Eubios News in Bioethics & Biotechnology - November 2003


Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 13 (2003), 226-237.

Comments are written in text form together with recent references. This list continues from the last issue of EJAIBand will continue. The full list of news (OLD = 1991-1993; NEW = 1994+) is available on-line topic-by-topic, at: http://eubios.info/NBB.html

Abbreviations


Genetic Engineering of Plants

Rice to lessen the risk of allergies is being developed in Japan, AgraFood Biotech 113 (15 Sept. 2003), 21. So far biologically little evolution of resistance to Bt toxin has been found, NatBio 21 (2003), 958-9. On insect resistant plants, NatBio 21 (2003), 1152-4; Genetical Research 81 (2003), 169-77. On evolution of plant resistance, Heredity 91 (2003), 345-52. Research to develop resistance to fungal disease and blight by GM or copper is discussed in Nature 425 (2003), 15. Plants containing botulinium A antibodies have been harvested, Canadian Biotech News 12 (28 July 2003), 1. On broad viral resistance in transgenic plants, TIBTECH 21 (2003), 373-5. Transgenes in forest trees are discussed in Trends in Plant Science 8 (2003), 363-5. genome analysis of photosynthetic prokaryotes is possible, Science 298 (2002), 1616-20.

Hormones and the Green revolution are discussed in Science 302 (2003), 71-2; PNAS 100 (2003), 10144-5.  Reasons for touch sensitivity in plants are discussed in Trends in Plant Science 8 (2003), 312-4, 403-4. There are some common functions between hemoglobins in animals and plants, Trends in Plant Science 8 (2003), 387-93. The association between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria is discussed in Nature 425 (2003), 569-70, 585-92. Stress tolerance in plants can be made through over-production of trehalose, Trends in Plant Science 8 (2003), 355-7. Enhanced flower formation in Arabidopsis stressed by salt occurs after genetic engineering glycine betaine, The Plant J. 36 (2003), 165-76. In general on selection of transgenic plants, Trends in Plant Science 8 (2003), 353-4, 357-8, 380-6. Improvements in processing characteristics of potatoes is possible, Trends in Plant Science 8 (2003), 310-2. Vitamin A enriched potato is being developed in Columbia, NS (18 Oct. 2003), 6. Expression and production of bioactive human interleukin-18 is reported in Biotechnology Letters 25 (2003), 1629-35.

Genetic Engineering of Animals

On cloning horses, Current Biology 13 (2003), R659-60. In general on cloning animals, TIBTECH 21 (2003), 428-32; PNAS 100 (2003), 11924-5; NS (6 Sept. 2003), 12. Pluripotent stem cells have been made form adult mouse inner ear, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1293-9. A review of the difficulties in protein production in animals is in NatBio 9 (2003), 965-7. On biofactories, Scientist (28 July 2003), 26-7. The chicken genome is soon expected, Science 300 (2003), 1667-9.

Use of zebrafish as genetic models is discussed in GEN 23 (15 Oct. 2003), 1, 19,20,22,25. A book review of the Red Canary: The Story of the First Genetically Engineered Animal is Nature 425 (2003), 772.

Transgenic mouse studies suggest mutant presenilin triggers activation of several genes, Nature 425 (2003), 565-6. Loss of Omi mitochondrial protease activity causes the neuromuscular disorder of mnd2 mutant mice, Nature 425 (2003), 721-7. Cdk2 knockout mice are viable, Current Biology 13 (2003), 1775-85. Wild-type nonneuronal cells extend survival of SOD1 mutant motor neurons in ALS mice, Science 302 (2003), 113-7. A mouse model of prostrate cancer found that deficiency of Pparg does not alter the development of cancer, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1265-6. Stem cells for remodeling hearts are described in NatMed. 9 (2003), 1195-208. Disruption of ppt2 in mice results in a lysosomal storage disorder, PNAS 100 (2003), 12325-30. A feline model of mucolipidosis II is described in J. Heredity 94 (2003), 363-73. A regulatory mutation in IGF2 alters muscle growth in pigs, Nature 425 (2003), 832-6.

Designer Molecules

Use of "junk" DNA is being made, Science 300 (2003), 1646-9. Use of ancient DNA and study of it is discussed in CAM 38 (2003), 14-6. On expanding the genetic code, Science 302 (2003), 584-5. Use of RNA interference for therapy is discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1401-3; Nature 425 (2003), 10-2, 232-3. Microbes may be useful for making electricity, Science 301 (2003), 1453. A review of small robots is SA (Nov. 2003), 42-7. A DNA computer is described in NS (23 Aug. 2003), 19.

Biotechnology  &  the Public

A UK survey involving 650 public meetings and 37,000 persons responses to surveys on the question of GM crops found 54% of people do not wish GM crops to be grown in the UK, and a further 18% said they would only approve if there was no risk of cross-contamination, Guardian (25 Sept. 2003); Nature 425 (2003), 329, 331; AgraFood Biotech114 (29 Sept. 2003), 2-3; Science 300 (2003), 1637-8. Only 8% said they were happy to eat GM food.  Most people in the USA do not know they have eaten GM food, AgraFood Biotech 114 (29 Sept. 2003), 8; 116 (2003), 11. Suggestions from the European group (Empire team) on the use of empirical data in bioethics and the regulation of biotechnology are in BME 190 (2003), 8-11. The public has its own view of risk, Nature 425 (2003), 343.

On ethics of biotechnology, Law and the Human Genome Review 18 (2003), 165-74; and 11 papers in CQHE 12 (2003), 329-446; Solomon, RC. "Fate and fatalism", Philosophy East & West 53 (2003), 435-54. On the discovery of DNA structure, CAM 38 (2003), 10-3; Nature 425 (2003), 901; Science 302 (2003), 231. Public representations of cloning in Canada are summarized in Health Law Review 11 (3, 2003), 22-4. Papers on the media and popular culture are in Harvard Educational Review 73 (2003), 253-465. Claims by a company that its smallpox vaccine could enhance immunity against AIDS in the media were criticized as hype in Nature 425 (2003), 332.

Description of a bioethics course in the UK is in J. Biol. Education 37 (2003), 91-95; and from Korea, Choi, K. & Cho, HH., "Effects of teaching ethical issues on Korean school students' attitudes towards science", J. Biol. Education 37 (2002), 26-9. A survey of education in Taiwan is Hu, R. et al. "Science curriculum components favoured by high school students in Taiwan", J. Biological Education 37 (2003), 171-55. Bioethics was popular. Methods for health information in Africa in the Ptolemy project are discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 790-3. On science education, Science 301 (2003), 1443, 1485; 302 (2003), 232-3; Nature 425 (2003), 234-6.

Human freedom and divine action is debated in Science & Christian Belief 15 (2003), 101-16, 195-6. Teaching evolution is discussed in TREE 18 (2003), 499-502. On science policy, Nature 425 (2003), 663-4.

The first Chinese rocket to carry an astronaut into space   is discussed in NS (25 Oct. 2003), 6-8. NASA and the space shuttle are discussed in Nature 425 (2003), 1. The risks of an asteroid hitting the earth are discussed in NS (20 Sept. 2003), 12. Researchers have tried to market ideas to get others to accept them, Lancet 362 (2003), 1204-5. On nanomedicine, Lancet 362 (2003), 673; NS (30 Aug. 2003), 16. On ethical issues of nanotechnology, Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 23 (2003), 236-45.

Regulation & Field Trials of GMOs

An overview of GM crops is Nature 425 (2003), 655-9. In September Brazil allowed GM soybean to be grown, Int. Herald Tribune (25 Sept. 2003), 12; NS (4 Oct. 2003), 5. The issues of Indian Bt cotton are discussed in APBN 7 (2003), 1204; AgraFood Biotech 116 (27 Oct. 2003), 9. The harvest may not have been productive, GeneWatch 16 (Sept. 2003), 12-4. Indian hybrid and modified rice is discussed in NS (19 Sept. 2003), 19.  Chinese GM rules are of more concern to the USA than the EU, AgraFood Biotech 114 (29 Sept. 2003), 8. A report on biosafety options for Asean countries is available from UNIDO (Email: office.Thailand@unido.org) . 14 African countries have agreed to common GM guidelines, AgraFood Biotech 114 (29 Sept. 2003), 14. On GM crops in developing countries, Lancet 362 (2003), 835; SA (Oct. 2003), 6. New Zealand's biggest insurer, Vero Insurance, will not insure GM crops, Food Chemical News (6 Oct. 2003), 7-8. On agbiotech in Japan, GEN 23 (July 2003), 46, 48.

Romanian farmers claim to have boosted soybean yields by 31% according to a study using GM soybeans, AgraFood Biotech 112 (1 Sept. 2003), 6. Italy's ban on GM corn has been rejected by the European Court of Justice, Int. Herald Tribune (10 Sept. 2003); AgraFood Biotech 115 (13 Oct. 2003), 13. Austria however has threatened to maintain its GMO moratorium, AgraEurope (5 Sept. 2003), 4-5. On UK research on GM crop safety suggesting wildlife diversity was less in the GM fields, Science 302 (2003), 542; NS (27 Sept. 2003), 5; (18 Oct. 2003), 7-9; (25 Oct. 2003), 3, 21; Current Biology 13 (2003), R819-20; Nature 425 (2003), 751. GM maize has been approved in Czech republic, AgraFood Biotech 115 (13 Oct. 2003), 14.

USDA is requiring permits for GM industrial crops, Food Chemical News (11 Aug. 2003), 8,9; Nature 425 (2003), 892. The US EPA may monitor GM crops from space, Nature 425 (2003), 112. On the safety of Bt crops, NatBio 21 (2003), 1003-9; Science 301 (2003), 1845-7. Public oversight of biotechnology in Cambridge Massachussetts, USA has been suggested to be a flourishing model for elsewhere, GeneWatch 16 (Sept. 2003), 7-10. On the safety of GM rapeseed, Science 302 (2003), 401-2. The safety of farmed fish is discussed in Science 301 (19 Sept. 2003); NS (25 Oct. 2003), 4; Nature 425 (2003), 753.

