Bioethics in High Schools in Australia, Japan & New Zealand

Darryl R.J. Macer, Yukiko Asada, Miho Tsuzuki, Shiro Akiyama, & Nobuko Y. Macer

Published under Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, JAPAN; (D.M., N.M; Eubios Ethics Institute, 31 Colwyn Street, Christchurch 5, New Zealand)

Prof. Darryl Macer,
Regional Advisor on Social and Human Sciences in Asia and the Pacific,
RUSHSAP, UNESCO Bangkok,
920 Sukhumwit Road,
Prakanong, Bangkok
Thailand 10110
Tel: +662 3910577 Ext. 141
Fax: +662-664-3772 Email asianbioethics@yahoo.co.nz

Copyright 1996 Eubios Ethics Institute. All rights reserved. The copyright for this publication is held by the Eubios Ethics Institute. Academic and teaching uses of this material or photocopies are openly encouraged, and other non-profit use. For other uses seek the permission of the Eubios Ethics Institute.

This is a total list of the open comments, made for temporary reference. All five questions are listed. In mid-April the files will be separated.


Open comments

This is a complete listing of open comments given in response to the survey. The number refers to our reference number in the statisitical data program, and the abbreviation "s" refers to social studies teachers. In the case of cross-assignment, the other category is shown after the comment (each comment appears only once in this list) .


Q5. What do you think bioethics is?

Respect for life

New Zealand

Treating living organisms with an ethical approach. 46
Means the ethic association and living organisms, i.e. the moral right / wrong way of interacting with living organisms.47 (+Using life)
Rules of conduct based on sensitivity and a moral sense of the right way to treat living organisms. 67
Before reading the intro, I would have said bioethics was a new brand of soap powder, but, on further reflection, a speculation that it is a belief or value system inherent in some sciences. 69s
Life ethics. 83
The right and respectful use of living / dead organisms and the issues surrounding. 153 (+Using life)
Treating plants and animals with respect. Animal rights. 237 (+Animal experiments)
A respect for the continuation of living organisms (i.e. live and let live). 243
Values system in respect to living organisms. 252
Australia

The ethics of undertaking any experiment and procedure with regard for the individual organism rights and dignity. An awareness of long term problems that may result. 89 (+Animal experiments)
Search for standards concerning our relationship to all living beings (underlying assumption; THE EXTRAORDINARY GIFT OF LIFE AND THE NECESSITY TO RESPECT IT). 140s (+Decide before use)
Moral principles associated with life. 284
Ethics of living things, whether or not we have rights to interfere with them or not. 303s (+Providence)
The study of issues relating to dignity of humans, including the role of science in the life cycle. 316s (+Science raises issues)
Japan

The common understanding of protecting the dignity of life to a maximum. 7
Others must not violate the rights to sustain or terminate the power to live. 11
Life is respected when it is left in a natural condition or in the natural system as much as possible. 15 (+Providence)
I think it is getting to be important considering the continued existence of humankind, and the dignity of the individuals. 17
A science of respect for life, not only the life of the human race but of all things (organisms), and including spreading this way of thinking. 28
For example, life has dignity. 32
An ethics about life which considers an interpretation of life not only from the view point of natural science and biology, but also from the standpoint of life, which considers the moral and religious sides. 36
There is dignity of life and dignity of nature. How much can we put our hands to it ? 46
The dignity of life. 53
The irreplaceable and importance of life. 60
To recognize the mystery of life and to know the irreplaceability of life (inochi). 61
An idea and attitude which humans have towards life. 63
The heart which sympathizes with the dignity of life. 65
I think it is important to have consideration of, and value, the importance of life, not only to humans but also to all living organisms. 66
The common sense when we deal with "life". 73
It is based on being alive in the natural condition and situation. 76
To understand the irreplaceability of life. Also understand the variety and objectivity of the birth of life. 78
To think what is "being alive" (matter, object, organisms). 91
The heart which respects organisms of each species themselves and the heart which takes care of living things and life. 95
To fulfill all organisms' life, and for humans to do so. 97
Life of all things is revered. We have to respect each other. 101
To cultivate a heart which respects the mystery and wonder of life. 105
To bring up the heart to teach the importance of life. To consider life phenomena comparing the scientific and mental sides, by teaching the difference between regenerative plants and non-regenerative animals. 106
I think it means dignity for organisms. 112
To respect life as nature. 115
The respect to life of all organisms. 122
To respect all life. To have a heart which considers other's feelings. 127
Something which respects the preciousness of life. 130
To have awe of life. A way of thinking (logic) of the right view of life and death. 132
The dignity of life. 141
Life is more important than all the earth. 144
A sense of reverence for life phenomena. 150
To respect irreplaceable life (of mine and others). The way of thinking about life. 156
A standard that should protect the preciousness of life, and the way to keep that heart. 158
To learn, research various things about life. 170
Something to bring up life taking care of it. 176
To recognise the importance of "life" itself. 178
We should basically respect life sufficiently. 182
To take care of life. 183
To be prepared to be thankful to and not to waste other lives, since organisms cannot live without some sacrifice of other organisms. 184
Respect of all life. 195
Respect of life. 208
To make us think of the preciousness of life through teaching the facts of life phenomena. 209
To think how to protect the life of all organisms on the earth, taking care of them without human pride, through the environmental, medical, and social aspects. 215 (+Environment)
Reverence to something unknown. 217
An ethics and morals to take care of any life. 219
To respect the origin of life. 220
To protect the dignity of life. 221
There are some areas where humans as one of the organisms, must not violate organisms of life. 225
To understand from the whole organisms world view, not human-centred. 236
Something not to violate, to protect, in order that every organism (including human beings can die a natural death. 242
To make us think about the meaning of life and the dignity of life. 250
The attitude of respecting the life of all organisms. 252
We have to take care of life above all. 258
About the dignity of life. 263
Life is irreplaceable. 267
The preciousness of life. 271
To respect the life of all organisms. 276
Respect for life. 278
Something to respect life and protect it. 282
The awe of life. 288
To investigate the roots of life. 289
The issue how much we can reduce "our view of life and death" of organisms to objects. 292
Each life should be taken care of. 300
I think bioethics is the dignity of life, the importance of life, the idea and the way of thinking and philosophy concerning life. 303
Seen at the cosmic level, life itself is very rare existence, so I disagree with human behaviour that they carelessly erase existence. 304
To recognize the existence of each individual life, and respect each other. 307
The dignity of life phenomena. 312
The importance of life, the continuation of life. 314
The dignity of life. 324
Something which is to respect most highly, humans and life on the earth. 327
I think it is a framework (idea, moral) which we can consider and feel the importance of these two words, "inochi" and "death". 329
The dignity of life. 344
I think it is to look at human beings not as something special, but as one organism. 354
To recognise that all organisms have the dignity of life , and to take care of life without the way of thinking that only humans stand on top. 368
Life of every organisms has equal value, but it has some differences on the individual level. 382
The understanding and the recognition of the dignity of life of all organisms. 384
An opinion that living things should be respected as much as possible. 389
The understanding of life and respect of life. (Is the order the reverse ?) 392
To have awe for every life. 403
Something which is necessary in order for all living things to coexist, which doesn't apply only to humans. 410
Let's take care of living things. 425
The way of thinking that the life of all organisms on the earth is respected. 435
The way of thinking to take care of all life. 444
To observe the dignity of life. 451
The dignity of life, and the respect of life. 465
The dignity of life. 469
The way of thinking about the dignity of life. 476
The importance of balanced (harmonized) life. 485
To be based on the respect of the living body in the natural world (including human beings, wild animals and plants). 491
To respect the existence rights of all living things. 502
I cannot understand the meaning of the question. 511
Respect life. 513
Respect life. 515
To think about "life", and carry it out. 521
Animals and plants have rights to live the same as humans, and we should not behave arbitrarily. 526
A thought about the value of life. 531
Life which living organisms have respects the power of trying to live. 533
To know a mechanism of our body and understand the importance of life. 537
I cannot say in a word, but I think that [bioethics] is a spirit which we can understand as an 'activity of living', including humans, and respect for all living organisms. 552
[We], from micro organisms to humans, are members of the earth. I would like to think about respect for life more broadly, instead of paying too much special attention only to animals. 554
A thing which respects life and explains its importance. 561
How to protect the dignity of life which was given. 4s
To learn about the preciousness of life. 28s
We should make the most of the dignity of life. 44s
The dignity which living organisms have as living organisms. An essential way of thinking. 53s
To make us think of the preciousness of life. 63s
I suppose that it is to love and respect of all living things. 64s
Life should be put at the base of education. 68s
Dignity and reverence. 92s
Reverence for life. 98s
The importance of life. 103s
The serious issue related with the dignity of life. 109s
Everything which has life is precious, and its dignity should be protected at the risk of our life. I want the power to live to be the goal of education. 131s
The dignity of life. 146s
Reverence for life. 150s
Freedom and equality of all living things. 179s
The dignity of life. 185s
The feeling that to be able to consider ourselves and others as living organisms, in involvement with others. 192s
To have (recognize) the dignity of every life (existence) of organisms including humans. 193s
The preciousness of life. 220s
To think of the values of each life as equal. 227s
To treat living organisms without disgracing their dignity. 233s
To establish a law that life is superior to any other values. 252s
To respect all living things as value. 254s
To have reverence for life. 259s
The way of thinking which considers every life as irreplaceable. 265s
The reasoning about the preciousness of the life of all living things. 291s
Respect for life. 304s
It is based on reverence for life. 306s
Dignity of humans. (Humanism and human rights). 332s
Consciousness of respecting all living organisms. 342s
We should respect the value definition of each life. There are some parts which we must not violate. 363s

Science/biology raises issues
New Zealand

The ethical issues relating to bioethics. 1
The study of the moral questions arising from the application of new discoveries / products to the living world. 3
It is a decision-making process considering moral, practical, philosophical issues about biological research and practices. 6
Ethics related to current medical / biological issues. 7 (+medicine)
Ethical issues relating to various areas in biology. 10
The moral and social issues related to biological science. 15
Issues, social / moral dealing with uses and advanced in biological technology. 20
The examination of the ethical and moral issues surrounding the topic of biology. 26s
The consideration of ethics in biological matters. 28
Ethics of biological issues. 30
Moral and social implications of biology / research etc. 32
Moral issues in bio. 36
Anything to do with life/living organisms which can have an ethical viewpoint. 41 (+Using life)
The application of moral principles to the subject of "biology" to include an examination of present practices and future thinking. 42 (+Using life)
The ethics of science. 44s
Making decisions on ethical issues concerning biological issues. 45s
A consideration of the direction in which science is taking and the social implications of the research being undertaken, e.g. the ethics of genetic engineering in humans. 48s
The issues surrounding biological manipulations such as medicine and genetic engineering etc. 49
The ethics surrounding the use of new technology, what is right (e.g. should we chop out a blonde gene, even if we could.) 50
Studying the social consequences of advances made in medicine and genetic engineering. 51s
Ethical questions associated with increased levels of biotechnology? 53s
The issues regarding all aspects of biotechnology and their impact socially and environmentally. 54
Study of the ethical issues involved in manipulation and understanding of living organisms. 55
The social and moral issues pertaining to biological investigation / advanced in ethically sensitive areas. 61
Ethical issues that are in or effected by biology. 64
Being ethical in relation to biology especially in regard to experimentation with organisms. 71 (+Using life)
Relating biotechnology to moral issues. 72
Study of ethical and moral considerations in the field of biology. 74
Current social, moral and ethical issues associated with all aspects of science and technology. 75
Consideration of social and ethical issues related to the study of use of living things. 79s
Ethical issues associated with humans and particularly medical science and technology. 94s (+Medicine)
Considering the use and implications of any animal (including human) studies. Moral issues. 97 (+Animal experiments))
The ethics involved in the development and use of biological materials. 98s
The morality of biological science and biological research. 109
Ethical issues arising our of contemporary biological applications. 122s
Ethics involved in biological science. 124
Morals and values relating to the sciences, especially biology. 126
Social issues (e.g. experimenting with live animals associated with research and teaching). 139s (+Animal experiments)
The ethical issues of biologically related subjects. 141s
Biology and social issues wrapped up in one. 151
Ethics of biology. 154
Ethical considerations relating to biological issues. 164
The ethics (rights and wrongs related with biological science. 165
Studying the social implications (morality etc.) of biological processes etc. 166s
Examination of ethical issues of research (e.g.vivisection); use of pesticides etc. 167s
Looking at the morality of issues in the biological area of study and industry. 169
The morality of biological and perhaps chemical intervention in previously developed life cycles. 177
The study of biological based ethics. 182
Moral and social issues associated with biology. 187s
Social and moral issues raised by advances in biology or related science. 190
Science of biological morals. 191s
Social and moral issues in science and technology. 192
The ethics / morality issues involved with biological issues, mainly human related. 194
It is the moral, social and ethical aspects of biology imposed by me. 199
Application and use of ethics in the field of bio science. 200
Moral issues concerned with living things / life processes etc. 203s
Moral issues touching on biology. 205
Relating science issues and developments. 208s
Ethical questions within biology. 211
Applying ethical standards to biological studies. 218
The social and ethical questions that must be asked of biological research. 224
The understanding of moral issues related to current or future biological / technological developments and progress. 225
Cultural values as they related to the capabilities of technology. 227s
The moral implications that arise from studying living things. 233
Study of how biology affects human morals / values / ethics and vice versa. 241
The ethics of biology : the morals of dealing with sensitive biological topics. 242
Moral questions relating to biology. 250
Ethical issues in relation to some areas of biology (e.g. genetic engineering). 251
The study of law and how objective morality can apply to science experiments and developments. 253s
Ethics of biology (literally). 255
The ethics associated with human life particularly, and ethics related to living creatures on wider scale. 256
Study of ethics relating to anything biological, e.g. is or has been living. 258
The process of looking at ethical issues concerned in different branches of biology, particularly current research areas. 265
Ethics (moral rules concerned with biological procedures and issues. 281
Societies attitudes and values reflected towards and by new technology and science. 286
Ethics and morals relating to biology (living things). 290
Social issues associated with living things. 293
Ethical issues with respect to biology. 297
Social and moral implications of biological science. 302
Australia

Ethical issues regarding biology (science and technology). 1
The moral issues of altering genetically determined parameters of life. 2s
The moral issues involved in scientific discoveries. 3s
Ethical implications of biological scientific research and commercial applications.7
Ethical issues related to biological questions. 8
The link between morality of inquiry and the need for inquiry. 9
Morality of genetic engineering. 18
The study of ethics as related to biological activities. 20
The study of issues relating to genetics and consequences in life. 22s
Ethical decisions related to science, technology and society. 24
The study of the ethics behind biology and its application in technology. 28
Morality / ethics involved in the science / social sciences. 35s
Ethical issues and controversial ideas which relate to biological content of works or media. 43
Ethical issues associated with biology. 51
The relationship of ethical issues to biological research and applications, technology. 52
How ethics relates to scientific issues which concern man and other living things. 55s
Moral attitudes towards teaching and application of science and technology. 56
Very important area of science, particularly as genetic engineering gains greater prominence. 59
Ethical and moral issues pertaining to biological sciences. 61
Biological ethics. 62
The moral and ethical issues related to developments in living cells. 63
Development of ethical responses to developments related to biological change. 76
Ethics involved / related to issues concerning technical advances the biological fields. 78
The study of the ethical consideration of biological processes / concepts. 79
Not only a social issues, but also dealing of the ethical (bad/good; moral or immoral) issues which are related to science and technology. 80s
The ethics and morality associated with biological research. 81s
The subject encompasses moral questions related to the teaching of issues in science and technology associated with human biology. 82
Ethical implications of research and technological developments in scientific areas particularly biology.90
The study of the ethics considered when scientific research and technology takes place. 94
Moral principles relating to life issues. 95
Moral issues in relation to human organ donation, embryology and genetic engineering. 96
Ethical considerations of scientific and technological developments. 109s
Ethical issues involved in bio-ethno-social science. 125
Ethical / moral considerations applied to research and application of technological science. 129
The study of the moral questions raised trough "advances" in science. 130s
Ethics associated with science. 144
The interaction between advances in biological science and the values we hold in relation to life, birth, old age etc. 149s
The study of moral principles inherent in any biological research / experimentation. 163
The study of biologically ethical issues which are related to society. 166
The study of ethical questions arising from scientific research, particularly in the area of human biology. 170s
The ethics of biological issues. 171
The study of ethical issues associated with the biological sciences. 172
Ethical concerns associated with studies in biology. 174
The study of controversial areas of biology which raise opposing points of view and raise moral issues. 185
Ethical consideration surrounding biological issues. 192
Ethics associated with issues of a biological nature - relates to both animals, plants and man. 197
Ethical issues involved life patterns and process. 198s
The ethical manipulations of scientific research. 201
Application of ethical moral issues to the practice of the sciences. 202s
Understanding the ethical / moral / social implications of scientific (biological) developments. 203s
Morality involved in biology. 210
The study of ethical problems arising from scientific advances, e.g. cloning etc. 224s
The justification behind scientific research, i.e. why and on what, for what reason. 225
The consideration of social moral issues related to biology, i.e. implications outside of scientific area. 226
The study of biology in relation to ethical considerations. 227s
Looking at all sides of various issues associated with life, science, technology and society. 228
Moral implications of technology and its intrusion in living systems. 230
Ethical / moral issues arising because technology is being developed / used in medicine, science, life, agriculture, everywhere. 235 (+medicine)
Ethical considerations re: current scientific practices. 239
The ethics (moral / social) position of altering the "biology" of something. 240
Ethics of biology. 248s
Ethical issues that relate to biological concepts. 250s
The concern / wisdom of interfering with the biological aspects of life, and the morality of it. 269s
The study of ethical issues as they pertain to living things. 275s
Special issues involving life science. 285
Ethics associated with biological issues.290
Ethical issues involving biotechnology concerned with living things. 293s
Ethical consideration of biological matters, e.g. IVF. 294
Consideration of ethical issues raised by technological developments in biology. 301
Study of relationship between ethics and life, and its application in society. 308
Issues in biology. 309s
The study of philosophical / moral questions as these apply to scientific issues (e.g. in vitro fertilization technology). 314s
Ethical issues relating to the biological or life sciences. 315
Japan

To raise the consciousness about the dignity of life, to make us aware of issues related with the progress of science. 26 (+Respect for life)
It is the questioning again of science itself, not limited to persons, human beings, and humans. 34
We are getting to understand the origin of life phenomena with the progress of biology, especially genetics and developmental biology. [Bioethics] is a value standard with which we judge how much we are allowed to use technologies which were developed from the progress and genetic engineering which were applied in fields of agriculture, and medicine. 56 (+Medicine)
I think it is strange that we can do everything for the development of science (even in research). 81
An ethical view about life, an idea to respect life, the way of thinking of death, organ transplantation, in vitro fertilisation, biotechnology. 335 (+Respect for life)
How do we consider about organisms, especially the human body, and life, with the progress of scientific technologies. 350
How can the progress of science (biology, medicine) be related with life phenomena in nature ? Issues related to the happiness of human beings and human beings as an organism. 353 (+Human benefit)
I have a comparatively scientific view of life. 423
The development of scientific technologies (in biology), and how far are we allowed to apply those to humans. 437 (+how to apply)
In the current development of life science, [bioethics] replaces traditional religions, defines God's realm, and prevents a runaway of science from happening. 445
Only human beings can consider it, but people who have scientific technologies must consider it. 448
Something composed by scientific recognition and religious sentiments. 478
The combination of issues in the field of science and a field of value judgment. 99s
It is an important thing that we can consider the value of life in our current society, where life is only approached as a phenomena by science. 100s (+Respect for life)
The friction between both religions and moral ethics, and development of scientific technology. 140s
I don't know in detail, but I think it is the serious theme which is going to be questioned as scientific technology develops. 195s (+Very important)
I think it is necessary for us to teach what "being alive" means for humans in a school, and in other places, and to know this, given the current rapid development of scientific technologies. 214s (+Human benefit)
I think it is the problem how scientific development affects human dignity, such as organ transplantation, genetic recombination. It is the matter (the definition of value and life) how we judge long and short, superiority and inferiority in our life, and how we consider our happiness. 215s (+Human benefit)
Something which questions the relation between humanism and science. 216s
The issue of harmony between the dignity of life and the workings of the natural world and the development of scientific technologies. 222s (+Respect for life)
Because of recent progress of scientific technologies concerned with life, relation with ethics is asked again. 237s
The subject which can not be handled only by science. (It is important to involve religion, psychology, and philosophy.) 248s
Something which influences the future of humankind very much, these days when genetic engineering is developed. 277s
Something which humans should not violate. I think it is necessary to watch or criticize scientific development from the view point of religion and ethics. 280s (+Providence)
A value system which should give guiding principles primarily for the development and research of scientific technology related to biology. 290s (+Decide before use)
Considering the accidentality and the importance of life, I don't think it should be used to provide the progress and scientific technology. 303s (+Respect for life)
Scientific technology should be used for our happiness. We are facing the time to think "what is human?", "what is dignity?", considering this. 315s (+Human benefit)
I think it is the problem we face again, when we concern ourselves with genetic engineering and organ transplantation, etc. Also I think it is the problem which is asking what view of life we should have, in order to re-establish a consciousness (definition) about human life and death. 319s (+human benefit)
It will always have both sides, one we are allowed to touch, the other not to touch. 334s
I think the nature of science is to advance like self-multiplication, without value judgment. Thus [bioethics] is something like a guiding principle for the way of human living to control science (and other things ?). 347s (+Decide before use)
I think it is a concept concerned with how humans should live and how humans should be, corresponding to the rapid progress of scientific technologies especially in medicine and biology, etc. 355s (+Medicine)
The establishment of morals concerned with the birth of life as life phenomena. 380s (+Decide before use)

People face issues in the world
Japan

Something that humans have to acquire as a minimum in our life. 299
All the issues concerned with organisms and life, of present and in the future. It is related with the natural world, the way of looking of the world and life, the way of living, and personality. 401
The truth which humans must have in order to live. 414
(I think "there is nothing we can do about the change of standards after 1000 years", because we have to change standards as time goes on.) I don't know exactly. 446
The responsibility to humankind and the earth (including organisms in the future). 498 (+environment)
There could be some changes in the definition of value in concept of bioethics as the passage of time on the earth level. 523
A study that considers all ethical problems in life and medicine. It's contents force a change in the main concept of traditional ethics, with the progress of medical technologies and the change of environmental conditions. Therefore we need to doubt even traditional humanism and ethical concepts. 27s (+Science raises issues)
It considers current problems which are related with the activities of human life. 51s
I've never thought seriously, but I think it will be a big issue in the future. 96s
I think it is a very important concept (which we should not treat lightly), but it will change as time passes. 189s (+Very important)
Comprehensive ethics (including science, medicine, psychology, religion, etc.) needed so we recapture judgments respecting values of individuals, and don't entrust our life to others. 263s (+Human benefit)
Real and important issue which removes mystery. 296s

Don't trust science
Japan

Only pursuing life theory leaves problems. I wonder whether the progress of life science brings happiness to humankind. 90
When humans cannot understand the necessity of the huge chain in the natural world, we think it is an accident. The world of life is still an accidental world for humans. It is not just a little dangerous, and it is an arrogant act to try to do artificial manipulation to the natural chain which we have not understood yet. Thus, I think bioethics is to control the act of some arrogant scientists. 327s (+Decide before use)

Environmental problems
New Zealand

The study of the interaction of life and the environment. 5s
Ethical issues related to any part of the environment. These could be directly or indirectly related. 37
Consideration of the moral and ethical aspects (considerations and consequences of actions taken in the course of biological research and medical and surgical practice. 43 (+debate)
Proper management of organic environment. 62 (+Using life)
Ethics associated with living systems. 104 (+Science raises issues)
Ethics / disciplines associated with sensitive / correct core and use of lab animals, plants, wild animals etc. and the environment in which they live, in farming, research, teaching and genetic biology. 110 (+Animal experiments)
Study of value related to man's interaction with other species. 116
Study of manipulating nature to human advantage. 120 (+how to apply)
Responsibility / guidelines with regard to tampering with biological environment issues. 135s (+Decide before use)
Protection of the biosphere in relation to human interference. 138s
The study of values in the environment and the conflicts that are prevalent. 140 (+Decide before use)
The considerations that should be made when manipulating life, that is regarding the social, moral, environmental consequences of such scientific work. 152 (+Science raises issues)
The social and philosophical issues around the area of human moral understanding in relation to living systems, their study and their manipulation. 176 (+Science raises issues)
The appropriate attitudes and mechanisms associated with the study of living organisms, including their alteration (genetic and otherwise), changes to environmental conditions and enforced behavioural patterns. 189s (+how to apply)
Ethics associated with care of living organisms with regard to the place of all species in the environment, and the fact that each organism impacts on many others. 198s (+Using life ethically)
How we treat the biological environment. Decisions made relating to this. 207s (+Decide before use)
Moral and ethical issues as they relate to research and the environment. 222 (+Science raises issues)
Development of rules to govern man's impact on and use of the environment. 228s (+Decide before use)
A moral stance towards the environment. 235s
Concerns / issues, to do with technology in biology, introduction of introduced bio control organisms, genetically engineered bacteria etc., Short and long term consequences on man and the biosphere. 254 (+how to apply)
Questions and morality of technological advances in relation to people and the planet. 295s (+how to apply)
Respecting the environment by acting where possible in the interests of the majority so as to maintain the balance of nature. 299s
Study of moral and ethical issues involved in human relationship with the physical environment. 303s
Australia

The social and environmental implications of the use of biotechnology related to ethical issues. 23s (+how to apply)
Morality and value system associated with biological issues - reproductive, genetic, ecological. 91 (+Decide before use)
Man's "control" of usage of living species and the environment. 134 (+Using life)
An awareness and consideration of moral judgments pertaining to the use or non use of living tissue at all levels of organization, e.g. cell ecosystem. 189s (+Using life)
Looking at the ethical situations that arise from man's ability to manipulate the biological world. 200 (+Using life)
The addressing of moral issues associated with humane treatment of the environment, other species and humans, relating to the use of practices and technology developed by humans. 235 (+how to apply)
The ethics of research in biological / environmental fields, e.g. issues relating to morals of genetic engineering. 321s (+how to apply)
The ethics of the human intervention in biological systems. 329 (+Using life)
Japan

All individual organisms (individuals belonging to the human race) have rights to live equally. But, we have to pay attention to the existence of other organisms (species), since human beings are supported by other organisms. In this case, when we have to sacrifice other organism's life, we should try to sacrifice as little as possible. 2
Its something like an environmental assessment which stops the uncontrolled advance of technology. 16 (+how to apply)
Life manipulation must not be a thing which affects the ecosystem. 40
The ecosystem that lives with nature. 43
The importance of life, and the fact that organisms live having various relationships with other organisms. 49 (+Respect for life)
To have more interest in the future of the life of all the universe, and to protect it. 54
We should consider ecosystems on the global scale as one life. 68
To question our actions when we put our hands on the workings of nature which has been continuing, and to make phenomena occur which could not occur in nature, and to alter the future which was supposed to follow nature. 75 (+Respect for life)
Nature !! 82
We should avoid artificial manipulation of nature in a big way as much as possible. 125
The standard to maintain species, as they are in nature. 135 (+Respect for life)
To protect species of organisms. 145 (+Respect for life)
To know the relationship between life phenomena and organisms and to respect life. 161 (+Respect for life)
I think it is a way of thinking based on not only humans but also on the Earth's ecosystems. 245
A field which studies what the relationships between every living organism and humans should be. 260
Human beings as one of the members in the ecosystems. Fundamentally, we are equal to other animals. 330
Kindness and considerations towards humans and nature. 346 (+Respect for life)
Brain death of human beings, biohazard, genetic manipulation, the destruction of the ecosystem. 363 (+Science raises issues)
To try to coexist with all organisms to the extent of reaching an understanding. 367
To ask the (ethical) value from various directions, about the interaction between organisms in the ecosystem, and health and disease, life and death, growth and decline (aging) in species. (I cannot say these value judgments easily.) 393
I think it is important to keep balance, harmonizing every living thing. 443 (+Respect for life)
The fundamental way of thinking about manipulation of life (including the earth's environment). 492 (+Using life)
Harmony with nature. Humans are a part of nature rather than that animals and plants are equal to humans. 499 (+Respect for life)
To make us think of the importance of our own inochi. 500 (+Respect for life)
I think it should be a complete personal matter. I feel that the consciousness that humans are also a part of the ecosystem, the earth, has been forgotten these days when more primary problems are considered more widely, such as genetic manipulation of fertilized egg. 512 (+other)
The human way of living at the end of the world. 516
We have to think synthetically, at the earth (the ecosystem) level. 524
Do not play with the life of animals and plants in vain. Respect for human life. Protection of the environment. 557 (+Respect for life)
As well as taking care of every person's life, recognizing the continuity of life. 30s (+Human benefit)
It must not be human-centred or a selfish thing, and also it must not be something which brings bad effects to the environment where humans and other organisms live. 78s (+Decide before use)
To think or make us think of the importance of life and what life is. 91s (+Respect for life)
The matter related with all kinds of organism's life and to consider the life of all organisms on the earth as precious. 101s (+Respect for life)
Each life is a self-teleological existence. I think bioethics is to develop the ecosystem further, which is built up by the cooperation of lives. 119s
The synthetic study concerned with medicine, environment, population problem, and life including other organisms not only human. 138s (+Respect for life)
We should think about neither only humans, nor as human-centred, but in involvement with all organisms as we live. 139s
I think this is the most important and fundamental factor in order to keep the order of the earth. The field that must not be violated by the judgment of humans or individuals. 178s (+Very important)
Fundamental spirit in order for humans to build an ordered society and live with nature, for the humans not to be just as organisms. 186s (+Human benefit)
For all species to maintain their own originality from birth to death. 236s
Science including not only human but also animals and plants, maintenance of nature, and ethics of protection. 249s
The earth's balance is kept by the existence itself of all individual organisms. Are humans allowed to multiply, change, and alter it for human's own convenience? 251s (+Using life)
Dignity of life, bioethics in nature. 326s (+Respect for life)
To live in harmony with nature, manipulate things artificially as little as possible. 329s (+Providence)
The fundamental recognition in order to think of life, the earth as humans. 335s (+Human benefit)
To consider the substance and shortage of the environment where humans exist. 340s
It's aim is to approach animals, including humans, and plants, with the result of science, then promote human happiness and protect the environment. 346s (+Human benefit)
Since humans exist as a member of the organisms on the earth, we should coexist with other organisms in a natural environment, and should be in the ecosystem with humble reverence and have a sense of respect for the mystery of life. 357s (+Respect for life)

Animal experiments
New Zealand

Ethics related to use of living organisms, animal and plant. 2 (+Using life)
Standards of treatment of animals that prevent pain, discomfort, maltreatment. Using biology results in responsible, open way. 17
The ethics of handling small animals and biological samples. 33
The appropriate use and treatment of animals and plants by humans. 57 (+Using life)
Consideration of rights of animals etc. to not be harmed for experimentation purposes (including school use, research activities, businesses). 77
Life ethics animals and their treatment. 86 (+Using life)
Code of conduct applied when live plants and animals become a focus for study. 89s (+Using life)
The moral and social issues regarding the use and experimentation with living plants and animals. 90 (+Using life ethically)
The rights of animals to fair and humane treatment. The use of living things for moral reasons. 102 (+Using life ethically)
The ethical and social implications of biological manipulation (genetic engineering) of animals and plants. 106s (+how to apply)
I see it as the discipline which relates to the correct treatment of the living environment animals particularly animals (generally, warm furry ones!) 111 (+Using life)
The care of living animals and plants. 123 (+Using life ethically)
The ethical issues surrounding the study of plants and animals. 142 (+Using life)
The ethics involved in the use of animals for experiments. 158
Deciding what should / shouldn't be done on animals / humans from a moral perspective. 159 (+Using life)
Giving consideration to what is acceptable or not in our treatment of living organisms, particularly animals, and especially human beings. 162 (+Using life)
A code of behaviour in the use of plants and animals. 204 (+Decide before use)
The philosophy outlining the morality of interfering with natural processes, genetic engineering, medical experimentation on living persons and animals. 216 (+Using life, Medicine)
Ethics of using animals or arranging genes in animals. 234
Consideration for the effects of experiments on the animals involved. Consequences of experimenting with and changing the natural order of life. 238 (+Using life)
Ethical issues and consequences arising from using live animals in research. 245
The consideration given to the use of living things in experimentation (the type of experimentation used). 257 (+Using life)
The ethics of using animals in scientific experiment or demonstration. 261
Ethical way we treat live animals i.e. "animal rights". 267 (+Using life)
Ethics as applied to the use of living organisms especially animals. 271 (+Using life)
Issues concerning animal welfare. 274
The correct use of animals for scientific purposes. 284
The appropriate behaviour when treating or doing work with animals. 290
The code of living organisms in a laboratory situation. 298 (+Using life)
Australia

The pros and cons of using live animals in scientific experiments, and raising animals to be killed for use in experiments. 44s
Ethical issues associated with the use of plants, animals, bacteria, viruses, fungi, in technological development. 49 (+Using life)
Questions of morality in using live tissues and organisms in research. 64s (+Using life)
The moral and ethical implications of experimentation using living organisms, particularly animals, and the consideration of arguments for and against the use of animal materials. 84 (+Using life)
The ethics of dealing with, experimenting on living organisms, particularly animals (but including plants. 102
The issues of animal use, appropriateness of research and its application. 204 (+Science raises issues)
Study of ethics related to handling and experimentation of living material (animals in particular). 211 (+Using life)
The ethical rationale of using animals in experiments is investigated within this study. 232
The ethical issues involved in using biological material, e.g. animals for dissection or genetic manipulation of plants and animals. Also use of biotechnology in such ways as IVF or organ transplants. 244 (+Using life, Medicine)
Social implication of scientific research etc. on man and society and how experimental work is carried out. 298s (+how to apply)
Japan

As well as respecting life, to accept the death of organisms which are killed in experiments, etc. 337 (+Respect for life)
The moral sense about live of organisms which are involved in experiments for biological research. 416 (+Using life)
It is not just a feeling of pity for animals, neither the thinking that humans stand above everything. Nor just a guideline of research activity of others, nor a thing which forces one's religious or racial habits on others. 439 (+other)
Thinking about the human rights of somebody who cannot assert themselves, such as a brain dead person, animals for experiments, etc. 542 (+Human benefit)
Debate is useful / decision-making
New Zealand

