SHAPING GENES:

Ethics, Law and Science of Using New Genetic Technology in Medicine and Agriculture

Darryl R. J. Macer, Ph.D. Eubios Ethics Institute 1990


Copyright1990, Darryl R. J. Macer. All commercial rights reserved. This publication may be reproduced for limited educational or academic use, however please enquire with the author.

Index


pp.409-421 in Shaping Genes: Ethics, Law and Science of Using New Genetic Technology in Medicine and Agriculture, D.R.J. Macer (Eubios Ethics Institute, 1990).
5-azacytidine 279
AAtrex 118
Abortion 7, 215, 232, 245, 332, 342
British law 80
business 94
Christian view of 55, 59
contraception 189
ethics 67-95
fetal reduction 79
fetal tissue transplants 91, 94-95
Hippocratic Oath 46, 52
history 50-53
international law 77
prenatal screening 248
protest 35, 61
religious views of 59
selective 312
spontaneous (See spontaneous abortion), 69
USA laws 81
WMA 58
Acatalasia 230
ADA deficiency 20, 275, 277-278, 282, 284, 287, 289
Adenosine deaminase (See ADA)
Adoption 200, 205, 211, 226
Adrenal hyperplasia 303
Agrobacterium tumefaciens 114, 143
AID 194, 204-208
eligibility 211
ethics 204-208
eugenic 296-298
incidence 204
regulation 257, 341
religious views 205
safety 207
AIDS 97, 135, 175, 263, 266, 274, 281, 285, 302
AIH 195, 197
Albinism 253
Albumen 175
Alcoholism 254
Allele 16, 18
Alpha-1 antitrypsin 112
Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency 20
Alpha-fetoprotein 243, 244, 255
Aluminium toxicity 120
Alzheimer's disease 20, 321
American Fertility Society 207, 297
American Medical Association 58, 327, 329
Amgen 113
Amniocentesis 242, 244, 259
Anderson, French 278, 289
Anencephalic 74, 103
Animal
commercial use 104
embryo splitting 104
experiments 18, 92, 96-98, 102-107, 125, 282, 285, 300, 340, 341
genetic engineering (See Genetic engineering)
patents 181-184
regulations 106, 155, 340
rights 7, 96-108, 341
sacrifice 99
Animal welfare movement 98
Anonymity
AID 206
Anti-semitism 221
Antibiotic resistance 142
Antibodies 112
Antifreeze gene 119, 124
Antiscience sentiment 4, 44, 308
Antisense RNA 115
Antivivisection 106, 340
APRT deficiency 20
Aquinas, Thomas 66
Argentina
GMO field test 145
Aristotle 10, 52, 66, 216, 217
Artificial insemination (See AID or AIH)
Ashkenazic Jews 230, 251
Astarte 22
Atheism 22
Atherosclerosis 284
Australia
abortion 77, 78, 94, 191
bioethics committee 335
embryo research 86, 89, 94
eugenics 220, 229
gene therapy 286, 309
genetic engineering 121, 152, 162
genome project 318
GMO food 170
GMO release 124, 135-139
IVF 44, 197, 201-203
public attitudes 35-36
surrogacy 208
Autonomy 79, 258, 261, 264, 307, 333
Aztobacter 120
Bacillus 132
Bacillus thuringiensis 116, 125, 136, 137, 145, 150, 337
Bacon, Francis 53
Bacterial leaching 132
Baculovirus 126, 135
Basta 118, 338
Battery farming 97, 107
Becker muscular dystrophy 250
Belgium
abortion 78, 88
embryo research 88
GMO release 111, 116, 117, 135, 138, 160
IVF 201, 203
Beneficience 290
Bible 22
animals 99
contraception 192
eugenics 217, 219
human embryo 66
nature 22-27
Bio-cosmetics 110
Biodegradable 24, 112, 117, 165, 280, 338, 340
Bioethics 2, 9, 345
Bioethics committees 44, 335
Biolistics 114, 283, 300
Biological containment 127
Biological control 116, 140, 147-148, 338
Biological diversity 30-33, 34
Biological weapons 34, 339
Biomass 113
Biopolymers 112
Bioreactors 7, 112
Biosphere 23
BioTechnia 167
Biotechnology 6, 114, 130, 176-180, 337, 340
companies 176, 178
definition 3
public attitudes 37-42
third world 186-187
Biotinidase 240
Bipolar affective disorder 237
Birth control 84, 188-193, 337, 341
Blastomeres 124
Blood clotting factor VIII 110
Blood-clotting factor IX 112
Blowfly 139
Bone marrow transplantation 275, 289
Bongos 34
Bovine somatotropin 171-172, 179, 338
Bradyrhizobium 149
Brain death 73, 74
Brain life 74-76
Brewing 167
Britain (See U.K.)