On ethical and religious issues of GM crops, Science & Christian Belief 15 (2003), 141-64. A discussion of what is conventional and its redefinition is in The Ram's Horn 215 (Oct. 2003), 1-2. The EU has released a report Towards Sustainable Agriculture for Developing Countries: Options from life Science and Biotechnologies (32pp., http://europa.eu.int/comm./research/sadc. Nitrogen flows from fertilizers are causing much damage, Nature 425 (2003), 894-5. On sustainability, Ecological Economics 46 (2003), 231-48; Science 302 (2003), 357.

A report on bioweapons in the 21st century is Politics & the Life Sciences 21 (2002), 1-27. Planning for smallpox outbreaks is discussed in Nature 425 (2003), 681-5. On bioethics and defense, CQHE 12 (2003), 455-65.  Self-regulation by scientists is called for in Science 302 (2003), 368-9, 543; Nature 425 (2003), 647. Also on biodefense, Science 301 (2003), 1824, 1852-3; 302 (2003), 206-7. On chemical weapons like those used in the Moscow theatre siege, Lancet 362 (2003), 1346. Agricultural terrorism is discussed in SA (Oct. 2003), 12-3; NS (30 Aug. 2003), 8-9.

Vaccines & Diseases

There are further doubts about a link between mercury-based vaccines and autism,  Science 301 (2003), 1454-5. In the UK public aid is being removed from those fighting for MMR vaccine suits, BMJ 327 (2003), 640. On risk and public attitudes to MMR vaccine, BMJ 327 (2003), 725-8. Measles vaccination is being expanded, Lancet 362 (2003), 1386.

More than 90% of persons vaccinated in the past against smallpox have significant immunity against it, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1131-7. The balancing of individual versus group is calculated in Bauch, CT. et al. "Group interest versus self-interest in smallpox vaccination policy", PNAS 100 (2003), 10564-7. There is research on whether smallpox vaccine might help protect against HIV, BMJ 327 (2003), 699. Adverse effects of smallpox vaccine are reported in Lancet 362 (2003), 1345. Jenner is remembered in Lancet 362 (2003), 1092. Clonal vaccinia virus can be grown in cell culture, and on smallpox vaccine production, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1115-6, 1125-30. The US smallpox vaccination campaign stopped, NS (23 Aug. 2003), 6.

New vaccine research is discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 1312-14; Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 2 (2003), 767-8; Science 302 (2003), 602. A retraction of a paper on a cancer vaccine has been made, Nature 425 (2003), 4; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1221. Polio eradication and the vaccine are discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 466, 769; Lancet 362 (2003), 909-14, 1292; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1225, 1231. Polio coverage in India is reviewed in SSM 57 (2003), 1807-19. Variation and equity in immunization in India are mixed, SSM 57 (2003), 2075-88. The benefits of hepatitis A booster vaccination are debated in Lancet 362 (2003), 1065-71. A survey of the validity of reported vaccine coverage in 45 countries is Lancet 362 (2003), 1022-7.

Discussion of lessons from SARS in 2003 are in Lancet 362 (2003), 1207. Taiwan has reduced the death toll from SARS from 180 to 37 deaths, thus the WHO world total is reduced in 774 from 916 deaths. On SARS in Guangdong, Lancet 362 (2003), 1353-8. Three animal models of SARS are now ready, Science 302 (2003), 213; Nature 425 (2003), 915. The future of SARS is unsure, Lancet 362 (2003), 714, 1294; BMJ 327 (2003), 411, 950; Science 301 (2003), 1642-3; NS (23 Aug. 2003), 9; (6 Sept. 2003), 36-7; (20 Sept. 2003), 52; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1229; Nature 425 (2003), 333. So is its origin, Science 302 (2003), 5, 276-9, 766-7. Lab safety should be improved, Science 302 (2003), 31. On potential SARS drugs, Science 300 (2003), 1763-7. In Hong Kong many are to receive influenza vaccines , in case that SARS reemerges they will be able to distinguish, Lancet 362 (2003), 809.

The global fund for infectious diseases is discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1381. Ethics in public health and infectious diseases are discussed in Issues in Medical Ethics 11 (2003), 113-5. In general on infectious diseases, NEJM 349 (2003), 1681; Lancet 362 (2003), 1290; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1108; Science 302 (2003), 398. There is a cholera outbreak in Liberia, Lancet 362 (2003), 966. On West Nile virus, NEJM 349 (2003), 1236-45; Science 302 (2003), 248; and monkeypox, Science 300 (2003), 1639. Tuberculosis is discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 1149-56. Interferon may be able to control tuberculosis, Science 302 (2003), 654-9.  Individuals fat composition may alter resistance to TB, NS (30 Aug. 2003), 12.

Herpesvirus 8 may have a role in hypertension, NEJM 349 (2003), 113-22. On malaria, NEJM 349 (2003), 1496-9; Science 301 (2003), 1503-8; Nature 425 (2003), 437. Bill Gates has pledged US$168 million for new malaria research, Science 301 (2002), 1828; Nature 425 (2003), 331, 435; Current Biology 13 (2003), R820-1. A Chinese herb qinghao (sweet wormwood) may be useful against malaria, NS (23 Aug. 2003), 16. Genes from a parasitic worm are being used to fight a snail fever disease in China, Nature 425 (2003), 227. Studies on tularemia bacteria  are being made , Science 302 (2003), 222-3.

Asthma prevention is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 770. Antibiotic use in babies increases risk of asthma, NS (4 Oct. 2003), 16. On prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases, Lancet 362 (2003), 903-8.

A UK teenager is fighting vCJD with the aid of pentosan polysulphate, BMJ 327 (2003), 765.; Nature 425 (2003), 673. Unknown strains of BSE prions have been found in routine tests, Nature 425 (2003), 648. On prion disease,  Nature 425 (2003), 561-2, 673-4; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1096, 1252; Science 302 (2003), 763-4; NS (4 Oct. 2003), 10. Horizontal prion transmission is reported in mule deer, Nature 425 (2003), 35-6.

On antibiotics resistance and new drug development, Scientist (8 Sept. 203), 29-30. Drug companies are not developing many new antibiotics, Nature 425 (2003), 225: Science 301 (2003), 1850-1. The WHO has urged farmers to reduce the use of antibiotic growth agents, Lancet 362 (2003), 626. A veterinary link to drug resistance in African tryanosomiasis was suggested in Lancet 358 (2001), 603-4.

AIDS & Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Ethical issues of AIDS vaccine trials are discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 992-4. There may be some benefit of smallpox vaccine against HIV, but research is continuing, BMJ 327 (2003), 600. Hepatitis B is being transmitted in northwestern China through reuse of syringes for childhood vaccination, SSM 57 (2003), 1821-32. Links between antiretroviral therapy and malaria are discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1008-9, 1039+. A record of more than 100,000 compounds tested against HIV is online, www.niaid.nih.gov/daids/dtpdb, Science 302 (2003), 757.

In Switzerland the mortality of persons with HIV is similar to those with cancer, yet only HIV patients are excluded from life insurance policies, Lancet 362 (2003), 877-8. On willingness to pay for AIDS treatments, Lancet 362 (2003), 1152-3.

The ethics of testing for HIV is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 563. On partner notification of STDs, BMJ 327 (2003), 633-4. Drug users in China are being tested for HIV without consent, BMJ 327 (2003), 579. Human Rights Watch has accused China of denying the extent of AIDS in China, Lancet 362 (2003), 879. Drug-resistant strains of HIV are increasing in Japan, with 17% of persons in 2002 having such strains compared to 5% in 2001, Lancet 362 (2003), 1052. AIDS in Myanmar is discussed in Science 301 (2003), 1650-2; and in Thailand, Science 301 (2003), 1662-3.

Short postexposure prophylaxis in newborn babies can help lessen risk of HIV in women who missed counseling to avoid HIV transmission, Lancet 362 (2003), 1171-7. On antiretroviral therapy, NEJM 349 (2003), 827-8, 1036-46; Lancet 362 (2003), 679-86, 882; TIBTECH 21 (2003), 420-3. Genetically modified bacteria in condoms to release HIV-blocking proteins may be useful to protect against HIV, NS (13 Sept. 2003), 18. The catholic church has said that condoms do not stop AIDS, NS (11 Oct. 2003), 8.

In general on the AIDS crisis, Lancet 362 (2003), 1045, 1339; BMJ 327 (2003), 698; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1097. AIDS and food crisis combine in Africa, Lancet 362 (2003), 1210, 1234-7. On the South African AIDS taskforce, Lancet 362 (2003), 713; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1098. HIV social research, is suggested in SSM 57 (2003), 1573-92.

Microbes  & Pollution Remedies

Cleaning up after war can take much time and money, SA (Oct. 2003), 26-7. Some sunken oil tankers from WWII in the pacific are only now releasing the oil in the ocean, NS (22 Feb. 2003), 12-3; (5 April 2003), 16. On phytoremediation, EST 37 (2003), 342A. Degradation of PCBs in marine sediment treated with UV and ionizing radiation is reviewed in EST 37 (2003), 3808-15. Spawning salmon can transfer pollutants, BMJ 327 (2003), Nature 425 (2003), 255. Oil spills with ice makes degradation more difficult, NS (20 Sept. 2003), 18.

Removal of uranium in groundwater is reviewed in EST 37 (2003), 4304-8. The environmental cleanup of the Everglades has suffered a potential setback with the sacking of the judge in charge, Nature 425 (2003), 551. Degradation of xenobiotics in bioreactors is discussed in Biotechnol Bioeng 84 (2003), 399-405.