The ethics / values involved in decision making in science, e.g. the rights / wrong of genetic engineering. 25s
Fair comment. 38
Ethics involving a decision making concerning people and the environment. 39s (+environment)
Exercising responsible decision making based on the morality of the utilisation of biological (scientific) knowledge / techniques / principles. 66 (+how to apply)
The teaching about biological issues, and giving students information so they can make an informed discussion. 173s
Australia

A concern for life which leads ethicists to formulate principles / guidelines for those with power in the manipulation of life. 21s (+Using life)
Challenging area of moral debate. 37s
Japan

It is very difficult to decide ethics by debate at the moment, but it shouldn't be left. 23
The ethical view which was decided by the general will of the time not only specialists (natural scientists) but also including the opinions from other fields. 58
The way of thinking differs depending on the social situation, but at least, it [bioethics] should not be decided only by knowledgeable persons. 59
Something we should have as humans. 111
We discuss ethics concerned with human life many times, but I don't think we have discussion covering whole organisms. I want to know about "life" through experiments, but I think we must not misuse them. 126 (+Using life)
We should have a discussion on TV covering bioethics broadly by scientists to ethical and correct reform of politicians. Ban on research in secret and obligation of reporting the research (both success and failure). 137
We are too thoughtless to life. I sometimes explain about the preciousness of life in my class. 146 (+Respect for life)
A thing which should be discussed by many people who have the correct knowledge. It should not be decided by only some physicians and lawyers. 162
I think it is necessary in education also to open the scientists' work from the closed rooms to the public in these days of increasing interest in life science. 202
I think it is better for it to depend on the person. We should not force our opinions on other persons, also others should not criticize us. 243
We make a mistake when we judge only from the view point of one study (way of thinking). We should synthesis our judgment from each direction, and I think it is very important for the definition of value for human beings. 269
I cannot define without discussion. 394
Bioethics is hard to distinguish a border. 479 (+other)
I think [bioethics] is the context that we should make students consider in class, from now on. 514

Other
New Zealand

An idea. 149
What somebody thinks somebody else should do! 259s
I had no idea until I read the accompanying letter. 289s
Australia

Same as your definition as shown in the accompanying letter. 160
See paragraph 2 of covering letter; a definition I find acceptable. 177s
The ethical treatment of our living world, protecting the future. 217 (+Using life)
The study of ethics. 234
As defined in your letter. 305s
Ethics of peoples. 306
Japan

The issues how to think of "life" and how to treat it based on thoughts and civilizations which have been built up by humans. 13 (+Respect for life)
The way of thinking that not only the body but also the spirit (soul) is important for humans. 19
Life, gene, DNA. 24
What is life? Are there any differences in life (animal and human)? How do we see the current existing organisms through the passage of the earth's history? Human existence. (To consider bioethics is a human being, but what is a human being who considers bioethics.) 30
The extent to which we can explain natural conditions by science. 38
I think it means "preservation of DNA". The human case, it is "preservation of individual's DNA", and in other organisms cases, it is "preservation of species DNA". 67 (+environment)
An ethics including the protection of organisms, which seems a little abnormal. 72
I am thinking vaguely, but I think it is the root to consider reasons. 84
In a process from human birth to death. 123
Buddhist (religious) life view ? 155
For each cell or group of cells which has been multiplying continuously since the earth was born, to appear as each organisms. 166 (+Respect for life)
Difficult issue. 226
The mechanisms of life has been revealed at the micro level, and biochemically, by the development of modern science. From this point of view, I think we need thoughts and ideas about life which universally suit present society. 313
"Now, I live here." We cannot understand that the meaning of existence of organisms cannot be understood at all by human wisdom. 323
I'm not familiar with the word "bioethics", so it is hard to understand, but I think bioethics is a study subject from now on. 328
I think it is "to live" or "to make live" as life. 340
I think it is the field considering the way of thinking scientifically concerned with human life. 343
I wonder whether it is like a life science synthesized by molecular biology. 405
It is called ethics, however, I think it is completely different from philosophy and religion. It is a purely scientific (chemical) thing. 418
I think that [bioethics] and pure science are incompatible with each other. Although it is absolutely necessary, it is difficult to built up something decisive, because everybody has different ways of setting up standards, etc. 450 (+Science raises issues)
Something we human beings definitely have, unconsciously. 452
The right way of life. 468
The view of life which includes general feelings of humans. 489
To think what is needed to live better. 495
I think [bioethics] raises a problem to consider "life" of organisms widely not limited to human beings, and consider this from many directions like natural science, philosophy, ethics, sociology, and medicine. 519
Living organisms should be thought of more physically. 551
It is difficult to define, because it depends on individual's definitions of values. 9s
A thing which has not been established yet. 167s
I think [bioethics] is essentially based on religion. In Japan, where there is almost no standard definition of religious value, "no" bioethics exists, or if there is, there are many types of bioethics depending on a person.. 202s
I cannot write within this space. 243s
To purify spirit, birth of life, genetic engineered organisms, humans, death with dignity. 247s (medicine)
We should treat with dignity, because we are still ignorant of the "bio" of life. 258s (+Respect for life)
A current study concerning life which combines religion and ethics as well as scientific definition. 275s
A narrow definition is to understand the occurrence, existence, and death of organisms, which are directly related with humans and human life; (in a wide definition, it includes organisms which are not directly concerned with us, and of the inorganic world which is related with their existence.) The definition of the associated "value" is a higher level problem. 323s (+Respect for life)
A vague tacit consent about life and death in certain cultural sphere. 345s
To consider death. 362s
I am very sorry that some people die before their time because of disease, suicide, accident, and war, etc. 366s
Philosophy, the view of life, the view of world. 373s
A feeling of awe to organisms and life. To understand our desire of existence objectively. 381s (+Respect for life)

Don't know
New Zealand

Never heard the term before.56s
Unsure. 88s
What is it ?! 264s
Australia

No idea. 86s
I don't know. 124s
No idea! 158s
No idea. 175s
I don't know. 190
Japan

I cannot answer because the way of asking is obscure. 8
I don't know. 44, 249, 406, 424, 12s, 165s
I've not thought about it deeply. 175
I think it is difficult. 301
It is too difficult. 316
I sometimes come across [this word] in TV, newspaper, etc., but it is something in another dimension and it doesn't ring a bell. 399
Frankly, I don't know. 487
I don't know well. 82s
I don't have concrete thought. 104s
I don't know what bioethics means, and I've never thought about that (because I am busy with my daily work). 105s (+other)
I don't know in detail. 204s
I've not heard very much, I've never thought. 229s
I've never thought concretely. 311s

Medical problems
New Zealand

Using living organisms to solve social medical and environmental problems. 12s (+how to apply)
New biological technology with a moral / ethical aspect e.g. in vitro fertilisation, surrogate mother. 27s
Ethics involved with issues arising from new technologies applied to biology, life, medicine. 58s (+Science raises issues)
An awareness of how scientific and medical research impacts on the human race and different cultures. 85 (+Science raises issues)
A study of issues, that may have a moral or ethical basis in areas such as medicine, biology, e.g. euthanasia. 130 (+Science raises issues)
Ethical issues related to medical and technological developments. 186s (+how to apply)
The study of the morality of biological / medical research and practice. 195 (+Science raises issues)
The study of ethical issues and decision-making associated with the use of living organisms and medicine. 219 (+Using life)
The study of ethical issues associated with scientific advances especially in medicine and biology. 276 (+Science raises issues)
The ethical issues arising from the application of biologically associated activities to the real world (e.g. medicine, genetic engineering etc.). 301 (+how to apply)
Australia

Study of ethical considerations in using living, genetic or medical materials. 10 (+Using life)
Study of issues related to medicine and living organisms. 34s
Study of ethical concerns in areas of biomedical and agricultural science. 36 (+Science raises issues)
Ethical / moral questions associated with biological and medical science. 66 (+Science raises issues)
Ethical principles in relation to biological and medical issues, and the practical application of those principles. 93 (+Decide before use)
Systematic ethical analysis of issues arising in medical and human life sciences. 97s (+Decide before use)
The moral aspects of physiological or medical practices. 107 (+Medicine)
Looking at ethics in regards to biological technology usually in the medical field. 110 (+how to apply)
The study concerned with the ethical and moral questions raised by new advanced in science and medical science in particular. 120s (+Science raises issues)
The religious / social ethics of modern advances especially in biology / medicine etc. 122s (+Science raises issues)
The study of ethical and moral issues related to medical technology. 155s
Ethics of using living things in research or medicine. 161 (+Using life)
Moral questions arising from biology, medicine and science in general. 164 (+Science raises issues)
The ethical use of organisms in experimentation in biology and medicine. 176 (+Using life)
A study of legal, social and ethical problems as possible problems arising from medical and biomedical research. 180
euthanasia, abortion 193s
The moral / ethical issues, involved with biological / medical technologies. 209 (+Science raises issues)
Study of ethical issues relating to use of living organisms and particularly in medical areas. 213s (+Using life)
The consideration of ethical, social and legal issues related to medical and biomedical research. 214
Ethics of a subject, e.g. of biotechnology, medicine. 215 (+how to apply)
The study of ethical and moral issues and challenges posed by biological science and medical techniques. 218s (+Science raises issues)
Ethical issues relating to animal / human care and treatment, genetic engineering. 219 (+Animal experiments))
Evaluation of issues arising in relation to human reproduction and use of human body. 222s
Biological and medical techniques applied to living things and opinions of people whether this should occur. 223 (+Decide before use)
The ethical questions that arise from science and medicine. 229s (+Science raises issues)
The ethics of the application of biological technology in medicine. 231s
Looking at whether advances in medical technology should be used; just because they can be done is not sufficient reason. 251 (+Decide before use)
The study of the ethics in sciences and medicine, in particular as it relates to experiments with living organisms. 256 (+Animal experiments))
Decision making associated with use of organisms and in medicine. 257s (+Decide before use)
Questions of morality and action in broadly biological fields medicine, fauna, humanity. 258 (+Decide before use)
It is the study of moral / ethical issues in biological or medicine areas. 260 (+Science raises issues)
Study of ethical issues related to living things, mainly humans, in medical and scientific areas. 263 (+Using life)
Ethics / issues / moral dilemmas associated with use of science / medicine / technology. 265s (+Science raises issues)
The principles of conduct which "guide" actions in medicine and associated disciplines. 266s
Moral and ethical problems relating to technical advances in medical technology. 270s
Study of issues relating to living people, e.g. quality of life or euthanasia, abortion, in vitro fertilization, etc. 289
Study of the moral issues involved in biological and medical research and practice. 299 (+Science raises issues)
The study of the "right" or "wrong" of various biological research and surgical/medical procedures. 310s (+Decide before use)
Donation of organs to medical scientific research. 312
Ethics as applied to science and medicine particularly. 320s (+Science raises issues)
The ethics or moral question involved in the various aspects of medicine e.g. transplants. 333s
Ethical issues related to biology including medicine. 335 (+Science raises issues)
Japan

I don't think life (human) remodelling without restriction is good, but I think brain death, and organ transplantation are issues we should be handled positively. 45 (+Providence)
Ethical issues which are raised by the application of the progress of biotechnology to humans, such as ethics related with human birth, prolonging life. 98 (+how to apply)
I wish for a natural death, it has no meaning to live in a vegetable condition using medical equipment. I wish that we can offer organs at an early time, and for its practical use. 124
To add artificial manipulation to the birth of humans (for example, human fertilization), to manipulate death artificially by organ transplantation, life support systems, etc. The experiment using the human body. 139
An ethical standard related with life and medicine. 187 (+other)
Artificial manipulation of the context life inherits from parents, such as in vitro fertilization, genetic manipulation. 210 (+how to apply)
The preciousness of life, and issues in society and medicine. 230 (+Respect for life)
The best thing is to be able to live a happy life in good health. I doubt to have too much medicine. 257
To investigate humans action in life science and medicine, from the view point of ethical principles. 262 (+Science raises issues)
These days when human life tends to be thought of as an "object" because of advanced medical and scientific technologies, I think we need common recognition about life ethics. 308 (+Science raises issues)
I cannot say anything clearly, because it is not a problem that we can easily conclude, but I think whether [bioethics] will widely affect the issue of brain death, of cloned organisms, etc. 361
Something which is unable to avoid for the people who engage in biology, medicine. 375 (+Science raises issues)
Something related with human life and death, for instance, brain death, and death with dignity. 376
An ethical issues related with biology and medicine. 412 (+Science raises issues)
Because of the development of medicine, prolonging individual life is advanced, but it raised new difficulties for individuals, and it makes the future of the whole human society unreliable. [Bioethics] is to grope for "the path of living" as a member of nature.496 (+Providence)
Ethical issues related with technologies which are brought by the progress of science, for instance, in vitro fertilization, organ transplantation, genetic manipulation. 506 (+how to apply)
I don't think only prolonging life is bioethics. 541
For example, the problem whether [we] consider brain death as death or not is a big social problem, related to the rights and wrongs of organ transplantation. 556 (+Science raises issues)
Human life is precious, and death with dignity is natural. I don't think we should let people live who are in a persistent vegetative state. We should not deprive their life without consent, but I agree that we face our death with dignity (by guessing the feeling of persons in questions. 26s
Our ethics about human life is questioned in issues of euthanasia and genetic manipulation, etc. 38s (+Using life)
Patients are guarantied to have the right to informed consent, the right to see medical records, and to live a ordinary and social life, as much as possible. 54s
A controversial research field in which ethical judgment in life and medicine is questioned, with the development of scientific technologies. 67s (+Science raises issues)
The study to consider the value of life (for example, whether death with dignity should be accepted or not). 76s (+Respect for life)
To think about ethics for research of death with dignity and genetic engineering, etc. 87s (+how to apply)
The study that learns about the preciousness of life and learns how to accept organ transplantation. 159s (+Respect for life)
The action that should be taken as a human in medical treatment, etc. 175s
I think it is the issue of recognition of value about life, as symbolized in euthanasia. 184s (+Respect for life)
Bioethics is how life should be with dignity, not the value of use or in only existence in prolonging life. 209s (+Respect for life)
An ethical issue concerning "life" which is raised by "brain death" etc. 218s
I've never thought deeply before I received this questionnaire. These days, I sometimes wonder whether we really need birth with in vitro fertilization, and genetic manipulation. 224s (+how to apply)
When I teach abortion in sex education, I take the view of human rights of living things (except for emergency). 232s (+Human benefit)
Because life is important it is good to utilize organs for other people under the definition that death is when the heart stops. 255s
Isn't that the a field to consider whether issues of brain death and genetic manipulation, etc., are treated humanistically or not ? 267s (+how to apply)
I think it is a life view mainly related with medicine. 278s
Consider preciousness of life. The problem is that scientific technologies, especially medical technologies, are introduced to medical treatment (for prolonging life).289 (+Respect for life)
I think that life is irreplaceable, on the other hand, I think "death with dignity" should be allowed. 305s (+Respect for life)
I don't know, but I think it is a value standard, for example, whether we can say a person who is brain dead, or in persistent vegetative state, is dead or alive. 322s
I thought I could understand and deal with this calmly and objectively with background knowledge. But when a doctor showed a picture "Wife Katetel", I realized that the heart is not a heart shape. In short, the doctor showed me the heart as an object, I was very shocked. I wonder whether life is an object or not. Thus, I am reluctant to accept the importance of organ transplantation, the same as Yoshimura Akira and Tachibana Takashi think. 354s (+other)

How we should use life
New Zealand

The morality of decision making concerning the effects of experimentation on plants and animals. 4 (+Animal experiments)
Ethics in using biological material. 16
The ethical use of plants and animals in biological experiments.22 (+Animal experiments)
Using biological science in an ethical matter. 23
Concern for welfare of all living organisms. 31 (+Animal experiments)
Ethics in biology , the use etc. of plants and animals and the effect on them. 35 (+Animal experiments)
The ethics behind dealing with living things. 59
The ethics of dealing with living organisms especially humans. 60s
The issues involved in using living organisms in biotech, agricultural and scientific research. 68
Adopting moral principles in all aspects of biological studies and investigations.73
Wise and justifiable use of living material (organisms) for educational and research purposes. 76
The morality or otherwise of using living material for experimentation without due respect for the organism. 78
Dealing with living organisms in a 'proper' manner. 80
Social issues / attitudes related to experimentation with living things. 81
Ethical / moral issues of using / treating / modifying / manipulating living organisms / social issues etc. for human gain. 87
The application of ethics/principles (etc.) to the use of living organisms in research. 92
Proper use of living organisms. 99
Ethical questions in the use of living organisms for human use and investigation. 105
Consideration of ethical / moral issues in connection with using living organisms by man. 118s
Ethics concerned with using living organisms. 119
I guess similar to your definition, the placing of human values on working with plants and animals (including humans). 131s
Morality of developments. Use of plant and animal life. 132
Ethical considerations concerning living things. 133s
Moral side of things biological, is it right to do some of the things we are able to do.... 144s
Applying moral and legal standards to the use of living things. 145s
Ethical issues relating to the manipulation of living tissues. 146
A study of morals / moral standards in regard to life and living things. 155s
Acceptable standards when dealing with living organisms. 161
General: The rights and wrongs of how living things are treated. Specific: can mean just in regard to humans. 163 (+Medicine)
An understanding of what is right and wrong (morals of dealing with living things). 168s
Thinking philosophically about issues dealing with living things. 170s
Ethics linked to decisions re-use of living organisms for experiment / manipulation of living tissues / genes etc. research for companies; medical reasons. 171s
Ethics of using living organisms for experiments. 174
The ethics of using biological material and using non biological systems to control biological systems. 178s
The moral rules of conduct to do with living things. 179
Exploring the import of science on living organisms / systems from an ethical view points (i.e. identifying values and applying them to scientific endeavours). 181s (+Using life)
Study of issues relating to living organisms (including humans in experimental situations). 183s (+Medicine)
The moral aspect of using living organisms in research and teaching. 184 (+Animal experiments)
Practice and application of morality to living situations. 196s
Morals and values issues related to the world of plants and animals, including people. 197
A code governing the use of living things in research and teaching. A set of rules. 213
Working with biological systems in such a way which is not going to destroy or harm them; possessing a moral conscience when dealing with living things. 221
The study of ethical and moral issues as related to the treatment of living beings. 226
The ethics / words of using living organisms in experiments/ applying experimental results to animals / people. 240 (+how to apply)
The "rights and wrongs" of the use of living organisms in research etc. 249
The consideration of issues raised by the interaction of science and technology with living organisms (generally mammals). 260
The ethics surrounding biological processes which involve creating or destroying life, particularly human life. 275
Controls on research involving the use of living things. 279
Ethical / non ethical use of living material by man. 282
Consideration of ethical and moral issues relating to human manipulation of living organisms. 283
The ethics of biology, the right and wrong and philosophy of experimentation and use of organisms in science. 287
A code of practice for the handling of living material. 296
Australia

The morality / ethics / social conscience behind the manipulation, control, and change in organisms. 4
Moral discussions about treatment of living things. 6
The moral / social issues that arise in science especially in relation to living organisms. 12 (+Science raises issues)
The ethics to do with changing biological life forms. 16
The morality of biological experiments and their implications. 5 (+Science raises issues)
A code of behaviour to govern the use of biological material. 29s
Moral considerations of biological experiments and studies. 31
An understanding of the ethical, moral, social implications of biological research and experimentation. 32
Ethical practices associated with the use of living material. 39
The moral issues relating to scientific procedures / studies in humans and animals. 40 (+Science raises issues)
The ethics (moral and principles involved in relation to the use and manipulation of living matter and organisms). 42
Moral issues concerning the use of living things. 46
A system of moral principles regulating / guiding the actions, views and relationships of people with other living things and the use of biotechnology / biological research by people. 50 (+how to apply)
Relate to the ethics (current) manipulation of plant / animal biology. 53s (+animal experiment)
Morality of humans controlling the future / evolution of any species. 54 (+environment)
The ethics related to the use of techniques that will modify or endanger all forms of life. 57s
Study of life (living things) in conjunction with their moral values!!! 58s
Study involving the application of moral values / ethics involved in the use of living organisms for scientific purposes. 67s
The study of use or abuse of living organisms in scientific research and whether appropriate. 69s
Philosophy of the use of living organisms for research in any area of science and the ethics associated. 71
The ethics associated with the "creation" or adjustment of living things. 73s
Moral issues to do with using living materials to further knowledge or research. 88
Ethics associated with mankind's intervention with living organisms. 98
Consideration of ethical (moral) issues in areas relating to living organisms, especially human beings. 99
The ethics of experimentation with life forms. 101s
Ethics relating to life around us, how we respond? Methods of techniques. 105s
Ethics as related to living things. 106
Ethical issues involved with experiments / procedures performed on / with living organisms. 112 (+Animal experiments)
The set of philosophies that guide the procedures adopted by a individual or an organization 'in' the use of living things for research and development. 114
The study of ethical issues related to all living things. 117s
Ethics of the use of living material, i.e. moral questions concerning the use of living material. 126
Morals / code of behaviour associated with experiments that involve living organisms. 128
The study of moral / ethical standards involved in "life" issues. 131s
Moral studies of issues related to life, living material. 132
The study of morality in the area of biological experimentation, practice and research. 133
The study of ethical issues in relation to the use of living organisms. 137
The moral issues associated with technological advances / developments that relate to living things and their survival. 138 (+environment)
The moral issues behind the use of living things for research. 139
The ethical issues associated with technology pertaining to living things (plants / animals). 142
Study of ethical issues related to the use of organisms. 152
Consideration of issues concerning the pros and cons of using / manipulating organisms for man's ends (goods and services). 156
Appropriate use of living things. 157
The study of the ethics of manipulation of living things. Not much different from ethics full stop. The same process, but different objects. 178
The study of ethical issues associated with the use of living organisms. 187s
The ethics of interfering with biological systems. 199
The relationship between ethics / ethical principles and use of living organisms in science / medicine / other fields. 205s
Ethical issues relating to living things. 212
Moral questions and issues relating to all life forms. 247
The ethics of treatment of other species. 253
Ethics of life. 278
The ethics involved with using / manipulating life forms, e.g. genetic engineering. 280
Morals or standards associated with living things. 281
Looking at ethical issues and decision making relating to use of living material / experimentation. 302
Study of the "rights and wrongs" of our treatment of living creatures, or parts of them. 311s
Moral principles relating to living organisms. 318s
Ethics of biological experiments or other activities concerning living things. 324
Moral principles applied when dealing with living things. 326
Ethical attitudes and practices to living issues / organisms. 327
Study of ethical issues associated with living forms. 328
Moral issues applied to practices involving living biological organisms and tissues. 330
Ethics and rights of organisms used in research and technology. 332
The ethical issues involved in the use of living things for scientific study. 337
Japan

The action that artificially tries to change life which was given, the behaviour and scheme that threatens the dignity of life. 57
To ask what the right path of humans about life should be. The way of thinking of the importance of life. 69
A regulation for humans based on reason which sets limits on what we can do against life and organisms. 104 (+Respect for life)
Organisms have the rights to maintain the species, and the rights to maintain individuals. Ethical issues raised from putting our hands to these, for human's own convenience. 134 (+Respect for life)
For the pure purpose (in order not to be abused for other things). 140
An ethics against manipulation of life by the progress of biology and medicine. 148 (+Medicine)
To deal with ethical issues concerning the manipulation of life. 149
Life must not be manipulated as human will desires, and cannot be. 167 (+Providence)
I think there should be limits when humans manipulate life. 169
Issues whether it is good or bad to control other organisms. 197
To respect life and for the human race not to manipulate "life" needlessly. 206 (+Respect for life)
How to understand life (existence) of organisms (animals including humans, and plants). 222
"What should living bodies (organisms) be ?" In short, the idea whether we can think it is the same living body, even if we exchange (transplant) organs. 240 (+Medicine)
To consider the tolerance level of artificial control over life. 297
I think [bioethics] not only answers the proposition, "What is life ?", it is the way of thinking which can be a standard for organisms and life. 306
Something which we always have to be conscious of in training and experiments. 318
An ethical subject in human society when humans put their hands on life. 334
A thing for when humans discuss others' life selfishly. 339
Study in which life is considered as phenomena, technological issues, and matters that we should care about naturally as human beings. 356
It is natural that we should solve truth, but we should not use this as a tool of life selection. 362
To treat and think of living things equally. 427
I think it is the common understanding when human beings manipulate living organisms. 440
In present days when human beings can manipulate life with the development of technologies, the way of thinking which we have about the life. 459
Don't experiment on the human body. Don't treat life and death simply for entertainment. 461
To consider what we can do, in order to live as hard as we can and to protect life. 483
A basis for how far human beings are allowed to manipulate life, whether of human beings, other animals and plants, or microorganisms. 488
To consider the dignity of life about the manipulation of life by human hands, with social objectivity. 504
How humans who engage in it think of life, human nature, itself. 507
Various ethical issues related to life. (in other words, related to in vitro fertilization, genetic manipulation). 538
A sense of value towards 'inochi' and a decision of a limit line where humans can be involved. 553
It is necessary to synthesize knowledge of all studies, in order to investigate ethical issues of how far we should manipulate life. 135s
To consider what life is, and how humans should be towards life. 180s (+Respect for life)
I think [bioethics] is to consider how to deal with artificial manipulation and alteration which affects birth, death, and existence of organisms (especially human), from the moral and philosophical viewpoint. 196s
The value standards how far artificial manipulation of organisms should be allowed. 231s
The value judgment concerned with the rights and wrongs of controlling life artificially. 257s
The view of life. How do we treat life? 261s
These days when it becomes possible to do artificial manipulation of genes, fertilisation, etc., which had been left to nature, people who are engaged are especially required to be concerned with ethics. 262
To have a ethical view of scientific research about life from the point of respecting natural life. 272s (+Respect for life)
Ethical issues that are raised by artificial manipulation at either stage of development, or growth, or extinction of life. Especially because if this manipulation is done from a one sided definition of value (for example, the view of eugenics, it must cause a serious problem. 279s (+Human benefit)
The attitude of humans to everything which has life (organisms). 307s
An agreement, how far humans can manipulate life. 314s
To investigate what life is, and to consider how life should be dealt with, in the view of the dignity of life. 337s
How humans should be, what attitude humans should have towards life. 338
As a rule, a standard which persistently tries to maintain the dignity of the time when humans were born as human. [The standard] sometimes conflicts with the results of scientific technologies, depending on which stages we think of the time. And when we try to spread it to other organisms, I think various recognition can emerge, because of the different consciousness of original sin. 349s (+human benefit)
Since it was a field where humans could not put their hands essentially, it is very difficult to put our hands on life in some form, it is a problem that we have to think about enough ethically. 351s
Every living organism has life equally, and inherent value of existence. It is necessary to respect life as much as possible using scientific technologies, but I think there are some limits. 377s

Human benefit / rights
New Zealand

Consideration of morals and ethics relating to use / abuse of organisms in the service of humans. 148 (+Using life)
Looking at techniques such as genetic engineering, recombinant DNA techniques e.g. using bacteria to produce useful human products like insulin. 157 (+how to apply)
Ethical considerations-morality of using plants, animals, or biological technologies to improve man's life style. 229s (+Using life)
Ethical aspects about man. 268s
Australia

The questioning or morality of people rights (scientists to interfere with or manipulate living organisms). 74 (+Using life)
The ethical nature of biological issues which man is tampering with, which may be advantageous to humans. 119 (+how to apply)
A "responsible" attitude or way of dealing with issues concerning life, humans and other. 136s (+Using life)
The general appropriateness of biotechnology, is it for the good of man or for the good of big business. 143 (+how to apply)
Ethical decisions made concerning people. 151s (+Decide before use)
The study of utilization of technology and medical procedures and techniques, and their relationship to improving and maintaining human life. 153 (+using life ethically)
The ethical issues associated with scientific manipulation of organisms, especially humans. 254 (+Using life)
The ethics related to procedures used on / with humans. 259
Ethical issues which relate to or have an effect ultimately on humans. 277
What is considered to be correct behaviour morally when utilizing living resources for human use or consumption. 297 (+Decide before use)
Japan

The common ethics or different ethics between family and physicians, which are seen in the cases of brain death, organ transplantation. And I think [bioethics] is the integrated concept which combines various issues between an ideal ethics as a species and the reality. 3 (+Medicine)
I think it is not ethics by "God" but by "humans" (especially to respect the lives of plants and animals, including protection of animals), and [bioethics] is the answer to the question "What is more important for humans?" 12 (+Respect for life)
The way of setting the value about what it is to "be alive" from the view point of humans as one of the living organisms who live on the earth. 14
Something that exists for the happiness of humankind. 22
I think it is based on human good science which is not based on religion or politics. 33
If we violate it, human society becomes not smooth, and humans hearts are warped. 37
An ethics concerned with human life. 41
Morality in life manipulation (DNA manipulation and developmental manipulation). 64
The fundamental and basic thinking, and the way of judgment in order to respect humans life. 74
Something to consider for the happiness of the human race, or this way and process of thinking. 80
To recognize other persons. 89
The measure in order to restrain science running out of control, and pursue real happiness for humankind. 93 (+how to apply)
To protect human (our own) life, and at the same time, respect the life of other animals and plants on the earth. 94 (+Respect for life)
The responsibility and the rights of living things. 108
Basically we should only aim for something that leads to the happiness of the human race, it must not be something which leads to unhappiness in anything, in study and in ethics. 117
The concept how to keep the dignity of living organisms who are living their own life (as individual having personality). 136 (+Respect for life)
A study which considers human life from the view point of ethics. 142
The way of thinking without destroying the mechanism in the natural world, to respect the life of human beings. 168 (+environment)
I always think that it is in a category of how humans should live. 207
Current subject of human race considering the issues of life and death, and how to make people live, and how to live with the dignity of life as a fundamental idea. 211 (+Respect for life)
Respect for personality. 213
To continue to "live" the same as other animals, without losing human dignity. 228
I think it is to respect human personalities. 248
We need [bioethics] as knowledge in order to have a heart to respect the life of each person, but I don't know "where" to draw the line. It is a difficult problem. 293 (+Respect for life)
The respect of humans will (freedom) including general human rights. 305
Ethical side of issues concerned with life of human beings, such as live donor organ transplantation, cadaver transplantation, genetic manipulation, in vitro fertilization, judgment of death. 321 (+Medicine)
If I say about human beings, it is keeping self-identity. 345
An idea that was made up by geneticists, some politicians, and some financiers, saying it was for human beings. 370 (+other)
To respect human dignity. 386
One of the issues of human rights in a broad sense. 390
I wonder whether the primary thing is the respect of individual will. 395
Human life is an irreplaceable thing. 408
A standard concerned with the way of living of humans. In recent days, we face the problem of the standard of decision making, because other people are involved especially in medicine. 411 (+Medicine)
One of the ways of thinking for more people to try to live happily. 415
We have to consider carefully about life and death as not only problems of humans, but also including animals and plants. In the human cases, we also have to consider social problems. 426 (+Respect for life)
The way of thinking that is based on the agreement with family or individual should have priority, I don't think it is a thing which should be violated. 429
To respect human life, and then respect organisms as above everything. Moreover to respect next a thing which was created in nature, and to consider various ways to do so, and try to do so. 441 (+Respect for life)
Mainly, a fundamental way of thinking, and action concerning human life and death. 454
Something like the rights which every organism including living people have to try to live and have children, etc. 455 (+Respect for life)
The individual way of living to utilize the life of all organisms. 457
To contribute to the welfare of humankind without harming individual dignity. 458
To consider how far human beings are allowed to step into God's realm, the danger of manipulated life, and human rights in the care of human, etc. 464 (+how to apply)
The important thing when humans live together. 509
It is difficult to say in one word, but I think it is to have reverence to life. (though we cannot avoid human-centred thinking.) 522 (+Respect for life)
To recognize the dignity of human life, and to respect it as an irreplaceable thing. 525
To base on the dignity of humans, and not think of as a 'thing'. 543
I wonder whether [bioethics] is respect for life ('inochi') or something which has life. The upshot of the matter would be the life (inochi) of human beings. 555 (+Respect for life)
A way of living as a correct human, and something which is certainly needed in order that humans can exist forever. 560
It is an issue concerning human birth and death following the progress of medical technologies. 10s (+Medicine)
It is the matter how to live a life which was given. 14s (+Respect for life)
How humans exist in the universe (in the world), what position they are in. 17s (+Providence)
Life and human rights themselves. 25s
To teach to oppose war which destroys fundamental human rights. 31s
It is the minimum rule in a community life of humans. 34s
An idea which recommends the respect of general life which has been made up with the establishment of consciousness of fundamental human rights. 71s (+Respect for life)
I think it is respect for life concerning the dignity of personality. 81s (+Respect for life)
Trying to harmonize between people ( human) and nature, and respecting human dignity as the highest value. 83s (+environment)
We should investigate, but must not violate human dignity. 93s
I think that a peaceful life is humanity. 114s
Something for human beings to live naturally. 117s (+Providence)
How to accept and how to consider life and death essentially. 118s (+Respect for life)
The basic issue that humans have to think about life, including the right to live and the "right to die", which should be guarantied. 123s (+medicine)
The dignity of life (especially from the legal point of view) and social control. 126s
As well as the respect for human rights, it considers the importance of life. 127s (+Respect for life)
The thing that we try to ask again, what technologies and medicine should be, and the view of life that we have had, from the human perspective. 134s (+Science raises issues)
The minimum moral which we should obey concerning human life and the life of animals and plants. 141s (+Using life)
The most important and fundamental thing for humans. 142s (+Very important)
Something that has respect of life and respect for rights as a core. 143s (+Respect for life)
The subject concerning life and human dignity which was brought especially by modern scientific technology. 156s (+science raises issues)
Something that we should handle carefully with respect for human dignity. 157s
I consider [bioethics] as an important subject concerned with the root of human beings. 168s (+Very important)
Living with fulfilling dignity as human beings. 169s
A thing which includes human bodies into the modern theory of ownership. It considers autonomy of personality of our body and life as a principle. 171s
[Bioethics] is related to human dignity, and it is a thought that could determine self-existence independently. 173s
A logic that supports human community life with a consciousness to respect each other's lives. 176s
To respect human dignity. 181s
In short, I think it must be based on securing fundamental human rights. 182
I think it is the most fundamental thing about how humankind lives and how we should be. And I also think it is connected with human rights and closely concerned with the way society exists. 190s (+Very important)
Other animals and plants are the existence which enjoy natural mercy like human beings, in the sense that they have been brought up in nature. And human live is important because each human has their own self under the condition where others exist. 191s (+Respect for life)
The principle in order that we respect each other's life, and for humans to live like human. 200s (+Respect for life)
How humans should be and how humans should live as human, the dignity of life, respect for rights and harmony of humans and nature. 203s (+Respect for life)
I think it is a question whether other persons (human) can treat human life and death or not. 207s
Life is important and has the same value for every person. But each person has different personality. I think if we recognize the importance of every person's value, and respect individuality sufficiently, we could spontaneously understand the ethical aspects of problems. 230s
Things concerned with the dignity of human life. 238
It is difficult to regulate life scientifically and especially death which denies life. A moral to keep human relationships and an order concerned with life. 241s
It is not only the problem of birth and death of living organisms, I want to consider human life as special. 245s
To be aware of the irreplaceable life of each person, and the dignity of life. 250s
The ethical view and understanding which has the dignity of life, and fundamental human rights, as pillars. 266s (+Respect for life)
Inquire into how humans should be by groping for the things related with every life, and how every life should be. 282s
How life should be biologically (life phenomena), and socially (the way of living), human relationships, relationships between nature and humans. 284s (+Using life)
The dignity of our own and other's life. (Consideration of weak existence, to have consciousness that we are equal). 292
To think of the way of human living from the point of view of human respect and respect for life, and its study. 298
There are various ways to treat, even just taking artificial abortion. In some countries it is almost compulsory, and other countries insist on legalization of abortion as women's autonomy. It might not be possible, but I wonder whether we need a common standard for considering life. 300s (+Medicine)
A genre which considers what life for human beings is and its dignity. 301s (+Respect for life)
All value judgments concerned with our own life and other's life. 302
Various issues concerned with the birth of life and human dignity. 308s (+Respect for life)
Life should be respected as it belongs to individuals. 317s (+Respect for life)
Reasons concerned with humans dignity, including announcement of brain death, etc. 321s (+Medicine)
I think it is a philosophy concerned with all the workings of humans. 328
To protect human rights and the dignity of life. 331s (+Respect for life)
A thing which looks at the dignity of human life. 343s
A thing which is fundamental to and a premise of humans. 344s (+Very important)
A minimum method and aim to live as human. 348
A study field to consider fundamentally the relation between humans and life, beyond the narrow issues of ethical analysis of advanced medicine. 352s (+Respect for life)
To protect human dignity. 360s
A rule, moral, way of thinking concerned with the life of humans and animals. 370s (+Respect for life)