British Medical Association 58
BST (See bovine somatotropin)
Buck v. Bell 220
Buddhism
abortion 79
animal rights 99
IVF 198
medical ethics 62
Bulgaria
AID 204
surrogacy 208
Caesarean 259
Calgene 118, 120, 338
Canada
abortion 78, 191
embryo research 89-90
eugenics 218-220
genetic engineering 131, 162
genome project 318
GMO release 130, 138, 162
IVF 201, 203
medical ethics 52
patents 182
Cancer 20, 241, 274, 280, 289
Carp 138
Carrier screening 228
Case-by-case assessment 155
Castration 51
Catholic
contraception 192
eugenics 223
genetic screening 252
human embryo 66
infertility 195
IVF 197
medical ethics 59
Caucasians 252
CEGOS sperm banks 204
Cell fusion 29
Cetus 319
Chardin, Teilhard 74
Charity 54
Chimera 29, 83, 85, 210
Chimpanzees 71, 98, 340
China
birth control 188
medical ethics 61
RU-486 191
Chorioepithelioma 68
Chorionic membranes 68
chorionic villi sampling (See CVS)
Christ 22
Christian
abortion 79
AID 205
animal rights 99, 103
IVF 201
quality of life 233
view of nature 22-27
view of soul 73
Chromosomal abnormality 214
Chromosomes 320
sex 18
Ciba-Geigy 338
Citrullinemia 280
Civil liberties 271
Clavibacter xyli 136
Cline, Martin 276
Clones 125
animals 68
Cloning 33, 34, 125, 313-316
ethics 314-316
Clostridium 132
Coat protein 115
Code of Hammurabi 45
Colonic polyposis 266
Commerce 5, 176-187, 340
biotechnology 8, 110
genetic screening 238
herbicide-tolerant plants 119, 338
human genome mapping 319
nitrogen fixation 120
pesticides 116
public opinion 179
Conception 17, 63, 66, 67
Conceptus 68
Confidentiality 250, 266, 269, 322, 333, 342
Conjugation 141, 142
Consanguineous marriage 215, 247
Consciousness 75
Consumer objection 171
Contraception 188-193, 341
history 192
liability 177, 189
religious views 192-193
Contraceptives 84, 188
vaccine 191
Contragestion 190
Corneal ulcers 168
Council of Europe 315
AID 207
embryo research 89
eugenics 226
IVF 202, 210
Crop rotation 116
Cross protection 115
Cross-fertilisation 144
Crown Gall disease 137
CVS 243, 244
Cyprus 252
Cystic fibrosis 19, 237, 238, 239, 252, 289
Dagger G 116
Danish Environment and Gene Technology Act 160
Darwin, Charles 217
Data-sharing 319
Davenport 218, 221
Death 72-74
definition 74
Deliberate release 153
Denmark
abortion 78
AID 204
animal patents 182
bioethics committee 335
embryo research 88
genetic engineering 159-160
genetic screening 239, 241, 245, 253
IVF 201, 203
public attitudes 38
Determinism 225, 322
Development
embryo experiments 84
Diabetes 20, 254, 267, 273, 303
Diethylstilboestrol 171
Digestive protease inhibitors 117
Disabled plasmids 146
Disease resistance 114
Divorce 306
AID 205
rate 212
DNA 11-20
mapping 317
methylation 279
probes 236-238
sequencing 317
DNA Fingerprinting 207, 270
DNA-ligase 13
DNAX 178
Do no harm 50, 289, 332
Dolphins 99, 340
Down's Syndrome 19, 225, 243, 249, 258, 259
Du Pont 181
Dunaliella 110
Duschenne muscular dystrophy 20, 237, 240, 254, 255, 267, 303
Dutch Elm disease 134
Dwarfism 253
Ecological crisis 26
Ecological niche 141