Environmental Issues

Environmental ethics are discussed in Ecological Economics 44 (2003), 11-27; 46 (2003), 307-8; Asian Ethnicity 3 (2002), 263-5; Environmental Health Perspectives 111 (2003), 133-7; Ethics (Jan. 2003), 405-7; Environmental Ethics 24 (2002), 135-148; Rolston, H. "Environmental ethics in Antarctica", Environmental Ethics 24 (2002),115-34. Nations compete to claim more of the continental shelf, Science 298 (2003), 1877-8; On Aristotle and the environment, Environmental Ethics 24 (2002), 409-28; and Gandhi, Environmental Ethics 24 (2002), 227-35. On ethics of environmental design, Environmental Ethics 24 (2002), 242-61. The author of Tragedy of the Commons, Garret Hardin has died, Science 302 (2003), 32. Discussion of Johannesburg conference one year after is in Science 302 (2003), 197; NS (7 Sept. 2003), 3, 8-9; Environment 45 (2003), 20-6. On the globalization of nature, Science 296 (2002), 1612; Ecological Economics 44 (2003), 77-89. Papers on community-based participatory research and environmental justice are discussed in Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), Supplement 2, 139-310. The study of Oceanic settlement and human history is reviewed in TREE 18 (2003), 531-40. The changing state of nature is discussed in TREE 18 (2003), 326-30. On environmental economics, Ecological Economics 40 (2002), 1-130; 46 (2003), 310-2; Can. J. Agricultural Economics 51 (2003), 197-216; Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), A228-9, A582-5. Growing numbers of people work for the environment, NS (12 July 2003), 46-7. Teachers' perceptions of teaching environmental issues in Hong Kong are discussed in J. Science Education and Technology 12 (2003), 187+. A study of Latino Angler's environmental risk perceptions is Medical Anthropology Quarterly 17 (2003), 99-116.

Green engineering principles are suggested in EST 37 (2003), 94-101. The UNEP is suggesting ways to help with China's environment, Nature 425 (2003), 336. China's environment is discussed in Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), A500-1, A510-1, A516-27. Enforcement styles of environmental protection officials in China were studied in J. Public Policy 23 (2003), 81-115. On environmental modeling and conceptualism, EST 37 (2003), 4685-93. The amount of land required for one person to live is discussed in Nature 421 (2003), 898. On sustainability, PNAS 100 (2003), 8062-85; NS (22 Feb. 2003), 44-7. Environmental noise pollution retards auditory cortical development, Science 302 (2003), 498-502.

The question of whether environmental mutagens have caused oncomutations in people is debatable, NatGen 34 (2003), 255-9. Genomics tools in environmental impact assessment are reviewed in EST 37 (2003), 356-63A; and on environmental genomics, EST 36 (2002), 372-3A; 37 (2003), 125-6A; Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), A746-7, A750-3, A756-9; Lancet 361 (2001), 1356-60. On ecotoxicology, EST 37 (2003), 324-30A. Traces of Agent Orange are still found in food in Vietnam, BMJ 327 (2003), 521. On the studies of the real levels dumped on Vietnam, Nature 422 (2003), 649, 681-7, 793. On mercury pollution in India, Lancet 362 (2003), 1050; and Japan, Lancet 358 (2001), 1349; and general, EST 37 (2003), 167-8A. Arsenic pollution in Bangladesh is related to agricultural water pumping, Science 296 (2002), 2143-6; 298 (2002), 1535-6, 1602-6; 300 (2003), 1066. Lead safety is discussed in Science 298 (2002), 732; EST 37 (2003), 3256-60; NS (26 April 2003), 21; NEJM 349 (2003), 1810-2.

Ethics of hog production are discussed in Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), 437-44. On sustainable farming, Science 301 (2003), 309.  Pesticide use damages farmers health, SSM 57 (2003), 1559-71; Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), 233-40; and farmer's children, EST 37 (2003), 323A; Environmental Health Perspectives 111 (2003), 1259-64. Some residues cannot be extracted from soil, EST 37 (2003), 138A+. A solar unit to dispose of medical waste in countries without over means is displayed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1251, 1285-6.

In general on environmental health: Lancet 362 (2003), 587; Nature 425 (2003), 346-7; AJPH 91 (2001), 1964-7. The question of how much one human life is worth is compared in Science 299 (2003), 1836-7. It is difficult to gauge the price of good health, EST 37 (2003), 365-8A. Child health and the environment is discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 1682-3; EST 37 (2003), 168-9A. It may kill 5 million children a year according to WHO, Bulletin of WHO 81 (2003), 385-6. Air pollution and health in San Paulo has not improved much between 1986 to 1998 because of increased number of cars, despite measures to reduce damage, SSM 57 (2003), 2013-22. Also on air pollution, Lancet 360 (2002), 549, 1184, 1210-4, 1233-42; Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), 499-590; BMJ 324 (2002), 691-2; NatMed. 9 (2003), 490. Climate has affected dengue fever, Lancet 360 (2002), 830-4; BMJ 325 (2002), 1094-8. Adelie penguins are affected by climate change, Science 300 (2003), 429-30; as are other organisms, Science 296 (2002), 2158-62; 299 (2003), 1844-5; PNAS 100 (2003), 4957-62, 7650-4; NS (8 March 2003), 24. On toxic corporate crime, Lancet 361 (2003), 1753. Global pollution controls are discussed in EST 37 (2003), 134A. In India legal action is discussed in Lancet 359 (2002), 53.

Endocrine disruptors are discussed in EST 37 (2003), 173-4A, 313A, 331-6A, 345-6A, 2847-54, 3430-4, 3764-73, 4021-6, 4098-105; Environment 43 (9, 2003), 37-8; Science 300 (2003), 31-2, 1069; NS (14 June 2003), 10; BMJ 323 (2001), 1317-8. A study of some PCBs compounds in human tissue in Tokyo between 1970 and 2000 is reported in EST 37 (2003), 817-21. The global distribution of PCBs is surveyed in EST 37 (2003), 667-72; Science 299 (2003), 1642-3. The effects on frogs are discussed in AJMG 104 (2003), 99-109. On persistence of fluorinated compounds, EST 37 (2003), 312-3A. Nitrate may be a disrupter, EST 37 (2003), 162A. Cadmium is also a gender bender, NS (19 July 2003), 16. Drugs in water are also a problem, EST 36 (2002), 377-8A. PBDE may overtake PCBs in popular fish, EST 37 (2003), 240-1A. PDBEs may come from old furniture where it was used as flame retardants, EST 37 (2003), 164-5A. The pollution caused by excessive fertilizer is discussed in Nature 425 (2003), 894-5. The effects may be made worse with UV radiation, Ecological Applications 13 (2003), 1083-93. Oxygen deficiency also disrupts fish reproduction, EST 37 (2003), 122A. Rocket fuel perchlorate is discussed in Science 299 (2003), 1829; EST 37 (2003), 166-7A.

Japanese environmental leadership is discussed in Politics & the Life Sciences 21 (2002), 66-71. Japan is learning from Germany how to reduce waste, Environment 43 (2003), 20-32. On Japanese Foreign Aid Policy and sustainable development, Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 23 (2003), 302-10. The Kyoto Protocol is discussed in NS (25 Oct. 2003), 42-5; Nature 423 (2003), 792; BMJ 323 (2002), 1146; Science 299 (2003), 1669.

Europe may be able to reduce carbon dioxide emissions 4-6% if energy was harvested from logging residues, UNU news release (21 Sept. 2003). The EU has started greenhouse gas trading, EST 37 (2003), 321A. On climate change, Science 299 (2003), 2005-10; 301 (2003), 479-83; 302 (2003), 210, 404-5; NS (22 March 2003), 18; (24 May 2003), 8; (7 June 2003), 7; (12 July 2003), 5; (13 Sept. 2003), 6-7; (20 Sept. 2003), 25; (4 Oct. 2003), 18; (11 Oct. 2003), 12; Nature 419 (2002), 188+.; 421 (2003), 879; 424 (2003), 271-6, 867; Naturwissenschaften 90 (2003), 282-8; Ecological Economics 44 (2003), 29-42; EST 37 (2003), 123-5A, 165-6A. Alaska is warming up fast, Nature 425 (2003), 338-9. On wildfires, Nature 420 (2002), 29-30; 421 (2003), 913-9; NS (17 Aug. 2002), 8. Insurance costs are discussed in NS (27 July 2002), 7. Liability is discussed in Nature 421 (2003), 891-2.

On transportation, EST 37 (2003), 314-5A. Discussion of hydrogen as a fuel is Science 300 (2003), 1740-2; 301 (2003), 315-6; 302 (2003), 226-9; NS (5 Oct. 2002), 14; (11 Oct. 2003), 47; Nature 418 (2002), 928-9; 422 (2003), 104. US law could boost renewable fuel use, NatBio 20 (2002), 860; EST 36 (2002), 369-70A; Science 298 (2002), 1847; 299 (2003), 1494, 1813; 300 (2003), 17. Potential for cheap oil is discussed in NS (2 Aug. 2003), 9-10. Psychosocial benefits of private vehicle use are discussed in Transportation Research Part F 6 (2003), 217-31. Fuels for urban buses are discussed in EST 37 (2003), 4823-4. An additive has been developed called Envirox, which enhances fuel efficiency of diesel engines, NS (18 Oct. 2003), 24. Jojoba is an alternative fuel, NS (8 March 2003), 18. On reducing costs for sulfur removal, EST 37 (2003), 319-20A.  If airplanes flew at lower altitudes they could lower the impact on the global climate, NS (19 Oct. 2002), 6-7. Power from waves is suggested in NS (20 Sept. 2003), 33-4; and solar energy, NS (12 April 2003), 14-5; (6 Sept. 2003), 23. The problems of the US electricity grid are discussed in NS (23 Aug. 2003), 7.