Natural providence
New Zealand

The consideration of whether certain technology using animal experimentation or involving interference with natural life systems is ethical. 18s (+Animal experiments)
A recently coined word without a precise meaning: concerned with the ethics of tampering with natural biological process. 34s
Take into account "value judgments" when manipulating a life form in some way. 160 (+Decide before use)
The ethics related to mans "interference" with nature. 247s
Australia

Decision making involved with whether or not to interfere with normal biological functioning. 111 (+Decide before use)
The study of ethical issues concerned with humanity's use and abuse of the natural world. 115s (+environment)
The ethics, morality and issues surrounding biological technology, especially ability to play God, giving life, prolonging life, changing life - gene shearing, etc.274s (+Decide before use)
Japan

Existence based on natural providence. 4
It is for all living species to live according to natural providence. 10
How humans should be about life, the natural right path humans should be. 25
We should make an organisms of new species by genetic manipulation only after solving the religious and ethical problems. 35 (+how to apply)
To respect life and leave everything natural! 85 (+Respect for life)
To touch God's realm. (To play with life phenomena by human hands.) 86
There are some parts where human beings can put their hands to, and other parts where we must not. 116
The feeling of contradiction between artificial things and natural things. 118
As I think of the metabolism of organisms and the workings of life, there are still some parts human wisdom cannot know, thus I think, human beings should not touch with our hands excessively. 121
To try not to deviate from what life should be, and the stream of life. 160 (+Respect for life)
To place first priority on the natural existence style of organisms, or to put organisms under complete human control. 164
To respect the preciousness of life, and to follow natural providence. 185 (+Respect for life)
The respect of the natural life, and respect of natural providence, including human beings (without distinguishing from other organisms). 188 (+Respect for life)
A barrier in order that humans will not step with their shoes into God's realm. 216
Not to twist in our own way the "life stream" of 3.5 billion years by human hands. 218
The most natural view and way of thinking about life of organisms. 227
To respect the natural stream concerning life phenomena. 237
We should not manipulate artificially, because it was born from the process of evolution over a long term. 238
I don't want to play with natural life phenomena. Only for research. 247
To let something alive live, to let something that should die, die. 251
To recognize "life" which has continued without a break, and to have an attitude to respect it. 255 (+Respect for life)
Whether humans can play the role of God. 274
Human beings are one part of nature, and are not above nor below. 284 (+Respect for life)
Something which follows natural providence. 290
Entrusting species characteristics (gene) and the way of existence (procreation) to nature, to take care of them, and to think of them. 302 (+Respect for life)
We are starting to put our "hands" on life and death which human beings could do nothing about. But I often wonder whether it would be better to accept situations as "natural, that is we cannot do anything". 326
To recognize "nature - the hand we cannot see". 336
We must not have an arrogance that we can manipulate life as we want, even if scientific technologies progress much. It is the way of thinking which we must entrust to natural providence. 341
Something which protects organisms to live as they are. 342 (+Respect for life)
A thing which has an unviolated realm. 349
We must not put humans' hands on life. 360
I think that every life of animals should be respected in the natural world basically, and humans should not put their hands on it. 387 (+Respect for life)
Not to destroy natural providence. 407
The realm where we must not violate, even if it is technically possible. 420
The way of thinking to recognize that the rights of being born, living, dying, in close to the natural conditions exist in all living things including humans. 421 (+Respect for life)
A thing which makes us think how far we are allowed to step into the workings of nature artificially. 430
The extent to which we can violate life which God made, even if we make a profound study of medicine, agriculture, and biology, etc. 453 (+Using life)
Rights that every organism on the earth can live a better life, and more naturally. 462 (+Respect for life)
The respect of life as it is. 467 (+Respect for life)
The thought about the natural way organisms exist, based on life phenomena and organisms' life. (Add religious aspects, later.) 475
To know the pleasure of being left alive, as well as respecting life, we should not be against nature will, applying human force unreasonably. 493 (+Respect for life)
To take care of each other and all life which is alive in a big nature. 497 (+Respect for life)
To request value to the natural conditions in nature. 501
The essence as a living organism. There are parts we can manipulate and those we cannot. 530
I have not thought [about bioethics] especially. A field which humans should not violate. 536
A 'life' field which humans should not violate. 540
A field where we must not step into, even if science can clarify it. 544
To consider primarily the balance of ecology, and do not manipulate genes which benefit only human beings, but have a possibility to affect other organisms. In addition, do not do artificial genetic manipulation which is against natural providence. 548 (+how to apply)
A field in which [we] will have trouble, if [we] research more than necessary. 549
It is not forgivable to alter the evolutionary direction of something which has life on the earth, according to humans' will. 558 (+Using life)
If [we] only think about the physical world, because life phenomena are chains of chemical reactions, the dignity of life and ethics ever exist. In my personal opinion, however, since I am a Christian, I think that [bioethics] is 'humans' share' and an 'entrusted something' under the control of God. 559 (+other)
We should not manipulate human life artificially. We should respect individual life. I have much more questions about the artificial side of in vitro fertilization than about brain death. 11s (+Respect for life, Medicine)
It is important to utilize a life which was given by God as much as possible. We should not terminate life with self-centred ethics. 40s (+Using life)
To respect life which is above human intellect. Moreover we are required to serve for other organisms. 42s (+Respect for life)
Humans should have moderation when intervening against natural law. 72
I don't know exactly what it is, but I feel there is a region where we must not invade, in other words, the region of God. 77s
The recognition that life is irreplaceable, cannot be exchanged with other things, and understanding both the importance of respectful attitude towards life and to have sense of reverence for something beyond human ability. 84s (+Respect for life)
We should respect the life of all living things and it is a problem if we treat only people specially. Humans who cannot live without sacrifices of other organisms should appreciate only the fact that humans sacrifice other life. 89s (+Respect for life)
In both situations, life and death, science should avoid intervening as much as possible. 113s
Humans should not put our hands on the birth of life. 133s
Things which have life have respectable values which humans cannot understand by reason. 152s (+Respect for life)
A providence related to an influence which affects the balanced whole living world by changing a part of it with the power of science. 170s
Natural providence. We should respect it, and also we should not violate it. 177s (+Very important)
We must not disregard natural providence. Humans should not oppose natural providence, nor rise above it, but should live with harmony and follow it. 188
We must not manipulate natural phenomena concerned with (human) life artificially, without rules. 201s
Humans are a part of nature, thus we must not violate natural conditions. 219s
In some cases, it is a sacred and nonaggressive thing, also it is a field which humans cannot touch. 234s
A Christian way of thinking that we must not reconstruct a body arbitrarily (human only) which was given by God. 239s (+other)
We should not put our hand to living organisms of nature. 240s (+Respect for life)
I may sound too much like valuing "God", but [bioethics] is something humans must not manipulate freely, and something natural, or are determined by destiny. 244s
Something that the human will cannot reach. 253s
I think humans must not be manipulated by the technology. 273s
The unique way of living of animals (for example, human) which cannot be changed artificially to suit human convenience. 293s
Humans' acts and natural providence. 299s
Life is placed beyond humans will. It belongs to Buddha's (God's) realm. 309s (+Respect for life)
I'm afraid that we might violate some part of God's realm.313s
Something which was given in the natural world, must not be violated, and was brought to the organisms themselves. 324s (+Respect for life)
The sacred thing which is given by the Creator, and only humans must not violate. 330s
Dignity originated in the occurrence of life itself. (Something which is more important than the definition of values which humans society created). 356s (+Respect for life)
Something beyond human power of thinking, and occupies the most important part of human existence. 358s (+Very important)
An ethics which doesn't do human genetic manipulation, respects the natural condition, and thinks to finish the remainder of our life by the previous [criteria of] death (brain death, heart stops). 359s (+other)
Life is concerned with all existence, and humans, animals, and plants are the same, friends. We must not tamper with life. 371s (+Respect for life)

Decide before use
New Zealand

Questions about "right" and "wrong" as related to biological procedures and processes. 9
Deciding the morality of messing about with living things, their genes, etc. 11s
A moral code for scientists making decisions about living things, education, genetic engineering, euthanasia etc. 13s
Questions of right / wrong or how for should science go in development of matters pertaining to biology. 14 (+Science raises issues)
A set of standards which you follow in relation to living things, animals / vegetation. 19s
Making sure biological research is ethical. 21
Ethical ideas (right and / or wrong) in the use of biology, e.g. is it ethically (morally) correct. 29s
Responsible use of science especially biology. 96
The social positive and negative implications of scientific progress. 101s
The study of controversial issues dealing with the use of living organisms. Making value judgments. 108s (+Using life)
Moral / legal code in biological research, something biologists ignore. 113
Issues and judgments made in relation to living things, human / environmental. 121s (+environment)
The right and wrongs concerning the part the science plays in making decisions for anything that has life. 129s
A set of values / standards which can be used to guide decision making in areas like genetic engineering and human reproduction. 137
Decision making on issues of biology which effect the problem. 150s
The rules of right and wrong as they relate to biology. 172
The (moral) justification for and the limit of work within the biological sciences. 188
Guidelines for appreciation of biological research. 212
Study of what we may / may not do with living things. 214
A set of guidelines, or at least thoughts on, the use of living things for mans purposes. 223s
The moral principles as a code related to living things. 246
The moral issues of right or wrong for doing studies in biology especially experimental or research work. 266 (+Animal experiments)
The ethics involved in biology, biological and scientific decisions and issues arising from these. 269
What is acceptable in terms of societal values as applied to biology. 277
Judgments and values on the application of scientific advanced with profound impact upon life. 278s
Common sense approach to life in general. 280
The rightness or wrongness of using knowledge / technology to change human destiny, e.g. cloning. 291s
Questions and issues of right and wrong as they relate to living organisms. 300s
Australia

The morality and questions of right and wrong regarding scientific advance in biology. 26
How we should act / behave / apply our values in the biological-scientific content. 33
Maintaining society's values, responsibility to use knowledge and technology loosely for the good of the majority. 45
Study of ethical decisions and issues relating to natural resource use. 48s
Bioethics could be defined as the study of ethical issues and decision-making associated with the use of living organisms and medicine. 68 (+Using life)
Ethics that deal with research biology - Political and moral issues involved. 87s (+Science raises issues)
Decisions made for the good of society on topics involving living organisms. 92
Concern for community acceptance of procedures from ethical point of view. 103
Study of ethical attitudes. 104
The use of moral values in decision making by those in charge of scientific research and application. 108
Guidelines for the ethical and moral government of biological research. 121
Judgments made on moral/ ethical grounds to do with current biological issues. 123
An examination of ethical decisions made about the type of, use of, or (to name just a few) applications of biological research, practices of teaching. 141
Decision making, based on a set of values, about the "rightness and wrongness" of biological experimentation, e.g. genetic engineering. 145s
Application of "moral and ethical" thought to process of science. 146s
The ethics of undertaking scientific research or procedures which impact on living organisms. 159
Making decisions on issues of moral and ethical values. 162
Ethics involved in living things especially human beings. 165s
The moral decisions associated with the use of bio technologies. 168s
The study of biological issues, relevant to society in which decisions and thinking need to be applied. 169
A moral code(s) for scientific research. 173s
A moral code to be followed in research, application or teaching of biology. 194
The ethical issues associated with decision making in regards to advances in science and technology. 207
The issues of right and wrong related to living things. 216
Ethics or morality of the application of biological technology. 221
Taking personal responsibility for the ideas and models we entertain. 237s
The moral quality of a course of action in life science. 241
Ethical issues arising from the application of new technology in the biological area. 242
The study of what actions are appropriate or inappropriate in the biological sphere. 246s
The study of the ethics connected with decisions impinging/impacting upon living organisms. 267
Controversial social issues that need to be resolved as a result of discoveries/ innovations in the biological field. 268s (+Science raises issues)
Looking at biological issues which impinge upon decision making for future of mankind at scientific, moral and social levels. 287
It is ethical issues, what is right and wrong, i.e. "where to draw the line" in biological issues. 291s
Processes to determine what is moral action (good or bad) in relation to situations of a biological nature. 295s
Determining the appropriate regulations to govern biological research. 300s
Ethics, morals applied to what is done in science. 319
Ethical awareness, guidelines associated with all living things. 323
The proper behaviour of scientists in the study and application of their field. 325s
Japan

Something like a constitution when human beings think about human life. 21
The ethical view which should be a foundation of matters about life and medicine, and the thing which is necessary especially for researchers of natural science. 42
I think we need some guidelines about life, and we should implement after carefully investigating safely things such as the influence to the environment. 70 (+environment)
The standard which decides the region where we must not step into, even if scientific technologies progress much. 99
Something which becomes a standard to be able to act recognizing and respecting the dignity of life. 143 (+Respect for life)
It is difficult to answer clearly. The judgment standard based on scientific understanding (recognition). 157
Naturally life research has ethical guidelines. 193 (+Respect for life)
Something which makes a standard of thought and action in order to respect "life". 196
I think "bioethics" is a guideline which stops technical actions at a certain degree which are in danger of violating the dignity of life, even if scientific technologies progress. 203 (+Respect for life)
To respect the life of all organisms, but the food chain is unavoidable to live, balance is important. 232 (+Respect for life)
For example, in vitro fertilization, and genetic manipulation are starting to be done with the development of biological science. This situation asks human race to think again about the framework of the traditional ethical view that we have had. We have to consider again what we can do, and what we should not do, as humans. 253 (+Medicine)
The thought which humans should have, the attitude which humans should act upon, towards life, which is most important. 298 (+Respect for life)
Understand the importance of every organisms' life, and study decision making and its context about ethics of life and medicine, and define it. 331 (+Medicine)
How far humans can step into the realm where only God (not of any particular religion) could know before. 332
It occurs when the development of science brings changes and influences to the life standard of humans. The common understanding which becomes necessary from the view point of science. 348
The fundamental morals for study of medicine, biology, and applications. 372 (+Medicine)
[Bioethics] is to consider right and wrong about the current climate which makes possible things which were impossible before by applying our hands, such as a test-tube baby, organ transplantation, sex selection, or genetic manipulation. 380 (+Medicine)
Life is the most important thing which we cannot explain completely only by a material such as DNA. I think we need some guideline against artificial action that is concerned with it. 391 (+Respect for life)
The regulation against anything which destroys the natural balance of living things, or which has possibility to do this, and the field which involves judgment of human death, such as brain death. 438 (+Medicine)
I suppose that if we make life as an object of study, there is research we can do, and we should not to. [Bioethics] is something which discusses the standard. 447
I agree with your definition "the study of ethical issues and decision-making associated with the use of living organisms and medicine". 449 (+other)
We tend to think of [bioethics] as a thing we can control and we can do as we want, but it is what we cannot do as we want, and I think we must not do so. 482
We must not put "human's" hands too much on life. 484
A standard for how far humans can go in medicine, and life. 494 (+Medicine)
Issues of death with dignity, of euthanasia, and genetic recombination. Issues that we need to get a social consensus about, such as sex selection, I think these are important issues we cannot avoid. You cannot avoid solving these issues. 6s (+Medicine)
The dignity of life is the primary thing. I think it is very thankful that natural science can contribute to prolonging life. But I'm afraid that to decide new living organisms by human beings might lead to ignoring life, if ethics is not considered enough. 69s (+Respect for life)
The study which makes clear the border between what we are allowed to do or not as a human beings, through learning life mechanisms as a member of the natural world. 122s (+Respect for life)
Nonaggressive part of humans, and it should not be put to practical use more than necessary. 144s (+Providence)
Something which leads the progress of human science correctly. 153s
Our standard behaviour and a value which we grope with debates concerned with the essence of life. 208s (+Respect for life)
A moral standard or our attitude toward the respect of life. 213s (+Respect for life)
The study considering ethical problems how we should regard and treat all living organisms, and decision making. 228s (+Using life)
An outline of various regulated issues concerned with the root of the meaning of life, which humans must not step over. 235s (+Respect for life)
I think it is the way of thinking to respect one life. It is also a standard to judge problems how far humans are allowed to put our hands. 256s (+Respect for life)
A background for human existence, and a foundation as the right path of humans.276s (+Human benefit)
A thing that is necessary to promote the progress of scientific technology correctly. 285s
I don't think it is possible to research life and genetic manipulation endlessly against God and natural providence. But I suppose it is good to research for applying certain brakes. 288s (+Providence)
I had not known anything before I read through this questionnaire. A field whether humans should trespass or not. 350s
A philosophy concerned with life. (What is life?, How should life be?) A thing which is sometimes opposed to the progress of science concerned with life, and at other times decides on its future course, and supports. 353s (+Respect for life)
One subject of ethics which tries to respect morals especially concerned with life (when we engage) in human life. 361s (+Human benefit)

How to apply biology / biotechnology
New Zealand

The safe use of our biological knowledge to help us survive in a clear world. 52
The study of the reasons why and how certain biotechnologies are used in our society. 65
The issue of technology and science relating to human medical matters. Relevance to all biological issues. Possibility also of the setting of standards in this area.70s (+Medicine)
The rights and wrongs of using recent scientific discoveries. 82s
The ethical considerations associated with the practical uses of biological discoveries. 84
Concern for the social and sociological consequences about the procedures and outcome of biological research and technology. 93
Ethics of biological procedures such as genetic engineering where humans are deliberately altering moral biological processes / structures / behaviour. 103
The study of problem of moral values arising from biological research and its application. 115
Consideration of the consequences of using the scientific skills / knowledge we now have / will have in future. 117
The application of biological knowledge to society and the effects that this has on society. 127
The control, manipulation of biological elements and the ethics involved within this. 128
Ethics of using new biological technologies. 134
The ethical issues raised by our growing ability to control or modify growing things, including people. 143s (+how to apply)
Moral issues relative to the use of biotechnology. 147
The moral use and application of scientific and technology knowledge and principles to the opportunities and challenges of humanity and society. 156s
The issues that arise out of the application of technology to animal biology. 180s (+Animal experiments)
Genetic engineering by scientists and the social implications (or effects, depending on your cultural value. 201
The ethics associated with current advances in biology e.g. genetic manipulation, fertility research etc. 210
A study of the ethical considerations attached to all biological discoveries/ inventions/ applications etc. 217s
The ethical framework under which biotechnology and biological research are developed and applied. 220s
Looking at advances in technology and the issues (positive and negative) involved. Also use of animals in science, the positive and negative aspects of this. 232 (+Animal experiments)
The practical application of science and technology in ways which are generally considered to be morally acceptable. 236
The levels of human integrity applied for the field of genetic engineering. 244s
Ethics involved in new biotechnology. 248
Ethics of applications of biology. 262
The moral questions relating to use / misuse of biological experimentation. 263s
Whether society should use techniques or procedures on living things and under what guidelines or controls. 270
The moral and ethical issues associated with modern trends in fields such as biology, and technological advances generally. 272s
Moral judgments on the applications of new technology (especially in relation to genetics). 285
Ethical implications of genetic engineering, especially relative to human society. 294s
Australia

Knowledge, understanding and concern for the far reaching affects of controversial biological technology. 14
A study of the morality of biotechnology's impact on human beings as individuals and as a species. 17s
Social implications of biological advances esp. biotechnology. 25
Ethical use of biological material and knowledge. 27s
The area of ethics (moral decision making) related to the biological sciences and how they are used. 30 (+Science raises issues)
Ethical views on biological engineering of organic material. 41s
The ethics of biological research and application of biological technology. 47s
The study of correct social behaviour and systemic behaviour with respect to human action involving biological science and technology. 70
The moral implications of genetic engineering and genetic research. 72s
Ethics which have specifically become necessary as a result of the growth of biotechnology. 75
The consideration of the wider impact of biological knowledge and practices. 77
Ethical and moral issues associated with modern biological research. 100
The social and ethical issues associated with biotechnology. 113s
Moral principles associated with new developments in biology, e.g. use of genetics. 116
Ethics or moral values we use in the use of living things and their parts - tissues, organ replacement, genetic engineering etc. 118s (+Using life)
The morality or ethics of new technology in in vitro fertilisation, surrogacy. 127s (+Medicine)
Ethical concerns with biological issues. 135
Ethics of biology. (Biological issues.) 147
Looking at the moral issues that are covered when studying topics in biology. 148
Ethics of using biological discoveries / technology in everyday life. 150
The consideration to whether biotechnology is appropriate in the particular situation. 154
Ethics involved in dealing with biotechnology - engineering-issues. 179s
"Rightness / wrongness" of biological technologies, e.g. genetic engineering etc. 181
Right and wrongs of what regard biologists do. 182
Moral issues pertaining to biological technologies. 183
The ethics of (or the study of the ethics of) biotechnology / biological engineering / manipulation. 184s
Making need judgments about the use of knowledge related to the bio-science. 191s
The moral and socially responsible use / study of biology. 195
Moral principles and obligations applied to bio-technology. 196s
The ethics involved in the application of biology to the world we live in. 206
Ethics associated with scientific research, particularly genetic engineering. 220s (+Science raises issues)
Ethical issues surrounding modern technological advances concerning biology. 243
Ethical issues with a biological, biotechnological bias. 245s
Ethics of biotechnology, ethical choices which are now entailed in application of technology to biological process. 249
The ethics involved in biotechnology, genetic engineering. 252
Study of the ethics (morals) associated with modern biotechnology. 255s
Consequences of biotechnology. 261
The ethical / moral questions associated with biological technique and the developing application of technology to improve / alter these. 262
The study of ethics arising from new techniques in biology. 264s
Applying science with regards to sensitivity of moral issues. 271
Genetic engineering, test tube babies, etc. 272 (+Medicine)
The ethics or morality of using biological knowledge and techniques for the benefit of all people. 273s
Application of science knowledge in genetic research. 279s
Moral and ethical use of biological knowledge. 282
Application of ethical principles to biology and its related offshoots. 286
A consideration of the ethics involved in human issues, e.g. genetic engineering, transplantation, surrogacy, abortion. 288s (+Medicine)
Ethics involved in using biological engineering to improve food production through genetics. 304
The ethical considerations associated with the application of biological knowledge / techniques. 307
The application of ethics to biological situations. 313
Moral and social implications of biological technology. 322
The ethics of the use / interaction with biological research. 331
Social, moral and ethical issues associated with biotechnologies and their research. 334
Social, moral and ethical issues within scientific endeavour, particularly biological science. 338
Japan

The progress of biology and medicine made possible the manipulation of life (prolonging life, genetic manipulation, life support, organ transplantation, etc.), which was beyond human ability in the past. [Bioethics] is a standard to use these technologies according to humanity, not without limitation. 31 (+Medicine)
The problem that we produce unnatural situations by artificial manipulation of life itself, or genes. 109
I think it plays a role against the view "science is almighty". 129
The important study which brakes scientific technology when it is about to make a mistake. 151
I think it is a very difficult problem, because currently the life view is widely changing with the development of life science. The value question of how much manipulation of life using scientific technology can be allowed. 171
A break on "how much humans can put our hands to organisms." ? 177 (+Using life)
A judgment standard for determining how much artificial manipulation of life phenomena can be allowed. 190
Rights and wrongs for human beings to create something different from what was by manipulating the DNA of other organisms. 201 (+Using life)
I think that life manipulation must not be allowed in genetic engineering. 241
Genetic manipulation of living organisms, and death judgment concerning organ transplantation with brain death, etc. 265 (+Medicine)
Something like in vitro fertilisation, organ transplantation, and genetic manipulation. 280 (+Medicine)
How biology should be applied to society. 355
I think it is related with human life directly and indirectly. I doubt whether we have the right to judge directly something which influences other organisms for human convenience. 379
To consider whether it is right in the whole living world to manipulate DNA which is a root of life activity, or alteration of sex ratio. 431 (+environment)
To love living things and at the same time, to deal with life with the thought that we should try not to destroy more of the natural workings of the evolution of organisms (the ecosystem) by artificial manipulation of human beings. (We have to be careful especially for genetic engineering, etc.) 470 (+environment)
Although I think we have to respect [bioethics], it will be difficult if it restricts significantly the study of biology. 490 (+other)
I don't think modern science can prove everything. Thus, we had better stay out of in vitro fertilization, biotechnology and genetic technology, etc. 56s (+Providence)
To think whether we are allowed to artificially manipulate genes, etc. 65s
Controversies raised by medicine, biotechnology, etc. And bioethics is the idea which we should have at this time. 112s (+Medicine)
Various issues which are raised by applying highly developed scientific technologies to medicine. (Genetic manipulation and sex selection, etc.) 194s (+Medicine)
Various ethical issues related with genetic manipulation, heart transplantation, etc. 197s (+Medicine)
Life is a precious existence given by nature. I appreciate the medical contribution for life support, but I don't want to apply in vitro fertilization, genetic recombination, etc. to "humans". I think it should follow natural (god's) providence. 210s (+Providence)
I wonder if it is ethical judgment under the condition that humans life is getting to be controlled by human will at the gene level, with the development of genetic engineering. 270s (+Providence)
It is the genetic manipulation of humans, and I think it is an ethical problem. 283s
For example, the issues which are raised by pursuit of science, concerned with death with dignity and genetic manipulation. 320s (+Medicine)
A certain framework and a stop to protect the dignity of life against the development of technology. 333s (+Respect for life)
How much do humans bring artificial things into nature? [Bioethics] is the part which is facing profanity to nature. 336s (+Providence)

Very important
New Zealand

It is a very important topic. 100
Very important, with today's advances, to understand the consequences of genetic engineering etc. 239 (+how to apply)
Japan

It is important because it leads to human dignity. 18 (+Human benefit)
Something which we should think first of all. 20
It is very important, and a central subject in a class. 77
A thing which is important as the earth. 92
Something we should consider completely separated from economic principles, and efficiency as first priority. 131
A mysterious and sacred thing. 231
I think it has highest value. 261
All living things wish to live and try to do so, and they are let to live. 279 (+Respect for life)
I think it is the most important thing. 351
Something which we should protect. 442
Something that must be respected. 2s
I regard it as of value. 8s
It is more precious than the earth. 21s
It is the most revered thing of humans, which we cannot regulate by law. 29s
A study of humanities that can be applied to every field. 33s (+Human benefit)
Something which is most dignified. 37s
The word bioethics itself is vague. But it is absolutely nonaggressive, and it should be respected. (I don't know if this is an adequate answer for the question. 41s
It is the original problem of humans. 46s
It is a noble and dignified thing but it is not absolute. 85s
The most important ethical standard for human beings, and that must not be violated. 121s
The last holy precincts which was left for humankind. 130s
What we surely need in education. 160s
A thing which has dignity, is unique, absolute, and exists only once. 161s
A thing being noble and irreplaceable. 172s
I think it is important to live as a human, and it is necessary to make understanding sufficient as an education category in the curriculum. 174s
Something which should be most respected. 183s
Important thing. 205s
The very important thing for human. 217s
It is very important. 242s
A thing with dignity. 274s
I've not thought very much about it. I wonder if it is something we should respect. 281s
I cannot answer with my current knowledge. I'm studying now, because I find it a very serious problem. 295s
A very important thing. 297s
It is very important, and must be respected sufficiently. 312s
I think when humans think, we should consider carefully. 318s
The thing which is indispensable for humans. 368s
A thing which tries to make an effort to regard dignity as much as possible. 372s
An important thing. 374s

Q18. Ethical Concerns about Animal Experiments



T = Q18a. Have you ever had ethical concerns about using animals? 1 No 2 Yes (What?..)
S = Q18b. Have students ever said that they have ethical concerns about using animals? 1 No 2 Yes (What?..)