Economics (See Commerce)
eugenics 227
gene therapy 291
Ecosystem 23, 31, 137, 146
Education 44, 46, 47, 108, 174, 202, 221, 241, 246, 251, 252, 255, 260, 263, 292, 302, 312, 322, 331, 334, 339, 344
Edwards, Robert 69, 314
Embryo
biopsy 87, 343
commercial use 178
flushing 204
manipulation 33
research (See Human embryo), 341
sexing 124
surplus 199
wastage 199
Embryo splitting 29, 83, 125, 316
Embryo transfer 34, 125
Embryogenesis 68
Embryonic stem cells 7, 96, 97, 105, 125, 146, 210, 300, 301, 314
Emphysema 275
Employers
genetic screening 265, 267
Endoscopy 243
Endotoxin
Bacillus thuringiensis 136
Enjuin 62
Ensoulment 67, 69, 72, 74-75
Environment Protection Bill 161
Environmental impact 155
Enzymes 109
EPA 144, 145, 153, 161, 177
Erasistratus 52
Erythropoietin 110, 274
ES cells (See Embryonic stem cells)
Escherichia coli 110, 140, 143, 146, 159
Ethics 2, 47, (See individual topics)
animal patents 184
contraception 192-193
intergenerational 308-313, 323-324
medical (See Medical ethics)
science 2
utlilitarian 332
Etiquette 47, 53
Eugenics 8, 215-230, 231, 292, 295, 343
Christian view 232
economics 227, 262
history 215-226
Marxist view 232
modern 226, 257
positive 296-299, 301-316
sterilisation 220
Eugenics Society 218
European Council 308
European Medical Council 286
European Parliament
genetic engineering 128, 129, 154, 160
European Patent Convention 182
Euthanasia 228, 234, 331
Hippocratic Oath 52
Nazi 222
Excess baggage hypothesis 139
Exon oil spill 126
Exons 12
Exotic species 147
Exposure 215
Extramarital gametes 206
Factor XI deficiency 230
Faeces 149
Fallopian tubes 195
Family pedigrees 270
Family structure 210-213, 262, 291, 306, 307
Farmer subsidies 179, 180
FDA 120, 161, 167, 171, 175
Feminicide 260
Feminist 199, 209
Fertilisation 64, 67
Fetal "rights" 257
Fetal interventions 255
Fetal surgery 256
Fetal tissue transplants 91-95
Fetoscopy 243
Fetus 69
definition 65
viability 75
Fletcher, John 264
Fletcher, Joseph 257, 258
Florigene 121
Flower colour 121
Food irradiation 172
Food safety (See GMOs)
public opinion 172, 174
Food surplus 180
Food toxicants 169
Ford, Norman 69
Forensic medicine 271
France
abortion 78
AID 204, 205
bioethics committee 335
embryo research 88
IVF 200, 203
RU-486 191
Frankenstein Factor 28, 292
Frost damage 133-134
Frostban 133
Frozen food 134
Fungi 111
Galactosemia 19, 239, 240
Galen 10, 49
Galton Laboratory 218
Galton, Francis 215, 217
Gamete intrafallopian transferr (See GIFT)
Gametogenesis 64
Gametrics 260
Gastrulation 69
Gaucher's disease 20, 230, 275, 283
Gaylin 292
Geep 27, 29
Gene
detection of 144
function 11
imprinting 68, 238
mutation 18, 20
revolution 1, 9
transfer 141-147, 149
eucaryote-procaryote 143
rate 146
vectors 14
Gene imperialism 311
Gene therapy 8, 272-273, 276-294, 298-313
economics 291
ethics 285-294
fetal 281-282
germline 299-313, 316, 343
government guidelines 286-287
safety 287
somatic 272-273, 276-294, 343
Genentech 174, 176, 178
Genesis 22, 25
Genethics 1, 28, 325
Genetic
barriers 142
information 270
