Glaxosmithkline and WHO have joined to work on a new malaria drug, Lancet 357 (2001), 781. African malaria vectors are found in European aircraft, Lancet 357 (2001), 235. The prescribing habits of private doctors in Bombay may not be aiding the epidemic of malaria, SSM 52 (2001), 885-909. The impounded equipment of Manuel Patarroyo will be donated back to a new institute he is founding in Colombia, Nature 410 (2001), 295. A historical report on smallpox in Mauritius in 1792 is Social History of Medicine 13 (2000), 411-28.

Appendectomy before 20 years of age is associated with a lower risk of ulcerative colitis, NEJM 344 (2001), 808-14.

Tests for vCJD are discussed in NatMed. 7 (2001), 261, 289-90, 361-5; JAMA 285 (2001), 732-4; NS (3 March 2001), 13. Complement may have a role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, NatMed 1 (2001), 410-1. The German health and agriculture ministers resigned over handling of the BSE crisis, Lancet 357 (2001), 207. Canada silenced scientists that spoke out about BSE, Lancet 357 (2001), 618. In general on vCJD in the UK, Lancet 357 (2001), 937, 1002-7; BMJ 322 (2001), 841. Lessons from BSE and vCJD for Australia are discussed in MJA 174 (2001), 160-1; and for the USA, Science 291 (2001), 1859. Scrapie is discussed in NS (31 March 2001), 3-5. New Zealand has accused Germany over the distribution of a pamphlet to all households in Germany saying that New Zealand had scarpie, when in fact there has never been a case, Christchurch Press (12 March 2001), 9. On evolution of yeast prions, TIG 17 (2001), 167-9; and species barriers, Nature 410 (2001), 161-2. BSE poses dangers for endangered birds of prey, Nature 410 (2001), 408.

On the foot and mouth outbreak in the UK, Nature 410 (2001), 727. It was caused by feeding left over human food to pigs, and that food included some meat that was contaminated, NS (17 March 2001), 11. Over 1000 cases were found in the UK, but 100 times that of healthy animals were killed, Nature 410 (2001), 398, 501, 515-6, 620; NS (3 March 2001), 3-5; (24 March 2001), 6; (31 March 2001), 16-7; BMJ 322 (2001), 565-6. The disease is found in many countries, Science 291 (2001), 1677. The UK newspapers have been full of details of the containment and slaughter campaign. There have been calls to vaccinate animals, especially rare and endangered breeds, NS (7 April 2001), 17. The US is trying to maintain its borders free, Science 291 (2001), 2298-30.

Tetracycline resistance gene has been found in soil bacteria after passing from pig gut bacteria from pigs treated with antibiotics, NS (21 April 2001), 4. On antibiotic resistance genes, Lancet 357 (2001), 853-5; FDA Consumer (Jan. 2001), 10-1; Science 291 (2001), 1915-6, 2550-2. Controlling infection in British infection homes is discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 506. A mutator E. coli may accelerate the development of new diseases, Lancet 357 (2001), 1021.

As reported in several daily news items on Eubios web site, the Japanese government has paid compensation and apologized to the leprosy patients who were isolated, sterilized and discriminated for many years. See also Japan Times (24 May 2001), 1.

2001), 1. Polysaccharide conjugate typhoid vaccine with an efficiency of 90% has been reported, NEJM 344 (2001), 1263-9, 1322-3. WHO and Aventis have announced an initiative to work against sleeping sickness, SCRIP 2641 (9 May 2001), 23.

Vaccine trials in transgenic mice suggest a vaccine may help against Alzheimerfs disease, Trends in Neurosciences 24 (2001), 305-7. The question of whether many chronic ills like cancer and heart disease stem from viruses is discussed in SA (May 2001), 26-7. A discussion of monoclonal antibody production is SA (June 2001), 20-1.

Foot and mouth disease is now under control in the UK, after the tough campaign of eradication, Nature 411 (2001), 258-9. A possible human case is discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 1085.

The Health Council of the Netherlands has produced a report gVariant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and blood transfusionh (2001/02E), 32pp. They found very little scientific evidence to date. As of May 9, 2001, there had been 64 cases of BSE reported in Germany, AgraEurope (11 May 201), 2-3. Also on BSE, NEJM 344 (2001), 1549-51. Three genetic sites involved in susceptibility to prion disease have been reported, PNAS 98 (2001), 6279-83; Lancet 357 (2001), 1595.

Antibiotic resistant bacteria appear to be very widespread, NS (19 May 2001), 5. On methods to overcome such bacteria, NS (28 April 2001), 17.

Vaccination against measles is discussed in NS (14 April 2001), 3, 12; AJPH 91 (2001), 1042+. Letters on the Yanomamo and the 1960s measles epidemic are in Science 292 (2001), 1836-8. On MMR vaccine safety, BMJ 322 (2001), 1083, 1120-1; 323 (2001), 32, 163-4, 300; Lancet 357 (2001), 1341. A US report found no link to autism, JAMA 285 (2001), 2567-9, 2852-3; 286 (2001), 670-1. However on the rising trends in autism, NatMed. 7 (2001), 645; Nature 411 (2001), 882-4. Vaccinations and multiple sclerosis are discussed in NEJM 344 (2001), 1793-6. The US has recommended to suspend a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine, JAMA 285 (2001), 1874-9; 286 (2001), 535. A conjugate typhoid vaccine has worked, NEJM 344 (2001), 1263-9, 1322-3. Fighting anthrax with a mutant toxin is reviewed in Science 292 (2001), 647-8, 695-7. There has been a new outbreak of polio in Bulgaria, Nature 411 (2001), 405. Laboratory containment of polio and biosafety is discussed in JAMA 286 (2001), 536; Lancet 358 (2001), 166-7; Nature 410 (2001), 1046-7. Recommendations for hepatitis A vaccination are made in BMJ 323 (2001), 1194-5. A vaccine against cocaine is being developed, NS (14 July 2001), 6. On immune control and vaccines, Science 293 (2001), 234-260; FDA Consumer (July 2001), 18-23.

Recent research on Lyme disease is discussed in Time (25 June 2001), 57. The ecology of genetically diverse infections is reviewed in Science 292 (2001), 59-60, 1099-102; with a series of papers on sex in bacteria in pp. 1090-1125. On endemic stability and disease, Lancet 358 (2001), 1284-8. Gene transfer among oral bacteria can increase virulence, Lancet 357 (2001), 777. The importance of hand washing and Semmelweis legacy is reviewed in Lancet Infectious Disease supplement (April 2001), 9-20. On the 1918 flu pandemic, Science 292 (2001), 1041. Vaccinating Japanese school children against influenza is discussed in NEJM 344 (2001), 1946-8. The effectiveness of Varicella vaccine is debated in NEJM 345 (2001), 464-5. Investigations on whether some Irish children mistakenly got animal vaccines 30 years ago is reported in BMJ 323 (2001), 128.

Malaria is discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 1191-2; 323 (2001), 251; Lancet Infectious Disease supplement (April 2001), 5; Lancet 357 (2001), 1219, 1241-7, 1471-7, 1837-41, 1862; Science 293 (2001), 416-7. More money is being given for funding research, NatMed. 7 (2001), 647. Book review on Mosquito are Nature 412 (2001), 274-5; BMJ 323 (2001), 289. Haplotype diversity and human G6PD linked malarial resistance is discussed in Science 293 (2001), 442-3, 455-62. On the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Current Biology 11 (2001), R153-4. Yellow fever is a threat for travelers in India, Lancet 357 (2001), 1346; and on the vaccine, Lancet 358 (2001), 84-5, 98-104. On Leishmania major infection, Science 292 (2001), 285-7. Targeting the saliva of the vector flies may help control that disease, NS (11 August 2001), 7; Lancet 358 (2001), 477; J. Exp. Med.94 (2001), 331-42. Global commitment to reducing disease in Africa is discussed in NatMed. 7 (2001), 521-3. Modeling household transmission of trypanosomiasis is reported in Science 293 (2001), 694-8. A review of TDR in WHO is in Parasitology Today 16 (2000), 522-6. Reemergence of TB is discussed in NS (7 July 2001), 3, 28-33; JAMA 286 (2001), 232-3; NEJM 345 (2001), 170-4; Lancet 358 (2001), 434-5. West Nile fever is reviewed in Lancet 358 (2001), 254-5.

The apology given to Japanese leprosy patients is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 1774 (see Eubios daily news www site). A review on the genomics of leprosy is Current Biology 11 (2001), R381-3. Politics of infectious disease is discussed in JAMA 286 (2001), 354-5; NEJM 345 (2001), 208-10. Perceptions of illness causation are surveyed in SSM 53 (2001), 465-76. On Munchausen by proxy in children, BMJ 323 (2001), 296-7. A discussion of phobias is in Time (2 April 2001). An infectious agent is implicated in leukemia, Lancet 357 (2001), 858; SA (May 2001), 26-7.

The foot and mouth disease crisis in the UK appears over, although there are still sporadic cases, Nature 410 (2001), 1012; 411 (2001), 258-9, 977; 412 (2001), 472-3; Science 292 (2001), 410, 1155-9; Ecologist 31 (May 2001), 20-23. The cases in humans are discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 1463; BMJ 322 (2001), 1085.

Antibiotic resistance is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 1307-8; 358 (2001), 135-8; NS (19 May 2001), 5; (2 June 2001), 10-1; MJA 174 (2001), 617-8, 627-30; NEJM 344 (2001), 1294-303, 1427-33; JAMA 285 (2001), 2317-8. The genome sequence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is reported in Lancet 358 (2001), 1218-9, 1225-40. Gene tests may be available, Nature 411 (2001), 573. Variation in antibiotic use in the EU is reported in Lancet 357 (2001), 1851-3. Antibiotics may be useful as a therapy for some genetic disorders, JAMA 285 (2001), 2067-8.