Hydrocarbon pollution in USA is reviewed in PNAS 100 (2003), 11975-9. The oceans are becoming more acid, Nature 425 (2003), 365; NS (27 Sept. 2003), 8. On ocean fertilization to absorb carbon dioxide, Science 300 (2003), 67-8. On sulfur emissions in Asia, EST 36 (2002), 4707-13. Warming seas may have sucked water out of Africa, NS (18 Oct. 2003), 15. The way that rivers flood is being analyzed, Nature 425 (2003), 459. On flooding, Nature 421 (2003), 805; 422 (2003), 254-6. On water shortages, SA (Nov. 2003), 18; Lancet 359 (2002), 2010; Nature 419 (2002), 187-230; 422 (2003), 8, 243, 251-3, 364; Science 297 (2002), 926-7; 299 (2003), 165; NS (22 March 2003), 11, 29; (29 March 2003), 8-9; (26 April 2003), 24-5; EST 37 (2003), 83-4A, 87-8A, 90A. Caffeine is a marker of pollution of water, EST 37 (2003), 691-700. Marine recreation and microbiology is discussed in BioScience 51 (2001), 817-25. A greenhouse to attract rain in the desert is discussed in NS (26 Jan. 2002), 40-3.

On ozone and climate change, Science 302 (2003), 236-7; SA (Aug. 2002), 9-10. The Antarctic ozone hole may be record size this year, Nature 425 (2003), 114-5. The UN history and ozone protection is reviewed in Ecological Economics 46 (2003), 309-10. Farmers want to be exempt from the zone treaty ban on methyl bromide, NS (5 Oct. 2002), 11. On UV damage, Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (2002), A392-3.

On nuclear power, Science 298 (2002), 1553-4. Efforts to dismantle Russian nuclear ships are delayed for various factors, Science 301 (2003), 1460-3. Forests near Chernobyl are still under stress, NS (6 Sept. 2003), 10; Nature 425 (2003), 763. On thyroid cancer 15 years after Chernobyl, Lancet 359 (2002), 1946-7. The UK may stop nuclear reprocessing, Nature 425 (2003), 7. Depleted uranium shells cause harm after war to children who play with them, NS (27 July 2002), 5; (19 April 2003), 3-6. A report from a uranium grab is Science 297 (2003), 1456. Risks of radiation are discussed in NS (26 Oct. 2002), 8. The damages of radiation to atomic weapon survivors of UK bomb tests are discussed in NS (23 Nov. 2002), 14. Managing the legacy of US nuclear weapons production is reviewed in American Scientist 90 (2003), 514-23. Nuclear waste transport is discussed in Environmental Health Perspectives 111 (2003), 263-72. Nuclear releases can be traced in 125I in tree rings, EST 37 (2003), 1271-5. On Yucca mountain, SA (March 2003), 26-7.

Biodiversity

A description of underwater tourism is Newsweek (13 Oct. 2003), 34-8. Legal ivory sales did not help curb the black market, NS (25 Oct. 2003), 11.

A new report is Wardle, P., et al., World Forests, Society and Environment (UNU, 2003). China is being blamed for felling of trees in Myanmar, NS (25 Oct. 2003), 5. The pristine forest of the Amazon in 1492 may have had many people, Science 301 (2003), 1645-6, 1710-4. On world national parks, Science 301 (2003), 1289. Wilderness and biodiversity conservation are reviewed in PNAS 100 (2003), 10309-13; NS (23 Aug. 2003), 4-5. Havens can be difficult to find, Nature 425 (2003), 754. On environmental services of biodiversity, PNAS 100 (2003), 2764-9. Genetic diversity in crop plants is reviewed in Crop Science 43 (2003), 1235-48.

A report has said the science of listing endangered species in the USA is sound, but their habitats are threatened, Science 302 (2003), 35. On biodiversity and evolution in general, Science 300 (2003), 1621, 1692-1711. Evolution, assymetry and order are discussed in NS (16 Aug. 2003), 32-5. The effects of human settlement on birds in Colorado are reported in Ecological Applications 13 (2003), 1041-59. In one moa species females were 3 times bigger than males, Nature 425 (2003), 172+; NS (13 Sept. 2003), 17. On Chinese biodiversity preservation, Nature 425 (2003), 890. Biodiversity in South Africa may be protected if people value it, Ecological Economics 46 (2003), 199-216.

Cod fish farming is debated in The Ecologist (Sept 2003), 56-7. Ecological subsidies alter the structure of marine communities, PNAS 100 (2003), 11927-8. The fishery effects of marine reserves give benefits beyond their boundaries, TREE 18 (2003), 448-55. Also on loss of fish stocks, Nature 425 (2003), 125-6. Sturgeons are endangered and miscalculations were made, NS (20 Sept. 2003), 6-7. A census on marine biodiversity has been made suggesting 20,000 species of fish, Science 302 (2003), 773; Nature 425 (2003), 889. Loss of eels is occurring, Science 302 (2003), 221-2; NS (4 Oct. 2003), 14; and of Klamanth fish, Science 302 (2003), 765. Trawlers are causing many deep sea fish to be lost, NS (30 Aug. 2003), 6. The use of rigs as reefs is discussed in Nature 425 (2003), 891.

Animal Rights

An animal rights group has claimed it caused explosions at Chiron company in USA, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1230; Scrippharma.com 2881 (3 Sept. 2003), 12. In general on animal rights groups, Science 298 (2002), 1515. On ethics of GM, Verhoog, H. "Naturalness and the genetic modification of animals", TIBTECH 21 (2003), 294-7. A discussion of a pig's life is in In Context 10 (Fall 2003), 10-11. Fox hunting is discussed in NS (16 Aug. 2003), 4. Captivity of wide-ranging animals is discussed in Nature 425 (2003), 473.

Naval sonar may be responsible for deaths of porpoises and whales, Nature 425 (2003), 549; NS (11 Oct. 2003), 10. Levels of toxaphene congeners in Beluga whales in Canada are reported in EST 37 (2003), 4603-9. On whaling, NS (23 Aug. 2003), 3.

The UN has called for an emergency meeting on protection of the Great Apes, Financial Times (4 Nov. 2003), 4. A gorilla count has resumed in central Africa, Nature 425 (2003), 652. About 91 genes separate humans and chimpanzees (see HGP News). Ebola is threatening them also, Science 300 (2003), 1645. On humanizing a chimp brain, NS (18 Oct. 2003), 5. Illusions in the primate brain are discussed in Science 302 (2003), 789-91 (Also see Brain Function news section). A book review of Intelligence of Apes and Other Rational Beings is Nature 425 (2003), 454. On primate origins, Science 298 (2003), 1564-7, 1606-10. There appears to have been widespread human cannibalism, TREE 18 (2003), 489-90. Meat eating in humans dates back to 2.5 million years in our ancestors, NS (6 Sept. 2003), 19. A discussion of whether Neanderthals were caring is in J. Human Evolution (Nov. 2003); Science 301 (2003), 1319. Paternal care in a multi-male primate society (savannah baboons) is reported in Nature 425 (2003), 136-7, 179-81; NS (13 Sept. 2003), 26.

Brain function

A review is Fehr, E. & Fischbacher, U., "The nature of human altruism", Nature 425 (2003), 785-91. Consciousness is discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 1196-7. The neural basis of economic decision making is analyzed in Science 300 (2003), 1673-5, 1755-8; 300 (2003), 1662-3. On the pain of social loss, Science 302 (2003), 237-9, 290-2. Fear is reviewed in NS (6 Sept. 2003), 30-5. Monkeys reject unequal pay, Nature 425 (2003), 297-9; NS (20 Sept. 2003), 19. Cooperation is discussed in Science 302 (2003), 634-6. Gene expression profiles in honey bees can predict behaviour, Science 302 (2003), 296-9. Mice are being used in a brain protein project, Nature 425 (2003), 110. On neurophilosophy, Science 301 (2003), 1328-9. Split personalities are discussed in NS (16 Aug. 2003), 36-9. On recording human memories, Nature 425 (2003), 571-2. Genetic contributions to brain arousal are reviewed in PNAS 100 (2003), 11019-22. On face and objects in macaque cerebral cortex, Nature Neuroscience 6 (2003), 989-95.

Developments in computer speech are reviewed in Science 301 (2003), 1494-5. Language during sleep is discussed in Nature 425 (2003), 614-6. On spam and computer intelligence, SA (Nov. 2003), 22-3. The domestication of social cognition in dogs is reported in Science 298 (2002), 1634-6. Evolution of language is discussed in Science 298 (2002), 1565-6, 1569-79; Nature 425 (2003), 340-2. The effects of meditation on the mind are surveyed in Science 302 (2003), 44-7.

Safety of Recombinant DNA Products

The use of TPA and stroke is discussed in Science 301 (2003), 1677. Novartis's generic HGH has been approved in Europe, Scripppharma.com 2865 (9 July 2003), 22. TNF is a therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1245-50. Designing bacteria and white cells to deliver drugs to the gut is possible, Lancet 362 (2003), 964-5. Psoriasis may be treated by biologics, BMJ 327 (2003), 634-5. Neutralizing antibodies in patients with multiple sclerosis affect the efficacy of using it, Lancet 362 (2003), 1184-91. On erythropoietin to treat cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, Lancet 362 (2003), 1255-60. Insulin and cognitive function may be related, Lancet 362 (2003), 1253. Use of parathyroid hormone in treating postmenopausal as well as male osteoporosis is suggested in NEJM 349 (2003), 1207-15, 1216-26.

Food safety

A new GM soybean may have health advantages, AgraFood Biotech 113 (15 Sept. 2003), 20. Studies on acceptance of Golden rice in the Philippines suggest it may be accepted, NatBio 21 (2003), 971-2. Labeling to manage the marketing of GM foods is discussed in TIBTECH 21 (2003), 389-93; EST 37 (2003), 343A. The EU level for GM presence in seeds will be set between 0.3-0.7% next year, AgraFood Biotech 116 (27 Oct. 2003), 12.