monitoring (See Genetic screening)
techniques 10
testing 265
Genetic counseling 245-247, 249-256, 258, 264
ethical concerns 246
indications for 244
Genetic determinism 322-323
Genetic discrimination 267, 344
Genetic disease 16, 214, 273
complex 20, 281
dominant 18, 19
incidence 18, 225, 230, 276, 303
recessive 18, 19
spontaneous 238
X-linked 18, 19
Genetic diversity 113
protection of 29
Genetic engineering 33, 340, 346
animals 96-98, 105, 107, 113, 122-125, 138, 139, 146, 149, 283
applications 109-126, 130
concerns 127
definition 3
ethics 21-44, 304-313
eucaryotic tissue culture 111
fish 122
human 292-293, 295, 298-316, 343
industrial 129
microorganisms 109, 111, 125, 131, 136, 148
plants 112, 113-121, 135-138
public concerns 4, 21, 35-42
public fears 292-293, 295
regulations 152-166
safety 127-151, 167-174, 287, 334
social effects 306
vaccines 134-135
Genetic freedom 258, 264, 308
Genetic health 305
Genetic heterogeneity 237
Genetic information 322
Genetic manipulation 41, (See genetic engineering)
Genetic recombination 15
Genetic registrars 266, 270, 342
Genetic screening 227, 232, 236, 300, 342
compulsory 258
cost 242
costs 245, 252
employers 265
newborn 239-240
postnatal 239, 265-270
prenatal 242-247, 248, 255-264
privacy of information 264, 270
regulation 261
stigma 266
Genetic selection 296, 306
Genetic susceptibility 20, 240
Genetic testing 268
Genetic therapy (See Gene therapy)
Genetics
history 10
techniques 16
Genhaz 156
Genotype 12, 17
GenProbe 178
Gentechnikgesetz 159
Germ plasm 29, 33
German Gene Technology Act 159, 166
Germany
abortion 78
AID 204
embryo research 87
eugenics 221-223
genetic engineering 44, 128, 159
genetic screening 243
IVF 201, 202
public attitudes 38
sterilisation 229
Germinal Choice 226, 264, 296-298
Germline gene therapy (See Gene therapy), 298
Germline manipulation 343
GIFT 67, 196
regulation 196
Ginseng 111
Gistbrocades 167
Glean 118
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency 230, 238, 303
GlyphoTol 118, 338
GMOs 4, (See Genetic engineering and Transgenic)
crops 138
design of 140
ecological effects 147-151, 163
field testing 130-139, 151, 156, 186
financial liability 166
food safety 117, 167-175
persistence 139-141
regulations 8, 152-166, 340
safety 151, 157, 339
safety of 7
Gore-Tex 285
Greece
abortion 78
Green party 178
Green Revolution 119
Growth hormone 106, 110, 122, 124, 175, 274, 293, 302
Haemophilia 237
Hardy-Weinberg Law 224
Health and Safety Executive 106, 160
Heart disease 97, 254
Heat shock 139
Hemoglobinpathies 230
Hemoglobinpathogies 239
Hemophilia 19, 238, 275, 303
Hemophilia A 20
Hemophilia B 284
Hemophilus influence 303
Heparin-binding growth factor 285
Hepatitis 274, 302
Hepatitis B 110, 134
Hepatocytes 280
Herbicide tolerant plants (See Plants)
Herbicides 118
Heterozygote advantage 224, 303
Hetrozygote advantage 303
Hindu
animal rights 99
human embryo 66
medical ethics 60
Hippocrates 10
Hippocratic
tradition 7, 45, 325
Hippocratic Corpus 47, 50
Hippocratic Oath 45-56, 62, 326, 331, 332