The question of testing for CJD is debated in NS (21 July 2001), 10; Lancet 357 (2001), 1952; 358 (2001), 164, 171-80; Nature 411 (2001), 810-3. One idea is protein-based PCR, NatMed. 7 (2001), 778-9. Comparisons of prion disease in other great apes is discussed in PNAS 98 (2001), 4142-7. The question of whether blood infected with prions can be made safe is discussed in NS (16 June 2001), 6; Nature 412 (2001), 7; Lancet 358 (2001), 304. Fears of BSE are discussed in Nature 411 (2001), 728; 412 (2001), 467, 571-2; NEJM 344 (2001), 1548-51; SA (May 2001), 10-1. Also on the mechanism of prion diseases, NatMed. 7 (2001), 410-1; NS (16 June 2001), 18; NEJM 344 (2001), 1516-26; Science 292 (2001), 827-8; Current Biology 11 (2001), R377-8; Lancet 358 (2001), 164-5. Possible therapy by antibodies is discussed in NS (28 July 2001), 6.

For bioweapons see the Regulation of GMOs section.

A discussion of the risks of MMR vaccine and autism is MJA 175 (2001), 127-8; BMJ 323 (2001), 532; NEJM 345 (2001), 656-61. In general on vaccine risks, Science News 160 (2001), 110-1; Science 293 (2001), 1576-7. Racial disparity in influenza vaccination is seen in the USA, JAMA 286 (2001), 1455-60. Sand fly saliva may be useful for a vaccine to Leishmania, Science 293 (2001), 1028. A single dose of Japanese encephalitis is useful to prevent infection if administered several weeks before, Lancet 358 (2001), 791-5. Israel has ordered hepatitis B vaccine for survivors of Palestinian suicide bombing, BMJ 323 (2001), 417. The USA has asked doctors to delay giving the last shot of DTP vaccine until children are 4 years old because of a national shortage of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids in the USA, BMJ 323 (2001), 418.

A mannose-binding lectin may be a predictor of susceptibility to infection, Lancet 358 (2001), 598-9, 614+, 637+. Transmission and post-exposure management of blood-borne virus infections in the health care setting is reviewed in CMAJ 165 (2001), 445-53. Ireland fears a blood shortage with bans on donors related to CJD, BMJ 323 (2001), 469. Europe has revised blood donation legislation, Lancet 358 (2001), 901.

Japan reported the first Asian case of BSE on 6 August, 2001; Nature 413 (2001), 240, 333, 337; Time (15 Oct. 2001), 60-1; Lancet 358 (2001), 991. The government is paying for slaughter of suspect cows. The Japanese government has since faced several more suspected cases, and now claims every cow eaten is individually tested for absence of BSE. On policy, Wilson, K. et al. "A policy analysis of major decisions relating to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and the blood supply", CMAJ 165 (2001), 59-67. The right to know for CJD patients is discussed in Guardian (11 Oct. 2001). A review of the science of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is CMAJ 165 (2001), 51-8. Quinacrine is being tested for treatment of CJD, Lancet 358 (2001), 563; Nature 413 (2001), 341; BMJ 323 (2001), 416; Science News (18 August 2001), 100. On possible vaccines, NS (15 Sept. 2001), 4-5; (6 Oct. 2001), 44-7. High vCJD rates in Scotland may be linked to poor diet, BMJ 323 (2001), 590. BSE and the regulation of risk is discussed in Modern Law Review 64 (2001), 730-56. Antibodies to prion protein can fight scrapie infection, Lancet 358 (2001), 816.

On the origins and control of pandemic influenza, Science 293 (2001), 1729, 1776-7, 1842-5. The genome of Yersinia pestis, that causes plague is sequenced, Nature 413 (2001), 467-30, 523-7. The genome of the typhoid bacteria has also been mapped. Helicobacter pylori is not so good for health, related to cancer, NEJM 345 (2001), 784-9, 829-32. The question of whether chronic diseases have an infectious root is discussed in Science 293 (2001), 1974-7. A study of meningitis infection in infancy in the UK found 2% of the children died within 5 years, BMJ 323 (2001), 533-6; also see a report from Netherlands, BMJ 323 (2001), 470. Ebola-type virus has killed 8 persons on the Pakistan border, and last year 9 persons also died in Afghanistan and Pakistan, Guardian (5 Oct. 2001). A fifth century Roman graveyard has revealed the earliest known malaria DNA, Nature 412 (2001), 847. On malaria and parasites, Science 293 (2001), 1437-8, 2009-10; Lancet 358 (2001), 890-1. On malaria eradication, BMJ 323 (2001), 571. A malaria susceptibility locus (Char4) has been found in mice, PNAS 98 (2001), 10793-8. Self-diagnosis of infection in Tanzanian school children is surveyed in SSM 53 (2001), 957-67.

WHO is planning a study of Gulf War fallout, Nature 413 (2001), 97. A survey found many UK veterans believe they have Gulf War syndrome, BMJ 323 (2001), 473-6. A computer simulation of ways to reduce TB in US homeless persons is in JAMA 286 (2001), 834-42. Market failure for treatment of TB is noted in Science 293 (2001), 1049-51; Lancet 358 (2001), 912-6. US guidelines for treatment of latent TB have been revised, Lancet 358 (2001), 816.

Relaxation of safety measures for foot and mouth disease are resulting in continued small outbreaks, Nature 413 (2001), 98, 542-8; NS (6 Oct. 2001), 3.

A review is Simor, AE. et al. "The evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Canadian hospitals: 5 years of national surveillance", CMAJ 165 (2001), 21-6, 31-2; BMJ 323 (2001), 644-5. WHO has a new global strategy for control of antibiotic resistance, SCRIP Magazine 2683 (3 Oct. 2001), 17. The UK is setting up an independent committee, BMJ 323 (2001), 472. On the mechanism of drug resistance, Science 293 (2001), 179-80; Science News 160 (2001), 74-6. 30 Nigerian families have sued Pfizer over an antibiotic used in a clinical trial in 1996, Science 293 (2001), 1742.

Efforts to develop a dengue fever vaccine are discussed in SCRIP 2693 (7 Nov, 2001), 21. The end of Trachoma in Morocco is in sight given a sustained campaign of antibiotics, NS (15 Dec. 2001), 18. On the politics of emerging diseases, NEJM 345 (2001), 1430; JAMA 286 (2001), 2469-70. If the wrong vaccine is chosen, malaria could get more deadly, NS (15 Dec 2001), 16. The HbC variant of the hemoglobin gene, that protects against malaria, is spreading more in Africa to give more resistance to malaria, NS (17 Nov. 2001), 23; Science 294 (2001), 1439; Lancet 358 (2001), 1702. Bed nets are an effective prevention method, Science 294 (2001), 2271. On the future of flu, Nature 414 (2001), 10-1.

Misleading vaccination statistics can put lives at risk, NS (17 Nov. 2001), 21. The different strategies to end polio are discussed in JAMA 286 (2001), 2797-9. On MMR vaccine risks, BMJ 323 (2001), 838-40. The USA may make a national vaccine lab., Nature 414 (2001), 239. On carcinogenic bacteria, Science 294 (2001), 2269. The statistics of measles epidemics are discussed in Nature 414 (2001), 695-6, 716-23. Imperfect vaccines provide various types of pathogen virulence, Nature 414 (2001), 751-4; Economist (15 Dec. 2001), 72; Lancet 358 (2001), 2055. On a vaccine against diabetes, BMJ 323 (2001), 1272.

On 28 November, 2001, the last area of the UK called an infected area with foot and mouth disease was downgraded in status, ending the episode. A review of the dispersal is Science 294 (2001), 26-7, 813-7; NS (1 Dec. 2001), 34-7; Nature 414 (2001), 839-40.

HLA-DQ7 antigen is associated with resistance to vCJD, Nature 414 (2001), 269-70. Predictions of the human deaths from vCJD are difficult to predict, Science 294 (2001), 770-1; Lancet 358 (2001), 1432. Japan has 3 cases of BSE and is trying to allay public fears, Lancet 358 (2001), 2057; BMJ 323 (2001), 713. There were concerns of the first human case of vCJD in Japan, Nature 413 (2001), 765; however it was shown not to be positive. On the question of BSE in sheep, Nature 413 (2001), 760; 414 (2001), 7, 576-7; NS (27 Oct. 2001), 14-7. The US is also treating chronic wasting disease in a tough manner, to avoid any risk of prion disease, Science 294 (2001), 978-9; NatMed 7 (2001), 1075; Lancet 358 (2001), 2053. On livestock diseases and human health, Science 294 (2001), 477. BSE and multiple sclerosis might both be linked to a soil bacteria Acinetobacter, NS (17 Nov. 2001), 17. Also on the cause of vCJD, NS (20 Oct. 2001), 12-3; BMJ 323 (2001), 858-61, 1194.

On efforts to develop more drugs based on genomic data, SA (Nov. 2001), 44-51; NatBio 19 (2001), 1124-5. Researchers have sequenced two Salmonella genomes, Lancet 358 (2001), 1433. A new drug has been found in former Soviet medical labs., Newsweek (17 Dec. 2001), 42-3. Antibiotics resistant bacteria can be isolated from many common foods, NEJM 345 (2001), 1147-54, 1155-60, 1161-6, 1202-3. Belgium has cut antibiotic use by 12%, BMJ 323 (2001), 710.

A review of the biosocial program at TDR in WHO is in TDR News 66 (Oct. 2001), 5-8. Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular organisms are reviewe d in Nature 415 (2002), 389-95.