The US FDA has said that GM food from animals is safe for humans, Int. Herald Tribune (31 Oct. 2003), 1, 10. Just days after the Food and Drug Administration announced preliminary findings that meat and milk from cloned animals were safe to consume, a scientific review panel for the agency said that there was not enough data to support that conclusion and asked for more studies. (http://www.nytimes.com/2003/11/05/health/05CLON.html) Analysis of the Codex guidelines for GM foods is in NatBio 21 (2003), 739-41. Debates in Africa on the import of GM food are in The Ram's Horn 214 (Sept. 2003), 1-6. On the estimated market for GM potatoes in China, Curtis KR. Et al. "Is China the market for genetically modified potatoes?", AgBio Forum 5 (4, 2002). Book reviews on GM food include Nature 425 (2003), 454-5; NS (23 Aug. 2003), 46; The Ecologist (Sept. 2003), 60; BMJ 327 (2003), 567.

Infusing a hormone fragment PYY reduces appetite, NEJM 349 (2003), 941-8; BMJ 327 (2003), 578; Lancet 362 (2003), 883; NEJM 349 (2003), 926-8. Oleylethanolaminde regulates feeding through PPAR receptor interactions, Nature 425 (2003), 90-3. PPAR receptors as therapeutic targets are discussed in Science 302 (2003), 406-7. Fussy eating may be genetic, Science 302 (2003), 561. Fast foods may trick the body, NS (25 Oct. 2003), 10. Addiction and sugar is discussed in NS (23 Aug. 2003), 23. Antiviral effects of milk protein lactoferrin are reviewed in AgrofoodIndustry Hi-Tech 14 (March 2003), 43-46; and anti-carcinogenic effects in p. 35-9. On the food antioxidants market, AgrofoodIndustry Hi-Tech 14 (March 2003), 58-60. Prader-Willi syndrome is a type of genetic model of starvation, Lancet 362 (2003), 989-91. Many pets are also obese, Science 301 (2003), 1665. In general on obesity, Science 301 (2003), 1325. A new scanner allows detection of body fat easily, NS (6 Sept. 2003), 14-5. Cities may be designed to help avoid obesity, Lancet 362 (2003), 1046-7. US pediatricians have called for checks on childhood obesity, BMJ 327 (2003), 518.

Disease Risks & Drugs

Faster healing with fewer scars is reported from initial trials of Renevo, NS (4 Oct. 2003), 10. The early cessation of the trial of letrozole after tamoxifen is debated in BMJ 327 (2003), 885. On the greatest threat to women's health, Lancet 362 (2003), 1165. On cancer treatment, NS (23 Aug. 2003), 36-9. The NIH is developing more drug discovery work, Science 302 (2003), 218-20. On the dangers of drugs, NS (25 Oct. 2003), 38-40. Drugs for coronary artery disease are reviewed in Nature 425 (2003), 902. A drug PTC124 may cure cystic fibrosis, NS (18 Oct. 2003), 16. An indigenous cure for diabetes is discussed in NatMed. 9 (2003), 1228. The idea that a small amount of a toxin may help our health is being reexamined, Science 302 (2003), 376-9.

Attempts to stop doping in sports are discussed in NS (4 Oct. 2003), 23; Nature 425 (2003), 752. The pursuit of happiness and drugs is discussed in NS (4 Oct. 2003), 40-7; NS (11 Oct. 2003), 36-41. On marijuana as a drug, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1227; Nature 425 (2003), 756. Cocaine and heroin use limits the ability of brain cells to make new connections, NS (30 Aug. 2003), 14. After effects of ecstasy are discussed in Nature 425 (2003), 109, 223; NS (13 Sept. 2003), 5. Altered sleep patterns affect many persons, Nature 425 (2003), 896-8. Hypochondria is discussed in Time (13 Oct. 2003), 42-3. On use of lithium as a drug, Nature 425 (2003), 118-20.

Voluntary measures can reduce exposure to dioxins in diet, EST 37 (2003), 316-7A. (See also Environment News section). Rebates have been offered to reduce lead poisoning in hunters in US, to those who use non-lead bullets, Los Angeles Times (28 Sept. 2003), B10.

A review after 80 years of the Slovenian Institute of Public health is in Croatian Medical J. 44 (2003), 511-9. Urban health is discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1091-2. A piano to stop repetitive stress disorder is discussed in SA (Oct. 2003), 16-7.

The impacts of radioactive waste on health are discussed in Croatian Medical J. 44 (2003), 520-33.

Discussion of the safety of cellphones is in NS (13 Sept. 2003), 12-3, 46-9; (26 Oct. 2003), 9. Radiowaves from phone masts can be used to track cars and traffic, NS (25 Oct. 2003), 23.

Patenting & Business

The WTO has agreed that poor nations can use anti-HIV drugs without regard for patents and import cheap drugs from other countries, Lancet 362 (2003), 753, 807; BMJ 327 (2003), 517, 571-2, 639; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1232; NS (6 Sept. 2003), 5. Canada is changing its patent law to allow export of cheap drugs, Lancet 362 (2003), 1290. WIPO is intensifying efforts to protect indigenous knowledge, Lancet 362 (2003), 1206. On patent laws, NatBio 21 (2003), 960. Sharing knowledge is discussed in Scientist (20 Oct. 2003), 48-9. Patent laws and stem cells are discussed in J. Law & Medicine 10 (2003), 488-505. In general on gene patents, Ethics & Medicine 19 (Summer 2003), 85-98; NatBio 21 (2003), 729-31. A US appeals court has said that scientific knowledge is not a manufactured product for the purposes of the patent law, Science 300 (2003), 1635; 301 (2003), 1643. On biotechnology law, Nature 425 (2003), 116-7. On agricultural IP and public sector research, Science 302 (2003), 781-3. On software licensing, SA (Nov. 2003), 24.

Philanthropic gifts for health are discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1087; Scientist (6 Oct. 2003), 48-9 (also see the Vaccines and Diseases News section). Charitable trusts are models for genomic biobanks, NEJM 349 (2003), 1180-5. Research results from Wellcome trust funding should be available to all, BMJ 327 (2003), 828. The role of the European Commission in biotechnology innovation is presented in J. Commercial Biotechnology 10 (2003), 6-14. A biotech strategy for Europe is proposed in BIOforum Europe (Aug. 2003), 186-7. Trends in licensing are summarised in J. Commercial Biotechnology 10 (2003), 54-9.

On university patents and global health, Science 301 (2003), 1629. There has been criticism of Columbia University patents in biotechnology and profiteering, NatBio 21 (2003), 953. The US National Institute for Clinical Excellence has been advised to break close links with industry, BMJ 327 (2003), 637. Argentina and Cuba have agreed on trade of drugs for dollars owed by Cuba, Lancet 362 (2003), 1385. Biotech in Singapore is discussed in NS (20 Sept. 2003), 50-53; and on new US biotech hubs, NatBio 21 (2003), 111. A book review of Westwick, PJ., The National Labs: Science in an American System, 1947-1974, is Nature 425 (2003), 240. Japan is funding more biotechnology research, Nature 425 (2003), 9. Science and the student entrepreneur are discussed in an education context in Science 298 (2002), 1556. Profits from biotech are summarized in J. Commercial Biotechnology 9 (2003), 283-5; NS (13 Sept. 2003), 56. The NIH roadmap is summarized in Science 302 (2003), 63-4. On research in nanotechnology, NatBio 21 (2003), 1127-9. A criticism of the economics of De Beers and diamond mining is The Ecologist (Sept. 2003), 34-8.

Birth Control

In Australia the Therapeutic Goods Authority has proposed that a post-coital intervention Postinor-2 for preventing implantation will be available over the counter, Bioethics Research Notes 15 (2003), 29-31. Improving sexual health of adolescents is discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 830-1. On education of birth control in Hong Kong, J. Biological Education 36 (2002), 189-94. Fertility and perinatal health among Finnish immigrants in Sweden is discussed in SSM 57 (2003), 1443-54. Evolution and maternal age at menarche is discussed in SSM 57 (2003), 17771-81. Fewer boys are born in economic hard times, NS (30 Aug. 2003), 20. Children born in June may have more grandchildren, NS (20 Sept. 2003), 21. Combination estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives are discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 1443-50. On male pregnancy in fish, Current Biology 13 (2003), R791.

Doctors in India have been accused of prescribing an unapproved drug letrozole for fertility, BMJ 327 (2003), 768. The American Society for Reproductive Medicine Prevention of Infertility Campaign is discussed in F&S 79 (2003), 295+. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 820-1; Lancet 362 (2003), 1328-32; SA (Oct. 2003), 17-8. The head of the German Commission on Safety of medicines has likened HRT to thalidomide, BMJ 327 (2003), 767. HRT for men for aging is not to be advised,  NS (23 Aug. 2003), 18.

Sudan is tightening its laws against female genital mutilation, BMJ 327 (2003), 580. A book review of Travis, CB., Evolution, Gender and Rape (MIT press, 2003) is TREE 18 (2003), 324-5. UK interview research on 33 women to examine what is "normal" about heterosexual desire and orgasm is in SSM 57 (2003), 1735-45. Fears of political interference about studies of sexual behaviour in USA are raised in Nature 425 (2003), 885; SA (Oct. 2003), 13-4. A study has claimed that homosexual orientation can be changed, NS (11 Oct. 2003), 19. Papers on concepts of sexual perversity are in The Monist 86 (2003), 3-140. The rate of mixed marriages in USA is rising, SA (Oct. 2003), 19.

Embryo Status

Russia is attempting to curb abortion rates and access, Lancet 362 (2003), 968. The capital execution of the murderer of an abortion doctor in the USA is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 577. At the same time the US has introduced laws to ban late term abortion, though it is under hold from Federal judges in 3 states Reuters (8 Nov. 2003). (http://www.nytimes.com/2003/11/05/politics/05CND-ABOR.html)

Italian private law experience on protection of embryos is reviewed in Law and the Human Genome Review 17 (2002), 83-98. On government policy on embryos, Ethics & Medicine 19 (Summer 2003), 75-84. A discussion of how to deal with frozen embryos is in SEACB Bioethics Newsletter XV (Aug. 2003), 1-3. On ethics of abortion, European J. Health Law 9 (2002), 337-59.