Christian version 51, 55, 328
Christians 54
Islam 55, 60
Judaism 59
translation 46
Hippocratic Tradition 46, 58, 327, 331
HIV screening 263, 267
Hoffman-Roche 319
Holland
abortion 78
embryo research 88
genetic engineering 160
IVF 201
Hominisation 74
Homocystinuria 19, 239, 240
Homologous Recombination 15, 16, 146, 300, 301
Homosexual 201, 211
HPRT 96, 283, 301
HUGO 318, 321
Human being 70
Human embryo 7
contraceptives 84
cryostorage 82, 199
development 63-70
experiments 81-91, 341
genetic disease 214
implantation 69, 76
moral status 199
regulations 85-91
splitting 210
status 248, 344
status of 63
twinning 69
Human experimentation 33, 86, 288, 290
Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill 196, 202, 308
Human fetus (See human embryo)
experiments 91-95
Human gene mapping 265
Human genome mapping 323
costs 317
data sharing 318-321
ethics 321-323
Human genome project (See Human genome mapping)
Human/animal hybrids 30, 83, 87
Humanae Vitae 192
Hungary
abortion 78
Huntington's chorea 19, 237, 249, 266, 267, 268
Huxley, Aldous 314
Hybridisation 141, 143, 144
Hybritech 178
Hydatidiform mole 65, 67, 68
Hypercholesterolemia 237, 249
Hypoglycemia 174
Hypothyroidism 239, 240
Ice-nucleating bacteria 126, 133-134, 144
ICI 167
Imidazolinone 118
Immigration Restriction Act 220
Implantation 65, 68, 190
Infertility 8, 195, 210, 212
embryo experiments (See Human embryo)
medical condition 194, 195
Infertlity 194
Insecticidal protein 116, 136, 137, 145, 150, 168
Insectiticidal protein
resistance 150
Insulin 110, 174, 274
Insurance
genetic discrimination 239
genetic screening 266, 267
Intelligence Quotient 219
Interfering with Nature 21
Interferon 110, 113
Intergeneric organisms 152
Interim Licensing Authority 82, 86, 335
Interleukin-2 113, 277, 289
Interleukins 110, 274
International Food Biotechnology Council 169-170
Interspecies fertilisation 83, 87
Introns 12
Ishtar 22
Isis 22
Islam 10
abortion 77
AID 205
animal rights 99
human embryo 66
IVF 202
medical ethics 59
Israel
IVF 202
Italy
abortion 78
IVF 201
IUD 85, 190
Ivermectin 149
IVF 30, 33, 67, 68, 188, 194-210, 342
animal 122, 125, 178
costs 200
donor gametes 204-207
eligibility 202, 211
embryo biopsy 245
embryo experiments 82
embryo research 81
embryo splitting 209, 314
feminist view 199
genetic selection 296
international statistics 203
legal problems 198
methodology 195
public funding 200
regulation 341
safety 197
success rate 196
surplus embryos 85, 91
Jains 22, 99
Japan
abortion 77, 78
birth control 189
genetic engineering 162
genetic screening 240
IVF 198
medical ethics 62
public attitudes 37, 173
Jewish
abortion 59
AID 205
contraception 192
eugenics 216
medical ethics 58
prenatal screening 251
Judeo-Christian
view of nature 23, 26
Justice 264, 332
Kanamycin 143
Kant, Immanuel 104
Kasss, Leon 194
Kidney failure 274
Kidney transplants 275
Kiwifruit 121
Kudzu 148
Laboratory discipline 128
Lamarckism 10, 221
Lapraroscopy 195
LDL receptors 284
Lesch-Nyhan disease 20, 96, 279, 283
