Traditional Technology for Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development in the Asian-Pacific Region


Proceedings of the UNESCO - University of Tsukuba International Seminar on Traditional Technology for Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development in the Asian-Pacific Region, held in Tsukuba Science City, Japan, 11-14 December, 1995.

Editors: Kozo Ishizuka, D. Sc. , Shigeru Hisajima, D. Sc. , Darryl R.J. Macer, Ph.D.


NETWORK: Those who wish to contact the Environmental Conservation Network Seminar on Technological, Social and Economic Aspects of Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development in the Asian-Pacific Region, should contact either:
Dr Shigeru Hisajima, Institute of Applied Biochemistry; or
Dr Darryl Macer, Institute of Biological Sciences (macer@zobell.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp),
University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki 305, JAPAN.

The goal of the network is to promote identification and application of appropriate technologies, development of practical options to be shared, and the linkages of individuals and groups, consistent with the objectives in the proposal found below.

Contents


1-5 1. Opening Addresses
Opening Address - Kozo Ishizuka
Opening Remarks - Stephen Hill
Welcome Address - Tatsuzo Koga
Welcome Address - Osamu Maeda

2. General Aspects
6-19 Technology Policy, Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development in the Asia-Pacific Region - Stephen Hill

20-41 Innovation of traditional and new technology to solve problems created by high technology (connecting environment, technology, NGOs and the poor). - Felix A. Ryan

42-49 Bioethics and lifestyles to protect the environment in the age of biotechnology - Darryl Macer

50-51 Discussion

3. Primary Industry Aspects
52-58 Agroforests: an original agro-forestry model from smallholder farmers for environmental conservation and sustainable development - G. Michon & H. de Foresta

59-60 Comment on Michon & de Foresta: Traditional knowledge and sustainable forest resource use - Minoru Kumazaki

61-65 Traditional approaches to land use in the light of global environmental changes - Georgii A. Alexandrov, A. A. Tishikov, V.A. Brovkin, A.L. Stepanov

66-68 Commentary on Alexandrov: What is an ecological cause of ongoing large-scale deforestation - Takehisa Oikawa

69-74 Sustainable Development by Traditional Technology in Tropical Forest and Fish Cultivation - Muchtar Ahmad

75-76 Commentary on Muchtar: Sago Palm, a promising renewable carbohydrate resource: a material for global environmental conservation and sustainable development - Shigeru Hisajima

77-90 Traditional Salmon Fisheries and Sustainable Development on Canada's Pacific Coast - Carey D. McAllister

91-94 Commentary on McAllister - Humitake Seki

95-105 Appropriate Technologies for Sustainable and Environmentally Compatible Aquaculture Development in Bangladesh - M.A. Mazid, M.G.M. Alam

106-109 Commentary on Mazid - Toru Taniuchi

110-118 Mixed Planting Method for Ecological Conservation: Assumptions for Rice Culture of Korea - Ja Ock Guh

119 Commentary on Guh - Katsu Imai

120-124 Discussion

4. Resource and Waste Aspects

125-132 China's Agenda 21 And Management Strategy of Hazardous Waste - Liu Peizhe

133 Commentary on Liu - Takaaki Maekawa

134-138 Utilization of Agricultural Wastes for Biogas Production in Indonesia - Edi Iswanto Wiloso, Triadi Basuki, Syahrul Aiman

139-144 Environmental Analysis and Solid Waste Management in Taiwan-ROC - Kuang-Huei Huang

145-158 Nitrification and Denitrification in the Wastewater Treatment System - P. Y. Yang and Zhi-Qin Zhang

159-166 High Performance Nitrogen Removal System using Macro-porous Cellulose Carrier - Masatoshi Matsumura, et al

167-170 Discussion

5. Socio-economic Aspects

171-175 Changes in Tradition Society During Industrialization in Thailand - Suranant Subhadrabandhu

176 Commentary on Subhadrabandhu - Shuichi Iwahori

177 Commentary on Subhadrabandhu - Takashi Toyoda

178-195 Beyond Joint Implementation: Technology Transfer and Climate Change - I.G. Bertram

196-197 Commentary on Bertram: Beyond Joint Implementation: Technology Transfer and Climate Change - H.J. Poot

198-203 Anthropological Study on the Coastal Fisheries: Harmonization of Present and Traditional Technologies for Sustainable Coastal Fisheries through Community- Based Coastal Resources Management (CB-CRM): The Philippine Experience - E.E.C. Flores

204-205 Perspectives for the small-scale fishing in Insular Southeast Asia - Beyond the dichotomy of subsistence and commercial fishing - Akira Goto

206-218 Sustainable Development: Practical, Ethical, and Social Issues in Technology Transfer - Richard R. Wilk

219 Selection and modification of new techniques by local farmers - Akemi Itagaki

220-224 Discussion

225-230 6. General Discussion and Proposal

231-232 Closing Address - Y. Nannichi

233 Conference Proposal


Conference Proposal


1. Traditional technology continues to play an essential role in the lives of people. We can see this especially in the rural populations involved in agriculture, forestry and fisheries.