A review of the process of twinning is in Lancet 362 (2003), 735-43.

Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

The UN has delayed a vote on human cloning. European allies and dozens of Islamic states that support therapeutic cloning blocked consideration of the cloning ban at the United Nations until the end of 2005 (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A8840-2003Nov6.html) There was scientific lobbying on both sides, Current Biology 13 (2003), R785-6. A technique to combine 2-3 cloned embryos into one increases the chance of making a live animal, NS (18 Oct. 2003), 19. Even if they do not want to clone babies, researchers must to learn how to produce duplicate human cells safely. That is the conclusion of experts who have outlined a program to identify and solve the problems that currently plague cloning (http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99994334) The law over somatic cell nuclear transfer is not keeping up with technology, NatBio 21 (2003), 969-70. The UK has licensed Roslin Institute to create embryos for research, JAMA 290 (2003), 449-50.

On ethics of ES cell research, Law and the Human Genome Review 18 (2003), 43-54; Catholic Medical Quarterly 54 (2003), 8-11. A critical analysis of ES cell research in Australia is in J. Law & Medicine 10 (2003), 514-30. Scientists in China have used interspecies hybrids of rabbi and human to make ES cells, NS (23 Aug. 2003), 14. On ES cells, NEJM 349 (2003), 267-74, 275-86, 1480-2; Science 301 (2003), 1017; 302 (2003), 371; PNAS 100 (2003), 11817-926; Nature 425 (2003), 778-9; Cell 113 (2003), 551-7; Current Biology 13 (2003), R375-6. Visiting German professors who work on ES cells might face jail upon return, Science 301 (2003), 577. The ethics of cloning are discussed in Bioethics 17 (2003), 447-59, 503-525; CQHE 12 (2003), 353-410. The issue of consent for use of spare embryos and stem cell research is discussed in Health Law Review 11 (3, 2003), 3-12; Science 301 (2003), 927.

IVF allows fetuses to be made from 3 genetic parents, NS (18 Oct. 2003), 12. Spain has approved the use of frozen embryos for research, Lancet 362 (2003), 1385. ART in Spain is discussed in Law and the Human Genome Review 17 (2002), 205-14. The UK National Institute for Clinical Excellence has recommended all couples medically eligible for IVF will have 3 free cycles under NHS, BMJ 327 (2003), 511-2. On health inequality and risk taking in France, SSM 57 (2003), 2115-25. Insurance issues in USA are discussed in F&S 80 (2003), 32-3.

Two women in the UK lost court cases to use their frozen embryos without consent of their ex-partners, BMJ 327 (2003), 831. A Japanese court has ruled that a woman cannot use sperm from her dead husband, despite the approval of his family, Yomiuri Shimbun (13 Nov. 2003), 1. In another case, a Japanese couple who used US surrogates found that an old law that requires medical documents and proof of childbirth in women over 50 years of age, prevented them from claiming a Japanese passport for the child - who has a US passport only after having been born there, Yomiuri Shimbun (23 Oct. 2003), 1. On the exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy, Bioethics (2003), 169-87. Parents contribute to the narrative identity of children from AID, (2003), 2229-42. In vitro maturation of follicles is reviewed in NatMed. 9 (2003), 1095. On use of shared oocytes, F&S 80 (2003), 54-60. The UK HFEA is considering egg giving, BMJ 327 (2003), 250.

On the risks of ARTs for children born, F&S 79 (2003), 1270-6. There are concerns about use of unsound tests for infertility, BMJ 327 (2003), 641. Male infertility is reviewed in BMJ 327 (2003), 669-73. The genetic basis of infertility is discussed in Reproduction 126 (2003), 13-25. On picking cells and cloning from embryos, NS (25 Oct. 2003), 12. Making synthetic sex cells is described in Nature 424 (2003), 364-6. Two papers in the 25 September 2003 issue of Human Reproduction suggest that the increasing availability of sex selection technology is not likely to skew the balance between the sexes. For more information: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2003-09/sari-ssf092303.php

     

Fetal Environment & Neonates

Ethical issues in mother and midwife relations are discussed in Nursing Ethics 10 (2003), 580-601. Birthweight extremes at low and high end are associated as  risks for cerebral palsy, Lancet 362 (2003), 1089-90, 1106+.

Learning disability is reviewed in Lancet 362 (2003), 811-21. The deficient care of Russian learning-disabled children is reported in Lancet 362 (2003), 1291. On child labour, SA (Oct. 2003), 66-73. Some parents also make children deliberately sick to gain attention, NS (16 Aug. 2003), 40-3. On bad memories in children, Lancet 362 (2003), 825-6. A computer game to improve children's listening skills is suggested in NS (16 Aug. 2003), 10-1.

Early life can alter risk for asthma, NEJM 349 (2003), 1473-5. Association between antenatal cytokine production and development of asthma and atropy at 6 years has been found, Lancet 362 (2003), 1166, 1192-7. Listening to mothers and depression in Goa, India is reported in SSM 57 (2003), 1797-806. Weight control throughout life is important for blood pressure, Lancet 362 (2003), 1178-83. Women given hormones as children  to stunt growth have increased risk of infertility, NS (27 Sept. 2003), 6-7.

Genetic Disease Markers

Memory can be affected by a single gene, serotonin, Nature Neuroscience (Nov. 2003), NS (16 Aug. 2003), 17. DISC-1 gene may predispose to schizophrenia, BMJ 327 (2003), 622-3. A candidate gene for dyslexia has been found, PNAS 100 (2003), 11190-2. Copper and Alzheimer disease is discussed in PNAS 100 (2003), 11193-4.

Mutant stem cells may seed cancer,  Science 301 (2003), 1308-10. A review on causes of cancer is SA (July 2003), 49-57. A neural survival factor is a candidate oncogene in breast cancer, PNAS 100 (2003), 10931-6. The brain morphogenetic gene Otx1 has a role in hematopoiesis, PNAS 100 (2003), 10299-303.

A gene linked to osteoporosis has been identified by Decode Genetics, the Icelandic company that is leading efforts to find the genes that underlie common human diseases, http://www.nytimes.com/2003/11/03/science/03OSTE.html

Variation in use of genetic code are discussed in NS (30 Aug. 2003), 34-7. Not all genes follow rules of inheritance, Science 301 (2003), 1837-9. Study of mutations in animals are discussed in Nature 425 (2003), 29-33. On genomic imprinting, Genetics 165 (2003), 205-22. A genes position can affect its function, Nature 425 (2003), 457.

Genetic Screening Methodology

Early methods for Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and trisomy 18 screening are discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 1405-13, 1471-3. On individual risk communication, BMJ 327 (2003), 703-7. Cervical cancer screening every 3 years instead of 1 year has an excess mortality of 3 in 100,000, NEJM 349 (2003), 1501-9. Difficulties in assessing individual cancer risk are discussed in  Science 301 (2003), 574-5. BRCA1 and 2 gene tests are discussed in  Science 301 (2003), 642-6.

Microarrays are discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1428; PNAS 100 (2003), 10585-7; Science 301 (2003), 586-90; 302 (2003), 211, 240-1, 667+. Enzymes have scanned DNA using electric pulse, NS (18 Oct. 2003), 10. Toxicity can be prevented with gene tests, Science 301 (2003), 588-90; Nature 424 (2003), 749. Nanoparticle-based biobar codes can provide ultrasensitive detection of proteins,  Science 301 (2003), 884-6. Physical examination is important in the care of medical inpatients, Lancet 362 (2003), 1100-5. The use of genetic profiling in clinical forms of leprosy is described in  Science 301 (2003), 1527-30.

DNA Fingerprinting & Privacy

The collapse of Swedish company UmanGenomics that has a tissue bank with samples from 87,000 persons raises ethical dilemmas on what to do with the data, Nature 425 (2003), 123-4. Charities may be another way to organize biobanks, NEJM 349 (2003), 1180-4. The UK Biobank has draft ethics guidelines, www.ukbiobank.com, BMJ 327 (2003), 700. Discussion of the biobank is made in Lancet 362 (2003), 834; Current Biology 13 (2003), R689-90. The use of DNA by police in the UK is discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 927. Criticism of the Estonian Genbank is in www.openDemocracy.net (29 May 2003), 1-4. On the Icelandic genebank and Kari Stefansson, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1099.

Privacy in human research is reviewed in J. Law & Medicine 10 (2003), 410-34, 506-13. On privacy in UK law, Modern Law Review 66 (2003), 726-58. Sale of Canadian doctor's drug data has gone to court, Lancet 362 (2003), 884. Internet makes privacy more difficult,  Science 301 (2003), 1449. Consent to using family tissue is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 759-60. Family attitudes to using samples taken at coroner's postmortem exams in UK are reported in BMJ 327 (2003), 781-2. Identification of missing persons in mass graves in Iraq may need DNA analysis, Lancet 362 (2003), 1325-6.

A German teacher was refused a job because relatives have Huntington's disease, BMJ 327 (2003), 827. Genetic discrimination is discussed in J. Law & Medicine 10 (2003), 470-87;  Science 302 (2003), 745. DNA testing can check rhino poachers, NS (6 Sept. 2003), 9.

Ethics & Genetic Screening

There have been delays in Japanese Millennium projects due to ethical issues of genetics, APBN 7 (2003), 1011. The Erice Declaration of the Ethical Principles of Pharmacogenomic Research are in Law and the Human Genome Review 17 (2002), 223-8. A report from the French National Bioethics Committee on Sharing Genetic Information with Family Members is Les Cahiers 36 (2003), 5-12. On genetic testing in Huntington disease and CF, Scientist (20 Oct. 2003), 24-5. On BRCA testing,  Science 301 (2003), 591-3. A book review essay is Macer, D. "Genetic choices", Bioethics 17 (2003), 567-72. In general on genetics and ethics, Croatian Medical J. 44 (2003), 533-7.