Lewis, C.S. 310
Liberty 264
Lignocellulose 113
Lipofectin 283
Liposomes 280
Liver transplants 275
Living Will 235
Lloyds 166
Malaria 302, 303
Malaria, 303
Malthus 192
Mammary gland 112
Mandatory drug testing 268
Manic depression 20
Manichaeanism 23
Maple Syrup Disease 240
Maple syrup urine disease 239
Marfan syndrome 249
Mass screening 228, 241, 243, 296
Masturbation 197
Maternal blood sampling 243
Maternal mortality 193
Maya 24
MCap biopesticide 137
Medical ethics 3, 7, 45-62, 269, 325, 331-336
Catholic 59
Chinese 61
Hindu 60
Islam 55
Japan 62
Jewish 59
socialist 61
Medical ethicss
Islamic 59
Medical genetics 247
Medical guilds 56
Medical profession 47-49, 325-330
history 53-58
Melanin 111
Mendel, Gregor 10
Mengele 223
Metal extraction 131, 132
Microinjection 114, 122, 299
Microoganisms
genetically modified 125
Microorganisms
genetically modified 109, 111
insecticidal 117
Miscarriage 243
Molecular biology
central dogma 11, 12
history 11
Monsanto 117, 178, 337
Morgan, Thomas 10
Moses Maimonides 59
Mother Earth 22
Muller, Herman 224, 226, 297
Multinationalcompanies 178
Multiple pregnancy 69, 79
Muscular Dystrophy 19
Mutation 18, 303
Mutations 17, 255
Mycogen 136
Mycogen Vegetable Product 137
Mycorrhizal fungi 126
Myotonic dystrophy 237
Myxoma virus 140
Natural selection 140
Nature
interfering with 28
views of 21
Nature/nurture debate 225
Nazis 221, 231
eugenics 222-223
Negro 251
Neocortex 73
Netherlands (See Holland)
Neuroblastoma 240
Neurofibromatosis 237, 249, 254
New Zealand 148
abortion law 190
genetic engineering 157, 162
public attitudes 36, 38
public opinion 172, 173, 183
Nitrogen fixation 120, 132, 149
Nitrogen retention 171
NoGall 137
Nondirective counseling 246
Nonpaternity 266
Norway
abortion 78
embryo research 87
IVF 201
Novel food proteins 168
Nuclear replacement 314
Nucleotides 12
Nutrition 121
Oguchi disease 230
Oil recovery 132
Oil-degrading bacteria 126
Old Testament 24
Oncogen 178
Oncomouse 7, 104, 105, 181, 185
Onion 121
Oocyte 63, 244, 314
Oocyte recovery 202
Oogenesis 64, 238
Organoids 284-285
Ornamental plants 121
Oust 118
Overpopulation, 188
Pain 69, 75, 100, 105, 340
Pain-killers 102
Pancreatic transplantation 275
Pantheism 25
Parent-child relationship 205
Parkinson's disease 92, 249, 279
Parthenogenesis 67, 124
Patents 8, 176
animal 181-184
bacteria 131
genetic material 184
law 185
laws 180
public opinion 183
Paternalism 49, 262, 266
Patient rights movement 61
Patient's Bill of Rights 61
PCR 187, 244, 252, 270, 319
PEG-ADA 278
Percival, Thomas 57, 327
Person
attributes 70-71, 74
Personhood 70-77
Pesticide 116, 137
Pests 148
Phenotype 12, 153
Phenylketonuria (See PKU)
Philanthropy 49
Philantropy 332
Pine trees 120
PKU 19, 20, 228, 237, 238, 239, 253, 258, 274, 280, 305, 313
Placenta 68
Plant breeding 113-121, 178
Plant Genetic Systems 116, 138
Plants
disease-resistant 114-116
genetic engineering (See Genetic engineering)
herbicide tolerant 150
herbicide-tolerant 117, 119, 138, 148, 337-338
pest-resistant 116-117, 135-138