2. Sustainable development is essential for the future of human society, and we must give future generations a resource they can still utilize in the future. Sustainability is an ethical concept, that respects the duties that people have, justice, to other persons alive today and the future generations.

3. Technology, the use of tools to provide goods or services, has ancient roots in all cultures. When introducing a new technology into a community we should give due consideration to the existing methods and values. There is no inherent advantage in using new over old technology. Rather we should use the most appropriate technology, with minimum environmental, human, and monetary costs, considering a long term view not only the short term.

4. Human resources are the most valuable resource that a society has for development. Humans also exert the largest effect on the environment, making lifestyle choice one of the central issues in sustainable development.

5. Education to enable persons to make informed lifestyle choices and to give them a range of technologies to choose from should be promoted at all levels, locally, nationally, and internationally.

6. The combined effects of local communities can have a global impact. Therefore local use of technology is of national and global interest, and policy should consider methods to stimulate wise choices.

7. Economic forces are among the strongest influences on adoption of technology and lifestyle, therefore systems to encourage sustainable development do need to include economic systems, for example, incentives to encourage sustainability. Education and personal ethics are also essential.

8. We propose that local, national, and international communities and organizations establish funding mechanisms and systems for training to encourage the adoption of appropriate technology. This may help balance the economic incentives that encourage new technology, through the patent and commercial systems that reward the new rather than the old.

9. We urge the promotion of human rights, and recognize the essential role that women, as well as men, play as resource users in the conservation of the environment and in economic development.

10. We recognize the importance of mechanisms to protect the shared and common resources and environment, such as aquatic resources.

11. We need to foster much more the information exchange and network development initiating at this UNESCO-University of Tsukuba Seminar. In order to do so, we recommend the establishment of an Environmental Conservation Network to promote identification and application of appropriate technologies, development of practical options to be shared, and the linkages of individuals and groups, consistent with the objectives above. The network office will be situated at the present in the University of Tsukuba.

12. We support the organization of an International Seminar on Technological, Social and Economic Aspects of Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development in the Asian-Pacific Region, to be held in 1996.

List of Organising Committee
Toshiro Higano, Shigeru Hisajima, Haruo Ishida, Kozo Ishizuka, Shuichi Iwahori, Shunsuke Iwasaki, Darryl Macer, Osamu Maeda, Taaki Maekawa, Eiji Matsumoto, Masatoshi Matsumura, Yasuo Nannichi, Shun Sato, Humitake Seki

Copyright 1996 Masters Program in Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba. Commercial rights are reserved, but this book may be reproduced for limited educational purposes. Published by the Master's Program in Environmental Science and Master's Program in Biosystem Studies, University of Tsukuba, 1996.


Cataloging-in-Publication data

Traditional Technology for Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development in the Asian-Pacific Region. Proceedings of the UNESCO - University of Tsukuba International Seminar on Traditional Technology for Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development in the Asian-Pacific Region, held in Tsukuba Science City, Japan, 11-14 December, 1995. / editors, Kozo Ishizuka, Shigeru Hisajima and Darryl R.J. Macer.
Tsukuba Science City, Japan: Masters Program in Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba 1996.

1 v. Thirty-four papers. ISBN 4-9900464-1-2
1. Environment--Congresses. 2. Agriculture--Congresses. 3. Forestry--Congresses. 4. Fisheries--Congresses. 5. Bioethics--Congresses. 6. Sustainable Development--Congresses.

I. Ishizuka, Kozo, 1932- II. Hisajima, Shigeru, 1944- III. Macer, Darryl R.J. (Darryl Raymund Johnson), 1962- IV. Master's Program in Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba. V. Title (Traditional Technology for Environmental Conservation and Sustainable Development in the Asian-Pacific Region).

Key Words: Agriculture, Agroforestry, Agroindustry, Bioethics, Biotechnology, China, Environmental Conservation, Economics, Fishery, Forestry, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Resource management, Rural development, Sustainable Development, Taiwan, Thailand, Traditional technology, Waste management.

Further copies can be obtained from the Master's Program in Environmental Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki 305, JAPAN. While stocks permit, free copies will be sent to developing countries, enquiries are welcome. The book can be downloaded and viewed free of charge on the world wide web at:


For enquiries:
Dr Darryl Macer,
Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Tsukuba
Tsukuba Science City 305, Japan;
Fax: Int+81-298-53-6614 Tel: Int+81-298-53-4662

Please send comments to Email < Macer@biol.tsukuba.ac.jp >.


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