Arguments against the selection of embryos as tissue donors are in BME 190 (2003), 13-6; and arguing for see EJAIB (Nov. 2003). Patient organizations in France are discussed in SSM 57 (2003), 2127-36.

A book review of Original Intelligence is Nature 424 (2003), 17. Nature versus nurture is discussed in  Science 301 (2003), 1554-5.

A new book is Wyndham, Diana, Eugenics in Australia: Striving for National Fitness (Galton Institute, 2003, 406pp., ISBN 0950406678).  China has tightened its genetic regulations, Asian Wall Street J. (13 Oct. 2003), A1, A5. A paper exploring eugenics in China is Su Baoqi & Macer, DRJ., "Chinese people's attitudes towards genetic diseases and children with handicaps", Law and the Human Genome Review 18 (2003), 191-212. A history of the Cambridge Eugenics Society from 1911-13 and 1930-33, and reasons for its demise are in Galton Institute Newsletter 48 (June 2003), 1-8. On Nazi corruption, Nature 424 (2003), 650. Hitler used penicillin made by the Allies after his bombing in 1944, NS (6 Sept. 2003), 8. A review on Lysenkoism and the VII International Congress of Genetics, Genetics 165 (2003), 1-9. On the dangers of inbreeding, NS (18 Oct. 2003), 38-41. On race and medicine,  Science 301 (2003), 594-6.

Gene Therapy

   Prolongation and extension of life by diet restriction can work in many species,  Science 301 (2003), 1679-81. Compounds in grape may promote long life,  Science 301 (2003), 1165. On extending life, NS (18 Oct. 2003), 46-9; (1 Nov. 2003), 42-6; Nature 424 (2003), 132-3; J. Heredity 94 (2003), 432. Old growth trees are being found in many places,  Science 301 (2003), 768-9. Some animals have extreme longevity,  Science 301 (2003), 611, 373-5; NS (13 Sept. 2003), 24. Biochemistry of lifespan is discussed in Nature 424 (2003), 259-60. Age can induce a switch to a hyper-recombinatorial state,  Science 301 (2003), 1908-10. On genetic enhancement, CQHE 12 (2003), 411-7. Elite athletes appear to have particular genes, NS (30 Aug. 2003), 4-5. On hair regeneration, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1257-8. On cosmetic surgery prices, The Ecologist (Sept. 2003), 44-5.

   The explanation for leukemia in two children in SCID trials, where 9 out of 10 children have had positive results is presented in Hacein-Bey-Abina, S. et al. "LMO2-associated clonal T cell proliferation in two patients after gene therapy for SCID-X1", Science 301 (2003), 415-9. Gene therapy for ALS may be ready,  NatMed. 9 (2003), 1256-7. A gene therapy trial for Parkinson disease has begun, Lancet 362 (2003), 712. Development of gene therapies for muscular dystrophy is being advanced through animal models, NatMed. 9 (2003), 997-8. In general on gene therapy accuracy,  Science 301 (2003), 400-1.

   Treatment with gentamicin appears to correct CFTR function in CF patients, NEJM 349 (2003), 1433-41. Virotherapy is reviewed in SA (Oct. 2003), 50-7.

Human Genome Project (HGP)

The question of whether human genomic databases are a global public good are discussed in European J. Health Law 9 (2002), 27-41. Genomics and global health is discussed in Science 302 (2003), 597-601. On social and ethical issues of the human genome, Turkish J. Medical Ethics, Law & History 11 (2003), 162-69. Allegations of exploitation of Chinese subjects for their DNA continues, in GeneWatch 16 (Sept. 2003), 10-11.

In general on the future of genomic medicine, NEJM 349 (2003), 969-74, 996-8; Nature 425 (2003), 123-4, 758-62; Heredity 91 (2003), 353; Science 302 (2003), 533, 588-609. On the HapMap project, Nature 425 (2003), 758-9. The complete DNA sequence of human chromosome 6 is finished, Nature 425 (2003), 775-6, 805-11. The hidden layers of genomic information in non-coding areas are described in SA (Nov. 2003), 26-33. A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on ABCs is in Nature 425 (2003), 917-25. The dog genome is announced in Science 301 (2003), 1613+, 1809, 1843, 1854-5, 1898-1903; Nature 425 (2003), 442. Also on dog genetics, Science 298 (2002), 1540-2. The genome sequence of Chromobacterium violaceum is reported in PNAS 100 (2003), 11660-5.

The collection of mouse cDNA clones is described in Science 302 (2003), 217-8; Nature 425 (2003), 226. Functional analysis of mouse chromosome 11 is in Nature 425 (2003), 81-6. Digital gene and protein databases are discussed in The Scientist (22 Sept. 2003), 30-1. On human Y chromosome, NatGen 34 (2003), 246-7. A gene-coexpression network for global discovery of conserved genetic modules is announced in Science 302 (2003), 249-55. On EST tags, Trends in Plant Science 8 (2003), 321-9. On clinical proteomics, Nature 425 (2003), 905. China is concentrating on the liver proteome, Nature 425 (2003), 441.

Human history is being traced with fossil and DNA evidence, Science 300 (2003), 1641; 302 (2003), 555; SA (Nov. 2003), 54-63; PNAS 100 (2003), 11188-9; NS (16 Aug. 2003), 17; Nature 425 (2003), 453. It appears that until 10,000 years ago there were few human males breeding with many females, NS (6 Sept. 2003), 18. Of the small number of genes (N=91) different between chimps and humans, 90% (N=83) are active in the brain, NS (16 Aug. 2003), 14; PNAS 100 (2003).

General Medical Ethics

Research risks can eventually become risks to research, Law and the Human Genome Review 17 (2002), 23-30; and on clinical trials, BMJ 326 (2003), 304, 1456-7; Lancet 361 (2003), 978-9, 1296-7; NEJM 348 (2003), 1377-80, 1383-6; JAMA 288 (2002), 2118-9; Science 298 (2002), 923. On a clinical trial of ventilators, Science 300 (2003), 122-3; 301 (2003), 149.  German guidelines on research ethics are in Law and the Human Genome Review 17 (2002), 57-74. Placebos are discussed in Science 299 (2003), 995; 302 (2003), 1659, 61; BMJ 325 (2002), 560, 1329-31; NEJM 347 (2002), 137-9. Discussion of bioethics committees is in Bioethics 17 (2003), 301-368; JAMA 290 (2003), 360-6; Lancet 361 (2003), 978, 1015-6. Case of an unethical Singapore clinical trial are disclosed in Lancet 361 (2003), 1277.

On informed consent and law, Catholic Medical Quarterly 54 (2003), 12-20; BMJ 327 (2003), 285-6; Lancet 361 (2003), 2171. Informed consent is also discussed in JAMA 289 (2003), 1963-8; European J. Health Law 9 (2002), 287-91, 293-320; BMJ 324 (2002), 39-41; 326 (2003), 1039; 327 (2003), 284-6; NEJM 348 (2003), 1496-7. The readability of informed consent forms is discussed in NEJM 347 (2002), 2134-40; 348 (2003), 2262-3; JME 28 (2002), 45-8; Lancet 360 (2002), 1266, 1301-2. Communicating risks is discussed in BMJ 326 (2003), 1276, 1333-4; 327 (2003), 691-6, 725-8, 728-31, 731-6, 736-41, 741-5, 745-9; Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 3 (2000), 239-275; Prenatal Diagnosis 22 (2002), 1188-94; JAMA 289 (2003), 92, 93, 95. A UK survey found many patients do not know about drugs, BMJ 327 (2003), 180. Patient preferences need to be respected, BMJ 326 (2003), 373-6, 520, 569, 674, 877-9; 327 (2003), 303-4, 542-5; SSM 57 (2003), 1969-80. On protecting the vulnerable in research, Bioethics 17 (2003), 399-416, 460-86; NZ Med. J. 115 (2002), 23-4. Child consent is discussed in Nursing Ethics 10 (2003), 504-11; BMJ 326 (2003), 64-5. Perceptions in mental illness on treatment are discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 697, 824-5; Lancet 361 (2003), 2096-7. On refusals of treatment by mentally ill persons, NEJM 349 (2003), 1392. Refusals by persons with anorexia nervosa is discussed in Bioethics 17 (2003), 261-89.

Responsibility is discussed in The Monist 85 (2002), 398-435. Rawl's defense of the priority of liberty is discussed in Phil. & Public Affairs 31 (2003), 246-71. Papers on G.E. Moore's Principia Ethica are in Ethics 113 (2003), 465-677. On Hegel's love and law, Social Research 70 (2003), 393-432. On idealism and ethics, Philosophical Studies 114 (2003), 1-22. Aristotle on consciousness is reviewed in Mind 111 (2002), 751-816. Reviews of Kass, LR., Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity, are NEJM 348 (2003), 766-8;  JAMA 289 (2003), 2869-70. On the slippery slope, Harvard Law Review 116 (2003), 1026-1137.

Not telling the truth is discussed in Bioethics 17 (2003), 417-24. Patient decision making and Confucianism is discussed in Croatian Medical J. 44 (2003), 558-661. On democracy and Confucian values, Philosophy East & West 52 (2002), 281-310; 53 (2003), 39-63.  Japanese medical ethics is discussed in Lancet 361 (2003), 2058; SSM 55 (2002), 301-11. On Jewish medical ethics, BMJ 327 (2003), 169; NEJM 348 (2003), 1299-300. A series of 4 articles on health care ethics in Turkey are in Nursing Ethics 10 (2003), 459-503.  Reasoning in bioethics is discussed in Bioethics 17 (2003), 243-60; Science 298 (2002), 2335. On conservative bioethics and paradoxes about life, BME 190 (2003), 17-24. A European network on ethics , Eurethnet is described in BIOforum Europe (Aug. 2003), 180-2. Patients are expecting more of doctors according to a recent survey, BMJ 327 (2003), 581.