N=No, Y=Yes, D=no answer

No need for animals / alternatives
New Zealand

It's cruel/ not needed, just a waste of living organisms. SYNZ20 (+Cruel)
Pointlessness of killing animals for dissection. TYNZ23 (+Dissection); Pointlessness/cruelty etc. SYNZ23 (+Cruel)
Feelings that animals may be unnecessarily used for experiments for very non essential research. SYNZ29s
Unnecessary suffering. TSYNZ31
I do not like taking the life of animals - I dislike cruelty to animals. TY; A few have expressed feelings similar to the above. SYNZ78 (+Cruel)
A few students are concerned about the animals well-being, and the need to use them. TYNZ89
To use an animal for a dubious demonstration is unnecessary. TYNZ99
Some individual students think that we should not do any experiments with them. TYNZ109
Killing for killing's sake. Some experiments are questionable in terms of the need to do it. We need to respect all of life. TYNZ112 (+Respect)
Dissection and alternatives seem to be the area of concern. SYNZ112 (+Dissection)
Cruelty; many experiments pointless. SYNZ114s (+Cruel)
The real necessity for putting animals down for a dissection. TYNZ115
Unnecessary. TYNZ126
Not everyone likes killing animals for the sake of science. TYNZ144s
That animals are exploited by us in these circumstances. TYNZ146
To what extent should the animal be subject experimentation. TYNZ160
I do not think that mice should die for the vicarious pleasure of 4th formers! TYNZ178
Why kill them, most eat meat! SYNZ183
After keeping animals in lab. how to dispose of them. Whether it is ethical to kill an animal for the purpose of dissection. TYNZ193 (+Respect)
Unnecessary wastage e.g. killing mice for dissections. Things we were told to do at University! TYNZ200 (+Other)
Whether we should or not. If actually doing the experiment is really that much more valuable than reading about it. Making sure no harm or stress to the animal. TYNZ223(+Humane)
Is it really necessary? SYNZ257
I no longer do dissection of whole mammals because I feel the learning doesn't justify the means and many students feel likewise. Otherwise only concerns are minimal. SYNZ259 (+Dissection)
Does the experiment contribute to a pupil's knowledge? TYNZ272
Unnecessary use of living material. SYNZ272
Why repeat experiments with animals that we are sure of result. Plus unbalanced emotive comments based on anthropomorphism. SYNZ278 (+Animal Rights)
Killing them. You can find out about the digestion system of a frog from textbooks, it is unnecessary. T,SYNZ285
Has it been necessary to use these animals, have the animals been handled in the most sympathetic way possible? TYNZ296
The death or use of an animals is not necessary for their learning to take place. SYNZ296
I refuse to use animals for experiments below Form 6 level. TYNZ302
Australia

Why use the animals? SYA8
At school level the same results can be achieved using video, models, computers. TYA10
Necessity in schools is questionable - even rat dissections. Obviously these are clinical necessities for animal experiments - but careful monitoring necessary. TYA11 (+Dissection)
They question the need for any experimentation which itself needs addressing in a balanced way. SYA11
Because I have never been in the position. I would only use animals if nothing else was possible. TNA15s
Does the end justify the means? TYA17m
Any dissection procedures with pre-killed animals worries me. I no longer do it. TYA21m (+Dissection)
Unnecessary killing of many species. TYA30
Questioning the death of a rat for the sake of teaching about "systems"i.e. circulatory, digestive, excretory, reproductive, nervous to year 8. SYA32
Whether it is really necessary to conduct these experiments - would a video be sufficient? TYA44s
They kill just to show us this. SYA46
Unnecessary killing for dissection. T,SYA47 (+Dissection)
What do you achieve that cannot be seen from videos. T,SYA63
Believe other alternatives for investigation are often available. TYA66
They feel that the animal should not have died for their sakes. SYA68
Unnecessary killings. SYA69s
I can see no justification for using animals in experiments in school. This amounts to cruelty and is completely unnecessary. TYA70 (+Cruel)
Is it really necessary when there are videos models etc? TYA76
Basically that the educational benefits of using animals is not sufficient to justify their use. TYA77
I fail to see that I have the right to deliberately kill an animal or change its life (by diet, stress, etc) in order for my students to gain knowledge which will not be of practical use to them. TYA84
I have to decide if killing the animals (and even Amoeba are animals) is necessary for knowledge to be gained. TYA88
They want to know if it is necessary. SYA88
Is there a real need to kill an animal just for a dissection in school? TYA89
In school students can learn from photos and videos. School students do not need to kill animals to study them. TYA107
They feel they can see and learn enough from diagrams etc. SYA110
Some think we should not kill animals. SYA129
Killing them for study. SYA144
I believe they are a waste of time at secondary school - diagrams, models, videos etc are for junior - you decide if that is a NO or a YES. TYA150
I dislike caging animals, and cannot see much argument for dissecting animals in the laboratory. Students have similar concerns to my own. T,SYA159
Unnecessary waste of life. T,SYA163
They often ask why dissection is necessary. SYA181 (+Dissection)
Why should we take a life for science research, in some cases it is not necessary. TYA201
Not necessary, plenty of literature that can be used. TYA219
Why do it, and that they had been living. SYA223
Not necessary, with video and other methods that show dissection etc clearly. TYA233s (+Don't use)
Alternative computer programs now available. TYA264s
They do not like using animals that have been killed only for the sake of a practical class. SYA253
That the animals not be cruelly treated for the sake of experiment. TYA254 (+Cruel)
Cruel! Unnecessary. SYA255s (+Cruel)
Moral issues / cruelty, purpose. But I'm not a science teacher. TYA255s (+Cruel)
Moral concern - cruelty, pointless activity. SYA256s (+Cruel)
The use of animals to give students a pleasurable experience which may not be 100% educationally worthwhile. TYA257
Yes - don't understand why animals are used. SYA265m
I don't like to think the animal was sacrificially killed for an experiment. T,SYA277
Cruel, unnecessary - e.g. rat dissection. SYA281 (+Dissection)
Is it necessary to kill animals for us to understand the digestive/reproductive system? TSYA285
Cruelty, not necessary. SYA287 (+Cruel)
They do not like needless killing of animals - usually girls. SYA291
I believe they are part of God's creation and therefore should not be needlessly killed for student experiments. TYA291 (+Repect)
Killing is unnecessary. T,SYA302
Do we really need to? TSYA319
Whether for example the dissection of a rat amongst a class is of any more benefit than one as a demonstration. TYA321m
Very few, but generally females and mainly, in my opinion emotive grounds - don't like to think of animals (mammals?) being killed and dissected. SYA330 (+Cruel)
Japan

In many schools, although we can easily observe by pictures, photos and videos, we still anatomise frogs. TY21
Each animal (including plant) has life, so whether it is really necessary to take their life even for education? TY31
Dilemma between the importance of life and studying and understanding. TY31
Each culture has irreplaceable precious life. Fear of harming it. TY47
After having done anatomy of frogs for a few years I quit it considering environmental disasters and so on. TY58
Is it permitted or not to kill larvae? TY65
Resistance to killing animals except for "eating". TY74
Thought I've done because I thought it necessary, I felt something hard to bear when I thought of it as one life. TY84
Even for education, is it permitted to take animals' life unreasonably. TY99
I'm worried whether we can use animal's life for experiments. TY104
It cannot be good to sacrifice life even for science. It's human ego itself. However, as any kind of animals cannot live without eating other creatures, I also don't want them to think that killing other creatures is always bad in the point of importance of life. TY128
Sorry. We should not let them die. SY152 (+Cruel)
I feel resistance to taking life if it is or almost meaningless. I personally have a policy not to do anatomy as student's experiment in class. TY171 (+Dissection)
There is no strong reason to use animals. TY186
Whether animal experiment is necessary or not. TY189
Even for crass, I cannot take a life. TY194
Though students will register the importance of life from forcing the death of experimental animals (anatomy etc.), I don't want to do experiment which leads animals to die until junior or senior high school. TY215
(+Respect)
It's up to newspaper media. experiment to check stress by smashing dog's leg) TY216
Why do we have to use animals? I'm sorry. SY222 (+Cruel)
Whether it has necessity to use. TY230
Whether it is permitted to use. SY230
Why we have to kill,whether it is necessary to kill? TY248
I was opposite to kill animals unnecessarily for anatomical experiments. TY261
Many students felt sorry, and there is an opinion that we don't need to kill unreasonably. SY261
About anatomy, do we need have to show this creature even by killing it? TY269
Experiments which lead creatures to die, like anatomy of frog. TY277 (+Dissection)
Observing experiments accompanying anatomy. (I haven't done for a long time.) TY294 (+Dissection)
Even past I feel anguish to finish life by own hand. (Recently I feel relieved because the tendency toward not to do anatomy is getting strong.) TY312
To take life for own scientific interest. TY324
I wonder if we can do only by taking animal life. I don't think that there are some effects to study or usefulness considering the seriousness of taking animal's life and only for experiments. TY406
Although students have interest when they do anatomy of frogs, I hesitate to do it because they are not concerned about life very much (only about fun). TY442
I am against dissection. TY442
I mostly left it to the teacher who was in charge. But some students fainted when they watched blood, some students were critical about anatomy of animals. SY446
Objections like whether it is necessary to kill frogs only for the experiments concerned with neurology. TY447
When we treat experimental animals, I think we are using them for not very meaningful things for the development at science. TY448
Is it actually useful for students to do that experiments? Is it helpful to acquire knowledge and to deepen understanding?) I sometimes think VTR etc, will do. TY450
I don't do the experiments which take life such as taking fish scales out or using human blood or cell. TY453
For example, I feel a reflex experiment on a spinal frog is cruel, so I don't feel like introducing this. TY510(+Cruel)
They seem to think whether animal experiments are necessary for the progress of science .SY520
It has an scientific impact on students ,but it is bad to do it. SY523
I want to do dissection. TY536
I hardly do animal dissection (fish, frogs and mise etc) recently. I do experiments with liver and kidneys of pigs and eyes of cows, and observe them. TY555
We don't need dissection experiment. TY44s
I wonder if it is OK for life to be terminated even in experiments (for something which you cannot say is absolutely necessary.) TY66s
I wonder if we could do dissection on a frog. What is the difference between the lives of human beings, frogs and guinea pigs? T.SY149s
Is it good to terminate precious life for the progress of human knowledge? TY164s
I have thought whether it is good to do such a thing when I did dissection a frog. TY175s
Is it OK that we deal with animals as only tools which have internal organs to develop the human world? I feel it is completely different from eating them with thanks and something which is completely deviant from a natural food chain. TY178s
Can we take life for the interests of pupils and students? TY244s
Is an experiment in high school education more important than preciousness of life? TY282s
About them being used in an experiment only for developing medicine. TY307s
Also whether the content of the study is worth taking the life of animals. TY337s
Needless development based on commercialism. TY381s

Don't Use them
New Zealand

We used to breed rats for dissection - we don't now. TYNZ59 (+Dissection)
I will not use animals for dissections. I only use animals for behavioural work and only short term work. TYNZ77
Any manipulative experiments. Keeping animals for long periods in laboratory environment even if carefully set up. Better to go out and observe where possible. TYNZ110 (+Return to nature)
Australia

Never used. TDA48s
Don't believe in killing them to do an experiment in class. TYA116
Many years ago, I had to kill rats for a dissection. I didn't like doing it. (No longer done.) TYA171 (+Dissesion)
Does your question mean this? Some are horrified to think about Draize all battery chickens. We do not use animals for experiments that I know of. TSYA298s (+Cosmetic testing)
Our school stopped using animals as did many others. Some parents and students expressed concern about the used animals. TYA337 (+Respect)
Japan

I was opposed by other teachers to do anatomy . TY12
Though it happened some time ago, when anatomy of cat was announced in news, I heard criticism. SY21
Some students say "I'm sorry" or "I cannot do" to kill larvae of moss. SY242 (+Cruel)
I haven't done experiments using small animals in my class. I only use plants and microbes. SN244
I decided not to use animals for classes and experiments twenty years ago.TY523
I have never used them. If I had, I could not do it.TY258s

Cosmetic testing bad
New Zealand

Although I cannot say no animals should be used for testing, I think a lot of vivisection is cruel and painful and unnecessary, e.g. cosmetic research, a lot of behaviour research, and some medical research, and should be strictly controlled by government. Other alternatives should be used wherever possible, regardless of cost, e.g. computer simulation, human volunteers, placentas, etc. TYNZ1 (+No need)
Cosmetic testing; general scientific research. TY; Cosmetics; medical testing, e.g. cancer tests. SYNZ27s
In discussions about cosmetic testing etc. SYNZ40
Sometimes not justified, e.g. manufacture of cosmetics. TYNZ44s
Make up companies - do we really need more cosmetics? SYNZ50
Don't like to use chimps etc. to test the effectiveness of drugs on diseases. SYNZ51s (+Animal rights)
Testing concerns, effects of chemicals, smoking etc. on animals when the human laboratory is already exposing us to these effects and results can be collected from people. TYNZ106s
Cruel, unnecessary e.g.cosmetics. SYNZ166 (+No need)
They won't use products that have been animal tested. SYNZ198s
Testing cosmetics etc. TYNZ207
While I appreciate that animals have provided scientists with life-saving data, I feel most uncomfortable that such experiments should still continue. Cosmetic trade - profit making - unnecessary for animals to be used. There ought to be a better way for medical development now. TYNZ231s
For testing products. SYNZ235s
Australia

Cosmetics research. TYA25
Many think that killing animals merely for dissection purposes is wrong. Most feel that testing chemicals on animals is disgusting. SYA84 (+No need+Dissection)
Make-up experimentation. TYA145s
Inflicting pain on animals, e.g. in cosmetics trials. TYA149s
Not at school - but frivolous use - e.g. testing the 10,000th type of cosmetic I think is a waste and unnecessary suffering to the animal. TYA168s
The nature and purpose of the testing e.g. cosmetics; the level of pain required. T,
SYA170m
Cruelty through the injection of various drugs and dissection. SA190 (+Dissection)
Cosmetics - smoking - abuse of animals. SDA222m (+Humane)
Use of animals for cosmetic testing. SYA248
In cosmetic testing. TYA251
Only related to live experiments / tests by companies for research. Not in my own school situation. TYA263
Use of animals for cosmetic purpose was the most recent. SYA270m
In relation to cosmetic / medical trials. TYA287
In general, cosmetic testing on animals is seen to create much suffering for little gain. Specifically some students have questioned the need for dissection at the start of a session but have almost always become actively involved by the end. SYA307 (+Dissection)
Never! When personally using them! I do not consider, however, animals should be use for non-essential testing e.g. cosmetics. TYA330
Japan

I think it will be a problem to make the life of animal disappear easily for chemical product, tests of medicine. TY89s
To use the rabbit eye for cosmetic test. I cannot think there is only that methods. TY109s
To paint tar on a rabbits ear to make them have cancer. TY230s
Because I have debated whether it is good or bad to do animal experiment for the development of cosmetics.TY370s

Only use dead animals
New Zealand

No, we use things like heart/lungs from local meat works. TNNZ22
I mainly use rabbits I have shot and cockroaches (both pests). SYNZ52
I prefer by-product use, e.g. still-born lambs, organs from slaughtered animals, observe and return to habitat if possible. TYNZ54
Dead rats, mice, earthworms. TNNZ129
I used to breed rats solely for senior biology dissection - but found it undesirable - since moved to Pest destruction bound (rabbits) for animals for education purpose. TDNZ131
Most have been solved, as we generally do not kill our own organisms (except micro-organisms) and only use dead material from other sources. TYNZ148
I only use parts of animals that are already dead e.g.sheeps' hearts, or kept pet in the lab. I do not believe in animals being killed for no real reasons. TYNZ173 (+Other)
The animals that I use for dissect are either pests e.g.rabbits or lambs that have dies natural, I don't breed for the purpose of killing. TYNZ184
Vivisection. T,SYNA217s
We don't use live animals. SDNZ217
They think animals die needlessly whereas ours have only ever known a laboratory life or come in from forms in a dead state to dissected. TYNZ231 (+No need)
Usually use animal that are pests e.g.rabbits and opossums, worms are animal, too. TYNZ233
The animals used are diseased already and had been "put-down", so only for dissections. TNNZ265
Using live animals (vertebrates). TYNZ266
Australia

We use rats for dissection - they are already dead before arrival at school. I don't think the use of "live" animals (except for observation) is warranted. TNA36 (+Dissection)
Only if the animal is used for the experiment only. TYA69s
I used to use live frogs for studies of circulation, heart rate, muscle response. Do not use live frogs in class today. Concern is for declining frog populations world-wide and ethical concerns - exploiting animals for unsound reasons. TYA133
I only use lab reared and preserved specimens. TYA143
I contact my Butcher for various organs. TYA228
Only use dead material and minimise numbers to maximise full utilization. Some students conscientiously object. TYA230 (+Debate)
Pithing frogs - I will use dead animals in class, dissection, and living animals if they are not harmed; I will not hurt or kill an animal as part of an experiment. TYA235
We buy rats and frogs preserved. I hope they are treated well by the company. TYA290
Japan

It's not good to kill living animals. TY251
I use only dead animal (meats of pigs, chicken etc), but students say sorry to chop up even the dead. SY266(+Cruel)
I have no concern with dead fish, but about killing and using living animals. SY460(+Cruel)
I often use the "eye of a cow", but I don't actually use living organisms in a class. Because I feel it is difficult to teach the preciousness of the life of living organisms. TY543

Invertebrates lower/ or Mammals special
New Zealand

Particularly vertebrates but any animal is to be handled with great care and should not be subjected to any experiment that may cause it harm. TYNZ28 (+Cruel)
Increasingly negative reactions to the use of mammals but still don't care about or hate insects, spiders. SYNZ84
I would not willingly kill any living being that was not a threat to me - wasps, yes, opossums, yes, but not laboratory mice. TYNZ144s (+Cruel)
If in a study of an animal (for individual study),they need to kill one eg. a crab for dissection. (Vertebrates are not used.) SYNZ158 (+Cruel+Dissection)
Have never used animals for "harmful experiments - usually behavioural / carefully controlled. TNNZ171
Causing pain, stress, death, have restricted to insect, crustacean, anthropod level of life forms. TYNZ176 (+Cruel)
Twinge of conscience for invertebrate dissections, worse twinge for vertebrates experiments or mammals. SYNZ181 (+Dissection)
I refuse to use vertebrates but not too bothered about invertebrates. Don't do dissection. TYNZ249
We are restricted to invertebrates. TNNZ264
We are governed by the local AEC at this school. Thus not vertebrates and guidelines which keep our experiment within the law TYNZ275 (+Other)
Mammals.SYNZ294s
Australia

No animals used "higher" than small rodents. Need to avoid treatment of animals causing evidence of distress. TYA93 (+Humane)
Some students not happy that rats should be killed for dissection - Don't seem to have same feeling about toads. SYA112
Because the only organism we kill are toads - an import. TNA123
Some are opposed to the use of mammals (e.g. rat) although not so concerned about other species. Dissection caused particular concern. SYA175 (+Dissection)
Dissection. Use only invertebrates for respiration / behaviour experiments. SYA257 (+Dissection)
There must be sound educational justification, strict guidelines and the use of invertebrates in preference to vertebrates. TYA315 (+Other)
We do not do live animal experiments, except for behavioural experiments with invertebrates. TYA332 (+Dead only)
Japan

For mammals. TY22
Experiments with monkeys, dogs, cats etc. TY23
They have pity for animals which feel close and tender. On the other hand, they have oppose reaction to animals which make us feel sick, like a cockroach. SY28 (+Cruel)
Mammals. SY61
I stopped experiments in which I have to kill animals (vertebrates) TY67
It depends on species of creatures. SY140
I've been treating animals with an attitude to think together with students about the difference between objects and life in dissection of frogs. I don't use a mouse or rat for experiment. TY173 (+Debate)
I try not to use mammals. TY176
I have resistance to kill animals higher than amphibians. T,SY197
Dissection of bull frog. Observation of chicken embryo. TY224
I'd like to thoroughly use small insects. (for example, Drosophila.) TY295
"I'm sorry" for birds and mammals those are close to human being. Indifferent to others. TS299
They object to using large mammals, but not for small animals. If ask them why, but there are no definite answers. SY316 (+Cruel)
About small fish or larvae of small insect, I think those are for experimentation of class. TY330
As the animals which students concern about are limited to those close to human beings, I try to use more protozoa. TY348
They say that it is sad to use any kind of creatures for experiments. But the strength of this opinion is weakened for animals such as plankton. SY348 (+Cruel)
Because the animals which we use in experiments are small insects or ones for food. TN424
I use animals, which are protozoans and insects (a fly, a silkworm). TY473
I avoid using individual animals. I use the larva of a midge and I feel less resistance to this. SY516
I specially feel sorry in the case of vertebrates (a frog, a rat, etc) TY497
In the case of treating vertebrates. TY525 In the case of treating vertebrates (a frog, a mouse, etc) SY525

Dissections
New Zealand

Don't like killing them for dissection. TY(+Cruel); Shouldn't be killed for dissection. SYNZ25s (+No need)
Dissecting vertebrates. TYNZ8
Usually dissection. SYNZ9
Dissection of animals. SYNZ28
Stomach and intestine dissections, heart/lung dissections: students ask if the animals were killed for this express purpose. SYNZ37
Killing animals for dissection. TY; Keeping animals in cages, killing them for dissection. SYNZ43 (+Cruel)
We purchase lab. rats from Massey for dissections - is this ethical? TY; Why should I have to dissect an animal. SYNZ55 (+No need)
Dissection. Even when using a locust; concerns about cruelty. SYNZ59 (+Cruel)
Dislike dissections. SYNZ61
Rats are used for dissections. Dissections are need but very selectively done. SYNZ64
We breed rats for dissection purposes only. Ethical concerns occur only in regard to manipulations of live specimens (which we don't do). TD; Mostly concerned at the use of dead material for dissection. SYNZ76 (No need)
Some students do not like using dissection of organisms - although seldom for strong ethical reasons. TYNZ91
Emphasise to students that dissected material is from animals slaughtered for food. TYNZ95 (Dead only)
Usually in dissections. SYNZ95
Some disagree strongly with dissection. Some have had concerns about keeping live animals as pets in school laboratory. Some disagree strongly with use of any animals for experiments. SYNZ110 (+Animal rights)
Some have just refused to dissect simply because they become too emotionally upset. SYNZ115 (+Cruel)
Concerned about how we obtain material for dissection. SYNZ148
Yes - methods of killing them for dissection etc. TYNZ159
Unkind / cruel - but usually only dissections.. Some became they do not like using animals. SYNZ171 (+Cruel)
About dissections, hurting animals. SYNZ173 (+Cruel)
They don't like animals to be killed for dissection. SYNZ184
Is it worth the learning?, more so as computer-assisted learning replaces dissection. TYNZ189 (+No need)
Dissection. Hurting animals (invertebrates). SYNZ200 (+Invertebrate only)
"Anti" dissections. SYNA203s
I do not like doing dissections - even when I know the animals were going to be killed anyway. TYNZ217
Dissection. SYNZ225
Dissection issue / care issues. TYNZ248
Dissections / blood products / hearts / eyes. SYNZ256
Breeding or killing animals for dissection. TYNZ269
Very concerned that we don't kill and dissect them. SYNZ273 (+Cruel)
Vivisection, use of animals in research don't like handling rats for dissections - may sometimes be an ethical issue. SYNZ275
"Shouldn't kill animals for dissection", anxious about methods of termination. SYNZ281 (+Humane)
Dissection. SYNZ288
Australia

They don't wish to dissect animals because they find it offensive / upsetting. SYA1 (+Cruel)
Don't think rats should die for students to dissect. SYA17m (+Animal rights)
Organs of horses for dissection , rats for dissection. SYA19
Concerning dissection of lab. rats - even concerning any dissections e.g. sheep's hearts. SYA31
Oo yuk! - dissections. SYA33
Unnecessary dissections, prefer to keep dissection for seniors. TYA46 (+No need)
That animals should not be used for class dissections. SYA106 (+No need)
Rat dissections. SYA119
They don't like the idea of dissection of a once living animal (usually only applied with furred animals). SYA128
Some do not wish to dissect frogs or rats. They see it as cruelty to animals. SYA137 (+Cruel)
Cruel to dissect. SYA142
Dissection of rats merely for curiosity. T,SYA148
They do not like dissecting animals; animal right to live. SYA150 (+Animal rights)
Some don't want to do dissection. SYA157
Killing rats for dissection. T,SYA161
Don't want to dissect animals. SYA180
They have opted out of dissection classes. SYA182
Rat dissection i.e. killing of rats in order to dissect them. TYA189m
Killing rats for dissection by high school students. TYA190 (+No need)
Use rats for dissection year 9 science. Seemed inappropriate to the amount of knowledge gained. TY196 (+No need)
We do not do dissections and I'm thinking perhaps there are alternative now like video's. TYA210 (+No need)
Don't want to do dissections. SYA210
Embryos of chickens tested for development. Dissection of rodents (made optional to those that did not wish to). Subjecting invertebrates to stresses and noting behaviour. Killing animals. TSYA211 (+Debate)
They don't like animals being killed for dissections. TYA216
Issues regarding dissections and the breeding of animals for these. SYA241
The rat dissection TYA260
They worry about animals that might be dissected in the future. SYA282
Some will not work on animals at all. They think animal life is inviolate. SYA290 (+Animal rights)
Dissection of animals. SYA300
Dissection. SYA311
When a student had a pet rat and we were dissecting rats. SYA313 (+Cruel)
Even dissections of dead. SYA324
Especially in dissections, however after doing proper dissections they often realise the value of the exercise. SYA332 (+Needed)
Usually worried about animals being killed - even rats for dissection. SYA335 (+No need)
Japan

Problems concerning with life at anatomy (mouse, frog etc). TY16
About the meaning of dissection. TY26
Dissection experiment. T,SY43
During the dissection of frogs or mice, some students have a sensitive reaction, so I stopped them recently. SY182
Especially about anatomy. T,SY195
Dissection of frog. SY207
Dissection, keeping. TY288 (+Humane)
When they do dissection. SY288
Dissection of chicken. SY323
Dissection. T, SY355
When we practise dissection of a mouse in biology class. TY396
Anatomical experiment of small animals like frogs or yabbies. SY413
Dissection of animals SY427
I presuppose student's reaction and impact when we do anatomical experiments. TY440
At dissection and blood correction (to determine blood type). TY446
The practice of dissection. T,SY468
Animal dissection. TY475
In the case of the dissection of a rat (or a mouse) TY526
Dissection. SY541 Frog dissection. TY541
Dissection, experiments and animal experiments for research on cancer. TY558
Dissection of a frog. TY25s
Dissection of frogs and dogs. TY132s
Dissection of a dog in a university and dissection of a frog. SY226s
About practical training using dissection.T.SY521s

Small or limited number used
New Zealand

Our and my ethical concerns are expressed in our use of invertebrates for a small range of investigations. TYNZ156
I use them sparingly and in non-destructive ways. TYNZ161
Australia

The number that are used. TYA1
Animals used must be kept to a minimum and not suffer. TYA7 (+Humane)
To some extent only. Not to make them extinct. Some should be used for scientific experiment, and food. TYA80s
I do not like the idea of cutting up large numbers of rats etc just so students can look at them. TYA78
Number of animals used. Basically use rats dissection and limit the number used. No worries with cane toads though. TYA121
Japan

Use minimum number. TY0
We should not kill indiscriminately. TY27
I have a policy not do experiments which are only for anatomy and which sacrifice only a part of the body. TY33
Do not catch creatures more than necessary, even frogs, fish, insects etc, though they're not higher animals. TY57 Do not treat them cruelly. TY57
Use of animals more than necessary. TY69
Even small animals (larvae of moss) have genes in their chromosomes, and maintain their life very hard. I heard the opinion that they do not kill animals thoughtlessly. SY121
Keep in mind using minimum necessity. TY135
Don't use materials more than necessary. TY152
Don't waste life. (from Buddha written by Osamu Tezuka) TY184
Try not to cause pain and not to use more than necessary. TY204 (+Humane)
Warn against unnecessary killing. TY207
Human beings are consumers eating other animals and plants, and we can understand that using animals for experimental materials as one kind of consumption, against the students' opinion "I'm sorry". However we should use usefully and wastelessly. TY222 (+Guilty)
Don't kill animals indiscriminately. T,SY249
I try to (decrease) number of experimental animals and do as little as possible.TY265
I organize the experiments using animals in minimum necessity and try to learn as much as possible. TY284
Use the minimum and necessary number for experiment as much as possible. TY290
When we can't do experiment without killing animals, use only minimum necessary number . TY291
I keep minimum use of animals, case and educational effect. TY307
Try to use minimum number. TY319
I feel it is like a mass slaughter to give one frog or one mouse to each student. TY321
At the experiment, many students say "I'm sorry". They try to succeed in an experiment using just one animal. TY330 (+Cruel)
It's cruel to terminate life, but (such experiment) also teaches the preciousness of life. Experimental attitude not to waste life is required. TY337 (+Guilty)
Why do we have to take lives as many as the number of students in the class although one is enough. TY358
I carried out the survey at the dissection of a chicken, and they had the impressions such as "I don't kill if possible", "even kill, please reduce the number", and I understand some. T,SN415
I tried not to kill as much as possible. SY424
Although I use creatures (animals) for experiments when we need not indiscriminately, I feel sorry when I see the creature writhing. TY425 (+Cruel)
Even for class, basically we avoid to take creature's life as much as possible. TY441
Don't kill meaninglessly. TY457
I don't use it more than necessary. TY498
We shouldn't use it unreasonably, but should plan properly. Unplanned use. TY520
I avoid needless taking of life, and do it, thinking of the preciousness of life. TY174s (+Respect)
Because I think we should not take life meaninglessly, however there is meaningless destraction of life. TY180s
We must not kill more fish than necessary. SY205s
We should control to use a minimum number. TY247s
Doubt whether we use more animals than necessary. TY301s
Although you cannot help that human beings sacrifice animals to some degree, it is unnatural to seek the solution by the sacrifice of animals for something that is more than supporting minimum human social and cultural life, that is to say, something that we cannot say absolutely necessary, it is human vanity. TY335s
We only need the minimum necessary number. TY336s
Although it is a necessary evil to take the life of something which lives in symbiosis as one of the same living organisms or persons on the earth, we only need the minimum necessary number. TY371s

Cruel to hurt them
New Zealand

Do not like hurting them. Plants are also living! SYNZ2
It might hurt them! Leave them alone. SYNZ4 (TN)
Cruelty to animals. SYNZ8
Stress on animals. Some students are upset. TYNZ9
"It's cruel" - unhappy with the idea that the rat/mouse was killed for dissection - or sheep at works for meat and organs. SYNZ10
Killing them; cutting them up. SYNZ13s (+Dissection)
Students are naturally concerned about animals. We encourage this. SYNZ15
I don't like the idea that the animals are suffering or that they know when to anticipate pain or hardship. What would happen if the roles were reversed. TY; My fourth form social studies class is very concerned about animal abuse of domestic and wild animals and shrinking environment for wild animals. SYNZ26s (+Debated)
Causing pain or suffering. TYNZ30
Do not like causing stress to other organisms (including invertebrates). TY; As above - do cockroaches feel pain? Do crabs get stressed when handled? SYNZ47
Usually the females are concerned about cruelty to vertebrates. SYNZ54
Usually very emotive protests from juniors about dissections. SYNZ67 (+Dissections)
"Poor little thing" etc. SYNZ71
Inflicting pain on living things. SYNZ72
"Cruelty". TSYNZ73
"Keeping them in cages", concern if any do die despite careful care procedures. SYNZ74
Warming slaters in a flask to test respiration rate changes. Just "they might not like being so warm". Can't think of others. SYNZ79
Stress of animal; Dissections. SYNZ81 (+Dissections)
Very seldom - but some individuals are not happy in, for example, killing laboratory rats. SYNZ91
Didn't think it was fair. SYNZ96
Some reluctant to kill animals. SYNZ98
But not related to what the class was doing - just general concerns. SYNZ101
"Why do animals have to suffer for our benefit?!" etc. SYNZ102
Don't like killing (even invertebrates). TYNZ103
They think it is cruel. SYNZ108
My brother once dissected a live frog at university. It cried tears and screamed! I wouldn't handle that! TYNZ144s (+Other)
Avoid hardships to animals where possible. TYNZ114
They don't always (especially girls) like the idea that animals e.g. mice are killed for dissection. SYNZ116
I hate killing animals...! TYNZ118s
Vivisection, disturbance of animals normal lives. SYNZ119 (+Animal rights)
Taking life / causing stress / effect on natural population. TYNZ122 (+Animal rights)
Taking life / causing pain / stress then discarding them / effect on natural population when they are removed. TYNZ122 (+Return to nature)
It is cruel, but sometimes necessary. TYNZ125s
It is cruel. SYNZ125s
Cruel and unnecessary. SYNZ126 (+No need)
Have heard students comment on the "poor animal". SYNZ129s
In case any harm comes to the animals. SYNZ133
Cruelty. SYNZ141s
Don't like killing things. SYNZ144s
Mostly squeemish concerns - blood etc. SYNZ145s
It's cruel. SYNZ146
If the animals are harmed. TYNZ151
Concerned about harming / hunting animals. SYNZ160
There are always a percentage that are concerned about using live animals - particularly if we "stress" them at all. SYNZ162
Don't like dissections. What about plants? SYNZ163
Not fair to kill mice etc. SYNZ178
If the animals are harmed or placed under extreme stress. TYNZ187
Cruelty. SYNZ194
Cruelty and stress for animal. T,SYNZ202s
Did you kill this? Concern for well being of slaters in experiments. SYNZ204
Care for the quality of life of the animal concerned. T,SYNZ209
They don't like the idea of making animals suffer. SYNZ213
Vague unspecified, "it's wrong to hunt animals", "vivisection is wrong". SYNZ214
Not applicable, but I would have if I were to have to use them. TYNZ220s
It should be as certain as possible that the animals do not "suffer". TYNZ221
Whether its "fair" on the animals. SYNZ223
I build it into my programme. The females are very concerned. Males need education on the issues! TYNZ235
A few concerned that the animals may be stressed. SYNZ237
Don't like killing them. SYNZ249
A number don't like to cause any harm to them directly or indirectly. SYNZ250
Don't like to hurt them. (we don't!) SYNZ251
How much fear / pain do they feel. TYNZ253
Cruelty. SYNZ253
1) Keeping lab. animals. 2) Experiments with animals. 3) Slaughtering animals for dissection. SYNZ254 (+Dissection)
Don't be mean to them. T,SYNZ258
"They have feelings, too...""It's not fair...""How would you like it..." SYNZ264
About 'hunting" live animals. SYNZ266 (+Cosmetic)
Don't like killing animals. SYNZ269
The same reasons - animals used for vivisection and being put under stress in lab. behaviour experiments. SYNZ274
Any undue suffering. TYNZ278s
Some very sensitive. SYNZ278s
It "isn't right" or it is "cruel". SYNZ283
That we would not kill or harm the snails / earthworm. SYNZ298
Oh the poor things, about dead animals. SYNZ304
Australia

They love animals and could not bear to hurt them in any way. SYA16
The poor rat! SYA18
Many students are not as yet desensitised. SYA21m
Cruel to kill animals e.g. rats. SYA26
Unnecessary suffering. Effect on students. TYA29s (+Other)
Most of their reservations relate to the "cuddly" concept of an organism. SYA30
Distress to animals. TYA40
"Animals should not be used for experiments as it's unkind." SYA41
Cruelty. SYA41s
Primarily with living specimens (rats) - what happens to them? How are they killed? Do they suffer? SYA43
Cruelty. SYA70
It is cruel. TYA75
They would not like it. It is cruel. SYA75
Don't like the idea of killing the animals. SYA78
Cruel. SYA79
Mainly vague but think of animals such as cats and dogs being "tortured" to prove a scientific point. SYA 81s (+Death as cost)
The usual statement is "it's cruel". SYA89
Any use (domestic / research / die) which cause physical damage or distress. TYA90
Claims of cruelty, distaste, revulsion. SYA99
Cruel to kill toads. SYA100
"Its cruel." SYA103
Killing animals! SYA114
Cruelty aspects and I use only care T,SA118m
Shouldn't kill them, right to live, Insect collections - against religion. SYA121 (+Animal rights)
Objections to their use. SYA130s
Cruelty, respect for life. SYA141
Cruelty. TYA147; Any sign of cruelty. SYA147
Gruesome experiments which may be carried out an animals. SYA152
They don't want to kill. SYA154
Fear cruelty to animals. SYA156
Sentimental concern about killing an animal - even though the majority are NOT vegetarians - yes I do ask. SYA164
Poor fluffy animal etc - although a discussion solves that - but if a student was firmly opposed - then they would be excused! SYA168s (+Debate)
Did not want to use them. SYA170
They do not want to harm animals. SYA171
It's cruel. SYA173s
They would not tolerate cruelty, especially the girls. (funny, that, but true I think.). SYA177
Possible cruelty. (which can be avoided) T,SYA179m
They feel sorry for the animals. SYA186
Cruelty issues. TYA187s
Worry about cruelty. SYA187s
Killing animals in order to study them. SYA189m
More emotional concerns expressed over the years rather than ethical. SYA200
Effect it may have on the animal. SYA201
Animal cruelty is unjustified. SYA204
Cruel. SYA209
Very, very few. They must not be killed, they have a life. SYA215
Cruelty. T,SYA221
The killing of a rat. SYA225
Cruelty, conscientious objections, but are never forced. SYA230
Cruel. SYA235
Possible harm / injury / hurt. TSYA241
No harm should come to them. TYA243
It's cruel to use animals. SYA243
I don't believe they should be harmed. TYA253
When they (a few) feel animals should not be deprived of freedom for any reason. SYA254
Some. SYA260
Some - related to cruelty -unfounded. SYA263
Concerned about animals loss of life. SYA264s
Cruelty in any form is wrong. Many animals have been treated wrongly. TYA268s
Minimizing of suffering. TYA273s
Cruelty and for useless purposes. TYA274m
Cruelty. SYA274m
Don't like cutting up animals. SYA277
Criticism from other staff. TYA281
They see it as cruelty why don't we use "humans". SYA298 (+Other)
Death for our gain. SYA303
Cruelty, suffering. T,SYA311s (+Humane)
Cruelty is always a concern. TYA320s
Of course! SDA320s
Rather vague reasons usually given from students. SYA322
They sometimes interpret some actions as cruel. SYA331
They have never been very articulate in this area. No rational reason. Emotional responses (which are quite valid, I believe). SYA336
Often felt that it was cruel. SY337
Japan