virus resistance 115
Plato 24, 52, 215, 216
Playing God 21, 27, 296, 305
PNP deficiency 279
Pollen dispersal 144
Pollution 131, 147, 303, 340
Polycystic kidney disease 237, 266
Polygalacturonase 120
Polygamy 211, 216
Polyhydroxybutyrate 112
polymerase chain reaction (See PCR)
Polyposis coli 237
Population explosion 188
Population screening 241
POST 196
Potato 115, 138, 144, 168
pre-clinical diagnosis 268
Predestination 69
Preembryo 65, 68
Pregnancy reduction 79
Preimplantation screening 244
Premarital testing 231, 241, 251, 257, 263, 304
Prenatal diagnosis (See Genetic screening, or Prenatal screening)
Prenatal screening 224, 225, 228, 242-247
President's Commission 257, 264
Presymptomatic prediction 249, 251
Primitive streak 65, 69
primum non nocere 50
Principle of double effect 234
Prior publication 181
Privacy 79, 250, 264, 268, 322, 333, 342
Product liability 177, 189
Professionalism 325
Prognosis 236
Propaganda 308
Prosgesterone 191
prostaglandin 191
protein
purity 175
Protein engineering 109, 121
Protein Synthesis 13
protoplasts 114
Pseudomonas 131, 136, 145
Pseudomonas fluorescans 136, 139
Pseudomonas syringae 126, 133-134, 144
Psychiatric disease 253
Public
attitudes 35-44, 171-174, 183-184
education 339, 344
health 262
participation 43, 157
Pythagoreans 47, 48, 50
Quality of life 232-235, 285
Quickening 65
Rabies 134
RAC 153, 154, 286
Race
eugenics 231
genetic disease 230
Racial Hygiene 221
Radiation 18
Ramsey, Paul 194, 241
Rationality 75, 307
Recombinant DNA 15
Religion 3
Reproductive freedom 257-264, 305
Respect for life 332
Restriction endonucleases 13, 14
Retinoblastoma 19, 20, 238, 282
Retroviruses 282, 283, 284, 287, 299
RFLP 236, 270
Rhizobium 120, 132, 140, 149
rice 320
Rifkin, Jeremy 1, 43, 130
Right to privacy 259
Rinderpest 135
Risk assessment 155, 157
Risk management 155
RNA 11-16
Rorvik, David 314
Roundup 118, 337
Royal College of Physicians 57, 326
RU-486 190-191
Rubella 242
Saccharomyces cerevisiae 167
Saccharomyces uvarum 167
Salmon 139
Salmonella typhimurium 135
Sanctity of life 52, 234, 332
Sanger 221
Sardinia 251
Satellite viruses 115
Schizophrenia 20
Schweitzer, Albert 26
SCID 278
SCID-mice 97, 279, 282
Science
ethics 35
public attitudes 35
Scientific worldview 231, 307, 308
Selective abortion 224, 225, 248, 342
Semen 195, 196, 197, 201, 204, 205, 207, 260, 270
Sewage 133
Sex selection 124, 236, 244, 260-261, 264, 343
Sexual reproduction 214
Shattercane 148
Sickle cell anemia 237, 267, 303
Sickle cell disease 224, 239, 242, 247, 251, 267, 303
Silkworm 113
Sindbis virus 145
Singapore
eugenics 228
Singer, Peter 101, 102
Single gene disorders 19, 276-280
Single parent families 201, 211
Situation ethics 76
Slippery slope 33, 85, 248, 293, 302, 305
Snow-making 134
Social class classification 219
Social Darwinist 218
Solanine 168
Somatic cell gene insertion (See Gene therapy)
Somatic cell gene therapy (See Gene therapy)
Soul 71, 74
brain life 75
location 72
locus of 74
Spain
abortion 78
embryo research 88