Parental autonomy and choices for immunization of children are not so easy to refuse, BME 175 (Feb. 2002), 13-19. MMR safety is discussed in BMJ 324 (2002), 315, 383, 386, 393-6, 492, 630; Lancet 359 (2002), 590, 637, 705; Current Biology 12 (2002), R151-2. Chickenpox vaccination is discussed in NS (4 May 2002), 7 JAMA 287 (2002), 606-11. US immunization policy is discussed in JAMA 287 (2002), 505-9 707.

Edible vaccines are discussed in NatMed. 8 (2002), 94. The possibility of a vaccine against Alzheimer disease is discussed in SA (May 2002), 12-3. An oral cidofovir derivative may be effective against smallpox, Lancet 359 (2002), 1041. Also on smallpox, JAMA 287 (2002), 1104 (see also GMO regulations section for biowarfare). Anthrax vaccine should be improved, Lancet 359 (2002), 951. On polio eradication, Science 296 (2002), 269-70.

Sequencing of the malaria parasite genome is discussed in JAMA 287 (2002), 1251-3; Nature 416 (2002), 697-700. A description of the role of social sciences in malaria control is in TDR News 67 (Feb. 2002), 6-7. Altruistic willingness to pay for malaria preventing insecticide treated nets was found in Nigeria, SSM 54 (2002), 519-27. Protective effects of the sickle cell gene against malaria are reviewed in Lancet 359 (2002), 1311-2. There are interactions between the malarial pathogen and human host, Science 296 (2002), 545-8. Drug resistant malaria is discussed in Lancet 359 (2002), 770. Dengue fever is discussed in Nature 416 (2002), 672-3. On Tsetse fly, Lancet 359 (2002), 686. A report from the meeting of the Global Fund on AIDS, TB and malaria is Lancet 359 (2002), 414; BMJ 324 (2002), 129.

Review of the hygiene hypothesis is Science 296 (2002), 490-4. Because of the presence of many microbes in the human body many genomic sequences find a number of microbial DNA sequence contaminants, NatGen 30 (2002), 131-3. Paper on self-recognition and immunity and identity are in Science 296 (2002), 297-316.

Prion disease is discussed in Current Biology 12 (2002), R248-9, 523-30. Japan has now had 4 cases of BSE in cows. Prion disease in deer is found in the USA, Nature 416 (2002), 569-70.

The challenge of communicable disease in Europe is reviewed in Science 295 (2002), 2047-50. On TB, Science 295 (2002), 2040-1; and WHO policies to it, Lancet 359 (2002), 775-80. Ebola disease is reported in NatMed. 8 (2002), 313; JAMA 287 (2002), 1381-2.

Antibiotic resistance is discussed in NatBio 20 (2002), 206-7; BMJ 324 (2002), 176.

Japan is still not able to trace the origin of its BSE outbreak. Israel has now reported confirmed a case of BSE, AgraEurope (7 June 2002), N/3.UK consumers were scared when it was announced in mid-July that beef powder had been added to chicken meat to boost the protein, The Guardian (8 July 2002), 1, G2. The role of SV40 in human cancer is discussed in Science 296 (2002), 1012-5.

There is still debate over the safety of MMR vaccine, NS (22 June 2002), 5. The question of influenza vaccination for healthy children is discussed in Current Opinion Infectious Disease 15 (2002), 283-7.

A report form the genetic engineering of mosquitoes with reduced ability to transmit the malaria parasite is Nature 417 (2002), 387-8, 452-5. A report from the completion of the Anopheles mosquito genome sequencing project is GEN 22 (15 May 2002), 6. Discussion from a FAO conferenc eon Tsetse fly is in NS (22 June 2002), 17.

Combating antibiotic resistance is discussed in Food Chemical News (22 April 2002), 22-3. Inside Europe Greek doctors prescribe the most antibiotics, BMJ 324 (2002), 1236. Cholera appears to be strengthened by a trip through a gut, Science 296 (2002), 1783-4. Genetic mixing of indigenous human microbes is reviewed in NEJM 346 (2002), 2083-5.

The production of vaccines in India is reviewed in Madhavi, Y. "The issue of equity in primary vaccine technology development and its implications on the implementation of vaccine policy in India", NISTADS News 4 (1) (2002), 53-8. An abridged version of the conclusions of a European Commission project on the ethical, legal and social aspects of vaccine research is in BME 177 (April 2002), 8-11. The lack of informed consent by military personal who refuse anthrax vaccination is discussed in AJLM 28 (2002), 325-44.

Around 900 school children were taken to hospital in Heilongjiang province, China, after side effects to Japanese encephalitis vaccine, Lancet 360 (2002), 395. Measles vaccination and MMR vaccine is discussed in Lancet 359 (2002), 2112-3; BMJ 325 (2002), 354. The largest measles vaccination scheme in Africa has been started, Lancet 359 (2002), 1564-8, 2175. The value of vaccines is emphasized in Science 297 (2002), 937-9; FDA Consumer (July 2002), 40. WHO Polio eradication is reviewed in Lancet 359 (2002), 2255. A few individuals seem to continue to make polio virus while staying healthy, NS (27 July 2002), 8. WHO is launching a campaign to stop childhood blindness, Lancet 359 (2002), 2258.

The value of vaccination is argued for in Science 297 (2002), 937-9. On polysaccharide vaccines, BMJ 325 (2002), 292-3. E.Coli 0157 is discussed in NEJM 347 (2002), 608-9. Antibiotic resistance is discussed in FDA Consumer (July 2002), 28-34; Lancet 359 (2002), 1791+, 1819-27. Various reasons for TB are seen in New York, NEJM 346 (2002), 1453-8. Public health and ethnicity is discussed in JAMA 288 (2002), 103.

A genetic predisposition for a viral disease is reported in NatMed. 8 (2002), 872-7. A discussion of the most neglected diseases is BMJ 325 (2002), 176-7. Malaria research is discussed in NS (31 Aug. 2002), 14-5. Rove beetles have been suggested to have been the 3rd and 4th Biblical plagues of Egypt, Lancet 359 (2002), 1950. A study of the comparative efficacy of insect repellants against mosquito bites is NEJM 347 (2002), 13-8. Insecticide-impregnated dog collars can help control leishmaniasis, Lancet 360 (2002), 374-9. Elimination of lymphatic filariasis is discussed in Lancet 359 (2002), 1677; and of onchocerciasis (river blindness), Lancet 360 (2002), 182, 203+.

It is now possible to visualize the spread of Alzheimer's disease in the brain, Economist (27 July 2002), 71-2. CJD is discussed in SA (July 2002), 22-3. A new strategy for Foot and Mouth disease using a vaccine is called for, NS (20 July 2002), 10.

A vaccine to ricin, a common toxin, may be ready in time for the misuse of that toxin by terrorists, NS (14 Sept., 2002), 22. The recommended adult vaccination schedule in the USA is JAMA 288 (2002), 2258-9.

Discussion of disclosure of BSE to patients if their tissue has BSE is in Nature 419 (2002), 326. Italy has reported its first case of CJD from BSE route of infection, and Japan its fifth case.

There are concerns over the resurgence of polio in Uttar Pradesh state in India, Lancet 361 (2003), 148. Active polio varus has been synthetically made, Science 297 (2002), 174. The number of doses for Varicella are discussed in NEJM 347 (2002), 1195-6. Even vaccination can still result in outbreaks, NEJM 347 (2002), 1909-15. The role of PAHO in immunization is discussed in AJPH 92 (2002), 1886-9. In general on global vaccines, JAMA 288 (2002), 2532; Lancet 360 (2002), 1671. The mercury in vaccines can be harmful to children, Lancet 360 (2002), 1711-2, 1737-41. On costs of vaccines, AJPH 92 (2002), 1982-7.

Prospects for treating malaria after the genomic information are discussed in Nature 419 (2002), 426-30; 421 (2003), 13, 97; Science 297 (2002), 345-7; 298 (2002), 33-4.  Analysis of polytene chromosome of the genome sequence of Anopheles gambiae is in Science 298 (2002), 1415-8.  On malaria, BMJ 325 (2002), 1221-4; Science 298 (2002), 2002-5; Nature 420 (2002), 351; NatMed. 8 (2002), 1198-9, 1318-22. Use of herbicides might be useful, NS (12 Oct., 2002), 17. A mutation in EAB140 may help some Melanesians be resistant to malaria, Lancet 360 (2002), 1947. Another gene may also be useful, Science 298 (2002), 1317-8. Mass treatment to eliminate filariasis in Papua New Guinea has been effective, NEJM 347 (2002), 1841-8. TB is discussed in NEJM 347 (2002), 1850-9. On prion disease, Science 298 (2002), 1781-5; PNAS 99 (2002), 16378-400; Nature 420 (2002), 450.

There are fears of prion disease in deer, Nature 418 (2002), 576; 419 (2002), 236. Disclosure of BSE in human tissue raises ethical issues, Nature 419 (2002), 326. On CJD tests, NS (12 Oct., 2002), 16.

The future of pandemic influenza is discussed in NS (26 Oct., 2002), 36-9; NatGen 32 (2002), 569-77. Cholera treatment with single dose azithromycin was found effective in Lancet 360 (2002), 1722-7. Future of infectious disease is discussed in NS (26 Oct., 2002), 52. There is a link between MHC polymorphism and immune defense, Science 298 (2002), 1797-80. Modeling foot and mouth vaccination strategies is reported in Nature 421 (2003), 136-42; Science 297 (2002), 319-8.

Antibiotic resistance is discussed in NEJM 347 (2002), 1110-1. Some antivaccination web sites are discussed in JAMA 288 (2002), 1717-8. On the effective of vaccines, Nature 419 (2002), 769. Exposure to cat allergen in early childhood and wheezing is discussed in Lancet 360 (2002), 781-2.