To kill in the end. TY9
They emotionally feel sorry. SY9
Up to degree of saying "sorry". SY11
I don't feel like to agree with taking life for experiments. (eating is different) TY14
Put hands to the thing that has life. TY25
They say I'm sorry if they die etc. SY32
Since it is girls' high school, they dislike it in feeling. (to terminate life.) SY33
Emotional and sentimental. Native and simple, and not logical. It's enough for the present. (Because they can understand sufficiently that they cannot treat animals carelessly.) SY34
Opinion that "I'm sorry". SY35
I'm sorry. SY44
Most are feeling that "I'm sorry". SY47
The fact that we cannot restore the lost life. TY55
I'm sorry. SY55
Student level is just that they are sorry to kill animals. If considering it as ethical concerns, it will be "Yes". It is not more than that. SY56
I still think sorry. SY58
Experiments which kill animals in the end, like anatomy of animals. SY59 (+Dissection)
I always feel resistance to terminate animal's life even for education. TY64
I'm still negative to death of animals. SY67
I'm sorry to kill animals at human pleasure though they're living. SY68
I'm sorry. SY69
The feeling of sorrow. SY72 Don't be driven away by stupid feelings. TY72
Because living creature happened to die in short days for being used. TY76
It will be take their life away. SY76
About killing at the class of anatomy of mouse. SY77
Emotional. (I'm sorry.) T,SY80
Some said they were sorry. SY84
There were many opinions that "I'm sorry" at the anatomy of brain of chicken. SY86
At primary school we don't show animals in nature very much. When we use animals for experiments, students simply say sorry. They have strange views of ethics. SY91
Emotional problems are exist. T,SY92
They feel sorry to kill animals to use for experiments. SY93
The fact that the words such as "I'm sorry" or "feel sick" come out first at anatomy. SY94
I have thought that it is sorry to kill animals in experiments, but it was emotionally, not ethically. TN98
I think though they have feelings such as sorry or feel sick, those are not ethical concern. SN98
It was when a primary school teacher was explaining to the students whether they can sacrifice life of fish to anatomise in the class, when I was college student. Also, when I see VTR of animal experiment which has a cruel impression in biology class. T,SY101
It was only to the degree that some students had concern. SY108
I heard the opinion that "it is sad to kill". SY117
About taking their life. T,SY125
I don't think they are concerned very much (to the degree of sorrow). SN130
They say it is sad in the case when they take life of creatures (experimental animals). SY132
I am not certain, but they seem to have the understanding at least that it is sad. SY134
I'm sorry - consciousness as life. SY135
They have concern to experimental animals, to the degree of sorrow. SY141
I think they have concern. SY142
About life and death. SN148
I'm sorry for animals. SY151
During the experiment to take the salivary glands from a worm, some students had hesitation to take it out = to kill. I wondered whether we are allowed to kill them. SY159
They had the heart to feel "sorry". SY161
From the native feeling such as simply sorry. SY165
We've done small experiments using Planaria or frogs etc with saying I'm sorry. TY166 Though it seems that they have questions arising from emotional feelings of sorrow, making them think deeper, some students have concern. (But I think they are only a minority.) SY171 (+Animal right)
Toward life. T,SY183
They complain to terminate animal's life. (sorry.) SY185
Pity. SY185
Resistant feeling to terminate animal's life. TY187
To taking life. TY190
Still about life. SY194
Simple opinion such as "I'm sorry". SY203
At most the level of sorry. SY206
Female students often say sorry. But I don't know whether it is ethical concern. SY209
Sympathy, pity. SY223
I grieve at any kind of experiment where the animals die. TY225
Questions always arise about killing. SY233
Many are superficial as sorrow. SY235
About killing. SY236
To take animal's life. TY240
To kill animals. SY240
They start with the feeling of sorrow, and think about life. SY241
I have resistance to some degree to terminate life in class even they are small animals. TY244
They seem to be primitive and to feel sorry. Now we're in the situation not able to do anatomical experiment. SY252 (+Dissection)
Feeling of just sorry. SY253
To killing animals at anatomy. TY254 (+Dissecion)
I grieve to take animal's life. TY263
Sense of guilt of killing. TY264
Hate for sheding blood. SY264
Most of them are direct and emotional. SY275
Feeling just sorrow is most common. SY277
Death of creature. TY280
I'm sorry for the death of creature. SY280
Just the level of "sorrow". SY292
I'm sorry. SY301
Some students seem to hesitate at the experiment which kills and wounds animals. SY306
Sensual reaction : "feel sick". Emotional reaction "I'm sorry". SY309
It may be from ethical concern that they say it cruel. SY312 (+Dissection)
Hesitation to finish life. TY314
"I'm sorry to kill""I don't want to do" etc. SY315
Some students instinctively (experimental meaning) hated and didn't join in anatomy. SY317 (+Dissection)
Though plants are also creatures, they have higher concern as life to animals and happen to have resistance to kill even one larvae of a moth. They have higher conscious different from plants. SY318
It is emotional rather than ethical. SY319
I heard the opinions that "I'm sorry to experimental animals", "even plants and microbes have lives". SY326
Is it the resistance feeling about living creature? TY331
I'm sorry. SY332
I'm sorry, a ghost appears, we have to use them. SY335
To kill creatures, TY340
Whether it is good to wound or to kill living creatures. TY342
I'm sorry to kill animals. SY342
About the death of animals. T,SY345
I feel grief for them to be produced and killed by human circumstances. TY349
They seem to think about death of the living organism, the experimental animal though those are natural? SY352
I'm sorry. SY357
Emotional side that it is sad. SY358
About taking animal's life although it's for experiment. T,SY361
Students have feelings of resistance to anatomise experimental animals like mouse, frog and cricket. T,SY363
They seem to feel resistance to kill silkworm. SY364
The fear to take the life of living creatures. TY366
Students intentionally hate to kill animal was the strongest one. SY368
As most animals are to be killed after use, their conceptions were "it is sorry", or what should I do if were treated like this. SY369
A sense of guilt to killing creatures. And I feel too much that in many cases students cannot develop their interests more than dissecting animals. TY372 (+Other)
Impression based opinions such as "I'm sorry", "It's too much". SY377
I'm sorry. SY384
I've done the experiments of "reflex" and "anatomy" using frogs. As I used many frogs, although it is for experiments, I was forced to think about the life of an animal. S,TY387 (+Dissection)
They say I'm sorry. SY389
Many students dislike to take out the salivary glands from larvae of moth. SY390
Opinions like "I'm sorry" "looks painful'. SY393
Still feelings of resistance to kill animals even for experiments. (Some female students cry with tears.) SY396
Guilty conscience about killing many creatures for a simple experiments. TY397
"Cute", Fearful", "I'm sorry". SY407
A female student cried for sorrow. SY408
I'm sorry. SY411
I had a doubt whether we can kill, because that experiment was already known. TY416
Just sentimental feeling. SY418
I think that they have thought at least sorry. SY419
Can we kill animals for dissection and the like? TY422
They say sorry. SY423
To kill and anatomize a living frog. TY431 (+Dissection)
Refusal of experiment of just sorry. SY433
I feel qualms of conscience to take life just simply. T,SY434
To take life. T,S437
They show educated reaction by primary school teachers or parents such as sorrow or feeling sick. SY439
Many students suffered in the experiment of Drosophila which was done last year. SY441
The word "sorry". SY442
Now many students think it is sad to anatomize animals aside from plants. SY448 (+Dissection)
Simply they feel sorry. (This is the impression from seeing pictures of charts and textbook.) SY450
Feelings such as sorrow. SY454
Simple feeling such as sorry or looks painful. SY458
It was from heart such as honest "sorrow". SY459
To use living animals. TY460
I don't want to do the experiment which students dislike. TY487
"The consideration for the death of experimental organisms". Students are strong. SY508
Especially at the time of an animal experiment some students reject it, so I think it has been perceived. SY512
I wonder how effectively the animals body and life are used. TY515
They have strong feeling of sorrow when they take life of an organisms. SY515
When I see and hear the pictures and news of animal experiments which appear in the mass media, they look like they are very miserable. TY526 (+Other)
I feel sorry. SY530, SY553, SY326s
Something like (not clear) fear of the fact that organisms take life. SY533
About dissection of a chick and about taking life. SY537 (+Dissection)
I wonder if we can actually kill living things which we obtain for the purpose of dissection. T,SY540 (+Dissection)
About half had comments which were interested in ethics, but the others were only to the degree of "I am sorry" or "I feel yuk". SY543
Although I don't use insects now, I have used them as teaching materials in the past and I had resistance to killing living thing creatures. TY546
I have a guilty feeling about terminating life, although it is a teaching material. T, SY548
The time when we need to kill them. T, SY551
Because that, unlike plants, animals have nerves and seem to feel pain. T,SY556
I wonder if we could kill something which has life. TY75s
They feel sorry because they have life. SY75s
Because I feel pain to take life whatever the reason. TY77s
Cruelty to animals. TY140s
Emotional reaction of sorrow. SY140s
Because I like animals. TY161s
Resistance to sacrificing life. TY195s
The feeling of sorrow. SY195s
The idea is sorrow (because I am not a science teacher), which is human conscience. SY255s
I think they will probably hate to use it (especially in the case of higher animals, it is impossible). SY258s
The fact that anybody will take life. SY282s
There are some students who reject dissection of chicken. SY293s (+Dissection)
The fact we drive animals to death. TY326s
I have a question about taking life. SY337s
I think it is sufficient ethical interest to have the impressions, "I feel sorry" "I cannot look at it.". SY355s
Although I understand the meaning of the sample, I don't want to look at it as one of the farmers. TY359s
Although only a part of the students, they seem to have had consciousness of "sorrow". SY371s
The pain in my heart when it involves killing and hurt. TY379s
"I feel sorry for experimental animals." SY381s

Humane use / no pain
New Zealand

Cruel living conditions; experiments on animals; frightening them; not killing them painlessly. TYNZ13s (+Cruel)
Because we are governed by a code of practice for vertebrates, and I don't allow students to intentionally stress vertebrates. They are killed quickly and humanely if necessary. TNNZ14
We only allow students to do safe experiments and we teach them how to care for the animals. TYNZ15
Welfare not hindered. TY; Animals not distressed or harmed. SYNZ16
No, because guidelines have always been in place. TN; Animals are treated with care and attention. SNNZ17
Animals are not used for adverse experiments - adequate welfare, food, etc.- important part of experiment. TNNZ35
Discussion of welfare etc. SYNZ35
I will only allow experiments which are humane and put little or no stress onto the animal. TY; About the humaneness of the experiment they are doing. SYNZ46
I don't harm them. TYNZ50
Basic philosophy of handling, housing, attitude. TSYNZ57
The outcome must be educationally justifiable with minimal pain/suffering for the animal. TYNZ66
Animals are appropriately fed and kept in clean containers; plus students have regard for the animals right to life. TYNZ67 (+Animal rights)
As long as animals are cared for humanely and treated well. We do not dissect or physically harm animals. TNNZ68
Conditions in which they are kept; prolonging of life in order to observe introduced disease patterns. TYNZ69s
The purpose for which they are being used must not harm or distress the animal. They must also be housed, fed appropriately. We always release them at the end. TYNZ75 (+Return to nature)
Way dissection animals are killed. SYNZ83
Subjecting animals to conditions that may cause pain. TYNZ84
Care and value of animals. Damage to ecosystem where removed. SYTYNZ42 (+Return to nature)
Care. SYNZ85
Not putting animals to unnecessary suffering. TYNZ102
We treat all animals in a humane way and stick to National Guidelines regarding Animal Ethics. SNNZ127
Are they killed quickly? SYNZ129
They shouldn't experience discomfort / pain. TYNZ134
Euthanasia of rats - no longer carried out. SYNZ136
1) Accidental death due to neglect on occasion. e.g. snails, crickets etc. 2) Cutting through crab's mating leg to show autotomy. T,SYNZ138
The killing of crabs by freezing. SYNZ139
Avoid undue pain / suffering. TYNZ141s
To ensure that dissection animals are killed humanely. TYNZ150
We killed some worms in boiling water once. This worried me afterwards. TYNZ153
It depends how you use them. TYNZ186s
Use is within the current Animal Ethics Act. TNNZ191
Prior to being aware of the Animal Cruelty Act. SYNZ191
Because I have made them very aware of the Animal Ethics Act. SYNZ199
Because I only use animals in the expectation they will be released unharmed. TNNZ210 (+Return)
No, because they are well treated. T,SNNZ211
Care, respect, good conditions essential. TYNZ224
That is why I don't use them. Difficulties with humane killing of animals. TYNZ239 (+Don't use)
Don't agree that animals should be tested to the death as little stress as possible. T,SYNZ240
Concern for their welfare. T,SYNZ242
That experiments in behaviour can put animals under stress - dissection should only be carried out if really necessary to understand the functioning of the organism. TYNZ274 (+Death as cost)
If students are to pursue zoological / vet / med. etc. careers, they need to handle animals properly. TNNZ282
I believe animals should not feel pain/discomfort/distress in an experiment, but don't mind them being painlessly killed. TYNZ304
Australia

Pain, discomfort caused. TYA3s
Level of pain, discomfort. TYA9
Question if humanely killed e.g. rats for dissection. SYA9 (+Dissection)
If animals are alive, they are looked after well. What about plants! TYA13
When animals are used and their overall pain / discomfort is not considered. TDA13
No harm or stress should come to the animals at all for any reason. T,SYA14
Not to come pain and suffering. TDA16
In-breeding, any unnecessary pain. TYA22s
Care to avoid any suffering, only for measuring and observing not for controlled manipulation. TYA33
Humane research only. TYA35s
The concern that animals sometimes suffer and are killed in the course of an experiment. TYA41
Pretreatment of animals before and during an experiment. TYA57
How the animals were kept before they were killed (for dissection). SYA57
I believe we should treat all animals to the best of our ability. Even a simple experiment means some group is disadvantaged. TYA60
Even injections for disease protection you have to hurt to be kind. SYA60
Under what circumstances did they live and how did they die. TYA68
That they be cared for adequately. TYA71
That they be cared for adequately. Some are very antagonistic about any use (unreasonably so, sometimes). SYA71
Concerning welfare of the animal. TYA85
Inflicting pain. TYA86s
Animals should not be subjected to stressful situations or if necessary for dissections should be killed quickly and painlessly. TYA92
Only if killed humanely and if they are a pest anyway. TNA96
That they not be injured if a live experiment, otherwise killed humanely. No unnecessary experiments performed. TYA106 (+Death as cost)
The animals be killed in as painless way as possible. TYA108
Did they suffer pain? How did you kill them? SYA123
Provided no pain is inflicted and there is no other way to teach. TNA99 (+Death as cost)
The actual treatment of the animals. TYA131s
Distress to the animal - pain to the animal. TSYA132
Killed humanely and quickly. Students must gain knowledge which otherwise would be inaccessible to them. TYA135
But I disagree with the lack of standards we have in treating animals and in relating to them!! TYA140s
That they should be killed quickly and painlessly for dissection. That they are not stressed or put through pain in the process. TYA153
Yes, I am concerned that they do not suffer pain in their lifetimes or at death. TYA164
Pain to animals. SYA165
Making sure they are properly treated. TYA173; They are concerned that the animals are properly treated. SYA173
Methods of killing rats and toads when we used to do it on the premises a decade ago. TYA181
Battery hens. Vivisection. SYA196m (+Other)
Exploitation / pain / suffering. TYA206
How have they been killed? Should we use animals for dissection! Don't approve of using live animals for testing dehydration etc. in school classroom and we don't do this. Some students are vegetarians, who especially do not want to dissect. TSYA212 (+Dead only)
Not at school, but at undergraduate level - insufficient care with killing procedures. TYA214
They should not be stressed or killed. TYA215
They must be humanely killed before use. TYA223
Mainly as to how the animal was destroyed, i.e. painlessly or not. Any refusal to actually dissect is understood, and agreed to. SYA232 (+Debate)
About killing animals for experiments that is why I changed from rats to pigs. SYA242 (+Dead only)
That the animal's must not experience pain or discomfort. T,SYA259
The ways in which the animals were killed! TYA262
No need to dissect to see the concepts taught. Purpose of killing? Method of killing? SYA262 (+No need +Death as cost)
If the animal was alive. SYA266s
At tertiary level in the 70's some of the experiments caused considerable pain and were avoidable. TYA273 (+No need)
Mice in bell jar to produce and lest for CO2, fish under microscope to observe blood moving through tail. SYA273 (+Other)
Not fair, worried about how they are killed. SYA295
I do not do experiments about which I have concern for the animal's quality of life. TYA307
Welfare of animals. SYA308
Use of live animals when pain is inflicted. (- use as student, not teacher.) TYA311
If the animals are subjected to pain or long periods of isolation. SYA326
Cause suffering. SYA334
I have limits to how much pain or discomfort should be inflicted on an animal. TYA335
No pain or distress to the subject. Must have a very good purpose i.e. No "discovery learning" or no dissections with young students. TYA336 (+No need +Death as cost)
Japan

Even used animals have lives, how do we treat them? TY115 (+Dignity)
Use experimental animals as much as possible, and tell of the dignity of life. TY132
Do not kill discriminately. Try to do experiments that inflict pain as little as possible.TY149
They say that would like to do experiments trying not to inflict pain. SY149
"I'm sorry." "It's euthanasia by anaesthesia." (Frog) "Release in native." (Planaria) SY166 (+Cruel +Return to nature)
I talk about the preciousness of "one life", and make them do experiments carefully. SY297 (+Death as cost)
The difference between the dignity of life of animals and that of humans. SY25s

Animal rights
New Zealand

Stress is induced in any animal by taking it from its natural environment - this violates natural law. TYNZ3
Reference to animal rights usually. SYNZ30
Because they are vegetarians. SYNZ41
Eating them. SYNZ44s
Many students don't think animals should be experimented on. SYNZ63s
Quality of life -right to live. TY; Resulting from animal rights groups adverts. SYNZ70s
They elevate "pet" species to a level above human. SYNZ109
Animals have rights to be free from pain / unproven awful side affects. SYNZ121
Animals should not be experimented with. TYNZ141
I have very grave concerns. This attitude of "man the dominator" is not the only approach. TYNZ143s
Complete spectrum from refusing to use any animals or parts, e.g. bones, to refusing to dissect rats. SYNZ145
I always raise this as a possible and students are given an option to omit the dissection. None have ever taken up this option. SYNZ156
"Animal have rights", "It might hurt them" "They're happier to stay outside", etc. SYNZ161 (+Cruel)
I respect students who disagree with using animals for dissection. I stress care for welfare of live organisms. TYNZ181 (+Humane)
Some feel it is cruel. That they have equal rights / similar rights to humans. SYNZ187s (+Cruel)
Fairness to animal. SYNZ189
Animals having the right to live. T,SYNZ196
Some students have asked to be exempt from participating in dissections for the reason that they believe we should not gratuitously kill any animals. SYNZ205 (+Dissection)
Don't like cutting up dead animals because the student is a vegetarian. Concern that animals might suffer, especially dogs, cats, horses. Rats are fair game usually! SYNZ221 (+Invertebrates)
I teach on animal rights and vivisection and get students emotionally involved. TYNZ236
"Care and protection". SYNZ248 (+Humane)
I have thought about the rights of animals. TYNZ253s
Feel strongly about rights of animals. SYNZ272s
Signed petitions against, etc.TY; As above - many get very upset. SYNZ271 (+Cruel)
Mostly animal rights people. SYNZ279
Using animals at all. SYNZ280
Australia

One student refused to take part in a dissection on animal rights grounds (letter from home). SYA7 (+Dissection)
Animals have rights! SYA15s
Rights of animals. SYA25
Experimentation is a violation of the animals' rights. T,SYA27s
Disapprove of vivisection. SYA40
Some have more concern for the animals for other humans. SYA53
Animal liberation/rights issues SYA72s
They expressed concern about using animals on a conscience basis. SYA77
Animals have rights. TYA79
They are vegetarians. SYA83
Any use (domestic / research / die) which causes physical damage or distress. Or those who are vegetarian and believe that all humans should give up their NATURAL omnivorous habit. SYA90 (+Humane+Other)
Some students don't like to think of any animals being killed. SYA92
Factory farming and killing of food animals. TYA97s (+Other)
Eating animals. SYA97s
Our right to kill them for dissection (toads). SYA98 (+Dissection)
Concern statement "the animals had no choice". SYA126
Mankind has no "right" to use another species for the "betterment" of its own kind. TYA130s
A few have voiced sentiments about the rights of animals. SYA131s
There is a growing concern among students for the rights of animals. This indicates rats, frogs and even invertebrates (one student recently asked me to sign a petition against the introduction of the Spanish flea, on the grounds that it was cruel to Australian rabbits!). SYA133
Don't believe in "killing" any animal. SYA135
They have a right to live. I personally think that some biology teachers give a very bad example to students. (little respect for life) They are generally "ignorant" about relationships. SYA140s
We should not hurt animals - they have as much as right to live as us humans. SYA153
Upholders of Animal Liberation have disputed this totally. SYA167s
All have been vegetarians who do not believe animals should be killed for man's use. SYA179
Shouldn't take the life of another living thing. SYA192
That animals have rights. SYA198m
It's immoral - even if it does advance medical research. TYA202s
Some students prefer not to use them for ethical reasons. TYA208s
One student - a vegetarian - was unable to dissect rats or offal. SYA214
Many don't want to "cut up" animals, the believe animals have as much right to live as we do. SYA228
The usual concerns such as cruelty and the right, if the animal. SYA231m(+Humane)
Invasion of rights. T,SYA250m
Vivisection. SYA261
Usually vegetarians won't dissect hearts, etc. SYA327
Japan

To what extent experimental animals (to kill an animals) are permitted to foster students' scientific thoughts? TY15
To feel the importance of creatures. As animals have many things in common to the human race, I feel resistance to wound life and even a part of body. TY28 (+Cruel)
I attentively listened to opposing opinion to experimental animals in education (before college). (The magazine published from citizen's recycling circle has a special issue on it.) TY35
I've thought about the happiness of animals fostered as for an experiment. TY103
They become to always have concern even towards keeping the environment. SY133
Though animals ought to have rights to live same as we human beings, I manipulate them as I please. TY134
There is the scene of cats experiments in the film about Minamata disease. Students said, "I feel sorry for cats ", "Cats have human rights". SY199
Concern with the right to live of animals in anatomical or physiological experiments. TY211
From the position of animals (creature) protection. SY211
Human ego. TY236
Even animal has life. TY281
Feelings of life as another creature. TY351
When we administer medicine to experimental animals, I have thought whether this is happiness for the animal? And that it is human ego. TY369
How much evolved creatures feel pain? TY390
I think that student' concerns will be deepened and it will be connectedto animals protection. TY429
When I heard the news of S.P.C.A.'s movement of experimental animals. TY445
To advocate students, responsibility is on adults who didn't give opportunity to think about the right to exist of animal, isn't it? I think we should make them think that animals and plants also have rights similar to human rights such as what is the existence of life, not emotional feelings such as it is sad. SY447 (+Cruel)
Is it allowed to kill creatures that have the right to live for a class? I think that this experience will make students won't destroy nature unreasonably. T,SY455 (+Respect)
I wonder whether humans have the right to intentionally take the life of other living organisms. TY465
Animals also have rights to live. TY469
These are good materials if we only consider achieving the goal of an experiment, however, we have the view of their value as living organisms, this prevents us from using them. TY501 (+Respect)
I wonder what is the life of experimental animals (we can also say about plants) and whether humans can freely use them. TY524
Consideration of the value of life of animals. TY531
When I knew the fact that chimpanzees are much closer to human beings than monkeys from the research on the gene of chimpanzee. TY554
I am repulsed by the use of animals for experiments. TY6s
I wonder whether animal rights to life are taken by animal experiments. TY104s
How do we think about the dignity of the life of experimental animals? T,SY142s
Human's tyrannical nature. TY177s
Freedom and equality of all living organisms. TY179s
From the view that lives are the same. TY200s
Animals also have life. T,SY203s
There are lots of lives which we shouldn't violate. TY205s
Animals seem to have the right to live. TY226s
I don't actually use them, but I wonder if it right for us to use animals for experiments for human beings own convenience. TY227s
About rabbits and rats for research. TY239s
The preciousness of life. TY253s
There is the premise that we should respect all living organisms. TY254s (+Respect)
Animals have the right to maintain their life as they are. TY287s
We tend to slight their life as experimental animals. TY293s
I hope for them to think seriously about the human race (for practical use) because we make a big sacrifice. TY315s
About our way of using them simply as objects or materials for human's convenience. TY316s
From the view of Buddhism, it is wrong to think that the life of animals can be freely taken by human beings. TY317s
How far can human beings use the lives of animals? TY319s
The simple question which is I wonder if we are allowed to do such things only because we are human beings. TY330s
I gain many opinions that human beings are unfair, selfish and vain to use animals for proof and experiments, no matter what subject is treated. SY335s
I wonder why animals have to be experimented upon for humans. TY341s
The values of both animals and human beings are not different in that they are individual organisms. TY361s

Respect them / Dignity
Australia

Life is precious! SYA104
Manner of death. Respect for animals. TYA144
I believe there needs to be a harmony where all animals exist. TYA198m
Japan

Concern with life. (not everybody) SY16
What is life? Are there any qualitative differences among lives? To control animal's life by our own hand. TY30
Balance with the dignity of life. SY71
When we anatomize large animal, I naturally felt the importance of life. TY77
Dignity of life. TY88
Importance of life, even for it, do experiment harder. TY91
Dignity to life. T,SY129
Dignity of life. TY144
I guess they've got the conscience that life is just one and irreplaceable. I don't know whether it can be an ethical concern. SY173
The dignity of life. TY201
Thankful heart. SY204
Mystery of life. SY213
They think through killing, especially killing by oneself, about what it is to treasure life. SY248
I'd like them to have the dignity to life by ending a life. TY252 (+Other)
About the dignity of life. TY270
The importance of life. TY289s
At the experiment of cow's eye, about the dignity of animals and the meaning of animal experiments. SY298
I'd like to treasure life.TY302
They're in the course to feel mystery of life by fieldwork and to foster the heart to treasure life. And they also have excitement to the birth of life at experimental practice (like fertilization of sea-urchin.) SY302 (+Other)
Don't play with life. TY304
Keep in mind not to treat as objects. SY307
In biology which teaches " dignity of life", though "anatomy" is an important experiment, it is difficult to progress. TY334 (+Death as cost)
I make them have the thankful mind toward frogs (others) sacrificed for the experiment, and then do experiments. TY335
Dignity of life. T,SY344
Importance of life. SY351
They sometimes understand and talk about the importance of life at the practice of stock breaked. SY380
About dignifying life and natural conservation. T,S381
I treasure the life of experimental animals at the experiment. TY382
They show the concern to animal experiments and on the other hand they feel the dignity of life. SY387 (+Cruel)
Awe to life TY402
Don't neglect even animals and plants. TY407
Understand deeply about the beat of life. SY429
I think it can be the good opportunity to look at life sharply. SY443 (+Other)
Life is irreplaceable. SY457
I killed more than 200 rats in an experiment, but at that time I thought about the dignity of animals' life. TY464
I hold life in awe. SY465
The fact that although they are experimental animals they have "life". (Including plants.) TY479
I don't think it's good to sacrifice living organisms in an experiment, on the contrary, I wonder if we can know the preciousness of life from it. TY503 (+Death as cost)
I always guide students to keep in contact with not only animals and plants but also anything which has life with some feeling. TY512
I tell students to be serious because animals are sacrificed in an experiment. TY518
Having learnt the situation of animal experiments in universities and research institutes, I thought about "the dignity of life" as organisms living on the same earth. TY519
They feel the preciousness of "life" as the same living organisms. SY519
I think something about life. TS524
I sometimes feel purely" the dignity of life" . TY530
I think animals are also living organisms which have life. (I used to do experiments at university.) TY550
Students sometimes say I feel sorry, It' cruel , and turn their faces away. I think this is something we should treasure and value. SY554 (+Cruel)
About the life of the animal. TY557
Respect for life. T,SY560
One living organism,if it is only a mosquito. T,SY29s
I wonder if scientists deal with it as an object. TY78s
About the existence of animals as living organisms. TY123s
Students also have the thought about the dignity and preciousness of life strongly, therefore I guide them considering it. SY174s
The dignity of life. TY321s
The dignity of animals as life. TY348s
Each individual person or animal is one living organism. TY350s

Debate in the class / choice
New Zealand

A lot of students have talked about about this for and against. They know what I believe, but most do not want to cause unnecessary suffering and others don't like to think about it. SYNZ1 (+Humane)
Variety of attitudes - both extremes evident. SYNZ45s
Generally with respect to dissections. I accept their concerns and am prepared to discuss the issues. TYNZ205 (+Cruel +Dissection)
Students are well prepared beforehand. SYNZ270
I believe that most students reasons are emotional. I respect any student who does not wish to use animals as part of their school work for valid reasons. Their choice. SYNZ282 (+Cruel)
Australia

I think they are animal lovers; but some students say its O.K. As a teacher I always provide a balanced perspective. SYA80s
Some don't wish to dissect and are not required to against their will. SYA96 (+Dissection)
English class voted and 15 against using animals and 5 for it. SYA233s
They think it is cruel. They (the students) have the right to their opinion and should be encouraged to express it. SYA240 (+Cruel)
Japan

At the anatomy of frog, I taught them to think ethically about taking life even for study. SY36
I always do experiments with a modest mind after taking of the importance of life. TY66
I have heard the opinion whether it was right to make it die. It was at the dissection of a Crucian carp. (club activity) SY126
Students often come to protest to stop it against the dissection experiment of an animal. It is quite hard to persuade them of the meaning of experiment every time. T,S162 (+Death as cost)
In dissections and the like, I feel both the opinions that it is sorry and we should do it earnestly. SY196 (+Dissection)
I could talk with them about life when I make them treat large creatures, insects, amphibians, fishes. SY191
I watch the student's reactions, and make them think about taking life in next class. TY274
I talk what makes students have concern. TY325
I often do anatomy, but I always talk to students not to play about life. TY395 (+Dissection)
They had been taught by a junior high school teacher "Don't worry because the animals which we dissected once are still living perfectly" and many of the student's believed what they were taught. We should tell the truth. SY544

Return to nature after use
New Zealand

That the animals are not stressed or unable to be returned to their natural environment after working with them. TSYNZ6 (+Humane)
That animals should only experience those conditions which they should encounter in their natural environment. TYNZ92
Observe animal behaviour. Earthworm, F5; Slater F7; and dressed rats (from Massey University) in F4. That's it. TYNZ270 (+Dead only)
Australia

When invertebrates are used they need to be reassured that a) they are not harmed and b) they will be returned to habitat. SYA184 (+Humane)
Non-invasive survival of animals is obligatory together with relation to its habitat. TSY195
Japan

Some students don't waste the rest of the Parameciums but give them back. SY518

Disposal of dead body
Australia

1. They don't believe animals should be subjected to stress or pain. 2. Dissecting preserved specimens subjects them to indignity. SYA51 (+Cruel+Dissection)
Japan
It's an infringement on the right for animals to exist and also the problem of life and death of experimental creatures. I and students hold hands together in prayer, briefly though, and always bury them. T,SY10 (+Animal right)
Some students reacted to return microorganisms which were used for a sample into water. SY62
They always ask how should we deal with creatures used for experiments afterwards. SY115
To treat experimental animals and plants like a treasure. Especially dealing with cadavers, we are to show the modest mind to life. TY133 (+Respect)
Students always ask how shall we deal with the frogs used for dissection. I'm to promise to dig and bury it in that case. T,SY370
About disposal during and after the experiment. TY386
It may not possible to say that students are more ethical than adults, but I think they have concern. They often want to make a grave. SY395
We kill them for study, however this is not different from killing life, therefore after study we have a memorial. TY470 (+Cruel)
Species of animals which we use, methods for using and disposal after use. TY478 (+Humane+Invertebrate)
I am careful not to let students have the idea that we don't mind killing living organisms for an experiment. (I tell them. I am careful about the disposal method.) TY511 (+Student abuse animals)
They treat them carefully until the end, in a way not to treat them like organic rubbish, and they return them to the earth after an experiment. SY511

Live (Observe) only
New Zealand

Limit dissections to bare minimum. Try to work with live animals in "natural" environment. TYNZ61 (+Dissection +Small numeber used)
Because students have to be made very aware of the sanctity of life of that animal. I will not allow any animal to be killed in any biology / science class. TYNZ199 (+Animal rights)
They must not be harmed by the procedures. We study animals in situ where possible and emphasize behavioural studies! TYNZ213
Study in natural environment were possible. TYN251
Removing them from their natural environment, using our size and power to exploit / abuse their rights as living organisms. TYNZ257 (+Animal rights)
I limit experiments to conditions animal would experience in its natural habit. TYNZ257
Care must be taken not to permanently harm the animals. TYNZ297
Australia

Don't cause pain. Don't destroy, just look with respect and hopefully learning interest. T,SYA236 (+Cruel)
Prefer not to kill / harm animals - OK to observe. TYA129 (+Humane)
Japan

Because we need them for general knowledge, we keep them only to observe the natural state. TY485

Other
New Zealand

Animals dying (accidentally) due to the experimental procedures. TY; Largely due to above. SYNZ65
More about the way others may use them - killing animals for dissection. TY; Probably - but I have had no personal experience of this. SYNZ88s (+Dissection)
Are they bred specifically for our use etc. SYNZ94s
I don't like the keeping of live animals in school environment. TYNZ111
A minority don't "like animals", some are pleased that we rarely carry out dissection, most would like many more dissections than I am prepared to do. SYNZ114 (+Dissection)
Not relevant to my teaching experience. SDNZ138s
Yes, when pets are stolen (as in USA according to Frontline) for the purpose. TYNZ166s
Removing fish, wrapping in wet cotton wool and observing blood flow through tail with microscope - no longer done. TYNZ168
Other people's perception of the use I make of animals. TYNZ204
Disposal of surplus. T,SYNZ229
I would have, if put in a position to do so... TDNZ247s
The dislike of others for possible effects on animals. SYNZ260
Most experiments are behavioural response, rather demonstrating muscle twitch in frog legs. SNNZ265
Only while watching physiology and psychology experiments at university? TYNZ273
Use of chemicals on animals (vertebrates). TNZ301s
Australia