IVF 200, 202
Spartans 216, 231
Species 28, 113
Speciesism 100, 101
Sperm 63, 65, 124
Sperm banks 207
Sperm-binding proteins 192
Spermatogenesis 238
Spina bifida 243, 248
Spontaneous abortion 17, 65, 191, 214
Sterilisation 189
and embryo experiments 86
Catholic view 193
eugenic 220-223
Germany 229
Japan 229
Nazi 223
Nazis 221
U.K. 228
USA 229
Stewardship 23, 24, 27, 340
Stoic 50
Streptokinase 174
Streptomyces 142
Suffering 100, 228, 290, 294
Supermice 122
Surrogacy 208-209, 213, 341
Sustainable agriculture 337-339, 340
Sustainable living 336-337, 339
SV40 123
Sweden
AID 204, 206
animal rights 107
IVF 201
Switzerland
animal rights 107
Symptomatic therapy 273
Talmud 216
Tay-Sach's disease 224, 230, 241, 251, 289, 303
Technology transfer 176, 186
Teratocarcinomas 125
Teratogens 168
Thalassemia 230, 237, 251, 275, 279
Thaumuatin 112
Thermophilic bacteria 109
Thiobacillus ferroxidans 132
Third party 269
Third World
biotechnology 8, 186-187
genetic testing 186
TILs 277-279, 281
Timaeus 24
Tissue culture
mammalian cells 111
plant cells 111
Tissue graft rejection 275
Tissue transplantation 275-276, 280
TMV 115, 168
Tobacco 138
Tomato 120, 137, 167
Tooth decay 170
Totipotent 124
Toxicity testing 83, 104, 107
Toxins
in food 168
Toxoplasmosis 242
TPA 110, 174
Transcription 12
Transduction 141
Transformation 141
Transgenic 122
animals 106, 283
cows 123
fish 124, 138-139
pigs 106, 122
plants 135-138
rabbits 113
sheep 113, 123
Transkaryotic implantation 284
Trichloroethylene 131
Trisomy-21 (See Down's syndrome)
Tryptophan 175
Tuberculosis 303
Tumour necrosis factor 281
Twinning 65, 68, 69
Tyrosinemia 230
U.K.
abortion 78, 80
AID 206
embryo research 82, 88, 335
fetal research 94
gene therapy 287
genetic engineering 152, 154, 156, 157, 160, 164
genetic screening 243, 252
infertility 196
IVF 201-203, 335
public attitudes 36, 39
sterilisation 229
surrogacy 208
UNESCO 224
United Nations 186, 194, 256, 344
US Patent Office 181
USA
abortion 77, 78, 81
AID 206, 297
biotechnology 178
birth control 189
Constitution 268
embryo research 89
eugenics 220-221, 222, 223
fetal research 94
food safety 170
gene therapy 276, 278, 286
genetic discrimination 265
genetic engineering 152-155, 157, 161
genetic screening 240, 243
IVF 201, 202
patents 180-182, 185
public attitudes 36, 37, 41
surrogacy 208
USDA 107, 138, 157
USSR
eugenics 219
genetic engineering 163
genetic screening 252
medical ethics 61
Utilitarianism 101, 103, 295
Vaccination 240
Vaccines 110, 126, 134
contraceptive 192
resistance 150
Vaccinia viruses 145
Vegemals 103
Viability 65, 75
Viruses 115
Visigothic law 51
Vivisection (See Animal, experiments) 99, 106
W.H.O. 191, 240
Warnock, Mary 69, 85, 345
Watson, James 318
Weeds 117, 148
Wertz, Dorothy 264
Wheat 113
Wilms Tumour 238
WMA
ethical code 335
fetal research 94
World Medical Association 58
World Mother 22
Wrongful life 257
Xialiogenics 301
XYY syndrome 249, 253
Yunani medicine 60
Zona pellucidia 192
Zygote 65, 66
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