Survey of the publications of medical journals has found a bias against papers on diseases of poverty, Lancet 361 (2003), 712-3. Bill Gates has announced a further US$200 million fund to combat diseases of the poor, Lancet 361 (2003), 404; Science 299 (2003), 641. See comments also in Lancet 360 (2002), 1617. Global Fund pledges are discussed in Lancet 359 (2002), 435-8, 499, 1581-2; 360 (2002),  1225. On poor disease markets, NatMed. 9 (2003), 7. Novartis has set up an Institute for Neglected Diseases, Science 299 (2003), 811. Parasite control at schools may be introduced in Africa, Lancet 361 (2003), 497. Papers on the burden of disease include:  JAMA 289 (2003), 621-2; J. Public Health Policy 22 (2001), 5-97; NatMed. 9 (2003), 11; Lancet 360 (2002),1342, 1347-60. A study of the diseases which cause differences in longevity between races is in NEJM 347 (2002), 1585-92; Lancet 360 (2002), 1571.

A NOS2 promoter polymorphism may be associated with malaria protection, Lancet 360 (2002), 1468-75. Malaria research is discussed in Science 298 (2002), 79-86; 299 (2003), 705-8; Nature 415 (2002), 669-715; 419 (2002), 426-431; 420 (2002), 345; 421 (2003), 97, 461; JAMA 289 (2003), 619; Lancet 360 (2002), 1075, 1107; NatMed. 8 (2002), 104. Insect repellents for mosquitoes are discussed in NEJM 347 (2002), 1719-21. Climate change leads to increased malaria, Nature 415 (2002), 905-8.

Vaccine safety is discussed in Madsen, KM. Et al. "A population-based study of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism", NEJM 347 (2002), 1477-82; JAMA 287 (2002), 1455-62; 288 (2002), 3155-8; BMJ 324 (2002), 733-5, 383; 325 (2002), 430-3, 597, 603; Lancet 359 (2002), ,2051-2; NS (16 Feb 2002), 5. Vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b may need to be increased as the number of cases in the UK increases, Lancet 361 (2003), 395-6. Hepatitis B vaccination may need to be repeated in late teens, BMJ 325 (2002), 569-72.  Nigerian immunization has reduced disease, BMJ 326 (2003), 121. Vaccine uptake is discussed in Lancet 360 (2002),  1596-9. Research into why some people are resistant to disease is discussed in NS (8 Feb., 2003), 34-7; NatGen 32 (2002), 97-105. Mortality from influenza is discussed in JAMA 289 (2003), 179-86, 227-89; NEJM 347 (2002), 2159-61. DNA vaccine trials include NatMed. 9 (2003), 33-9.

A polio outbreak in India has delayed global eradication plans, NS (5 Oct. 2002), 8. The role of monkey virus SV40 in old polio vaccines in cancer is unclear, Lancet 359 (2002), 812, 817-23; 360 (2002), 1307. A review of dengue vaccines is Lancet 360 (2002), 1243-5. A Human paillomavirus type 16 vaccine trial was reported in NEJM 347 (2002), 1645-51. Edible vaccines are discussed in NatMed. 8 (2002), 94.

There has been debate over the US smallpox vaccination campaigns regarding safety and compensation for injuries, BMJ 326 (2003), 179; NEJM 348 (2003), 416-25.

The genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus has revealed a different pathogenic mechanism to cholera, Lancet 361 (2003), 743-9. The genetics of the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei that causes Whipple disease is revealed after genome sequencing in Lancet 361 (2003), 632, 637-44. A new test for plague has been released, Lancet 361 (2003), 191, 211-6.

Iron Age TB has been detected in the UK, Science 299 (2003), 341. Immunotherapy for TB is discussed in Lancet 360 (2002), 1032-3. On TB control, NEJM 347 (2002), 1420-5, 1444. Study of Bdellovibrio , the fastest bacterium, is discussed in Wellcome News (Q4, 2002), 26. On bacterial meningitis in Africa, Lancet 360 (2002), 2054. Antibacterial proteins in calf saliva may be added to toothpaste, NS (11 Jan., 2003), 14. West Nile virus in USA is discussed in NatMed. 9 (2003), 1051. The chances of a couple having the same disease are reported in BMJ 325 (2002), 636-8. Exposure to endotoxin is important in development of asthma, NEJM 347 (2002), 869-77. On the hygiene hypothesis, NEJM 348 (2003), 930-1.

Genetic susceptibility to variant CJD is discussed in Lancet 361 (2003), 447-8, 487-9, 531-2. In 2002 17 people died from CJD in the UK, less than 20 in 2001 and 28 in 2000, Lancet 361 (2003), 751-2; Science 295 (2002), 332-5. Japan has announced a total of 7 cases of variant CJD from BSE. On Japanese CJD, Lancet 359 (2002),  1219; Newsweek (25 March 2002), 26-7. Therapy for CJD may be possible, BMJ 326 (2003), 8; NS (26 Oct. 2002), 18. Reuse of surgical tools is one risk factor also, Lancet 360 (2002), 1485.

A survey of why UK doctors prescribe antibiotics for sore throat is BMJ 326 (2003), 138-41. Some bacteria may have lost resistance to older antibiotics, BMJ 326 (2003), 235-6. On antibiotic resistance, NEJM 347 (2002), 1213; Lancet 359 (2002), 184-5, 1791-2; NatMed. 8 (2002), 11. The structure of bacterial multidrug efflux transporter AcrB is in Nature 419 (2003), 587-93.

SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) has had many implications for global health and economy.  On ethical issues in Beijing and Taiwan see papers in this issue of EJAIB. The agent is a new coronavirus, Lancet 361 (2003), 1319-25, 1312-5. Papers discussing the emerging crisis include: Lancet 361 (2003), 1017-8, 1106, 1276, 1311, 1357, 1386-7, 1439; JAMA 289 (2003), 2059; BMJ 326 (2003), 416, 615, 669-70, 677, 727, 831-2, 839, 850-2; Science 299 (2003), 1822; 300 (2003), 224-5, 558-9, 1063; Newsweek (7 April 2003), 65; (28 April 2003), 42-3; Time (28 April, 2003), 32-3; Nature 422 (2003), 6, 247, 459; 423 (2003), 3-4, 8, 103, 114; NS (22 March 2003), 13; (29 March 2003); (5 April 2003), 12; (12 April 2003), 5-8; NatMed. 9 (2003), 375; Current Biology 13 (2003), R339-40. Vaccines are being designed, NS (26 April 2003), 6-8.

Three health care workers have died from heart attacks after receiving smallpox vaccinations, Nature 422 (2003), 462 (see also the Regulation of GMOs news section for Biowarfare fears). A summary of results is in JAMA 289(2003), 2060-63, 2064. On the background in different countries, CMAJ 168 (2003), 210; NZMJ 115 (2002), 247-51; SA (May 2003), 12-3. After a slow start to the vaccinations these results have dissuaded others, NatMed. 9 (2003), 249. A call for more funds for vaccines that affect most people in the world is in NatMed. 9 (2003), 239. Vaccine production in tomatoes in greenhouse confinement is progressing, Nature 421 (2003), 882.

Influenza vaccination has benefits in seniors, NEJM 348 (2003), 1322-32. The dangers of MMR vaccine is discussed in BME 185 (2003), 1; BMJ 326 (2003), 854; NEJM 348 (2003), 951-5. Delayed pertussis vaccination increased risk in New Zealand, BMJ 326 (2003), 852-3. Various factors affect childhood vaccination, CMAJ 168 (2003), 39-41. Polio vaccination is being increase din India, BMJ 326 (2003), 354; Lancet 361 (2003), 1192. A shortage of meningitis vaccine in Burkina Faso led to triage, Science 299 (2003), 1499-500. Experimental cancer vaccines are discussed in NatBio 20 (2002), 659-63. Trials from an Alzheimer vaccine are discussed in Nature 422 (2003), 370-2; NatMed. 9 (2003), 389-90, 448-52. A DNA vaccine has been used for endangered condors, NatBio 21 (2003), 11.

The rate of transfer, contagiousness , or respiratory tract infections are surveyed in NEJM 348 (2003), 1256-66. A book review of the fight against the common cold is in Nature 422 (2003), 379. The association of germs with foreigners is discussed in Milbank Quarterly 80 (2002), 757-88. On travel medicine, Lancet 361 (2003), 1368-81; 1459-69. In the Netherlands many animals were killed to prevent spread of a bird flu, Nature 423 (2003), 5. Fickle swine flu is discussed in Science 299 (2003), 1502-5. On West Nile virus, Science 299 (2003), 1824-5; Nature 423 (2003), 104.

In March in Congo more than a 100 people died from Ebola, Lancet 361 (2003), 1020. Ebola affects other primates as well, Science 300 (2003), 232. Guinea worm disease eradication efforts in Uganda are applauded in Lancet 361 (2003), 1446.

Malaria is discussed in general in Lancet 361 (2003), 885; NatMed. 9 (2003), 268; NS (22 March 2003), 32-5; (29 March 2003), 52-3; Nature 423 (2003), 136-7; NatBio 20 (2002), 1098-9; JAMA 289 (2003), 1234; Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), A760-3. An accident in a lab that sterilizes screw worms may have led to a damaging outbreak in cattle, NS (22 March 2003), 12.

Measure to prevent surgical transmission of CJD are discussed in BMJ 326 (2003), 517. Mad elk disease is also a threat, NS (5 April 2003), 13. Also on prion disease, Nature 423 (2003), 118-9.  Antibiotic resistance is discussed in NatMed. 9 (2003), 390-1, 424-30; Science 299 (2003), 1639-40; NS (8 March 2003), 4-5; Nature 422 (2003), 791. On resistance in cattle, Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), A396-402.