Use rats obtained from the university. TNA50
Rather object to smell and sights rather than ethical issues. SNA50
I have taught thousands of students, a few of whom have expressed concern and their feelings have been taken into account. This is the wrong question that invalidates your survey. SYA91 Minor ones, that are placed in a similar context recognising that I am not a vegetarian. TYA91
Refusal to participate in rat dissection. Dismay and disgust at animal experiments shown in videos. SYA95 (+Dissection)
Possible negative effects on students re the appeal of biology. TYA103
Using live chickens in imprinting experiments. TSDA111
When some year 8 students had a pet mouse each and their teacher gased and killed them and set them up for dissection. We discontinued the mouse house etc at that stage. SYA134
Various. SYA149s
Not within school - but from what I hear happening elsewhere. TYA152
Pithing frogs at university (25 years ago). TYA180
At university, using live frogs for heart experiments. TYA184
Animal bred to be killed. SYA197
About injecting animals with drugs. TYA242
Use of animals in psychological research. TYA270
This is used for mice - but they are not interfered with at all. TNA278
Overbreeding of populations. TYA282
Goldfish for examining blood capillaries, crayfish for injecting with methylene blue for nervous system staining, animals used for dissection. TYA300
Insects collected for observations of structure. TYA327
Japan

When somebodies picks a cat, who will keep it and whether you have the confidence. SY1
At the time to fix a moving creature. T,SY41
About (life) and life. T,S48
As I am always teaching to members of biology club, they have concern. SY57
About all animals. TY61
It can be seen when observing an experiment that is not completely finished (in the report). SY66
To image human death at dissections (especially vertebrates). TS75
I've used the blood of a living rabbit for experiment. TY86
Moth. TN89
I intended to make arrangements not to feel emotions about animals. TY108
Frogs. SY109
Though many students say it is sad at the dissection of a frog or fish, most of them lack "sympathy" to parents or others and tease calmly, seeing this made me feel strange. (It's the problem before bioethics) T,S123 (+Cruel)
I use edible animals for experiment as possible. Like squid or sea-shell. TY131
About to change the environment of animals. TN137
About pets, they don't leave. Not available for Japanese, but foreigners can use O.K. SY137
I adopt a clearcut attitude on experiments at school level. TD140
To terminate life of other creatures except for the purpose of eating. TY145
The reflex experiment using frogs. TY156
Mouse. TY158
Mammals, amphibians. (mouse, frog) SY158
I have concern that many people have ethics that it is sorry for animals but not for plants. Unreasonable. T,S164
I have thought why only animals life is treasured but a new bud of a plant is not. TY178
It is remarkable especially in the case of higher animals. TY182
As we do experiment so far as to kill frogs, own and other creatures' life. SY184
So not to destroy human and nature. TY213
Including eating, distinguished from research. TY231
To use and kill many creatures at once. Effect of experiment for students. TY239
Life and disease of experimental animals. TY241
When we were thinking about the method of experiment to research the effect of synthetic detergent on creatures. T,SY245
When we were thinking about the method of experiment to research the effect of synthetic detergent on creatures. T,SY245
Some students say "I'm sorry" at collecting insects or frog dissection. I make them notice that insects were decreased not because of insect collecting, the problem is a change for the worse of the natural environment. And with insect collecting as a start, make their understanding deepen about the surrounding environment. I explain my opinion to students that if beef and fish are nutrition for body, anatomy of frog is nutrition for the head. SY255
To what extent human can be permitted to use animals for study or for eating. TY316
To make sarcomata in healthy rat or dissection of bulb frog. TY322
Experiment on bulb frog. SY322
Regeneration of the leg of newt. TY323
Frog, rabbit, fish, mouse. TY329
Frog, fish, mouse. SY329
They have strong tendency to hate to "make their hands dirty" following friends. SY334
About development of chicken embryo. TY343
To put electric electrode into monkey's brain. TY346
Frog, chicken, mouse. SY346
From a teacher's point view, it is rare to recognize that students feel such a way. SN372
I teach industrial animals at stockbreeding, like the way of keeping mass products. I'm often made to think. TY380
Spinal reflex of frog. (beheaded frog) TY421
In vitro fertilization. T,SY467
The question of what is life. TY553
In recent years the idea that we shall recognize some rights for animals such as against animal experiments, and against whaling was born from Europe. We can understand these assertions to be sympathy, that by recognising and protecting animal rights, they want to keep the environment on the earth as it is, and avoid the mental pain caused by killing animals. But in this thought, the academic conscience that they are seriously worried about, where they should draw the line between the living organisms which we should protect and those which we shouldn't, does not exist. I wonder who decided and by what authority that we should exterminate smallpox virus but love whales. In short, they may want to protect only "pretty" "animals" and treat them like pets. Those who once destroyed completely the big forests of the European Continent and the North American Continent, and mad many animals become extinct, have no right to stop the people in the developing nature in order to improve their life. This is how much the people of nations who spend more than the annual income in a country which has a few million starving population in expenses for pet foods, think. TY27s (+Animal rights)
Students who live in big cities have no opportunity to see them (the opportunity to see animals) SY76s
Animal experiments in medicine and pharmacology. TY105s
Mice experiments. TY126s
The problem of life. TY173s
As the problem of life. TY179s
An atomic experiment on a pig, an organ transplant. TY198s
Using a chimpanzee (primates) for hepatitis B testing. TY219s
Living organisms used for clinical animal testing. SY242s
Animal experiments for research on cancer etc. TY261s

Students abuse animals
New Zealand

A minority yes - e.g. dissection. Majority have a flippant attitude to living things. SYNZ3
Concern about animal welfare but through lack of knowledge on students part, e.g. gerbils with no water but given carrots etc. SYNZ32 (+Humane)
Prevention of cruelty inflicted by the students. TYNZ33
Some students lack of concern for animals. TYNZ36
Lack of student concern for effects of experiments on animals reveals a total lack of concern for living things. TYNZ40
Normal concerns about treatment by students. TYNZ71
Students suggesting experiments that find limits for survival. Experiments are re-defined/designed. TYNZ79
Some students are cruel to animals. TYNZ89
The students treatment of them. Refuse to dissect. TYNZ96 (+Dissection)
Appalling attitude of adolescents towards killing the non-furry ones. (They can kill lots through poor planning and not care.) TYNZ109
Treatment during experiments, student disregard for invertebrates. TYNZ119
I ensure to the best of my ability that experiments will not cause their death. Some experiment in Form 6 practicals I no longer do (e,g, worm dissections). Students carelessness has lead to slater and Planaria deaths. (+Don't use+Live only) TYNZ152
A few get upset at the behaviour of other less responsible students. SYNZ157
Students sometimes are callous about habitat disturbance and adequate care for animals. TYNZ157
Students disregard for living things e.g.slaters. Doesn't matter how much you talk about the care of all living things. TYNZ158 (+Cruel)
Mixed views - cruelty aspect if abused / tormented. TYNZ166
Cannot remember specifically but do remember baulking at what some animals are put through at times. TYNZ177
They expect to injure or dissect animals - I don't let them do this. SYNZ210
Monitoring student handling to prevent cruelty. TYNZ244
Stress caused by a number of students using organisms (F7 biology students using shrimp). TYNZ250
Some students up in arms with us keeping laboratory animals. We have to monitor students' animal handling, etc. TYNZ254 (+Animal right)
The treatment of the animals by students. TYNZ268
Despite discussion on sensitivity, pupils abuse even invertebrates. TYNZ277 (+Invertebrate)
Some students lack of care and consideration. TYNZ280
Stress factor associated with handling by groups of noisy teenagers! TYNZ281
Make sure the children do not hurt or abuse them. TYNZ282
Treatment, careless handling, teasing. (Pupils must be taught to care.) TYNZ288
Concerned that if not done "correctly" students could develop a blase attitude to other life forms. TYNZ301
Australia

Students being cruel and the need to use animals in schools when there is good video material etc. TYA31 (+Cruel)
The potential for abuse. TYA41s
Children (many) will naturally get excited and perceive themselves in a position of power over experimental animals. With preserved specimens, they can lose respect for animals. Counselling usually not done by teachers. TYA51 (+Debate)
Usually the treatment the animals receive by some students. TYA82
They often gleefully ask "Are we going to cut up rats?" and its morbid entertainment they want. SNA107
Experiments can diminish students' respect for living things. TYA112
The way in which some students may handle the animals. TYA142
It can be an exercise in vicarious brutality not carefully structured and prepared. TYA177
Students see it as a right and not a privilege. TYA226
Japan

Students tend to treat creatures objects. T,SY78
Though I use only very small creatures, I always have the impression that "I'm sorry" in student's impressions, and, it is rare, but there are some students who kill for own pleasure. T,SY95
Don't do and make them not do cruel treatment. Get them to understand that experimental animals are used for their keeping purpose (science, study), the same as domestic animals for meat. TY124 (+Other)
Students majoring in stockbreeding become gentle. SY178
Some students interest to delve into body and some avoid it. SY294 (+Cruel)
To kill or harm animals. TY332
Many students think of creatures like "objects". SY340
In the case of doing dissection and the life for fun. TY367
In the case to treat animals as experimental materials even it's unnecessary. SY367
No matter what they are, it is a problem that we deal with them simply as materials. TY488

Cost / benefit analysis
New Zealand

Far too many researchers have little ethical or moral planning. TYNZ114s
If students do not value the experience (e.g.dissection a kidney etc.) than it will not be repeated. TYNZ116 (+Dissection)
I'm always careful to explain to students why animals are used and to have respect for them. TYNZ213 (+Debate)
That students respect the role the animal's life is playing in our quest for knowledge. TYNZ278
Australia

Can the students appreciate the scientific benefits and maintain respect for all forms of life? TYA43
While the benefits in education or science are evident, suffering of animals is not right. TYA205s (+Humane)
Japan

The death of experimental animals and the benefit of human beings. T,SY2
When we have to kill experimental animals, I put meanings on it in my own way why we have to do it. TY5
Don't waste the death. T,SY6
When we did anatomy of mice, some students couldn't kill and took them home. It was the experiment that was done after I had told the necessity of experiment and death of mouse. SY8 (+Cruel)
As it is necessary for human beings, say the effect of medicine, I sometimes think whether it is truly good. TY19
Whether we should do anatomy of animals in class. (There is approval and disapproval.) SY22
Especially in the case it dies. "The death" certainly should be for knowledge and understanding. If it's not visible, it has no change,but if it's visible, we need to have feeling that we cannot waste a Paramecium. TY34
When I used animals for experiment, especially anatomy, I took into consideration that this takes many lives, study effect, to what extent students can think from an ethical standpoints about we shall not take life, whether I can make them notice it. TY36 (+Debate)
The balance between to take life and benefit from it. TY40
In the case we may take life as a result of experiment, we should not do the experiment easily. If we do, we should make students understand the meaning of taking life. TY46 (+Cruel)
About rights or wrongs of killing animals experimental material. I think it's wrong, but on the other hand, I also think that through this experience, we understand creatures, life and the dignity of life. TY56
As we take life, we should weigh taking against the benefit from it. TY62
Dissection of frog. Necessity and importance of life. TY109 (+Dissesion)
I think that we will know better about importance of life by using animals. TY110
When we cause the death of individual during experiment, whether this death is a right death or effective death? Is it right to study sacrificing death itself? TY126
As we take life, we should do our best to achieve the result deserving of it. TY130
Relationship between death of animals and pursuit of science (class). TY161
Whether it can be permitted to take life under the name of experiment. TY188
I've been doing ecological research of fish and killed many fish. I thought that I'd like to make the best use of this life and never waste it. TY191
Whether we can sacrifice life of this creature for this practice or not. TY196
In the case of taking animal's life by experiment, it is human ego, isn't it? TY206
Don't waste the death of animal. TY214
When I judge whether it has sufficient purpose or value which is worthy of using animals, I think of the meaning of killing and wounding animals. TY223
Killing of rats for dissections. (The end justifies the means - my personal view.) SY224(+Dissection)
About whether it becomes meaningless killing. TY246
The level of using more effectively, even little, as we use for experiments. TY256
For example, when we do anatomy, as we study using precious life, we'd like to make best use of it. TY275
Though some students still it is sad, the heart that grapples seriously with compensation of killing animals is awakened. SY291
I have thought why we have to "take life". Some degree of sense of guilt around, as a matter of course. TY292
I have question about many animals' lives and the importance of research which I'm doing now. (at college) TY293
Is it permitted to harm animals for the purpose of experiment, and are there any meaning to do it? TY298
Because they try to understand the views of life. SY343
I use only when it is necessary and can be expected to get a high educational effect. TY365
About the life of animals which are used for experiments. Whether killing creatures has educational effect or not. TY368
When we think of the irreplaceability as one life, we should think that the present is on the sacrification of dying animals. TY377
Using animals is easy to look at the whole reaction of life or death for animals. TY385
Don't waste the death of the animal. TY409
To do an experiment seriously and to achieve sufficient purpose. TY411
As I haven't touched animal experiment, I think they think nothing. But some students hope to do experiments (dissection etc). SY416
As we finished life, we cannot waste it. TY419
In what kind of situation and for what kind of material it is permitted. TY430
I sometimes think for what this life was born. TY443
In an animal experiment I am worried whether animals are used effectively by students. In the case students gained nothing from the death of animals. TY499
The fact how much knowledge and information I could convey to them by losing the life of one organism. TY500
We use bodies of living things to know " to be alive". TY517
Balancing the respect of life and necessity, and hesitation of my own taking of life. TY533 (+Cruel)
It is necessary not to treat them simply for curiosity but to do under the proposition that it is necessary to do under the proposition that it is "for study". Dissection etc. TY537
Because we take life almost all of the time, I took a serious attitude toward students who couldn't understand enough. TY552
For life and the development of scientific technology. TY33s
It is indispensable for the development of science of human beings. "A single word" of a leader is a dividing line. TY240s
Purpose (science) and the dignity of life. TY249s
It might surely be an important experiment for human beings, but we make light of the life of animals too much. TY255s
When I killed goldfishes for teaching materials, I felt sorry, but it was useful for making them recognise that same things are happening around us. I told students not to waste the life of the goldfishes. TY333s (+Cruel)

Feel guilty, but do experiments
New Zealand

Even using small invertebrates does raise the issues that no matter how careful, some will die. But there are valuable lessons to be learned. TYNZ162
Japan

Now I'm researching chromosome polymorphism of insectivores, every time treating higher animals, I shudder with the importance of life. TY8
Sense for guilt to killing living animals. TY49
When I do an experiment using animal, sometimes the opinion that "I'm sorry" is strongly presented from students. But, academically, in many cases we had better make them understand that by doing experiments, I'm sometimes troubled with the dilemma. TY93
I have grief to terminate other animal's life though there is no choice. TY94
Dissection is disliked. They have "sense of guilt" to killing. SY176
I pray when I cut off a frog's head. TY305
I often suffer from a guilty conscience that I may take life aimed chiefly at amusing dissections and the like. TY306
During college days, when I made a skeleton specimen of a dog, I felt a sense of guilt more strongly because the dog is close to human's life. TY308
Though we can get knowledge by doing experiments, I have a mind that it is very sorry to animals which are to die. TY315
When we anatomize the mouse, now should we explain about the dignity of life and the fact we killed the mouse. TY317
In the case to satisfy intellectual curiosity by using living creatures. TY427
Although living teaching materials are useful for study and we can understand the reality of death by killing animals when we dissect rats at biology club activities, both students and teachers have doubts whether we are allowed to kill the things which have equal life (not for eating). T,SY522
In my heart I feel sorry, for the animals, but also think you cannot help. SY557
Although I feel sorry for them, I feel it is for human beings. TY127s
I feel somehow guilty whenever I look at the animal experiment of mice. TY180s
Although it is an experiment, this is to destroy life. Also, I wonder if we really need to kill them.
TY241s(+No need)
The experiment using mice, and etc. (It cannot be helped, but I feel pain in my heart.) TY277s
The point whether it is OK that use many animals although it is for an experiment, and kill them as a result. T,SY312s
Although I have doubts about the existence of animals for experiments, I cannot deny it. TY338s
But we have the doctrine of human beings for humans sake after all, and as for edible animals, we have supplied them by breeding and farming. As I think about it, it seems awfully cruel like a demon of Adachihara [from a Noh play based on a bog area in Fukushima], but I cannot break off. As for experiments, human experiments are allowed. I can do no more than close my eyes. (I set a cicada free but kill a caterpillar) TY354s
Though an experiment, I have a kind of guilty conscience about taking life. TY355s
I feel that it is a contradiction to dissect frogs and carps in the same primary school where you teach the dignity of plants, animals and life on the earth in the lecture of ethics. TY360s

Need experiments
New Zealand

Benefits of use of animals must always outweigh any necessary (or accidental) trauma or death. Need to teach students that things other than humans are alive! SYNZ84 (+Respect)
Should use lab. rats or lambs for dissection. TYNZ215 (+Dissection)
Australia

Never. SNA62 Never. Human education is more important than animals. TNA62
Only because alternatives do not enhance learning process as much. TYA232
Yes but still think useful as teaching aid. TYA272
I have had to explain the importance of our research and the breeding of rats. SYA24
Japan

I object to depend on only books to tell knowledge about biology. Therefore we do experiments, however, recent students try to grasp only very emotionally such as sorrow, when creatures die because of the experiment. SY5 (+Cruel)
If everything is uniformly sorrowful, we can eat nothing. Even if the purpose is different, make them understand that it's for study. If misunderstood, it will be fastidious or filthy person. (Feel sorry to everything and take no medicine and no bath, all the creatures as nature, forget oneself.) SY124
In the fairy tale for children, the wolf trying to eat rabbit is always described as bad, it is absolutely not bad. SY128
Though it is sorry, it's inevitable for human life. SY131 (+Cruel)
Though I have ethical concern, we should do experiments if it's for human happiness. TY142
Because it has necessity. TN148
We should treasure student's "surprise" at seeing a spinal experiment and "fear" at killing a worm. How should we resolve it? T,SY155 (+Cruel)
Even microorganisms, even large organisms, even research for eating, there are no differences between these in killing. TY392
Anatomy of a frog. SY341,SY392
Though anatomy is necessary to learn biology, recently I haven't done it. TY410
Close eyes for study. TY423
I don't use experimental animals now, but I had occasion to use them in university and I think there is a necessity to do that. But I wonder whether should treat all the animals equally. For example, Zooplankton(?), Euglenas(?) and Parameciums are OK, but dogs, monkeys and rabbits are not good, I think this is strange. TY483 (+Invertebrate)
It is natural to use animals (work of a horse and cows). It cannot become an ethical problem. TY76s
When I let them do the experiment with Mama Lemon [washing up detergent], seeing that goldfish died in a few minutes, female students felt sorry and took them out from the beaker. As the result of the experiment, male students recognized the toxicity was high. SY333s (+Cruel)

No concern
New Zealand

Very few. SYNZ36
Most have not really thought about it. SNNZ92
Hasn't actually arisen in my classes. SNNZ231s
I cannot recall any. SNNZ268
Australia

Not at the level we are using them. TYA26
Most have said they want to "cut up" animals. SNA82

Don't know
Japan

I don't know. SD99,SD110,SD243,SD246,SY274
Not clear. ST321
I don't know at all. SY546, SY555
I don't know because I haven't done it. SN330s, SN227s

Q20. Guidelines about Animal Experiments



Q20. At your school are there any guidelines about using animals in class?
1 No 2 Yes (What do they say?..)

N=No, Y=Yes, D=no answer

Respect
New Zealand

Sanctity; safety; cure; respect; maintenance. NZY83
Handle with care/respect. No maltreatment. NZY87
All animals are living things. All living things must be treated with respect and consideration at all times. Care for them as you would like to be cared for. NZY113
They are in the process of being developed - include statements of respect for life, source of material,type of experiments permitted. NZN149
Use invertebrates for choice clubs. Handle with care and respect, collect few if any animals and keep in humane conditions in laboratory for as short a time as possible. NZY157(+no vertebrates)
Use with care and consideration - unwritten. NZY179
Teachers have and apply Animal Abuse Act. NZY192
Care and feed correctly, do not cause unnecessary suffering etc., minimum use. NZY254(+humane)
Treat animals humanely and with respect. NZY283(+humane)
Verbally communicated. NZN301
Australia

Follow guidelines strictly - treat animal with respect. AY24(+other guidelines)
Respect, no suffering. AY54(+humane)
We buy the specimens already prepared. But the students are still encouraged to treat the remains with "respect". AN114 (+dead only)
All animals or animal materials are to be treated / handled with due care and respect. AY128 (+humane)
Too detailed for 2 lines - reduction of distress - no pain - no disrespect - no abuse. AY132 (+humane)
No mutilation. AY135
Not overt or formalized. Any perceived cruelty or disrespect for the animal would not be tolerated. AN177 (+humane)
But we use common sense, no animals should be subjected to any pain. AN181
Aim and philosophy of school is that creation is God's. AY191s
To be considered as living organisms and to be treated with care and respect. AY207
No protected species used. No cruelty to live animals. Dead animals to be treated with respect. AY263 (+humane)
Not official, I do have some rule about handling plants and animals myself which I apply in class. AN289s (+no guidelines)
Treat with respect, no cruelty, no mutilation of dead bodies during dissection. AY299 (humane)
Japan

Respect for life. JY43
It is the personal opinion of the person who answers this questionnaire, but I greatly hesitate to dissect animals. JY47
I take time to personally guide [students] before the dissection. JN195
Because we are going to kill a precious life, I explain its meaning beforehand. JD207
Left to each teacher's judgement. JY290
Unless [an animal experiment] is clearly considered as a behaviour like a slaughter, it is left to each teacher's moral and ethical view. JN298
We don't have a special guideline, but we teach respect for life. (e.g.don't collect excessively for making a sample.) JN302 (+minimise number)
Don't depart from the spirit of respect for life. JY334
I judge based on the discussion with students. JD348
The animals used for experiments are also an existence which has life, so we have to avoid unnecessary suffering and a large amount of "waste", under the consciousness that they are the friends of humans, ourselves. JY371s(+humane)
The common ethical sense of each teacher. JY407
I carry out after getting students' wishes and agreement. JY413
We don't have, but I've once tried to do so, listening to opinions from students, a teacher in charge, and teachers in other schools. JN466
Life is precious. JY467
Don't handle out of curiosity. JY537
Though we don't set a proper guideline, I try to do [experiments] thinking of the importance of life. JY174s

After death treatment
Japan

We built a memorial tower in the biology club, and we thanked animals which had been sacrificed for experiments. (We did this just a casual suggestion, but I don't think it is necessary something traditional.) JY155
Don't take life in vain. If an animal has four limbs, we bury it without burning. JY253 (minimise)

Humane care
New Zealand

Just about using humanely. NZY1
We are governed by a code of practice for vertebrates, and I don't allow students to intentionally stress invertebrates. They are killed quickly and humanely, if necessary. NZY14(+no vertebrates)
No stress or harm to be caused to animal. NZY21
Care must be taken to reduce harm to invertebrates. Vertebrate experiments must be approved. NZY36 (+committee approves)
Not written down but staff and students are expected to treat animals humanely. NZY43
Animals should not suffer in any way. NZY52
Care, consideration for all organisms (except must be "safe" for animals). NZ55Y
We do not breed animals for dissection or experimental work where they are put under stress. NZY107
Animal welfare comes first! NZY115
The way animals are put down - and for what reason. NZY116
To treat animals with care. NZY120
No unnecessary cruelty. NZY144s
The well being of the animals is important. NZY152
Not to carry out experiments that subject the animal to constant pain. NZY161
Don't be cruel unnecessarily. NZY197
Animals should not suffer under pain, - should only be done for good reasons. NZY206
No under stress / harm - well kept at all times. NZY212
Care, consideration, respect. NZY225
Animals may not be mistreated, must be adequate by housed / fed / cared for. NZY236
Minimised stress by following "animal ethics committees" regulations. NZY238(+national guidelines)
Not to put animals through any pain. Must be kept clean and hygienic. NZY239
Animals must not be harmed or distressed during experiments. NZY240
Cruelty to vertebrates etc. NZY248
Welfare of animals must be considered at all things. NZY293
Invertebrates only, no stress experiments, humane methods only. NZY304(+no vertebrates)
Australia

Common sense. AY22s
Proper care and nutrition, killing humanely. AY47s
That experiments should not impose cruel conditions on keeping, not observing of animals, and that experiments should be carried out with sensitivity to the awareness animals may have and sensory discomfort they may feel. AY50
Department of Education Guidelines forbid experiment that case pain to animals. AY70
Not mistreated. Conditions of care etc. AY85
Animals must be treated with kindness and cruelty avoided. AY88
It is not compulsory for students to do toad dissection / toads must be killed using ether. AY100
Make sure that it is dead if dissecting. AY105s
No suffering, rules about keeping them, feeding, cage density etc. AY123
How to kill rats for dissecting / carrying out dissections etc. AY152
I insist that animals to used in a careful and ethical manner. AY176
No experiment which could produce pain or undue stress can be performed. AY180
Defined for the activity in terms of how to handle and reduce stress of animals. (eg. chickens) AY211
No cruelty, dissections are treated as scientific exercises - no fooling around. AY223
They are not harmed. AY241
All organisms must be treated humanely. No organism should be knowingly made to endure pain. Distressed animals are returned to their habitat or are placed in as comfortable an environment as we are able to provide. AY242 (+live)
Humane treatment of all live species. AY243
General care of animals. AY286
Humane and cause no harm. AY334
Japan

Maltreatment and slaughter. JY213
When we use live animals, we use anaesthesia. JY264
Don't treat cruelly in front of students. JY473
Don't do cruel experiments and observation more than necessary. For example, the observation of male [mating] Beta (fish) is limited to within 15 minutes. JY526 (+minimise numbers)
The distinction between harmful and non-harmful. JY226s

Dead animals only
New Zealand

Basically animals already dead can be used for demonstrations. NZD99
Dissect dead material - don't kill to dissect - minimise use / keeping of animals in laboratory - encourage observation of live animal rather than dissection - minimise manipulative experiments - use of experiments to cover some topics that you could ave used live experiments for. NZY111
We have a general agreement that live animals should only be used in exceptional circumstances and then only non-invasive work. NZY112
Since the animal ethics debate were moved away from using any live animals. NZN176
Live animals only as pets. NZY180m
Use dead material e.g. from freezing works. No harm to living organisms. Keep prepared slides etc. to avoid unwanted repetition and harm. NZY204
No use of live animals - except those that are invertebrates. No manipulation of vertebrate animals. NZY226 (+no vertebrates)
Must come from an approved source and Animal Ethics Guidelines book. NZY232(+national guidelines)
No live experiments. NZY298
Australia

No experiments are to be conducted on live animals, but dissections are carried out on preserved rats and preserved specimens are also used. AY20 (+dead only)
Not used for in vivo experiments. AY35s
We do not use live animals in class (except goldfish in the aquarium) AY40
We are a very small school so we discuss issues including this one. Only euthanised animals are used, performed by the local university. AD68
Have to be dead to start with. AY83
No animals killed at school - only toads or specifically bred rats are used. AY103
1. To use preserved animals if possible. 2. Return animal to its natural environment. AY139 (+return to nature)
All animals must be procured dead via the relevant government supply channel/agency. AY150
Since we don't use live animals, I cannot remember without looking it up! AY156
They should be dead (Mammals). Care should be taken of small invertebrates not to cause pain and suffering. AY164 (+humane)
If we do dissections - we purchase animals already dead. We do very little experimenting with animals. AY172
Only dead ones. AY173s
No live animal use for "experimentation". (e.g. not including breeding / husbandry)+++
I avoid live vertebrates at all costs. AN232
They arrived dead. AY233s
Live animals are not used. AY264s
Live animals should not be used in experiments. AY326
No use of live animals. AY337
Japan

There is a problem whether the animals is alive or dead. JY550

Forbidden to kill / observe only
New Zealand

They must not be harmed in any way / only invertebrates are used. NZY28 (no vertebrate)
Small numbers - return alive to animal site. NZY42
Only need for observation (Unless bought for dissection.) NZY63s
Observation only, no killing or stress. Dissections can be - demonstrated at 4th form level. NZY64
Only use invertebrates for experiments with live animals. Death is not an acceptable outcome. NZY66(+no vertebrates)
Follow science association guidelines - don't use mammals, don't harm living things, don't dissect. NZY77 (+other guidelines)
That animals should only experience those conditions which they would encounter in their natural environment. NZY93
Animals must be returned to their habitat unharmed. NZY134
Not to subject animals to conditions outside those that are found in natural Environment. To recognize them as living organisms and to treat them carefully and with respect. NZY260 (+respect)
Keep animals healthy and happy. Turn them loose when finished. NZY284 (+humane)
Australia

We have generally accepted experiments, unless they adversely effect animals, even if snails, mice or chickens for observations. AY2s
In general - live animals and non-interventive - Awe/wonder only. AY21m
Don't use them for any purpose that will result in their psychological or physical condition deteriorating. AY84
No live specimens killed for experiment at school. AY143
Use of live animals - what conditions are required in terms of space / care are required. We don't use live animals except if they are only to be observed (i.e. chicks) and well cared for and will have a home at the end. AY210
The biology teachers have a code; no experiments on live animals, other than some behavioural work - e.g imprinting. AN214
No maltreatment. No killing for dissection. AY285 (+humane)
Don't kill them. AY287
Japan

Don't kill the organisms (animals) which has a side we can see (through our eyes). JY86
I wonder whether it's sufficient to use the materials such as videos for something that we can only show otherwise to students by taking life. JY228
Don't kill, don't add the manipulation which results in harm to health. JY499

Don't use or need
New Zealand

I believe we are not allowed to use them. NZY195
Australia

They are not used. AY166
They say no. AY260
Japan

We don't do experiments using animals. JN167
I don't think experiments using animals are necessary for the contents of high school level biology. I think we can supplement enough to manage by using audio-visual materials. JY244

Minimise numbers
New Zealand

No unnecessary experiments, put-down painlessly, quickly according to Royal Society guidelines. NZY267(+national guidelines; +humane)
Australia

Minimise their use. AY5
Only in exceptional and argued cases should animals be used. AY66
But minimum work done and this is done with care. AN90
No forms of distress permitted - painless death (anaesthesia) , minimal use necessary. AY99 (+humane)
Mainly as we don't use them. However, my students do a major research project at end of Year 12 and I will not allow them to do anything to harm animals. i.e. Cannot add chemicals to H2O in Aquarium or test shampoos etc. However, can breed frogs etc. AY102 (+don't kill)
For the purpose of exploring science. AY104
Only Year 11 and 12's. Students to respect the life they taken for their benefit. AY107
Manipulation should only be of educational value. AY256
Don't man handle - in fact handle as little as possible. AY276
Junior students are not to dissect whole animals. AY297
Avoid if possible. Use in later years or levels only. AY307
Only use the number needed and not all animals. AY308
Japan

The guidance of the importance of life, and [it] should be a minimum. JY18 (+respect)
Don't treat animals cruelly or use more than necessary. JY57 (+humane)
Don't use meaninglessly. JY125
Animals and plants also have lives, and we want them to contribute themselves to a class at the minimum that is necessary. JY133
I don't forgive useless shooting and fishing, and make [students] understand the significance. JY162
Don't kill more than necessary. When we kill, I teach the necessity and value. JY230 (+respect)
If we do, we use small animals. We don't do experiments that we can manage using videos. JY265 (+some restrictions)
Take lives as little as possible. We don't do experiments which we can do without. JY358
Don't slaughter uselessly. JY412
I don't feel very much for microorganisms, but I want to use animals which are under the destiny of being killed because of old age, such as chicken. JY415
Why is this animal experiment needed? JY499
I'm not sure because I belong to an other subject, but maybe they think they won't do experiments which they can explain without doing. (They have not done.) JY75s

No vertebrates to be used
New Zealand

No vertebrates are to be used. NZY3
School rule: no dissection of vertebrates. NZY8
Invertebrates. NZY38
Not killed for the purpose. No guidelines for invertebrates. NZY54
Only invertebrates may be used for experimentation. Vertebrates kept in laboratories must be carefully and appropriately cared for (as are invertebrates). All animals must be treated with respect. NZY75(+committee approves; +respect)
Only invertebrates with the permission of the Head of Department and Animal Ethics Committee. NZD119 (+committee approves)
Invertebrates only. NZY126
No experiments on vertebrates. No unnecessary experiments on live animals. NZD146 (+humane)
Invertebrates only and not to suffer stress. NZY148 (+humane)
Only invertebrates to be used or parts of butchered animals (for meat), don't cause any unnecessary suffering. NZY162 (+humane)
Live invertebrates only. Vertebrates for dissection (only if humanely put down). NZY267 (+vertebrate)
We have an animal ethics committee. No animals to be stressed, no vertebrates to be kept, all organisms to be kept in as close conditions to their normal environment as possible. NZY275 (+committee approves)
Japan

[We] try to use lower animals, plants,and microorganisms for experiments as much as possible. JY176
Because [our school] is very big, [animals] are limited to ones that are easy to handle in great quantities. (e.g. microorganisms, insects) JY272 (+other)

Only guidelines for vertebrates
New Zealand

Relate to the care and use of vertebrates only. NZY67
Informal policy (since we don't now use live vertebrates) that "unnecessary indignities" should not be inflicted. NZY72 (+Humane)
Not written guidelines, experiments involving vertebrate "manipulations" strongly discouraged. Blow flies are used for respirator experiments. NZY76 (+no vertebrates)
Usually refer to mammals but all insist on careful maintenance of conditions, food etc. and that animals must not be caused distress. NZY84 (+humane)
No vertebrate should be unnecessarily stressed or be deprived of necessary food and water. NZY92 (+Humane)
Animal ethics applies only to vertebrates. We don't use these for experimentation. No written guidelines for invertebrates. NZN199 (+no vertebrates)
We have discussed within the Biology Department to set of practicals acceptable, e.g. no vivisection, generally to treat vertebrates with more care than invertebrates. NZY292

