Bioethics in India: Proceedings of the International Bioethics
Workshop in Madras: Biomanagement of Biogeoresources, 16-19
Jan. 1997, University of Madras; Editors: Jayapaul Azariah, Hilda
Azariah, & Darryl R.J. Macer, Copyright Eubios Ethics Institute
management of ecological resources with special reference to Tirupur
Centre for Environmental
Studies, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025
Human action produces different
kinds of stresses on the Environment. Four important kinds of
these are eutropic, exploitative, disruptive and stress caused
by the release of toxic substances and hazardous material like
lead, mercury, chromium, arsenic etc. Pollution is caused by waste
generated from different sources - urban, agricultural and industrial
sectors. More than 800 cu. mt/h of industrial effluents flow into
our rivers. Another important feature is that industrial waste
in the country is essentially concentrated in a few manufacturing
locations, thus accelerating environmental stress in those regions.
e.g. The pollution of ground water of Tiruppur. Several decades
of irrational practice of discharging the untreated effluents
has now rendered the ground water unhygienic for consumption.
The world over, emphasis is being placed on the disposal or recycling
techniques for industrial wastes. Due to unfavourable practices,
vast stretches of land have become non-arable and so the contamination
of ground water.
The present development
program in Tiruppur to build Common effluent treatment plant with
proper implementation will no doubt minimize the pollution load.
In this paper the importance of healthy practices like closer
interaction with the regulating agencies in the efficient management
of ecological resource with special reference to Tiruppur will
and human health: Types of diseases and strategies
M.V. Subba Rao
Dept. Environmental Sciences,
Andhra University, Visakhapatnam - 530 003
Environment means our surroundings
for growth and development. Health means our surroundings for
growth and development. Health means "A state of complete,
physical mental and social well-being". Human activities
have been drastically changing the ecological balance of practically
every component of the environment, namely atmosphere, hydrosphere
and biosphere. There have been efforts on global level for environmental
management identifying environmental concerns and planning strategies
that suit to a particular nation. The environmental health is
an indicator of the quality of life of the people. We need air
to breath; Water to drink and land to live in.
The State of the Health
of the people does not depend upon the number of doctors and hospitals
only, but also on clean environment. The system has to be preventive
because "PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE". But without
the information or awareness on the subject one cannot achieve
the goal of prevention. The International theme this year is to
protect "our Earth, our Home and our People".
91. The neem plant,
Azadirachta indica, an important medicinal plant
M.V. Subba Rao.
Environmental Research Academy
Int., 58, Seetammadhara North Extension, Visakhapatnam - 530 013,
A neem plant Azadirachta
indica is an attractive evergreen (deciduous in drier areas) native
to the Indian subcontinent and distributed in India, Pakistan,
Bangladesh and Mynamar. The neem is cultivated throughout South-East
Asia, Australia, Africa, many countries in Central and South America,
the Caribbean, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Neem plant
is described as an important culturally and medicinally because
of an amoebocidal, antiallergic, anti-desmatic, anti-inflammatory,
anti-periodentic, anti-pyrrhoeic, anti-scabic, intesticidal, larvicidal,
nematicidal, piscidal, spermicidal and other biological activities
of its derivatives. Hence it is an important medicinal plant.
In neem oil, Azadirachtin
is present which is a potential ingredient in several pesticidal
formulations. This neem oil has spurred renewed efforts in finding
safe, alternative natural, bio-degradable, cheap and manageable
at village level pesticidal formulations for a variety of crops.
92. Shifting cultivation
- a cause for the loss of Bioresources in Srungavarapu kota and
Pachipenta mandals of Vizianagaram District of Andhra Pradesh
M.V. Subba Rao, A.N.P.S.
Madhavi, M. Aruna Kumari, G.S.S.H. Varaprasad, Y.AVASN. Maruthi
& P. Sunitha
Dept. Environmental Sciences,
Andhra University, Visakhapatnam - 530 003
The Eastern Ghats runs parallel
to the East coast of Andhra Pradesh. These are rich in Biodiversity.
The Eastern Ghats pass through 13 districts of Andhra Pradesh
and Vizianagaram is one of the districts. Srungavarapu Kota and
Pachipenta are the study Mandals of Vizianagaram district.
Shifting Podu cultivation
is practiced in Srungavarapu Kota and Pachipenta Mandals. It is
the common method of cultivation practiced by tribals in the forests,
hill tops and hill slopes. Major types of tribal peoples present
in these two areas are Kondadora, Mukadora, Jatapu and Savara.
For the shifting cultivation, they cleared a patch of forest cover.
This causes the loss of important forest tree species. Repeated
cutting and burning of forests for shifting cultivation causes
the hill tracts to become barren. A piece of land is used for
three or four years and abandoned it for sometime for recuperation.
After recuperation, this area is again used for shifting cultivation.
This method causes the loss of soil fertility and more damage
to the vegetation in the hills of these two Mandals. Annually
one hectare of forest land is cleared by each family for shifting
of Cattle against Ticks
Department of Veterinary
Parasitology, College of Veterinary Sciences, CCS Haryana Agricultural
University, Hisar - 125 004
The epidemiological patterns
of any disease is directly related to the environment, and control
incidence of diseases and their spread are important prerequisites
in ensuring a stable and healthy environment. Several fatal diseases
are transmitted to cattle through ticks. Indiscriminate use of
insecticides to kill ticks has led to environmental pollution
and health hazards. Therefore an alternative and eco-friendly
approach to control ticks and tick-borne diseases in cattle has
been attempted through prophylactic immunization.
Firstly, the cross-bred
calves were repeatedly infested 10 times with adult ticks at 15
days intervals, and all engorgement and reproductive parameters
of the ticks differed significantly first to tenth infestation,
Secondly, several cross-bred calves were immunized with different
antigenic components prepared from the salivary glands of infected
ticks (SG Ag) as well as whole tick extracts (WTE Ag) and the
calves acquired significant resistance to tick infestation. Humoral
immune response were demonstrated in such immunized calves by
enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, double diffusion test and capillary
agglutination test. These calves also showed significant increase
in gamma globulin levels. Cellular immune response were also
demonstrated by lymphocyte stimulation, leukocyte migration, inhibition,
intradermal test and per cent E - rosette test. Skin lesions showed
cellular infiltration, formation of cavities and epidermal vesicles
at the site of tick attachment, along with infiltration of basophils
Please send comments to Email < Macer@biol.tsukuba.ac.jp >.
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