There has been much criticism because on unclear benefits and risks of smallpox vaccination, Science 300 (2003), 880-1, 2013-4; HCR 33 (March 2003), 6-7; JAMA 289 (2003), 1497-8, 1512-3, 2064, 2198-9, 2351-3; NEJM 348 (2003), 1920-5; FDA Consumer (March 2003), 28-9; Lancet 361 (2003), 1626. Those previously immunized to smallpox may have some long-lasting immunity, BMJ 326 (2003), 1164-5.

In general on the safety of vaccines, BMJ 326 (2003), 995-6. On MMR vaccine safety, BMJ 326 (2003), 1272. Refusal of parents to vaccinate is discussed in MJA 178 (2003), 150-1. A case study of trust and vaccination in a village in North India is in SSM 57 (2003), 97-112. Pakistan needs help in polio vaccination, Lancet 361 (2003), 1876.

GM vaccines are discussed in NatMed. 9 (2003), 642-3, 729-35. Tuberculosis vaccine development is discussed in NatMed. 9 (2003), 503-4, 533-9; and Leishmania vaccine in Nature 423 (2003), 580-2. Tuberculosis has been associated with a polymorphism at the gamma interferon gene site, Lancet 361 (2003), 1871-2. Malaria vaccine is discussed in Lancet 361 (2003), 1875. Prediction of malaria epidemics is possible at times, Lancet 361 (2003), 1705-6; also see BMJ 326 (2003), 951; Lancet 361 (2003), 1530. ApoE2 may be a risk factor for early malaria infection, JMG 40 (2003), 348-51. On Alzheimer disease vaccine, NatMed. 9 (2003), 389-90. Human genetics and Norwalk virus resistance is discussed in NatMed. 9 (2003), 548-53.

The ethical issues of SARS are discussed in HCR 33 (May 2003), 6; EJAIB 13 (2003), 107-8. Ethical issues for childhood tetanus are discussed in MJA 178 (2003), 150, 175-7.

The politics and science of SARS is discussed in many journals, e.g. Science 300 (2003), 701, 714-8, 886-7, 1062-3, 1216, 1351, 1377-8, 1394-9, 1399-404, 1487-8, 1884-5; Lancet 361 (2003), 947-8, 999, 1485-7, 1519-20, 1525, 1615-6, 1625, 1665, 1708-9, 1712, 1730-3, 1739-40, 1756-7, 1761-72, 1773-8, 1779-85, 1905, 1984-5, 1996; JAMA 289 (2003), 2059, 2349-51, 2787-9, 2801-9, 2861; NatMed. 9 (2003), 479, 487; NEJM 348 (2003), 1947-9, 1953-66, 1977-85, 1995-2005, 2029-31, 2035, 2149; Nature 423 (2003), 103, 214, 370-1, 381, 467, 585, 791, 905-6; SA (June 2003), 10-1; (July 2003), 4; MJA 178 (2003), 478-9; BMJ 326 (2003), 897, 929, 938-9, 948, 1055, 1095, 1232, 1624.

The single cow killed in January 2003 in Alberta, Canada, but diagnosed in May 2003 with BSE, has shown that BSE is also found in North America, Ram's Horn 211 (June 2003), 1-2; NS (31 May 2003), 6-7. Eating wild game can be fatal through prion disease, JAMA 289 (2003), 1369-70; SA (July 2003), 26-31. In general on prion disease, Science 300 (2003), 917-8; Lancet 361 (2003), 1964. On death and disease in Papua New Guinea, MJA 178 (2003), 7-8.

A plan to sequence every known human virus has been announced, Nature 423 (2003), 471. West Nile virus is discussed in MJA 178 (2003), 5-6; JAMA 289 (2003), 2341-2.; NS (7 June 2003), 41-3; NatMed. 9 (2003), 488. Monkeypox virus recently caused disease in the USA, NS (14 June), 9; (21 June 2003), 12; Nature 423 (2003), 674.

A report on inexpensive drugs and good will battling lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) is in The Economist (26 July 2003), 71. Parasites may be causing frog deformities, Science 301 (2003), 904. Insecticide-related disease is discussed in JAMA 290 (2003), 591-2. Ebola is continuing in Africa, JAMA 290 (2003), 317-9. A call for vaccination against Ebola in primates is Nature 424 (2003), 602, 681-5. Films for public health education are discussed in AJPH 93 (2003), 1046-56. On malaria in the UK, PNAS 100 (2003), 9997-10001. Africa will have help from China in fighting malaria, Lancet 362 (2003), 456. India also has a large vaccine capacity, NatMed. 9 (2003), 813. APOE2 may be a small risk factor in malaria, JMG 40 (2003), 348-51. On global funds for health, Lancet 362 (2003), 299. A vaccine for motor neuron disease and ALS is being developed, PNAS 100 (2003), 4790-5.

Poliovirus research is discussed in Science & Engineering Ethics 9 (2003), 319-38, 340-42. Eradication of polio by 2005 is going to need more money, Nature 424 (2003), 604; Lancet 362 (2003), 454. Prions and mad cow disease are discussed in NEJM 348 (2003), 2695-6; BMJ 326 (2003), 1463; NatMed. 9 (2003), 819-20, 893-9; Nature 424 (2003), 948-52; NS (5 July 2003), 5. Zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E from deer to humans has been found, Lancet 362 (2003), 371-3. Mapping of trait for trypanotolerance in African cattle is reported in PNAS 100 (2003), 7443-8. A monkeypox outbreak in USA is discussed, JAMA 290 (2003), 23-4. Dust clouds could carry infectious diseases, SA (July 2003), 10-1.

Fears of SARS return are in NS (28 June 2003), 12; (5 July, 2003), 10-11; (23 Aug. 2003), 9; Nature 424 (2003), 113. A new case was reported in Singapore at the start of September. Media and SARS is discussed in Current Biology 13 (2003), R627-8. Papers on SARS ethics are Issues in Medical Ethics 11 (July 2003), 70-1; HCR 33 (July 2003), 49; SA (July 2003), 4. A reference text on line for free is http://SARSReference.com/ In general on SARS, Nature 423 (2003), 905-6; 424 (2003), 121-6, 362, 983; NEJM 349 (2003), 187-8, 707-12; FDA Consumer (July 2003), 14-7; Lancet 361 (2003), 2045-6, 2212; 362 (2003), 263-70; JAMA 289 (2003), 3231-2; 290 (2003), 367-73, 374-80, 397; BMJ 326 (2003), 1350, 1354-8, 1393-5; Science 301 (2003), 294-9. Continued surveillance is necessary, NatMed. 9 (2003), 806. China has stopped the ban on rare animals in food markets, Science 301 (2003), 1031. Discussion of the SARS genome patent claims are in Lancet 361 (2003), 2002-3; 362 (2003), 405. A letter suggesting language may be the reason why USA imported more SARS than Japan is Lancet 362 (2003), 170.

WHO has recommended to stop the widespread use of antibiotics in farming, Science 301 (2003), 1027. On the waste of antibiotics, NS (19 July 2003), Inside Science 162, pp.1-4; SSM 57 (2003), 733-44; Nature 424 (2003), 491. Modelling the best use of antibiotics in an anthrax outbreak is reported in PNAS 100 (2003), 10129-32. Drug resistance and spread of rare genes is modeled in PNAS 100 (2003), 7401-5.

There are further doubts about a link between mercury-based vaccines and autism,  Science 301 (2003), 1454-5. In the UK public aid is being removed from those fighting for MMR vaccine suits, BMJ 327 (2003), 640. On risk and public attitudes to MMR vaccine, BMJ 327 (2003), 725-8. Measles vaccination is being expanded, Lancet 362 (2003), 1386.

More than 90% of persons vaccinated in the past against smallpox have significant immunity against it, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1131-7. The balancing of individual versus group is calculated in Bauch, CT. et al. "Group interest versus self-interest in smallpox vaccination policy", PNAS 100 (2003), 10564-7. There is research on whether smallpox vaccine might help protect against HIV, BMJ 327 (2003), 699. Adverse effects of smallpox vaccine are reported in Lancet 362 (2003), 1345. Jenner is remembered in Lancet 362 (2003), 1092. Clonal vaccinia virus can be grown in cell culture, and on smallpox vaccine production, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1115-6, 1125-30. The US smallpox vaccination campaign stopped, NS (23 Aug. 2003), 6.

New vaccine research is discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 1312-14; Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 2 (2003), 767-8; Science 302 (2003), 602. A retraction of a paper on a cancer vaccine has been made, Nature 425 (2003), 4; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1221. Polio eradication and the vaccine are discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 466, 769; Lancet 362 (2003), 909-14, 1292; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1225, 1231. Polio coverage in India is reviewed in SSM 57 (2003), 1807-19. Variation and equity in immunization in India are mixed, SSM 57 (2003), 2075-88. The benefits of hepatitis A booster vaccination are debated in Lancet 362 (2003), 1065-71. A survey of the validity of reported vaccine coverage in 45 countries is Lancet 362 (2003), 1022-7.