Use small animals only / Some restrictions on use
Australia

They are informal not written down, senior master does not encourage them but staff are not banned if they wish to use them. They must be humane though. AN291
Not overtly but we would not be allowed to do some experiments. AY335
Japan

Should be lower animals up to birds for the development experiments, and I don't think mammals should be used for experiments, as much as possible. JY35
Don't use mammals. JY38
Don't use animals meaninglessly. Don't use live birds and mammals. JY64(+minimise)
Though we don't have a clear guideline, we cannot use something bad for dissection because of the sensibility of the students considering how big and close the animals are (e.g.dog, cat). JY94
We don't use birds and mammals by a tacit consent. JN299
Don't use mammals. JN340
Though we actually don't do them, if we did, we would use small animals (e.g. frogs, Crucian carps) and which do not show their suffering in front of the students. JY362
We don't use big animals, use animals for the dissection that come on the food table. The animals that students don't become emotional about more than necessary. JY368
Personally I decide not to use human beings (such as blood), to use mammals and birds as little as possible. JN508

National guidelines / Law
New Zealand

Animal ethics guidelines (through College of Education). NZY9
No cruel or unnecessary treatment of live animals - we don't use live animals much. NZD10
Follow guidelines of National Advisory Committee. NZY16
Animal Ethics Committee Guidelines. NZY23
Royal Society of New Zealand guidelines. NZY31
Royal Society of New Zealand - no experiments on small animals without prior approval. NZY33
A standard handed out from the Education Department and the Science Teacher Association. NZY41
Use the animal ethics given to school. NZY46
Not an official school policy - but we follow all guidelines as published in the Science Draft Curriculum. NZN47
The ones in the guidelines - we don't use vertebrates. NZY50 (+no vertebrates)
Code of ethical conduct for care and use of animals in school programmes. Department of Education, Wellington, New Zealand - very detailed; no manipulation. NZY59
National Ethics Guidelines with working with animals. NZY61
Refer use to flow charts available ex NZSTA on vertebrate ethics. NZY79
Animal ethics codes. NZY86
In science programme outline. NZ88s
Yes, we are bound by the Animal Ethics Laws and Guidelines. NZY90
Animal ethics legislation. NZY96
Guidelines from Educational Department. NZY99
Follow animal ethics conventions. NZY123
National guidelines. NZY128
National Ethics Committee. NZY137
We try to follow the law! NZY147
We follow "Code of ethical conduct for the care of use of animals in school programmes", Department of Education, 1988. NZY169
Abide by "Ethics" Act re animals. NZD172
According to National Guidelines - procedures for approval, justification, handling, etc. NZY190
Yes, it is a compulsory aspect of high school biology - as long as it is within the tolerance level that that animals would experience in its own habitat. NZY200
We follow regulations as advised by education authorities re Animal Rights Act (or whatever it is called). NZY201
Code of ethics. NY205
National. NZY209
A code of ethics. NZY210
Apply New Zealand Society Ethical standards. NZY219
Standard guidelines from Massey Animal Ethics Committee. NZY221
General ethics committee regulations from Ministry of Education. NZY255
Legal guidelines as laid down by law. NZY262
It's recommended we don't keep vertebrates - there are National Guidelines we must adhere to. Invertebrates are O.K. - we are encouraged to keep them humanely and for a few days only. NZY274 (+Humane; Invertebrates only)
From the Royal Society Guidelines. NZY287
Standard document on animal ethics (1987). NZY288
Australia

There are outlined by ACT Department of Education. Very clear details are set out about what can be done and how it is regulated. AY1
There is a CODE of PRACTICE for Use of Animals in set schools - it says a great deal! AY6
Refer to ACT Department Education Document. "Guidelines for the Use of Animals in School". AY7
As a result of NSW Act of Parliament, there is no a protocol for such use. AY17m
Cannot breed animals unless follow strict NSW Department guidelines. AY19
We are an approved animal use school and comply with guidelines. AY25
We are required to follow the guidelines of the Animal Welfare Department in our state. AY26
Adhere to government regulations - basically, observe and measure only. AY33 (+forbidden to kill)
As outlined by state education guidelines. AY43
"Animals in Schools" Animal Welfare Guidelines of Teachers, 1991. AY49
10 page document (official government document) that covers what animals may be used in experiment. AY56
Laid down by government. AY57m
Follow the animal ethics guidelines put out by Department of Education. AY61
We follow Board of Studies directives, State and Commonwealth Legislation. AY71
Guidelines at by Education Department. AY77
Departmental?? AY79
No harm to animal. AY119
Generally we don't do dissection, but SA Department guidelines would be followed. AY148 (+Don't use)
Education Department guidelines. AY154
Guidelines have been set by the State Education Department. AY160
State Guidelines. AY163
There is a South Australian Animal Ethics Code. AY174
These guidelines are from the Tasmania Schools Board - no vivisection. AY185
Tasmanian Government Act - the study of it should be a part of the syllabus. It is for teachers, Bio 82GC. AY195
Apart from Departmental (Government) guidelines. AY199
Victorian D.S.E. Guidelines. AY200
Follow state legal regulations. AY204
We follow the State Education Guidelines. We only use rats for senior biology. AY239
Government guidelines regarding blood and respecting cultural views on animals. AY241 (+respect)
Use state policy document. AY244
Practical work in biology in based on present VCE biology practical mammals. AY315
ACT has a booklet containing very strict guidelines. AY322
ACT has rules for all schools. AY324
Ethics committee guidelines. (no experimentation) AY327 (+other)
Official guidelines issued by Education Department. AY329
In line with state policy. AY331
Code and Ethics of ISB schools. AY336
Japan

Within the limit of the curriculum. JY311s

Other guidelines / guidance
New Zealand

Staff fully aware of ethical guidelines. NZY2
Some written material. NZY35
Science teachers have an animal ethics code. NZY102
Association with the Science Fair regulations. NZY130
A great deal! We are putting in place a code of ethics for use of animals. NZY140
Must follow the Animal Ethics Guidelines SCA out by ASTA and NZSTA. NZY142
General guidelines issued to all schools for Science Teachers Association. NZY154
Only the Ministry regulations re breeding animals etc. NZY158
Science Teachers Association ? Science fair guidelines. NZD164
Follow local area ethical issues, re housing, feeding, care, painless death, etc. (Aoraki Polytech acts as central). NZY177
See booklet from bioethics group - on file. NZY261
See Victoria University Animal Ethics paper.NZY274
No, except that we do have ethics material from Department of Education. NZN281
We have an ethics checklist for experiments and care. NZY282
Australia

Very detailed. AY12
I have very strict control on animal care within this school. AY14
Animal welfare policy. AY16
Animals must be bred and destroyed in an approved facility. AY18
There is a written policy providing guidelines. AY31
Nothing written but we are no longer permitted to breed rats for genetics and use same for dissection. AY42
Unsure as to details, but I am aware they do exist (I'm not in the science faculty). AY64m
The Science Dept. has. AY80s
Strict guidelines regarding the correct handing of mice. AY159
ISB Animal Ethics - very rigid guidelines. AY171(+safety)
Victorian Science Association guidelines. AY235
Guidelines for keeping and using animals. AY332
Japan

1. Why do we use it? Is there any other way? 2. The methods to do with the minimum. Whether we can replace with the animals which exist a lot (food animal) etc. 3. Whether [it] leads to the destruction of nature. Y124(+minimise)

Committee approves
New Zealand

Application required to Animal Ethics Committee for experiments except for invertebrates - currently not thought to be animals. NZY4 (+no vertebrates)
No harmful experiments are done. Individual student experiments must pass an ethics committee. NZY15(+humane)
Have to get "Animal Ethics" Committee approval at resign stage of experiment. NZY17
Use of vertebrates should be approved by local ethics committee. NZY30 (+only for vertebrates)
Must have approval for the animal ethics committee. NZY37
Information from the committee (national) that set the standards some years ago. NZY153
Experiment using some animals (vertebrates) must be okayed by local ethics committee. NZY103
Animal ethics committee in school and a school policy on such matters. NZY106s
Ethics Committee. NZY114s
We are aware of permission needed form the ethics committee when using live animals for experiments in certain circumstances. NZY182
Use of invertebrates okay, vertebrates - e.g. mice / rats - approval of experiment has to be received from an ethics committee (vet, etc). NZY184
For any use of animals submissions must be made to the Animal Ethics Committee. NZY194
We are affiliated to Victoria University Bioethics Committee - restricts use of live vertebrates, no restriction on invertebrates. NZY216
Ethics committee expectations and what I as Head of Department expect from staff. NZY249
Ethics committee to approve. NZY257
National ethics committee guidelines requires all manipulative experiments to be approved by an ethics committee of responsible adults. NZY270 (+national guidelines)
I am a member of "Animal Ethics" group. Guidelines include care of animal, respect for animal etc. NZY271 (+national guidelines)
Application to animal ethics committee. Proposals must be written before experiment undertaken. NZY298
Australia

All maintenance, observation and experimentation is controlled by the School's Animal Welfare Committee. AY32
According to ethics committee guidelines of the University of New England where the animals come from. AY46
All experiments with animals come under Animal Care and Ethics Committee and must abide by Welfare Act. AY54 (+national guidelines)
An animal care and Ethics Committee - oversees all experiments. AY60
Yes, set out by Board of Studies. AY62
Come under the guise of a Department Animal Ethics Committee. We do not use animals, other than animal parts for investigation and preserved specimens obtained sometime ago. AY82 (+dead only)
Ethics committee. AY144
Animal Ethics - Independent Schools Board - we get approval. AY147
They must be approved by the science senior, they must not physically hurt or stress the animal. AY153 (+humane)
Tasmanian Bioethics Committee asks University animal house to kill rats BEFORE issuing to schools. AY181 (+dead only)
We follow the guidelines put out by Ministry of Education and Ethics Committee of our University. AY259 (+other guidelines)
Animal Ethics Committee has roles and guidelines - need their approval to keep and use animals. AY321

Safety
New Zealand

Guidelines refer mainly to safety of uses e.g. non-use of wild material. (Also to use of native species). NZY78
Use strictly as directed and with reference to feral animals and diseases. NZY279
Australia

Safety. AY11
N.S.W. state directives on correct use of lethal doses of compounds, students not to be involved in the "killing". Danger of blood products etc. AY74 (+national guidelines)
General Concerns are safety, health and proper care. AY217

No written guidelines / vague
New Zealand

Left to discretion of the teachers - they are the professionals in charge. NZN7
I am unaware of any rules. NZN27s
Pretty vague. NZY65
None in writing. NZN81
Not aware of any - just teacher common sense. NZN110
Definitely unwritten but clearly understood guidelines regarding the treatment of animals in class. NZN163
No formal guideline. NZN230
Left to individual ethics of science teachers. NZY244s
Australia

Not to my knowledge. AN115s, AN283s
None explicit, but implicitly - must be able to demonstrate educational value. AN134
Don't know - I get the distinct impression that there are very few. AN140s
Unwritten ones - no "cruelty" - teachers' dissections. AN212
We make up our own. AY215
Only my own values systems. AN230
Teachers are expected to know what to do. AN281
Japan

Unfortunately there is no guideline. I draw the line at the individual level. JN28
There is nothing as a school. I have some ideas individually. JN33
Nothing written down. JY116
The judgements of each teacher, not of the school. JN475
Largely it depends on the teacher in charge. I think the ethical view of the teacher, and justice are important. JN491
Up to individuals (teachers). JN287s

Too many guidelines / need experiments
New Zealand

A whole set of rules, some are bloody stupid. NZD105
Japan

I make [students] not to have feelings such as "It is a pity" for using animals in experiments. JY108
We should not increase knowledge only for humans. JN137
We use something around us and which is easy to get, there is no special guideline. JN326

Other
New Zealand

Cannot use oppossum. NZY208
We have guidelines form Department of Education but don't use them because irrelevant. NZY218 (+national guidelines)
Australia

Any guidelines with anything would take more space than one and a half lines. AD91
It is to the individual to choose whether they participate. AY110
Japan

We cannot use something that is difficult because of cost, availability and breeding. JY44
To make [students] understand the environment, the ecology of life around us, and classification, etc. JY66
With a limit where students can prepare by themselves. JY115
I explain the difference between harmful animals (poisonous snakes) and useful animals. JD211
The prohibition of human experiments. JY214
The experiments which only give students a cruel impression. JY224
In the case of frogs, Crucian carps, etc, which live around us, and even hunting is impossible without students knowing the ecology of life. Also I think I can teach them about the lives of these organisms. JY370

Don't know
New Zealand

Don't know. (Not a science teacher.) NZD13s, NZD53s, NZD69s, NZD70s, NZD80s, NZD82s, NZD129s, NZY138, NZD170s, NZD171s, NZD181s, NZD288s, NZD295s
Not known. NZD18s
If there are guidelines I have not heard of them. NZN34
Out of my area. NZD44s
I don't know as I don't teach biology, but I do teach spelling and how not ask ambiguous questions. NZD48s
Not sure. NZY19, NZN85, NZD141, NZD187s
I don't know. NZD125s
Don't know - I'm not a biology teacher. NZD145s
I imagine there are. NZY168s
Don't know - doesn't directly affect me. NZD178s
Not that I know. NZN183s
I don't know - I teach social science - the only experiments we do are on children! NZD186s
Couldn't say - don't know. NZD193s
I don't know. NZD120s, NZD253s, NZD264s
Does not apply in my department. NZD223s
But don't know them. NZY235s
I don't know - but I assume so. NZD300s
Australia

I don't know as I'm a Geography teacher. AD4s
Care, consideration no unnecessary incisions etc. (too little space) AY10
Do not know. AY23s, AD168s, AD275s
Don't know. AY41s, AD69s, AD81s, AD86s, AD122s, AD131s, AD158s, AD177s, AD250m, AY270m, AY298s, AY303s, AD316s
I don't know. AY44s, AD184s, AD255s, AD268s, AD309s
Wearing of gloves dispose of by to teacher - not in AY59
Not advised. AY75
Unknown. AD87s
Not to my knowledge. AY115s
Not that I know of. AN145s
The biology teachers responding will answer. AY155s
Unsure. AY265m
I presume so, I am not teaching in the science area. AD279m
Irrelevant to my subject AD311
Japan

I don't know. JN32
I'm not sure. JD380
I don't know because I only teach science. JD500

Q21. Do you think that bioethics is needed in education? Why?...


1 Very much (V)
2 Some (W)
3 Neither (D)
4 Not really needed (Z)
5 Not needed (X)

Respect for life
New Zealand

Because one of the most important thing any person can learn is respect and kindness towards another living thing. NZ1V
Respect for living things is needed. NZ3V
To make sure cruelty is not permitted. NZ21W
Many present students are not aware of bioethics, have given it no thought or do not realize that animals are actually living things. NZ28W(+Issues)
Because some students have no comprehension of treating animals (and plants) humanely..They break branches off trees, harass insects etc. NZ43W
So students are aware of treatment towards organisms other than themselves. NZ46V
It will be our attitude above all else which will dictate the degree of survival success in the future. NZ57V
To show students the concerns we have about science us and the environment. NZ70sV
To teach students to respect all forms of life. NZ73W
Sanctity and respect for life. How can you teach biology without trying to instil a love and respect for life. NZ77V
If I've got the meaning right?! To ensure that the "right" attitudes are passed on that we can be respectful of other life forms. NZ79V
Respect to life other than humans. NZ83V
I think any manipulation of organisms needs to be challenged and justified. NZ91V
To look at beliefs i.e. values clarification. NZ95W
There is a need to become aware of informed of ethical issues to recognize our responsibilities to other living things. NZ115V
Pupils need to appreciate the basic rights of all life. NZ147W
Because infringing on any other organisms "normal bodily functions" is an ethical issue. NZ160V
Most city kids are not brought up to respect the Earth and nature, except in a false, sentimental way (some rural kids also). NZ161V
Respect for life, and the expectation of humane behaviour, should be emphasized in a civilized society. NZ168V
Education at school is about equipping students for life - Bioethics are part of life. NZ180sW
To teach students respect for their biotic community. NZ203sW
To emphasize the point that we should respect all forms of life and treat them with dignity (be a role model for students' attitudes later in life). NZ213W
Teach respect for living things. NZ229V
As part of teaching concern for living organisms and respect for life underlie all teaching at all levels. NZ251D
Some knowledge of the issues is required by everyone so that they are familiar with problems / benefits etc. NZ253W
So students can develop values in relation to other organisms.NZ257W
Appreciation of living organizations. NZ291V
Students should be taught to value life and consider wider implications. NZ297W(+Issues)
Australia

Respect and reverence for all life is important. A7W
To demonstrate that humans should not alienate themselves from the rest of the organisms. A9V
Care obviously to be used in the handling of animals and students need to be educated in this. A12W
It is the only hope the future has for the of our fellow creatures etc. A21V
There are questions about: production and maintenance of all aspects like intervention in all aspects of life that create ethical concerns and need to be addressed. A36V(+Issues)
Awareness and respect for life. A47W
To encourage concern for the organisms. A53W
We have an ethical obligation to care for any living material, children need to be aware of this and have their eyes open to the possibility of living things being abused. A68V
Students need to value animal life (and other living organisms). A71V
Life (of all things) is presented in media as disposable. The captive audience in school should be exposed to the opposite view. A92W
Human beings must be hold accountable for their actions. All living beings must be regarded as reflecting the matter of life. A99V
Concerns with preservation of life. A165SV
Ethical considerations are essential in all areas of life. A173V
Reminds students that people have and responsibility to use God's creature wisely. A191W
Obvious reasons. A231SV
As a Christian ethics are very important for us. A233SV(+Issues)
Each individual needs to ponder seriously the questions of life. A236V
Humans need to realize that they are not the only "feeling" organisms on this planet. A241W
Because of the potential damage and grave ethical issues. A249SV(+Science issues)
People used to be made to think about the consequences of what they and others do. A290W
A responsibility. A317V
Students need awareness of the impact of what they are doing and we need to teach respect. A327V(+Science issues)
People are rather self-centred in their treatment of other organisms. A332V
Japan

Because biology is the study which teaches facts, and the characteristic of action or instinct of animals are out of reach of human beings. Also because it is dangerous for human beings to manipulate lives and this manipulation cannot be achieved in the biological field because it involves human ego and happiness. 1D
It is to treasure life, that is to say, it is the matter whether we can respect a person or not. 5V
Because the importance of life is basic. 16V
Because of our school policy which considers life based on the Catholic spirit. 19W
As various techniques develop, the era in which we can easily create life is coming. I think [bioethics] is necessary to prevent the light treatment of life. 22W (+Science issues)
It includes basic factors as a human being. 25V
Because we should inform that the existence of the human race is inseparable from the existence of other living animals. 28W
I think we need the education which helps us to think the life of all creatures is equal, not only human-centred, as the member of the earth's ecosystem. 33W
Each creature has their own irreplaceable and valuable life. The fear to hurt them. 47V
In any society, to think about and to treasure life is important for humans to live. 48V
To let them understand the importance of life. 49W
There is a dangerous possibility that the understanding of the dignity of life may be distorted and will be interpreted for their own convenience. 57W
Because the present social circumstances or the things around us are the main interest, this fact leads us to think lightly of life. 66V
I think the number of students who don't understand the importance of life are increasing. 68V
Irresponsible view of life can be seen in TV, TV drama, and it seems that there are many misunderstandings about the importance of life. 77V
Make them think about the preciousness of life, happiness as human beings. 85W
The heart which treasures life leads to the heart which treasures people. 86W
Think about the dignity of life. 88V
In order to know ourselves (human beings), and to know more about life and nature. 91W (+Environment)
(It is abstract). To protect life. Especially it is needed in the future society. 94V
Recently children harmed or even killed by peer-teasing, so their hearts including those of assailants are suffering. I think this might be a consequence of a lack of understanding of the preciousness of life, such as to empathise with other persons or treasure living things. it may digress a little from bioethics, but I think education is needed even in the home and school of the meaning of respecting life. 96V
Not to make them think that human beings are special. 99W
Especially students behaviour nowadays makes me fell that they don't feel the importance of even human life. 108V
Not to have the wrong idea that everything that human beings do is correct. 110W
Because all living things have life, and it will affect human bioethics in the end. 115W
Because humans are a creature coexisting with others. 116W
There are many students who treat life as a toy. 119V
In recent society, which is materially rich and is easy to get a lot of information, I think, it is very important to think about the importance of life and to have fundamental [principles or] attitudes. 121V
It is also necessary to think about treasuring life against research. 127W
The mind to treasure not only our own life but also other creatures' life should be fostered since we are small [children]. 133W
From the standpoint of respecting human rights. 139W
Because I think we should have discretion about unrestricted use of life. 145W
The trend to treat living things like tools is the problems. The idea of the dignity of life is needed. 149V
Life phenomena have many unknown areas and are peculiar phenomena. 150W
Make them obtain the dignity of life. 152W
Nothing is more important than life. 156W
The children who have a heart to treasure life are increasing. 159V
I wonder whether the dignity of life is slighted in recent ways of the world. 161V
Dignity of life is important for the basic attitude of humans. 163V
Because the most important thing is life. 178W
It contains important issues with the view of life. 187W
To respect life including humans is a natural thing as a human being. It is also necessary for the future of the human race. 195V (+Issues)
Because of the existence of the other organisms human life (can) exist. 196V
Need to learn respect for life. 205W
We, including students, have little concern with life. 206W
Principle of life dignity and material economic principles are preposterous and loving life is slighted. 211V
Respect of personality. 213V
Following the trend towards the nuclear family or low member family, children have less opportunities to experience life or death, like the death of the aged or birth of a brother, they are extremely decreasing. And the opportunity to live with animals is also few. Though they know the "weight of life" in words, I think there are many things which they cannot actually feel. So education is necessary by all means. 215V
There are many people who think humans are the centre. 222W
To realise the respect for life and the importance of life. 223W
There is necessity to make all the people know the importance of life. 224W
It is hard to think about the dignity of life among humans, and between humans and animals is the same, and it is very important in that we treasure life the same as one of the creatures. 225V
Although we all recognise the importance of human life, not much about animal's life except for our own pets, is recognised. 244W
Need to experience the opportunity to think calmly about the importance of life (when it comes to the reality you become emotional). 245 (+Debate)
Necessary to know the preciousness of life. 249W
There are many students who feel nothing with killing. 251W
It is necessary to make a person who can understand the situation of others. 257W
To learn the importance of life. 265W
Importance of life. 281W
I think the consciousness concerned with bioethics will not only be a technical issue but also how to live our own life. 288V
As life tends to be carelessly treated in TV, comics, tec., sufficient education should be performed mainly be parents and at school. 298W
First of all, education about human rights like equality and freedom is more necessary than bioethics. 305W
I think that to ask what is a creature, and because I think that to think that we ourselves are also one members of the living organisms is to think about a better way of living. 306W
I think that the trend of people's slighting of life is getting stronger, accompanying the development of modern scientific technology. It is necessary to keep the dignity of humans. 308V (+Issues)
To foster the spirit of the dignity of life. 313W
Importance of life is the fundamental subject to pursue the satisfaction of daily life. 314V
We have to understand more about how humans are special in the natural balance and cannot live without affecting other creatures. I feel simply to preserve nature is given too much priority. 316V
Because I worry that people are less conscious about life. 318W
Humans have ben using (killing) a lot of living things as food or for other things to live. 322W
It is necessary the same as "how to be" or "how to live" as a human are. 323W
Life is precious. It is most important to maintain human life. 324V
The opportunity to think about "life" is decreasing. 329V
The children today tend to slight life. 333W
Because of the necessity of teaching the "importance of life". 341W
I think it is necessary for creatures to exist. 342W
(Is this a question about other animals?) Humans are not special. 345W
It will be linked to treasuring humans. 346V
It's necessary for Dowa education [about the discrimination of burakamin]. For example, how to live and to understand each other with a minority who has some genetic characters that will seriously affect the growth of humanity. 348W
Many students think in a self-centred way. First, turn their eyes on other creatures, then to think is important. 349W
It is natural as one of the same creatures. 351V
Without education about treasuring life, education cannot be constructed. However, denying all science development brings trouble. 353V
Because I think biology at high school ultimately should be the subject which makes them understand the dignity of life. 365W
Importance of life. 366V
It is needed in the sense to make them thoroughly understand that taking life more than needed is not good, based on the fact that people cannot coexist without taking other creature's lives. 367V
Animals other than humans also have life, so slight them no more than needed. 368W
To make them aware of the "dignity of life". 377W
To make them think of the dignity of humans. 386V
I think we have to think from various angles that life is irreplaceable and important. 391V
The dignity of life. 409W
We may terminate life. 419V
Present children have extremely little awe of life. 422V
I'd like to also teach the dignity of life in the class. 424W
Living things do not only include humans. 427V
Thinking about the status quo that juvenile crime is rapidly increasing, I strongly feel the necessity of looking again at creatures, including humans. 440V
I'd like to have the correct recognition of how important we should think human life is. It's connected with the coexistence of all the creatures on the earth and keeping balance. i think it is necessary to prevent the ecosystem from disaster caused by escalating human ego. 443W (+Issues)
I'd like to make them think about the right to live of living organisms, the same as Dowa education. 448W
Eliminate the slaughter from society and make them understand the dignity of life. 452W
I think the basic current of bioethics is "sympathy" and "tenderness" to other people or living organisms. because this is common to the problems like human rights, sex and the environment, and is one of the things lacking from high school education. 455V
Any living organisms are living desperately. we should not kill or blight unreasonably. 457W
Although cruelty is often seen among creatures, when it occurs among humans it is necessary to come back to reason by making them compare with other creatures. 458V
Because they are humans' organisms. 467V
It'll lead to treasuring humans (human education). 468W
To know the importance of life. 469V
It seems that children raised in this peaceful Japan excessively slight the dignity of life. 474V
The opportunity for children and students to touch animals and plants is decreased, and the recognition of life is getting weak. 475W
I'd like them to think about life. 483W
About the dignity of life, that is the relation between humans and other animals and plants, ultimately, I have a doubt about the "view of life" which gives priority to human society. 491V
To treasure our own life. To do so, I think, knowledge and understanding of many life phenomena are needed. 500V
Because in the present utilitarian society, rushing to pursue individual benefit prevents the realization of other's dignity. 508V
To foster the mind to treasure life. 511W
To recognise concretely that we are living. 517W
The goal of biology class is to foster "the view of life", itself. 523V8
The people who haven't directly touched life and death have a selfish way of thinking about that. 533V
We should inform that life is irreplaceable. 537W
To teach respect for life. 547W
To respect human life. 549W
I think it will be useful to some degree to improve the social system where people who cannot understand the preciousness of their own lives take other's lives out without hesitation. 552V
Human beings are also an existence who has life, and the base of all views of value is the view of the value of life. 553W
In the meaning of the dignity of life. 11sV
It is the problem of how human's live. 14sV
As the relation between keeping species and humanity (human rights). 23sV (+Environment)
Because it is involved with the essence of how to grasp life. 25sV
I think we have to understand that life is precious whether human or animal. 26sW
To inform the dignity of life. 28sW
The mind of awe for life should be educated sufficiently in high school. 30sW
Only human beings have responsibility among the animals for that. 37sV
I think it'll be concerned with the education of human rights. 42sW
"Law" beyond human intelligence exists. i think humans are also let to be alive. 42sW
That it is slighted is true. 59sV
It'll be connected to our lives. 66sV
It is necessary from the aspect concerning the dignity of life. Stagnation of rule and manner which are the first step of preventing disaster and accident, accelerate the deterioration of society. 69sV
To teach the dignity of life. 83sW
Because it seems that in modern society the preciousness of life is lacking, especially among young people (bullying, cruelty to animals). 86sW
That life is precious is the thesis to treasure other life is also to treasure our own life. 89sV
It'll be related with how human's live. 98sV
To let them know the importance of life is necessary by all means, and as children seem to have less opportunity to feel this in this society, it is needed to deal with it in education. 101sV
The importance of life. 103sV
Now is the time becoming indifferent towards life. 130sW
I think that the poorness of mind in recent times is the cause of forgetting the radiance of life. 131sV
Because it is necessary to return to the fundamental problems such as treasuring life or what is a human. 134W
Because it is deeply connected with human rights and our value of life, etc. 138sV
I think it is a base for living. 142sV
Because I feel that the feeling of dignifying life is slighted in the modern society. 144sV
As the relation with human rights education. But many problems exist, such as whether it is possible to allow the right of self-determination for body and life, or what is the relation with environmental ethics. 171sW (+Environment)
There are many people who don't understand the dignity of life and humans. 173sW
I think that it's a future research field, and that education is necessary because it concerns life and the basic way of living of human beings. 174sW
Because we're too indifferent towards life. 175sW
Because I think that under the development of science we should make them consider about the dignity of human life, which is related to the problem of how far life should be artificially manipulated. 177sW
Because it can be the base of thought of how humans should live. 180sV
To respect the dignity of humans. 181sW
We cannot respect ourselves and others without the dignity of life. 184sW
We need to return to a fundamental view of life because of murder based on thoughts or faith and life manipulation under the name of scientific technology. 188sW
From the fact that human beings have been fostered in nature, the other animals and plants also enjoy a blessing the same as humans. Human love is important in the view that yourself exists among other human beings. 191sV (+Environment)
To live as a human being. 193sV
To think about "humans" or "sex" is necessary, especially in present Japan. 202sW
It is concerned with how to live or exists as a human being. 203sV
To make us gaze ar "death". 205sW
I think humans will instinctively have fear when life is unnaturally controlled by humans. 206sW
Recently I often think about human rights. What are human rights? Are human rights observed? I hope for all to properly understand about bioethics and human rights. 225sV
Dignity of life. 226sV
I think that both ourselves and others tend to slight life, including human beings. We should make effort in education to break this as much as possible. 227sV
Science is almighty. Dignifying life is important in this world. The Earth is one and only one precious thing. We need to show these to students as one thesis. 230sV
Life is the most important. 241sW
Make people of all ages think properly about human beings. 245sW
Teaching the dignity of death, the mind treasuring life and the spirit of dignifying humans, may be able to decrease the unreasonable desire for human discrimination and the unreasonable demands of people in particular areas or social classes. 248sV
To treasure all life leads to treasure humans, oneself and neighbours. 251sW
Because it is needed to learn the essence of "life". 252sV
As it is concerned with the origin of "life" or "living", I think it is necessary to make them think about whether it is right or wrong as human beings. 257sV
It is the issue concerned with fundamental human rights. 266sV
Generally speaking, humans tend to have biased feelings towards other humans and organisms. 267sV
Is it permitted that humans, just one of the species of creatures, treat nature for their satisfaction. 268sW
It is the issue concerned with the origin of human existence. 270sW
I think that it is education deeply concerned with the issues of human dignity and rights, and is necessary for children carrying the society in the future. 272sW
Because I think that as a matter of course the "importance of life" is made light of also in the case of bullying. 281sV
About how life should be, we should grasp human life as one of the creatures. 288sW
Understanding and recognition of the dignity of life. 289sV
To respect the dignity of life and the providence of nature. 293sW (+Environment)
We need to educate the meaning of life. In the trend of materialism, they're getting not to think about humanity, and reductionism is rampant in society. 294sV (+Debate)
1. Life of all creatures is the most important. 2. I don't think humans can understand all the providence of nature. 297sV (+Environment)
It is a fundamental problem as human beings, and it seems to be the most important theme which we may not neglect. 301sV
Dignity of life is a common issue standing above races and religions. 306sV
Awe of life leads to human dignity. 307sV
Especially recent high school students' mathematical or cold-hearted way of seeing things from only a rational point of view, has spiritual health problems, doesn't it. 315sW
Though humans "use" the other creatures, it cannot be unrestricted "use", and about the dignity of life, to say "human life has dignity because we are human" is not true. As the dignity of the whole life and species, I think we have to think about the dignity of human life for individuals. 316sV
Human beings do not have the authority to dominate life. 327sV
Respect of life. 329sV
Make them know the mystery of life, and revive the awe to nature. We need to strengthen philosophy in science. 333sW (+Science issues)
I fear for human beings to become conceited. 336sW
Because "how to live" is the biggest problem for us the human race, and I think the origin of it is how to think about "life". 339sV
It is natural to think about our own life and death and the relationship between nature and human beings. 345sW
To teach the dignity of life. To prevent going toward technology and objects. 354sV
Students who don't take the vigour to "live" are radically increasing. The view of ethics is being slighted in many students. 363sV
Because in order to coexist we have to recognise and feel the existence as we are, we have to realise that everybody and all the creatures are precious beings. 371sV
Because seeking the principle of the individual is the way of deepening oneself. 379sW
Because it is concerned with the origin of the value of existence of human beings. 380sV