Bioethics and rural health is discussed in SSM 56 (2003), 2277-88. On cross-cultural medical ethics, Bhardwaj, M. & Macer, DRJ., "Policy and ethical issue sin applying medical biotechnology in developing countries", Medical Science Monitor 9 (2003), RA49-54. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 17 (2003), 3-4; Bulletin WHO 81 (2003), 306; Science 300 (2003), 573-4; Lancet 360 (2002), 1992; 361 (2003), 1309; BMJ 325 (2002), 1493-5; JAMA 289 (2003), 94; NEJM 347 (2002), 1087-9. Interactions between doctors and cancer patients are discussed in SSM 57 (2003), 791-806. On feminist ethics, SSM 56 (2003), 1643-52; Health Care Analysis 9 (2001), 115-246.

Virtues for student education are suggested in SEACB Bioethics Newsletter XV (Oct 2003), 1-2. On teaching ethics in Kerala, India, Issues in Medical Ethics 11 (2003), 116-7. On teaching global ethics, Bioethics 17 (2003), 432-46. Involving patients in medical education is also useful, BMJ 327 (2003), 326-8. Also on education, BMJ 326 (2003), 97-9, 100-1, 921-3; MJA 178 (2003), 167-8; J. Clinical Ethics 12 (2002), 97-110; Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 2 (1999), 217-254. Changing doctors behaviour is education needed for many already graduated as social cultures change, SSM 55 (2002), 1771-7.

Obituaries to Dorothy Wertz include: Bioethics 17 (4, 2003), v; and Dorothy Nelkin, Lancet 362 (2003), 497. Links to drug companies are discussed in BMJ 326 (2003), 1352; Science 297 (2002), 2211.

Law & Medical Ethics

The WMA has delayed to agree on a revised Declaration of Helsinki, Lancet 362 (2003), 963, 1005. The WMA and Israeli medical Association are discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 561-2; and on doctors in conflict, Lancet 362 (2003), 1327. The research relationships between researchers in North and South are discussed in SSM 57 (2003), 1957-67; BMJ 325 (2002), 783. On the ethics of asylum seekers, Bioethics 17 (2003), 487-502. The World Bank is going to include human rights and social factors into its project assessment, Financial Times (4 Nov. 2003), 1, 8.

The US Supreme Court has limited forced drugging of mentally ill persons before trial, Lancet 361 (2003), 2131. On the death penalty, Lancet 362 (2003), 1287; The Ecologist (June 2003), 24-6; NEJM 348 (2003), 864-5. On torture, BMJ 326 (2003), 773-5, 1405.

EU clinical trial directives are expected to be in place eventually but are taking time, BME 190 (2003), 3. Doctor performance should be publicly accountable, Lancet 362 (2003), 1404-8. Legal issues in maternal-fetal conflicts are discussed in Modern Law Review 66 (2003), 809-14. The question of whether patients can sue researchers for false advertising in papers is discussed in NS (27 Sept. 2003), 9.

Scientific Ethics

The unethical hype associated with many press releases of scientific developments is criticized in NatGen 35 (2003), 1. Conflicts of interest are debated in GeneWatch 16 (Sept. 2003), 3-6; NS (30 Aug. 2003), 21. Nature journals will also require authors of review papers to disclose financial interests, BMJ 327 (2003), 829. Whistle-blowing is discussed in Nursing Ethics 10 (2003), 526-40. On corruption, NS (11 Oct. 2003), 3. Teaching students about plagiarism is discussed in J. Biol. Education 36 (2002), 139-40. On coping with peer rejection and Nobel laureates, Nature 425 (2003), 645.

The US is requiring persons who edit Iranian papers to gain a license, and the IEEE is withdrawing some benefits to Iranian members, Science 301 (2003), 1646; 302 (2003), 210. Islamic science is suffering from such embargoes, Science 302 (2003), 545; Nature 425 (2003), 107, 237, 444-9, 899. Science should be kept free of political intervention, Nature 425 (2003), 121; Science 302 (2003), 758; Nature Neuroscience 6 (2003), 901. A paper published 3 years ago in Nature Medicine has been withdrawn by German scientists, BMJ 327 (2003), 637; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1093, 1221; Science 298 (2002), 1531-2. A paper retraction by US scientists is in Science 302 (2003), 1479. Many research projects suffer from contaminating cells in culture, NS (20 Sept. 2003), 5, 8-9. The results of some inquiries made in the UK on research fraud are being held secret, BMJ 327 (2003), 519. The question of whether good science can come from unethical research is discussed in J. Biol. Education 36 (2002), 170-5. On what is unethical research, NS (27 Sept. 2003), 25; Science 302 (2003), 1554. Planned surveys of misconduct have met with resistance, Science 298 (2002), 1549.

Euthanasia & Terminal Care

Euthanasia is discussed in papers in Bioethics Outlook 14 (June 2003), 1-12; Bioethics 17 (2003), 526-41; Lancet 362 (2003), 1239-40; BMJ 327 (2003), 465; NS (4 Oct. 2003), 48-51. Korean experience with advance directives are discussed in Nursing Ethics 10 (2003), 638-53. Conflicts of interest in end of life decisions are discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1419-20. A debate on discussion of resuscitation with terminally ill patients is BMJ 327 (2003), 614-6. The withdrawal of mechanical ventilation in anticipation of death in an ICY is discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 1123-32. A study of 106 Thai patients found 63% knew their cancer diagnosis, SSM 57 (2003), 1675-82. On suicide rates, Lancet 362 (2003), 961-2. Family history of suicide is a predictor of future suicide, Am J. Psychiatry 160 (2003), 1525-6.

Disability and the future of US Medicare is discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 1084-5. On disability in older adults, SSM 57 (2003), 1875-89. Older patients should be offered the full range of treatments, Lancet 362 (2003), 808; and on age discrimination, BMJ 327 (2003), 1300-1; SSM 57 (2003), 687-96, 757-62. Health care spending among elderly in USA is reported in NEJM 349 (2003), 1048-55. Early Alzheimer disease is discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 1056-63. Fatalism is discussed in Philosophy East & West 53 (2003), 435-89.

Organ Transplants & Brain Death

Ethics of living donor transplants are discussed in Issues in Medical Ethics 11 (2003), 104-5. On ethics of donation of tissue, Lancet 362 (2003), 932. The ethics of organ lists are discussed in Bioethics 17 (2003), 425-31. Living liver donation in the UK is reviewed in BMJ 327 (2003), 676-9; and in Japan in Lancet 362 (2003), 687-90, 674. In Japan among 1853 donors there was no death, but some morbidity has been reported.

A heart transplant recipient has climbed the Matterhorn in the Swiss Alps, Lancet 362 (2003), 880-1. Chronic renal failure after transplantation of a non-renal organ is increasing, NEJM 349 (2003), 931-40, 994-6. Stem cell homing for heart repair is discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 675, 697-703. Regeneration is reviewed in NS (27 Sept. 2003), 40-3. On control of skin morphogenesis, Current Opinion in Biotechnology 14 (2003), 520-5. Robotic skin is being developed, NS (25 Oct. 2003), 25. Artificial muscles are reviewed in SA (Oct. 2003), 34-41.

The use of brain death criteria to declare death in China is discussed in China Daily (12 April, 2003), BME 190 (2003), 4. The city of Shenzen in China has outlawed sale of organs, BMJ 327 (2003), 520. In general on commerce, Lancet 362 (2003), 1335.

A review of the state of xenotransplantion is in Lancet 362 (2003), 557-9, 1421-2. Guidelines are discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 1294-5. Teaching autopsies are ending in some countries, BMJ 327 (2003), 802-6.

Health Costs

On biotechnology-based health care needs for India, NISTADS NEWS 5 (April 2003), 9-15. The ethics of nurse migration from the developing world to richer countries is discussed in Nursing Ethics 10 (2003), 666-70. An editorial on poverty and terrorism is in BME 190 (2003), 1.

Internet Sites

The question of who will pay for open access to journal papers is discussed in Nature 425 (2003), 334, 554-5, 559; Science 302 (2003), 550-4. One journal for Medline has been discussed, Lancet 361 (2003), 1388-9; Nature 423 (2003), 15. On the Internet and intellectual property, Columbia Law Review 103 (2003), 534-613. Wellcome Trust will fund research that leads to publication in open access journals, Nature 425 (2003), 440. The loss of Internet references is surveyed in Science 302 (2003), 787-8. The quality of Internet access is discussed in SSM 57 (2003), 875-80. There are fears of Internet paralysis as worms and viruses spread, Nature 425 (2003), 3. On information networks, PNAS 100 (2003), 12516-21. On spam, NS (8 March 2003), 42-4; (22 March 2003), 19; (28 June 2003), 24.

Use of Email and Internet for health information is surveyed in JAMA 289 (2003), 2400-6. On telephone consultations, BMJ 326 (2003), 966-9. Telerobotics has brought surgical skills to remote communities in Canada, Lancet 361 (2003), 1794-5. Online support for mood disorders is describe din: JAMA 290 (2003), 3073-7.

Sites include:

English mental health law website: www.mentalhealthlawyers.com.

HIV InSite (http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu) is a university-based global

Internet resource on HIV/AIDS, part of the University of California San Francisco's Center

for HIV Information (CHI).

UNESCO Asia Pacific Office Bioethcis Links, www.unescobkk.org/rushsap

Red Latinoamericana de Biotica se encuentra ya disponible.: www.redbioeticaunesco-lac.org

Extending life: http://longevity-science.org/

CERPH new URL : www.cerph.org

Biotech site at http://www.biotech-register.com/

Southern Cross Bioethics Institute, www.bio-ethics.com


Prepared by Darryl Macer
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