Discussion of lessons from SARS in 2003 are in Lancet 362 (2003), 1207. Taiwan has reduced the death toll from SARS from 180 to 37 deaths, thus the WHO world total is reduced in 774 from 916 deaths. On SARS in Guangdong, Lancet 362 (2003), 1353-8. Three animal models of SARS are now ready, Science 302 (2003), 213; Nature 425 (2003), 915. The future of SARS is unsure, Lancet 362 (2003), 714, 1294; BMJ 327 (2003), 411, 950; Science 301 (2003), 1642-3; NS (23 Aug. 2003), 9; (6 Sept. 2003), 36-7; (20 Sept. 2003), 52; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1229; Nature 425 (2003), 333. So is its origin, Science 302 (2003), 5, 276-9, 766-7. Lab safety should be improved, Science 302 (2003), 31. On potential SARS drugs, Science 300 (2003), 1763-7. In Hong Kong many are to receive influenza vaccines , in case that SARS reemerges they will be able to distinguish, Lancet 362 (2003), 809.

The global fund for infectious diseases is discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1381. Ethics in public health and infectious diseases are discussed in Issues in Medical Ethics 11 (2003), 113-5. In general on infectious diseases, NEJM 349 (2003), 1681; Lancet 362 (2003), 1290; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1108; Science 302 (2003), 398. There is a cholera outbreak in Liberia, Lancet 362 (2003), 966. On West Nile virus, NEJM 349 (2003), 1236-45; Science 302 (2003), 248; and monkeypox, Science 300 (2003), 1639. Tuberculosis is discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 1149-56. Interferon may be able to control tuberculosis, Science 302 (2003), 654-9.  Individuals fat composition may alter resistance to TB, NS (30 Aug. 2003), 12.

Herpesvirus 8 may have a role in hypertension, NEJM 349 (2003), 113-22. On malaria, NEJM 349 (2003), 1496-9; Science 301 (2003), 1503-8; Nature 425 (2003), 437. Bill Gates has pledged US$168 million for new malaria research, Science 301 (2002), 1828; Nature 425 (2003), 331, 435; Current Biology 13 (2003), R820-1. A Chinese herb qinghao (sweet wormwood) may be useful against malaria, NS (23 Aug. 2003), 16. Genes from a parasitic worm are being used to fight a snail fever disease in China, Nature 425 (2003), 227. Studies on tularemia bacteria  are being made , Science 302 (2003), 222-3.

Asthma prevention is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 770. Antibiotic use in babies increases risk of asthma, NS (4 Oct. 2003), 16. On prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases, Lancet 362 (2003), 903-8.

A UK teenager is fighting vCJD with the aid of pentosan polysulphate, BMJ 327 (2003), 765.; Nature 425 (2003), 673. Unknown strains of BSE prions have been found in routine tests, Nature 425 (2003), 648. On prion disease,  Nature 425 (2003), 561-2, 673-4; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1096, 1252; Science 302 (2003), 763-4; NS (4 Oct. 2003), 10. Horizontal prion transmission is reported in mule deer, Nature 425 (2003), 35-6.

On antibiotics resistance and new drug development, Scientist (8 Sept. 203), 29-30. Drug companies are not developing many new antibiotics, Nature 425 (2003), 225: Science 301 (2003), 1850-1. The WHO has urged farmers to reduce the use of antibiotic growth agents, Lancet 362 (2003), 626. A veterinary link to drug resistance in African tryanosomiasis was suggested in Lancet 358 (2001), 603-4.

A paper looking at leprosy is Burns, SL. "Making illness into identity: Writing "leprosy literature" in modern Japan", Nichibunken Japan Review 16 (2004), 191-212. There are still stigmas in society in Japan for those with leprosy, Lancet 363 (2004), 544. On leprosy genetics, Nature Reviews Genetics 5 (2004), 161. A review of the prevention of smallpox in India in the 19th century is NISTAD News 5 (Oct 2003), 34-6. A 19th century French physician's dilemma in smallpox is discussed in JAMA 290 (2003), 2329-30. Also on smallpox, JAMA 290 (2003), 2610. Ebola vaccine has been tested in humans, JAMA 291 (2004), 549-50; Lancet 362 (2003), 1815. There may have been multiple sources of Ebola outbreaks since 1995, Science 303 (2004), 298-9. Ebola may be linked to decline of some wildlife also, Science 303 (2004), 387-90.

There has been renewed debate on dangers of MMR vaccine in the UK, BME 192 (2004), 1; 195 (2004), 1, 3-4; GreenhealthWatch 7 (2003), 1-2; NEJM 350 (2004), 1380-2; Nature 427 (2004), 765; 428 (2004), 1; BMJ 327 (2003), 1069; 328 (2004), 773; Lancet 363 (2004), 567-9. The authors of a paper suggesting a link have withdrawn their paper, Lancet 363 (2004), 750; Nature 428 (2004), 112; NS (13 March 2004), 4. There were concerNS about links of the researcher who claimed a link being also involved in a court case on the risks, BMJ 328 (2004), 483. Italy and UK have low MMR vaccine uptake rates, BMJ 327 (2003), 1124. The question of whether measles can be globally eradicated is discussed in Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 134-8. Japan is funding efforts to make a new recombinant vaccine to provide protection against 4 diseases, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1337. A study has found no link between HiB type 1 vaccination and type 1 diabetes, NEJM 350 (2004), 1398-404. A vaccine that used to used, has health affects, inactivated intranasal influenza vaccine increases risk of Bell's palsy, NEJM 350 (2004), 896-903.

The additives to vaccines do not appear to pose any risks to children, Lancet 362 (2003), 1987; SA (March 2004), 8-9. On the safety of whole virus for influenza vaccine, Lancet 362 (2003), 1959-66; and vaccination against flu, JAMA 290 (2003), 2656-7; Science 303 (2004), 1280-2. The 1918 killer flu virus has been identified, Science 303 (2004), 1787-8, 1866-70; NEJM 350 (2004), 522-4; BMJ 328 (2004), 353, 368; see also Science 302 (2003), 1519-22. Studies have found that flu infectioNS may actually enhance the development of asthma and allergic responses, contrary to the hygiene hypothesis, NatMed. 10 (2004), 232-4. Influenza vaccine coverage in Japan is reported in Lancet 362 (2003), 1767. Methods for delivering vaccines are discussed in TIBTECH 21 (2003), 465-7.

The prospects for eradication of polio are discussed in Science 303 (2004), 1960-8; Lancet 363 (2004), 93, 215; Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 1-70; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1454. There have been problems in polio vaccination in Nigeria, NEJM 350 (2004), 645-6; BMJ 328 (2004), 485; Lancet 363 (2004), 709. Atherosclerosis may have infection-induced involvement of mitochondrial chaperonins, Lancet 362 (2003), 1949. The use of meningococcal vaccine is discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 2353-6.

Asian bird flu epidemic has had ,major economic consequences and led to the sacrifice of many chickeNS across infected countries, Science 303 (2004), 447; BMJ 328 (2004), 243; Nature 427 (2004), 573; NS (31 Jan. 2004), 10-1; (27 March 2004), 6-7. There were also threats to humaNS in some cases, Hien, TT. Et al., "Avian influenza A (H5N1) in 10 patients in Vietnam", NEJM 350 (2004), 1179-88; BMJ 328 (2004), 238-9, 243, 308; JAMA 291 (2004), 1429-30. There is a large market for animal biotechnology products, NatBio 22 (2004), 251. However patent concerNS led to delays over Vietnam's use of the vaccine, NS (25 Jan. 2004), 8. In general on diseases like avian flu and SARS which cross species boundaries, NEJM 350 (2004), 1171-2; Science 303 (2004), 292, 447, 609; NS (7 Dec. 2003), 13; (28 Feb. 2004), 36-9; CMAJ 169 (2003), 698; Nature 427 (2004), 274, 472-3; Lancet 363 (2004), 134, 234-6, 373, 582, 587-93, 1006; BMJ 328 (2004), 308; NatMed. 10 (2004), 211. Livestock brucellosis has saved human lives also, Bulletin WHO 81 (2003), 867-75.

The first case of a BSE-infected cow in USA led to baNS on beef imports from USA for sometime in some countries, NEJM 350 (2004), 539-41; SA (April 2004), 12-3; NS (21 Feb. 2004), 11; Current Biology 14 (2004), R93-4; JAMA 291 (2004), 553-5; Nature 427 (2004), 5, 766; NatMed. 10 (2004), 113. There is little risk to the public, JAMA 291 (2004), 543-9. In general on disease risks from food and testing, Science 303 (2004), 156-7; Lancet 363 (2004), 1084-5; NS (6 Dec. 2003), 20; (10 Jan. 2004), 5; (27 March 2004), 4. There are also risks that vCJD is being transmitted by transfusion of blood, Lancet 363 (2004), 411-2, 417-21, 422; BMJ 328 (2004), 118-9; Science 303 (2004), 291, 1285. There is some association of CJD with use of Lyodera, MJA 180 (2004), 177-81. A possibility of a drug to fight CJD has been raised, Nature 426 (2003), 487; BMJ 328 (2004), 603. Korea has cloned cows resistant to BSE (hopefully), Nature 426 (2003), 743. PrioNS may have a role in long-term memory, Science 303 (2004), 28-9. Prion disease may spread in the body, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1463-4; Lancet 363 (2004), 411, 422-8. Wildgame feasts may also be linked to CJD, CMAJ 169 (2003), 443. Japan has now 11 cases of BSE-infected cows, and may have found a new strain, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1442.

A paper on ethics and SARS is Singer, PA. Et al. "Ethics and SARS: lessoNS from Toronto", BMJ 327 (2003), 1342-4; and on public health control, Pang, X. et al. "Evaluation of control measures implemented in the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome outbreak in Beijing, 2003", JAMA 290 (2003), 3215-21; 3222, 3229, 3251. On the Singapore cases, BMJ 328 (2004), 195-8. Tracking of SARS virus using DNA arrays is reported in Genome Research 14 (2004), 398-405; NEJM 349 (2003), 2468-70; see also, JAMA 290 (2003), 2533-4. During the SARS epidemic the virus evolved, Science 303 (2004), 1666-9; NEJM 349 (2003), 1875-6; Lancet 362 (2003), 1807-8; 363 (2004), 99-104. The duty to treat and SARS is discussed in HCR 34 (Jan. 2004), 4; CMAJ 169 (2003), 141. A paper on SARS and comparisoNS to lepers is in Croatian Medical J. 44 (2003), 674-80. The role of WHO in responding to disease outbreaks is discussed in Science 303 (2004), 1605-6. Information on SARS in Japan is reported in Lancet 363 (2004), 571-2.

There were only a few 2004 cases of SARS, Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 152-3; Nature 427 (2004), 6-7; BMJ 328 (2004), 65; NS (10 Jan. 2004), 6. This was despite many measures to prepare for another outbreak, Lancet 362 (2003), 1632-3; 363 (2004), 409; Nature 426 (2003), 609-10, 752-3; 427 (2004), 87, 89; NEJM 349 (2003), 2381-2; Current Biology 14 (2004), R91-3; CMAJ 169 (2003), 285-92, 299-200; JAMA 290 (2003), 2934; 291 (2004), 1313; NS (20 Dec 2003), 15. There have been two reported lab accidents with SARSs, Science 303 (2004), 26. A genetic susceptibility to SARS has been suggested, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1335. SARS vaccines are discussed in Science 303 (2004), 944-6; Nature 427 (2004), 185; 428 (2004), 561-4; Lancet 362 (2003), 1895-6. The presence of antibodies in patients suggests repeated SARS infections, Nature 427 (2004), 185; NS (24 Jan. 2004), 15. Border screening for SARS is still in effect in several countries, MJA 180 (2004), 220-3; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1441. It is possible SARS transmission may occur on aircraft, NEJM 349 (2003), 2416-22.

On public health in China, AJPH 93 (2003), 1991-3. The ethics of evaluating a new treatment for melioidosis is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 1280-2. On ecology of infectious diseases, PLoS Biology 1 (Nov. 2003), 148-9. Emerging vectors in the Culex pipieNS complex are reviewed in Science 303 (2004), 1535-8. African labs are include din the tsetse-fly genome project, Nature 427 (2004), 384. On emerging diseases, Nature 428 (2004), 19; NS (10 Jan. 2004), 19. Monkeypox has been detected in the Western hemisphere, NEJM 350 (2004), 342-50.

Badgers are being killed to attempt to restrict TB in UK cattle, however it appears it may increase local incidence of TB, Nature 426 (2003), 834-7. Also on TB, Nature 427 (2004), 295; Lancet 363 (2004), 537, 814-9, 951.

Cities may have led to the recent outbreaks of dengue in Southeast Asia, NatMed. 10 (2004), 129-30, 344+. At least 450 persoNS died from dengue in Indonesia in 2004, a doubling since last year, Lancet 363 (2004), 956. Sustainable schistosomiasis control is discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1932-4. Viral encephalitis is discussed in NEJM 350 (2004), 1266; BMJ 327 (2003), 1366. A review of Lassa fever is BMJ 327 (2003), 1271-5. Pacific countries have been fighting lymphatic filariasis, as have other countries in the world where 120 million persoNS are infected, Lancet 362 (2003), 1906. There are efforts to try to make this the first disease eradicated through the use of drugs. The American Red Cross has decided to screen blood for Chagas disease, Lancet 362 (2003), 1988.

Stable SNPs have been reported in malaria genes in isolated populations, Science 303 (2004), 493. A review of the 14 grand challenge topics chosen by the Gates Foundation for global disease research is in Bulletin WHO 81 (2003), 915-6. The use of the Global Fund, WHO and medical malpractice in malaria are discussed in Lancet 363 (2004), 237-40; BMJ 327 (2003), 1188. In general on malaria, BMJ 328 (2004), 534-5. On genetic control of malaria, Science 303 (2004), 1984-5, 2030-32; PLoS Biology 1 (Nov. 2003), 142-4. The human genome also changes as we interact with parasites, NS (22 Nov. 2003), 44-7. APOE genotype also alters risk of malaria, JMG 41 (2004), 145-6. The drug sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine continues to fight against falciparum malaria in Malawi after 10 years use, BMJ 328 (2004), 545-8. Mosquito Anopheles has a receptor for human sweat odorant, Nature 427 (2004), 212-3. The implicatioNS of changing climate for malaria is discussed in Nature 427 (2004), 690-1. Ethiopia may face 15 million persoNS infected with malaria, Lancet 362 (2003), 2071. There are still hurdles to make a vaccine against malaria, Bulletin WHO 81 (2003), 902-7; Lancet 363 (2004), 150-6.

Giving insecticide-treated bednets to pregnant women is discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1515-6, 1549-50; 363 (2004), 132-3. DEET-based insect repellents appear to be safe for children, CMAJ 169 (2003), 209-12. A study of children over 6 years found that insecticide-treated curtaiNS reduced child mortality in Burkina Faso, Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 84, 85-91. A paper on fear of mosquitoes in USA is Herrington, JE., "Pre-West Nile Virus Outbreak: PerceptioNS and practices to prevent mosquito bites and viral encephalitis in the United States", Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Disease 3 (2003), 157-74. A record of US cases of West Nile infectioNS is Lancet 362 (2003), 1870. A book review of For Love of Insects is Nature 428 (2004), 368. Hybrid mosquitoes are suspected in West Nile virus spread, Science 303 (2004), 1451.

Delayed prescriptioNS can reduce antibiotic use in respiratory infections, BMJ 327 (2003), 1361-2, 1324-7. The problems of antibiotic resistance in bacteria are discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 1177-8; Lancet 362 (2003), 1554-5; Science 302 (2003), 1488; JAMA 290 (2003), 2976-84; NatMed. 10 (2004), 6. Antibiotic resistance in food is a problem also, BIOforum Europe 5 (Sept. 2003), 266-7. Links between antibiotics and breast cancer are debated in JAMA 291 (2004), 827, 880-1. There are few new antibiotics, Lancet 362 (2003), 1726-7. The possibility of using predatory bacteria for antimicrobial strategies is discussed in JAMA 291 (2004), 1188-9.

Ethics of refusal of vaccination is discussed in National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 4 (2004), 52-63.
A discussion of the mental health impact of quarantine at Ho-Ping hospital during the SARS outbreak in 2003 is in Formosan J. Medical Humanities 5 (2004), 63-5. A paper reviewing issues raised by SARS is Levett, J. "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS): Loud clang of the leper's Bell", Croatian Medical J. 44 (2003), 674-80. From Taiwan, Tzeng, H-M., "Nurses' professional care obligation and their attitudes towards SARS infection control measures in Taiwan during and after the 2003 epidemic", Nursing Ethics 11 (2004), 277-89. Canadian doctors welcomed public health initiatives after SARS, BMJ 328 (2004), 785.

SARS information in Japan is defended in Lancet 363 (2004), 571-2. More is being discovered on the structure of SARS virus, Science 304 (2004), 1097; NEJM 350 (2004), 1797; JAMA 291 (2004), 1951; J. Virology 78 (2004), 3572-7. Identification of a new human coronavirus has been made, NatMed. 10 (2004), 368-73. SARS seems to have escaped 3 times from a secure lab facility in China, NS (1 May 2004), 12; Lancet 363 (2004), 1566-7; Science 304 (2004), 1223-4; and on a Singapore case, NEJM 350 (2004), 1740-5; and a Taiwanese case, Science 303 (2004), 26. Also on SARS lessons, JAMA 291 (2004), 2483-7. Airborne transmission of SARS is shown in Hong Long in 2003, NEJM 350 (2004), 1731-9. There has been discussion of Japan's leprosy isolation policy in Korea in Lancet 363 (2004), 1396-7; though isolation and prejudice was global, Lancet 363 (2004), 1220.

Pandemic influenza would find most countries ill prepared, Science 302 (2003), 1519-22; JAMA 291 (2004), 2491-2; Nature 429 (2004), 345-6. Reverse genetics can be used to rapidly make vaccines, Lancet 363 (2004), 1099-103. There are still problems for global eradication of polio this year, Science 303 (2004), 1960-9; 304 (2004), 1096; JAMA 291 (2004), 1947-8; though India is progressing well, Lancet 363 (2004), 1527. Measles vaccination is progressing so that the number of measles deaths per year in Africa was reduced by 30% between 1999 to 2002, but still the annual toll is 610,000 persons, Lancet 363 (2004), 1531. Religious leaders are one way to help promote vaccination, Lancet 363 (2004), 1709. The public debates over MMR vaccination are discussed in Lancet 363 (2004), 1473-4. There is no link found between vaccination and diabetes type 1, BMJ 328 (2004), 854.  Childhood vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in USA helps to reduce the racial disparity in infection, JAMA 291 (2004), 2197-203, 2253+. Zinc can help treat severe pneumonia in children, Lancet 363 (2004), 1683-8. Vaccination against meningitis halted an outbreak in Burkina Faso, Lancet 363 (2004), 1290. BCG vaccines have long term efficacy, JAMA 291 (2004), 2086-91, 2127+. The Australian vaccination schedule is in MJA 180 (2004), 494-6. On race-based immunization, JAMA 291 (2004), 2197, 2253-4.

A call for fashion designers to include more trousers and long sleeves as methods to slow the cases of dengue in Indonesia may be another way to prevent the disease, Lancet 363 (2004), 1651. A call for better global policy on disease is in BMJ 327 (2003), 399; 328 (2004), 781, 811-5; Lancet 363 (2004), 1339-40; and the understanding of risk is inadequate, Science 304 (2004), 927. The disease Yaw can be treated by a single dose of penicillin but many pygmies and forest dwelling persons in Congo are not yet reached, NS (8 May 2004), 15. Anthrax survivors from 2002 still have poor QOL, JAMA 291 (2004), 1994-8.

Some people have genetic protection against malaria, Cockburn, IA. Et al. "A human complement receptor 1 polymorphism that reduces Plasmodium falciparum resetting confers protection against severe malaria", PNAS 101 (2004), 272-7. A six antigen polyprotein has been made as a potential malaria vaccine, PNAS 101 (2004), 290-5. A protein in mosquito allows them to escape the effects of the paarsite, NatMed. 10 (2004), 455-7. Antigenic variation in malaria is discussed in Nature 429 (2004), 555-8. On malaria cures, Current Biology (2004), R264-7; Lancet 363 (2004), 1386-8; SSM 57 (2003), 2476. Public-private partnerships for infectious disease research are discussed in Drug Discovery (April 2004), 28-32.  GSK has signed a agreement to develop drugs against drug resistant malaria in Africa, www.scrippharma.com 2948 (30 April 2004), 19. Comparative genome analysis of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster is in J. Heredity 95 (2004), 103-13. Infections may explain why our blood groups differ, NS (17 April 2004), 15. On the global fund and malaria, Lancet 363 (2004), 1396; Newsweek (24 May 2004), 44-6; BMJ 328 (2004), 1086-7; Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 381-4. Tropical medicine and new imperalism is discussed in Lancet 363 (2004), 1087.

A vaccine to stop methane emissions from ruminant animals is being developed, Nature 429 (2004), 119. FAO and WHO announced they will work together on animal diseases more closely, Nature 429 (2004), 494.  The public health risk from Avian H5N1 influenza epidemic is discussed in Science 304 (2004), 968-9. Buruli toxin genes have been decoded, PNAS 101 (2004), 1116-7. Latrines play an important role in trachoma control, Lancet 363 (2004), 1088, 1093-8. Cross species transmission of simian retroviruses in Africa is discussed in Lancet 363 (2004), 911, 932-7.

A review of rotavirus vaccines is Lancet 363 (2004), 1547-50. Compulsory screening of immigrants for HIV and TB is discussed in BMJ 328 (2004), 897. TB is discussed in BMJ 328 (2004), 1206; NEJM 350 (2004), 2060-7; Lancet 363 (2004), 1122; PNAS 101 (2004), 4721-2. Mad cow disease in USA is making some change eating habits, Newsweek (12 Jan. 2004), 40-5. A possible second wave of UK vCJD cases is expected, Nature 429 (2004), 331. On the US BSE case, SA (April 2004), 12-3. On prion disease, Nature 429 (2004), 37-8; PNAS 101 (2004), 4198-203; Lancet 363 (2004), 1201. Single amino acid changes in lentiviruses can determine specificity, PNAS 101 (2004), 3725-6. Ebola vaccine is discussed in Science 302 (2003), 1141-2.

Antibiotic resistance is discussed in JAMA 291 (2004), 1960-1; NS (10 April 2004), 4.

      On the ethics of infectious disease, Smith, CB. et al. "Are there characteristics of infectious diseases that raise special ethical issues?", Bioethics (2004), 1-16; and on emerging diseases, Nature 431 (2004), 242-9; Lancet 364 (2004), 380-3. Eco-bio-social research on dengue is discussed in TDR News 72 (June 2004), 9. Dengue is expected to emerge in Arizona, USA, Nature 430 (2004), 392. The promise of GM mosquito approaches for malaria control is discussed in Nature 430 (2004), 936. Preventing malaria in travelers is discussed in BMJ 329 (2004), 305-6; also on malaria control, Lancet 364 (2004), 285-94, 389-90; BMJ 328 (2004), 1511-2; Nature 429 (2004), 588; 430 (2004), 838-9, 900-4, 923-44; Science 304 (2004), 1744. On mefloquine resistance and pfmdr1 gene copy number, Lancet 364 (2004), 438-47; also, Current Biology 14 (2004), R552-3; Science 305 (2004), 1124; Lancet 363 (2004), 1838-9. Insecticide resistance genes confer a predation cost on Culex pipiens mosquitoes, Genetical Research 83 (2004), 189-96. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants came into force on 17 may 2004 but allows exceptional uses of DDT for malaria treatment, Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 472-3.

      West Nile virus encephalomyelitis in transplant recipients is reported in Archives Neurology 61 (2004), 1210-20. West Nile virus has reached the West USA killing wildlife, BioScience 54 (2004), 379, 393-402. Mass treatment with ivermectin can reduce parasitic diseases, Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 563-71. Discussion of whether the Chagas parasite enters our genes is in NS (7 Aug. 2004), 9. A book review of The Discovery of the Germ is BMJ 329 (2004), 57. Exotic plants may contain new diseases, NS (5 June 2004), 5. The US BIO has launched a BIO Ventures for Global Health plan to help combat infectious diseases, NatBio 22 (2004), 927. Book reviews on Plague are in Nature 430 (2004), 145-6.

      Therapeutic vaccines for chronic infections are reviewed in Science 305 (2004), 205-8. DNA vaccines are reviewed in NatBio 22 (2004), 799-801. Non-parenteral vaccines have not been as successful as they were expected to be, BMJ 329 (2004), 62-3; and on pentavalent vaccines, BMJ 329 (2004), 411-2. Live flavivirus vaccines may be dangerous, Lancet 363 (2004), 2073-5. The contagiousness of Varicella cases is reduced when people are vaccinated, JAMA 292 (2004), 704-8. A small transient increase in risk of febrile seizure is found after MMR vaccination, JAMA 292 (2004), 351-7. Vaccine risk perception and autism is surveyed in AJPH 94 (2004), 990-5. WHO is warning of a polio epidemic in Africa, BMJ 328 (2004), 1513; 329 (2004), 365; Lancet 363 (2004), 1876, 1912; Science 304 (2004), 1903; 305 (2004), 24-5. Nigeria resumed polio vaccinations, Nature 430 (2004), 600. Polio vaccine prior to 1963 may have contained SV40 virus, NS (10 July 2004), 6-7: Lancet 364 (2004), 407-8. The UK has a five in one vaccine for babies now, BMJ 329 (2004), 365. In general on vaccines, AJPH 94 (2004), 910, 914-7, 947-50. Immunization laws increase coverage, AJPH 94 (2004), 978-84; but there are increasing differences in ethnic and racial differences in immunization in the USA, AJPH 94 (2004), 973-7. The global vaccination gap is greater, Science 305 (2004), 147. Measles is still endemic in Japan, Lancet 364 (2004), 328-9.

      Avian influenza is discussed in MJA 181 (2004), 62-3; Nature 430 (2004), 4; NS (10 July 2004), 5; (21 Aug. 2004), 5; Science 305 (2004), 321. It has found new mammalian hosts including tiger, Science 305 (2004), 1385; and become more pathogenic, JAMA 292 (2004), 794. Some Thai farmers are using black market vaccines against bird flu, Nature 431 (2004), 6. Much bird flu data may be in Chinese language journals, Nature 430 (2004), 955. On fears of disease infection from dead bodies, JAMA 292 (2004), 323. Leprosy treatment is discussed in BMJ 329 (2004), 1447-8; CMAJ 170 (2004), 55-62.  On global influenza and the chance of the next pandemic, BMJ 328 (2004), 1391-2; Science 305 (2004), 323-6. Brazilian researchers have sequenced the genome of leptospirosis-causing bacterium, Brazilian J. Med. & Biological Research 37 (2004), 459-77; Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 471.

      The ethics of SARS is discussed in Hsin, DHC. & Macer, DRJ., "Heroes of SARS: professional roles and ethics of health care workers",  J. Infection 49 (2004), 210-5. A report from Toronto is Nickell, LA. et al. "Psychosocial effects of SARS on hospital staff: Survey of a large tertiary care institution", CMAJ 170 (2004), 793-8. On the impact of SARS on professionalism in Toronto, BMJ 329 (2004), 83-5. A vectored mucosal vaccine may be useful against SARS based on a African green monkey study, Lancet 363 (2004), 2102, 2122-7; and a monoclonal antibody approach was tested in Lancet 363 (2004), 2139-41.  The virulence of SARS is changing, Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 547+. Frontal chest X-rays have prognostic value in SARS, Amer. J. Med. 117 (2004), 249-54; CMAJ 170 (2004), 47, 63. A book on SARS is in BMJ 329 (2004), 116; and on lessons from SARS, NEJM 350 (2004), 2332-4. The Chinese Dr. Jiang who uncovered the Chinese SARS epidemic has been imprisoned for his ideas about Tiananmen Square incident, NS (10 July 2004), 3; also the director of the Chinese CDC has resigned over SARS, Science 305 (2004), 163; Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 470.  Chinese success in TB control is discussed in Lancet 364 (2004), 391-2, 417-22. Detention for TB control is discussed in MJA 180 (2004), 573-6.

      Non-inherited resistance to antibiotics is discussed in Science 305 (2004), 1578-9. MRSA infections in the UK rose by 5% between 2003 and 2004, BMJ 329 (2004), 131. The genome of MRSA suggests it can develop more resistance also, Nature 430 (2004), 126. Regulatory challenges in microbicide development are discussed in Science 304 (2004), 1911-2.

      There may be continued infection of CJD by prions in the blood supply, Nature 430 (2004), 712. The BSE cases in the USA are discussed in NS (3 July 2004), 5; (17 July 2004), 5; (7 Aug. 2004), 33-42. CJD is still incurable, NS (7 Aug. 2004), 12-3. Lamarkism and prion disease is discussed in NS (21 Aug. 2004), 13. Synthetic prions have been made, Science 305 (2004), 589, 673-6.


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