Science raises issues
New Zealand

Because it is a part of scientific research so it must also be a part of school science which should attempt to teach an understanding of this research. NZ6W
So called new science - e.g. engineering need explanation so people don't become fearful thorough ignorance. NZ7W
Better understanding of full ramifications of scientific research. NZ9V
Because the social / ethical / environmental implications are far reaching and informed clear debate is necessary. NZ10V
It is necessary for individual to understand the need for science and technology, its successes and failures and the dilemmas of decision makers. NZ13sW
It is a contemporary fact of life that science knowledge has advanced and we must discuss its ethical implications. NZ15V
To understand the ethical implications behind proposed biological advances or changes. NZ29sW
Everyone must be aware of the potential problems associated with biotech. NZ33V
Pupils are totally unaware of latest developments and their potential consequences. NZ34W
Science needs to be linked to morality again, especially with the potential of genetic engineering, and ethics is one method to do this. NZ40W
If people are not aware of issues they cannot really make informed opinions. NZ41W
There is no room for any science which does not address the ethical issues. NZ42V
Students should be informed about the social issues associated with science and technology so that they can participate in contemporary debates. NZ49V
Because the more than science it is also a social issue which will affect lives and lifestyles. NZ51sV
Teachers awareness of current issues - very interesting finding out the kids' opinions. NZ52W
The ethical implications to use of modern technologies essential young people future leaders, must have values. NZ59W
To link public / youth to issues of science and how it already affects and making informed decisions. NZ85V
So people understand what it is and its implications. NZ85V
Social / moral issues cannot be ignored no matter what the aims and objectives of the teaching programs may be. NZ88sV
Students need to be aware of its importance and its implications. NZ89W
So students can think about the consequences of research and take a more informed stand. NZ92W
Students should be much more aware. NZ93sW
To develop an appreciation of all living organisms. NZ96V
To be put of a balanced science programme. NZ101W
To draw awareness to issues and different articles of others. NZ112W
As a matter of common senses. NZ114W
Direct repercussions for their generation of children as human applications are more and more the "challenge" for scientists today. NZ120sV
Information - for better decision making. NZ121sW
An increasing need to understood the implications of their own science. NZ127W
We are moving into increasingly sensitive human areas and need to understand what is and is not acceptable. NZ137sV
The issues are going to become increasingly pressing in future - society must make an informed decision. NZ143sV
Raise awareness of technologies involved, create forum for discussion of implication of these issues. NZ150W
People need to be aware of all issues so that sound judgements can be made. NZ159V
It is becoming such a high profile issue with the tremendous advances in biotechnology, DNA fingerprinting, the human genome analysis etc. etc. NZ162V
The consequences of science and technology must be considered. NZ170sW
Science / technology affects people and the issues should be linked with any discussion. NZ171V
The question of information, long term, wider field effects, possibilities choices and the continued cultured evolution must recognize that not all that is possible is desirable, and not all that can be done, should be done - it is fundamental to the growing maturity of ourselves as a species. NZ176V
The issues are, and will become increasingly important. NZ190sV
To make students aware o problems in that area. NZ193V
Because students have to be made very aware of the present future implications of some aspects of biotechnology ad where it is leading. They must be informed so as to have a say in the future direction mankind is heading in. NZ199W(+Issues)
The whole area of science and its contribution / relationship to mans' needs to examined / understood. NZ202sW
As part of developing awareness of social responsibility. NZ222sW
Broad ethical examination should be a part of most areas of the curriculum. NZ226sV
Educate children of implications of some research. NZ233W
Decisions on what technology society should use should ideally be made by an informed public. NZ220V
Particularly of modern society. NZ234sW
There are many changes in the use of biological material which can influence and students life. NZ238V
Important for science not to be in isolation. NZ244W
General population needs to be aware of the issues involved in scientific innovations. NZ246sW
Students (public) should be aware of what is right / wrong in dealing with on what "life" is used for. NZ248V
There are many "grey" areas that need discussion, thought so that future generation can be responsible in use of technologies. NZ264V
To see both sides of an issue clearly, rather than just are e.g. using animals in cancer research. NZ265W
To make society aware of the question being posed by scientific advances. NZ269V
Involve profound issues and impact. Pupils need experience in dealing with issues, in a structured way. NZ276sW
Students needed to be made aware of implications of bioethics in general but the emphasis should remain on teaching the fundamentals of science and biology science. NZ281W
All the questions need to be openly discussed as they arise. NZ284W
Because no development in science is without it's social, financial and ethical implications. NZ286V
Awareness of developments in any field should be taught or discussed at school level. NZ293sV
Australia

Affects more students now or as adults. A2W
To raise awareness of the issues. A8W
Without ethics all forms of research become inhuman and insensitive to needs and rights of others. A15SV
Necessary to understand concepts with such huge ethical considerations. A24V
Students need assistance to evaluate scientific educations to see if they really will be a benefit. A26V
Genetic knowledge, as well as the environment, is an area of knowledge explosion which needs rational discussion with students. A27SV
These issues will become increasingly common and complex in our society in the future. A29SW
Ignorance divides a society. A30V
Awareness. A40V
For a balanced view. A42SW
Like many forms of technology, biotech is racing ahead of the laws therefore reasoned thought on bioethics must be stimulated. A43V
Since this field of study is essential to relate study to contemporary issues. A44W
To make students make more aware of what is happening in the world. A45SV
Part of the changing would students are growing up in. A48SW
Because of the need to evaluate the impact of all new technology. A57W
For a better understanding of what it involves. A58SW
Students need to be aware of the rapid advancements in biotechnology and the implications to their future. A61W
Types of experiments and the applications of resultant technology have inherent ethical problems / questions. A64SW
To inform for understanding at debate. A66V
Make students aware and develop their own opinions. A69SV
Not to include ethics in science is to imply that science should be amoral- but the society of knowledge has shown that science is not value-free. A70W
So that we can all understand what directions science and technology our taking.A72SW
Because there are wrong assumptions about the capacity of science to solve man's problems and the projection of "the end justifies the means" approach. A73SV
It's not just bioethics. Students needs appreciate the consequences of human including their own. It's not just a school responsibility either. A77W
Must know when to stop, i.e. when science goes beyond the realms of mans basic beliefs, religions, ethics, social culture, etc. A78 W
The world is developing technologically to rapidly and to many science fiction stories and movies of the past are becoming time to life...HOW FAR DO WE GO !!? A81SV
Knowledge is required to make informed decisions. A87SW
Students and the public need to be aware of the truth so that they can discuss issues intelligently. A88SV
This area is becoming more important with the scale of scientific experiments using live organisms. A89V
Because it is necessary to be sell informed and this makes rational judgements based on all facts. A90W
Students need to keep open minds on issues when not hilly informed. While students should form opinions, there is encouragement needed to remain open and flexible. Acceptance by students depends on level of maturity. Students should become aware of issues, but are often unready for indepth evaluations. A93W
To give a rounded view on the use of science and technology. A108W
Everything major have an ethical component. A110V
To give students the means to actively contribute to what will be a much greater influence on their lives than we know. A115SV
We need to think deeply about applying science to change this planet and living things. Someone has to make the decisions? Who? Under what principles? A118V
To make students aware of the scientific basis behind many issues, instead of purely the emotive concern. A119W
Community needs to better understand that science is not just facts and experiments, but involves often choice. A125V
Understanding of issues surrounding modern technologies - social and individual. A129W
Students should be aware of and have thought through many of the issues involved, so they can present informed views. A131SW
Students need to be aware of the consequences. A143W
Because it is an important issues which will influence our lives more and more. A145SV
The growth of new issues need future generations will need to be more aware and involved. A149SV
Rapid advancement of biotechnology and its possible uses is now changing many moral, legal and religious view held by people. A150W
It isn't going to go away or diminish - It needs to be discussed. A168SV
Awareness. A170W
I think that most of the public is relatively ignorant regarding bioethics and their children should be educated in same. It is part of everyday life. A179V
So students better informed and can make informed judgement. So science can be seen to involve value judgement / not just facts- this may attract more females to science. A180V
Students should be aware that there are considerations and discussion points in this area. A181V
Because society is going to be confronted by these issues as science expands in these areas. A187SV
To raise awareness of consequences- informed or otherwise of our actions. A189W
Because people need to be more aware of the implications of this - than I am. A193SW
Students tends to think scientific experiment and discovery is removed from life - don't see the broader results and implications. A196SV
So that the application of scientific discoveries is done wisely. A199W
It is important that science not be taught in a valueless context. A206V
Because it is something that students often do not consider or come across and thus less likely to make a stance or decision. A207V
Considering what technology can do and we have to make decision about what we allow and what we don't allow in society. A212W
Because we all need to be able to ask the difficult and relevant questions about the application of scientific knowledge. Part of being a critical thinking human. A213SV
Biotechnology is a rapidly growing field - so young people need to gain an understanding of the issues involved. A216V
Students need to be informed - apathy breeds anarchy and irresponsibility. A220SW
All new knowledge assists our understanding of mankind and that is a worthwhile end. A224SV
All science should be associated with its full implications. A226W
It makes students aware of the issues at hand and allows them to think and resolve their own opinions. A228W
All activities by human should be considered, scientists and users of technology should be socially responsible. A235V
It is a current issues - which everyone need to be aware of. A240W
It is necessary to understand a topic properly - all aspects need to be taken into consideration. A243V
People must be make aware of all issues related to use of technology and science. A244V
Students should gauge consequences against benefit. A257W
Because science should not be taught in isolation, social responsibility must be encouraged. A259V
Student have to be aware of the social and ethical implications of scientific research and their applications. A260V
Students need to be informed about how technology can intervene and create new situations. A262V
To develop awareness in students of all issues related to particular situations. A263W
Student awareness of ethical issues needs to keep up to date with advances in biotechnology. A264V
It is becoming a major issue that will influence our lifestyle - and our design to be "human". A269SV
An issue of social importance. A271SW
It is part of a wide-based education program. A282W
Students need factual information in order to be able to be able to make an informed decisions about the issues. A291V
Make students more aware of scientific implication. A298W
Don't know. How do you define bioethics? Is my definition what this question is referring to? Discussion of issues, not pushing of an opinion. A311W
Make students aware. A311'WS
Because the consequences of using procedures should be seen by the students; however not very much detail - possibly the issues clearly spelt out so that the student is aware. A313W
To date this topic has not really been given much emphasis in biology curricula. A315V
It's going to affect students' future. A316SV
To open students' mind for all issues. A321SV
No use to have technical knowledge without social ethical understanding. A324V
To increase the understanding and awareness of students who will be able to comment objectively. A334W
As technology advances we need to be involved; ethical issues. A335W
Science is here and now. Our students will have to make some huge decisions very soon and many will only get information in the high school on these topics. A338V
Japan

Although natural science has advanced rapidly, the associated ethics is too far behind, and when we look at ourselves we are full of contradictions. Especially to recover this, we have to start something fundamental. 8V
For people from now on, not to have too much confidence in the development of science. 14W
I don't know whether Japan is typical or special, but I think we should live comprehending the existence of religions affirmatively and deepen the education which considers life developmentally, not only in science, but in every field. 19W
It causes a non-humanistic result if we advance the study seeking for life without education about bioethics. 36W
To prevent the uncontrolled development of science. 62V
In Japan today, science proceeds and we are tossed about by it. before using such techniques, we should have our own ethics. 64V (+Debate)
It is bad to kill or reproduce artificially meaninglessly (or even with meaning). The opportunities which needs judgement will increase with the development of science. 74V (+Animals)
As a result of the development of scientific technology, various things have become possible. if ethics is established, there is a possibility that all creatures may enter an unhappy situation. 93W (+Debate)
Now only technology has developed, and the ethics as how to use it is behind. 97W
I hope students, who will live in a time when they protect and improve life and conception by adding the hand of gene manipulation, can manage judgement with reason and humanity. 101V (+Debate)
The fear of neglecting ethics because of advancing technology. 106W
Prevention of the principle that science is almighty. 129V
Harm from research will result (same as human experiments). 137V
The development of science is so quick that ethics and new viewpoints are needed. 148V
Present education makes me feel I am teaching only scientific technology. By one mistake, the students, who think anything is permitted to be done for science development, may appear. 151V
As the opportunity we have to think about life are increasing extremely in various situation, especially in medicine, with development of life science, make them think in advance. 167V (+Debate)
The more life manipulation becomes possible with the development of science, the more problems like what should be alive or the dignity of life or slighting of life, are increasing. 185V (+Respect)
With only the advance of science, an happy ending is not necessarily brought to humans in the long term view. 232V
Now the propriety of organ transplantation from brain death is being discussed, and from now on such kind of issues seem to be going to increase. 235W
By development of scientific technology, synthesis of new creature, organ transplantation, etc., seem to be rather possible. 240W
Life of humans, even animals, is very valuable. Though science exists for all the creatures on the earth to live happily, the reality is that life has mostly been unhappy under the developed science. 275V (+Respect)
Although life is once and only for an individual, I think the time when humans can control it to some degree may have already come (Both in birth and dying). 326W
To make them have concern about bioethics. It is necessary for the way of thinking of genetic engineering. 331W
Science should be used for society, and education as a social citizen is the most important. 355V
Science is not almighty or safe. 363W
There is a fear that life will be belittled if life phenomena are easily controlled by human hands as the result of the development of biotechnology. 402V (+Respect)
The connection between uncontrolled disorder of technology and the principle of money-making is threatening the continuance of people's peaceful living, life and nature. 441W
I feel that treating life slightly may impress students to have slight regard for life. Especially because of the development of science and the population explosion, we're apt to forget the importance of life. 453 (+Respect)
Because we're in the age that has the trend of slighting life and that scientific technology affects life. 460W (+Respect)
Science is developing, but it is getting difficult to know what meaning it has and how it will be linked to the happiness of the human race. 462W
The issue such as "brain death" or "fertilization" are becoming big issues in present society. That's why even high school students can feel it closely. And thinking is necessary. They tend to think of creatures as a thing or phenomena. 543W (+Debate)
In this developed scientific age, if each individual does not have solid opinions, nobody knows which way we are going. 4sV
I think that scientific technology having no view of ethics is dangerous. 5sW
I think that problems like brain death are facing us and that the development of science is raising new ethical problems day by day. 132sW
In the process of the development of medicine and science, human interest is trying to get to the field where human beings couldn't touch before, and life is created and killed as people like. Because I feel it is dangerous to do such a thing. 139sW
As science has developed, if thoughts about life itself do not get deeper, we will be unable to use that science well. Also there is a possibility to repeat something like pollution. 149sV
The development of medical science is providing us various issues before we make up our minds. In order to think as our own problem. 56sV (+Debate)
As we're human, we who are not scientists need to have responsibility for applying scientific technology which hurts human dignity. 186sV
As problems like brain death are growing into social issues, it is inevitable. 187sW
To make children to have enough ability to cope, who will be deeply concerned with scientific technology more advanced in the future. 195sW
Because science is developing. 200sV
Unlimited development of science will progress with the possibility to slight or to ignore human dignity, and to make humans objects and as a result there is a fear we will extinguish the human race. 201sV
I have a doubt whether we may realise instantly what is technically possible. 212sW
Because it is a big problem which is inevitable by any means by the development of science. 215sV
To spread life creation into one of the fields that humans participate in, by development of science, is haughty of humans who are originally just one species of life. 233sV
Now the top technology (especially gene technology and medical treatment) is asking us again about the concept of life and death. Education must respond to it. 238sV
I think that knowledge and understanding of life are going to be more necessary because of the development of science from now on. 242sW
Because everything is automatically controlled by machines, and children and students who believe that a slice of meat and fish is all there is to life are appearing. 244sV (+Respect)
The issues of science and religion are important. 247sV
To prevent one-sided development of science. 249sV
Because of the critical state of science and humanity is now arising in all sorts of fields and the propriety of it is being questioned. 250sV
The more advanced scientific technology develops, and the more social change accelerates, the more we need to deepen the fundamental questions about the existence of humans (nature), I think. 246sV (+Respect)
It is necessary to educate a new way of viewing human ethics and value against the rapid development of scientific technology. 263sW (+Debate)
There is no age more than now we've been asked, with the development of scientific technology, what it is to live. Even in case of euthanasia, we're asked what death is, and what to be living is. 284sV (+Respect)
Because it is becoming indispensable with the development of scientific technology. 285sV
Problems always arise whenever we apply science. 295sW
In the development of science, the views of ethics of those who use it are lacking. 299sW
Accompanying with the progress of science in the future, it is imaginable that the approach to nature (objects) will be getting stronger and stronger. Because I think we should properly put a limit. 300sV
Controversial field which humans cannot ascertain with existing science, and this field is called ethics or philosophy. 310sW
There are some matters that should not be easily entrusted to the judgement of science. 348sW
Because I am afraid of the status quo that the development of scientific technology is smoothly approaching to the domain of God's karma, transcending human affairs such as human dignity and the mechanism of life. 349sV
Because the age has come when we need deep ethical thought about the relationship between "scientific technology" and "life" and "human beings". 352sV
Human views of value cannot catch up with the development of science. I think the age has come, when every human being has to judge right and wrong by themselves. 353sV (+Debate)
I think that from now on we will have a society with highly developed scientific technology. I think that ethics, morals and views of value which present Japanese have cannot cope at that time. At the moment I seem to be so. 357sW
Because it is posing a problem concerning life in a part of science where human beings do not know and reach. (Because if this point of view cannot be clearly established, the value of human life would become unclear and meaningless.) 359sV (+Respect)
If only technology develops and ethics doesn't accompany it, human beings themselves would be a tool of technology. 360sV
Because of high mechanization and technicalisation, the organisation of life seems to look unorganised. 375sW

People face issues in the world
New Zealand

Increased awareness. NZ4V
It is happening and needs discussion and explanation. NZ5sW
To develop students who QUESTION and we AWARE of issues. NZ14V
Awareness. NZ31W
The ethical implications of all actions and decisions should be considered. NZ30W
Make kids aware. NZ32W
Students awareness of issues. NZ36V
An awareness, an understanding, an opinion can all be gained by all involved. NZ37V
All New Zealanders need to be more informed so they can make better decisions about important issues. NZ47V
Students need to be aware of issues to make informed decisions. NZ53sV
To give students an "all-round" view at science. Allow them to make their own choices. NZ55W
Understanding of the issues involved. NZ60sW
School children need to think about these issues and develop their views. NZ61W
Everyone should be aware of the issues - and they are not at present. NZ63sV
Issues need to be discussed. NZ64W
Ethics should be wrapped around all branches of education. NZ69sV
In balance with curriculum. NZ71W
Need to understand that all application has an effect. Decisions cannot be made in isolation. NZ72V
Lift awareness and to provide information so students may come to their own conclusions / value judgements. NZ75V
An awareness to enable students to be aware of the options - without bias. NZ78W
Education in schools should give guidance and some preparation for the "real" world the pupils are going to live in, and help them to make informed decisions about their life. NZ100sV
Inform future public, so that informed debate can be held and decisions made. NZ102W
I try to educate the whole person - all current issues should be aired. NZ105sW
Both sides of an issue is essential for students to make up their own minds. NZ106V
It is important that students as future adults are informed about issues and need to make value judgements. NZ108V
It is a complex concept. Students don't just stumble on the full picture - they have views of pockets of the topics but rarely a full picture. NZ109V
Awareness, increased sensitivity to associated problems. NZ110W
Knowledge divorced from values is a horrifying amoral skewing and perspectives. NZ117sV
Important that our students can make informed decisions on bioethical issues. NZ122V
To make students aware. NZ124sV
Further concerns for all New Zealanders - students should learn early. NZ126V
To make sure that the pupils know enough in order to make informed decisions. NZ129V
Because of the practical issues that many will face later in life. Need to develop information and thinking skills related to the issues. NZ130sW
To prepare pupils for decision-making when they leave school. NZ134sV
Students need to have information or all sides of the story. How else can they make informed decisions later. NZ144sW
Ethics is important issues for all New Zealanders. Without ethics science is sterile. NZ146V
People need to be made aware of many issues. NZ151W
We all need to be made aware of the issues. NZ154W
People need to be informed to make informed choice. NZ155sW
Student are of our country. They need to be informed now at a level on which they can built in later adult life. NZ156W
So students are aware - can develop their own views on the subject. NZ158W
Give students a broader thinking regime. NZ167sW
Anything that focuses on morality issues is important in the growth of people as fully-rounded human beings. NZ177sW
Discussion of these issues is important for the decisions pupils will need to make. NZ178W
To foster an awareness in students of issues so they are able to make informed decisions. NZ182sW
Students - need to know all of the facts before they form their ideas on life etc. NZ183V
The more information provided on these type of issue the better to allow for informed discussions decision making. NZ184V
People must be fully aware of the issues if they are to have an influence on what happens in the future. NZ189V
Implications are incredibly important and a well-informed public is essential. NZ194V
Because it is an area of "choice" and not just a matter of because we can do "it we should". NZ195sV
To prepare for the complex decisions/issues that abound in our society. An example of not accepting everything at face value, to discern the good and bad. NZ197sV
So that students can make informed decision. NZ205W
To develop the whole student, give science a real life meaning. NZ208sW
That is the way research tends to be going an we have an obligation to inform our clients of its implications. NZ215V
As per definition - first page - social, moral, environmental implications are inseparable from science education. NZ216sV
Because today's students are tomorrows adults - in a participant democracy they need to be aware of the implications for the directions technology is taking. NZ217V
It is going to be the younger generation world. They need to have a say in its future. NZ218V
Students are unaware of a lot of things happening out there and could become a good lobby group. They are concerned. NZ236V
To allow students the opportunity to debate and develop their own beliefs about the many contemporary issues concerned. NZ237W
Responsible members of society is what I am trying to encourage therefore bioethics is necessary. NZ240V
Students should be getting a holistic approach and bioethics is part of this. NZ241V
Students will have to make decisions about it at some stage. NZ242V
Awareness of contemporary issues. NZ252sW
It is an issue becoming increasingly relevant and to society and our students should be actively involved in, in the future. NZ259W
Ethics are an important point in the education process. NZ267sW
Because it's something that will probably affect everybody are some stage in their life. Beside its fascinating and the kids really enjoy learning about these issues. NZ273V
Makes the students think about very important issues. They must make decisions they feel comfortable with. NZ283V
Heightens awareness of students. NZ298W
If it means what I think it does (my definition first page), yes. NZ299sV
So that a balanced attitude can be promulgated. NZ301W
Australia

We have a responsibility to expose our students to current social issues in which they may have to be involved personally in their future. A11V
Only educated people can make reasonable decisions, especially if it concerns the future of life on this planet. A14V
Engages students in a process of critical analysis that may be appeared in many life situations. A17SV
Everyone needs to be informed of the morality of the issues raised. Especially as I believe in absolute principle which should govern our thinking / behaviour. A18V
So that students will be able to make an informed decision on matters which affect society now and in the future. A23SW
Application of knowledge to real life and actions. A25V
It is a necessary part of science, be a balanced approach as students can be manipulated. A31W
Mankind needs to address the ethics of all issues or else the bases of decision-making is incomplete. A32W
1. Special context is an important dimension. 2. Girls are very interested in social context, means, science is more accessible for them. A33V
We need an informed body of research. A35SW
So that students are aware of the facts, the issues (and the aspects they have on themselves and the environment) and can learn to analyse data and make decisions (informed) about the issues. A41W
Everyone needs to be an informed member of society to maintain values. A46V
It is a responsibility of science education to propose values underpining science. Bioethics has a critical role in questioning the purpose and consequences of research lay people in the field of biology. A51V
Science is expanding its issues that apply to our everyday living and we need to adjust our ethical thinking to fit in with the new levels of discovery. A56SV
So that students may make informed decisions on issue. A57V
Raises many issues which need to be opened up and explored so that proper decisions can be made. A59V
Inform- allow students to make informed discussion about science and its application in the future. A79V
Students need to know the issues of ethics of it. A80SV
Because of call the preceding responses that what our ides. A86SV
To educate people so that they can make informed decisions regarding these issues. All of society should be informed in decisions. A94V
Citizens of the future need to be educated in order to make informed choices. A95V
Society increasing avoids serious ethical discussion / education. This is a good place to start. A97SV
So the students can make informed decisions and participate knowledgeably about the issues. A107W
To present a balanced approach to the value of technology and genetic engineering. The effect on the community and environment is an essential aspect of technological developments. A109SV
They are decisions that need public understanding, discussion and decisions. A123V
So students develop a balanced approach and can make informed decisions. A126V
So students gain an understanding of the implications of applied scientific knowledge and be better able to make knowledge based ethical decisions. A135W
Surely it's one important part of the world future! A136SV
Because these issues are going to becoming more and more important in the future. As technology improves all will face these issues. A153V
To raise students awareness of the issues. Most of todays students will be faced with decision on to whether to use various biotechnologies in the future. They need to be informed so they can appease controversial issues from a rational well-informed view point. A156V
Students / general public need to be able to make informed, rational decisions about how our society conducts itself produces etc good etc. A164V
I think it is important that students have an informed opinion about these issues. A166W
Because its relevant. Students need to be informed, and to be able to discuss issues and make informed decisions. A171W
So students can make informed objective decisions not selective one. A172SV
So that individuals can make informed and responsible decisions. A186V
To make informed decisions on issues involved. A190W
To make a more informed judgement that involves more than just objective facts - values etc should be ethical. A192V
Makes students better informed, therefore they can make informed choices and decision in the future. A197V
So that each student is able to make up their own mind after seeing both sides of the picture. A201W
Awareness of community values. A204W
Students will be making decision in the future that relate to bioethics. A209V
Students need to be informed. If they wish to participate in society as informed citizens. A210V
To make a complete picture. A223W
Because understanding as well as knowledge is often appropriate. A227SW
We need to understand what we are trying to control. A229SV
Students are the future and will be responsible for voting and as consumers should be informed. A230V
Because knowledge brings with it a responsibility to apply it as wisely as possible, thus open and informed discussion is vital. A234V
Again to help people make informed decisions about the limit of science and technology in biology. A242V
It is important to link the facts to the human reality and form opinions bared on experience etc. A250V
Science should teach not only logical reasoning for problem solving, but also the implications of the solutions used. A254W
Good heavens! Morality and judgement is needed in ALL human activities!!!!!! A258SV
Students need to discuss ALL relevant issues in each subject whether Science, Health or Geography. A267SV
We all need to know enough to be able to make decisions i.e. bioethics. A268W
Research has far outstripped our value system, and presents complex moral / ethical problems. A270SV
To encourage us to discuss ethics issues to see where we stand and what we stand for. A273W
All comments make this clear. A274SV
People need to be aware of the impact of such technology on life forms the ethical and moral issues are important to community as far as decision making goes. A279V
To give all students the chance to be able to have an informed opinion. A280SW
To enable value judgements. A281W
To enable students to take part in informed debate and decision making. A287W
Important that issues this important (e.g. in vitro fertilization) are discussed and facts (for against) given so informed choices can be made (if required) in the future. A289SW
Informed decisions can them be made. A293SV
Source of the biggest decision young people will face will relate to the topics listed - they need the skill to ethically analyse a situation in relation to principle / benefits and disadvantage / fruits etc. A295V
Because young people need to be aware of the values underlying decisions so that they can make an input, not just be dictated. Need to be socially critical. A299SV
There are issues frequently mentioned in the media and students should be able to have informed opinions on how new technology should be controlled. A300V
Because, in my opinion, people to make decision / choice of importance. A310SV
Science should not be see as "value free" its applications, although "facts" are "value free". A314SW
Its important to realise that "the advancement of science" needs to be considered from a moral issue also, i.e. Is the important than the moral effects? A319V
All science and medicine needs to have an ethical bases and schools should teach them. A320SV
Students need to be aware of the issues involved to make informed choices etc. A322W
So that students can make informed opinions about such issues. A329V
To allow everyone to make their own decision. A331V
Japan

I think we should know because it is done in the world, and we should have opinions towards it. 26W
It will be necessary in the future that students have their own ethics as they are. 29W
It's a natural thing as a human. 40V
The concern with brain death or terminal care. 92V
Students enjoy watching wars on TV like an amusing show. We don't see the essence. 124V
Because there are lots of things, which seem to be against bioethics, are done. 160W
Because they're the people who carry the society from now. 194W
It has the possibility to relate directly, and I cannot help not being indifferent concerning human life. 221V
Students who are lacking something, as we can see, are problems among students, or cause social problems. 261V
You cannot proceed without it. 321W
I think it is inevitable for creatures to live as life, and there are many problems. 340V
To prepare for the next generation. 375W
Nowadays some issues are found in daily life and are an inevitable problem. 379W
It seems to be necessary especially for Japan which is based on the principle of competition. 411V
Because I actually have many opportunities to face such problems. 437W
I think we should learn the ethical (social) side. 442V
From now on, the opportunity to encounter problems concerned with bioethics seems to be increasing. 493W
Because human future depends on it. 496V
Because the view of value is also changing in the society which is dramatically changing. 497V
Everybody will be involved no matter whether they want to be or not. 498V
It is an inevitable issue. 6sV
It is needed toward the 21st century. 33sW
It is a minimum condition of human life. 34sW
For us to share that we have difficult problems. 185sV
The trend of the age. 194sV
Because it is a task of this age. 228sV
Because such kind of problems will increase more and more from now on. 231sV
It'll be directly concerned from now on. 237sW
To improve human living. 240sW
From now on there is a possibility that very difficult problems may arise, so it may fall to irretrievable situation if it is not urgently established. 277sV
To have a better life. For stability of social order. 305sV
It has the possibility to be our own problem. 314sW
It is the basis of social life. 321sV
It'll be becoming a big problem from now on. 328sV
It is for others and also our own. It is extremely important for whole human beings. 334sV
Because I think it is the problem which students certainly face from now on. 355sV

Don't trust science
New Zealand

Ignorance in general is a dangerous thing - power on the hands of a few is also dangerous. NZ99V
Biologists are too narrow minded to be able to take on board ethical matters. NZ113sZ
So people can respond and become active in 'policing' activities that scientist and organisations are involved in. NZ152V
It is too easy to accept that "scientists know what they are doing". Value should be explored / highlighted in all aspects. NZ181V(+Sciences Issues)
Part of education. Counterbalances misuse. NZ260W
To control scientific cowboys. NZ272V
Potential for misuse. NZ300sV
Australia

The media us so much biased information - we have to teach students to doubt/ question/ what they tell us. A6W(+Issues)
A few scientific groups have great power politically and economically and the consequence of their studies is for teaching. A19V
Science in a moral vacuum is dangerous. A120SV
To develop community conscious and socially aware young adults who are able to understand potential of scientific technology. A138V(+Issues)
Will be an idea of increasing interest in the public domain which will have some effect on everybody. Students will be/are members of the public. A141V(+Issues)
Public need to be aware not ignorant. A142V
To ensure morals are discussed in a science dominated society. A148V
We are in the service of forming moral aspects. Science belongs to and should be governed by the whole community. Thus the community needs to be able to think and decide in an informed way. A169SV
1. It is a powerful way of engaging student interest. 2. Helps students learn the skill of considering two sides of issues and coming to a decision. An important skill for life. 3. The future of our planet depends largely on the attitudes of our next generation. This students opportunity to develop attitudes. A184V(+Issues)
Technology without ethics is very dangerous. A198SV
Morality is more important than science. A202SV
To ensure we maintain our control over research and technology, and are net led by it blindly. A205SV
Without it capitalism will destroy the world. A211W
Science shouldn't happen in a vacuum. Scientists need, at all times, to be aware of human moral of environmental consideration. We need to discuss the ethics of science and technology. We have a responsibility to. It is a very interesting and challenging topic which students are interested in. A256SV(+Issues)
To balance topics - so science and its advances don't occur, regardless of what is morally right and wrong. A265SV
Japan

I have much anxiety that logical bioscientific technology, which is to seek human (and other creature's) happiness, is applied by the judgement of individual academics. It is necessary to separate academic's research and applications. I hope various information from as many subjects and teachers are offered which should help the judgement of students. 10V
It is necessary to foster the consciousness towards indiscriminate life experiments, the danger of using genes, and individual dignity. 15V (+Respect)
I'm afraid that organ transplantation is actually going to be performed while the understanding of the concept of "brain death" remains ambiguous. 218sV
Previous brain death problems make me feel that doctor's proposals sound like their own egos for us. 219sV
Because I think that chosing the direction of life manipulation should be done by more people who are deeply concerned. 232sW
I worry about the future direction of life manipulation. I expect that the checking system is improved by the trend of public opinion. 275sW (+Debate)

Environmental problems
New Zealand

Senior biology should cover all aspects. NZ12sW
I think it is an issue that need to be looked at and discussed so that the students can form their own opinions. I don't want to push industry propaganda. NZ26sW
All ethics are a vital (neglected) study. The difficulty is establishing the base for work about ethics. NZ27sV
We do not own this planet. The balance of nature must be considered as delicate. Responsibility for our actions. NZ54V
We should always examine why we do certain things/procedures. This ensures we do not harm ourselves or our environment. NZ65W
Although man has been given control of his natural environment this brings also his responsibility in administering it worsely and conservatively. NZ74V
People need to be aware of the issues that concern the use of animals and plants and environment (populations, communities). NZ141V(+Respect)
All consequences of actions on man/environment should be considered in every sphere of influence. NZ166sV(+Respect)
Because it should be used to make students aware of things around them and the effect them science have on biology. NZ173V(+Respect)
Humans are part of the modern biotechnologies. NZ191V
We share the planet with other living organisms and have a responsibility to the place of the life force. NZ219sV(+Respect)
We're wreaking the environment enough as it is. Students need to learn that living organisms aren't simply at our beck and call to use how we please for what we please. NZ223V(+Respect)
Because the impact that new technology can have on man and environment. NZ228sV(+Issues)
We are part of the biosphere and should respect the place of all other plants and animals. NZ266V
As respect and healthy attitudes towards living organisms and the environment is essential. NZ270V(+Respect)
A respect for and understanding of the complexities and interdependence of all life forms on this planet. NZ278W(+Respect)
Australia

Everyone must be responsible for the care and nurturing of our environment and all living species. A55V(+Respect)
To give a balanced view of the application of science / medicine in relationship to the environment. Students find bioethics interesting. Discussions tends to be at a fairly high level of ethical thinking. A67SV
We should all be aware of effect of man on all living things and be concerned to maintain environment as well as possible for ALL living things. A106W
Human growth can only take place when relationships with other people and the whole environmental reality are harmonious. A140SV(+Respect)
We are all living organisms on this planet. We effect each other.A146SW
Humans are a part of the environment and could never exist without it. A195V
That the natural environment does not need too much tampering with. A215V(+Respect)
Concerns life and the environment. A308W(+Respect)
Students should be exposed to environmental and ethical issues so they can see why procedures should or shouldn't take place. A337V(+Issues)
Japan

To learn about the dignity of life is to learn about our own dignity; To learn about the dignity of other creatures is to learn about the dignity of living creatures. It will lead us to learn the meanings why various creatures coexist on this earth. 46V (+Respect)
To learn it is connected with the environment, morals, and everything. 55W (+Debate)
It is the thing most lacking in Japanese biology education now. I think it seems to arise from environmental or other similar issues. 67W (+Other)
Ecological issues. 69W
In the meaning of protecting natural nature as it is. 76W
Concerning the preservation of nature, because I think if we foster the mind which treasures any little kinds of life, natural destruction should be decreased. But now, in most cases if you may be forced to choose human "life" or "environment", the environment is sacrificed. 117V
We need to have recognition that humans are also one part of nature on earth. For this, teaching at school is necessary. 125W
I think that the viewpoint in which all creatures are equal will be connected with human equality and discrimination, to environmental destruction, and to a high quality of humanity. 126V (+Respect)
I want everybody to understand (feel) that we, living in an artificial environment as a society, are only able to live by nature. 131W
Natural environment, life and human rights, and war, etc. 140W (+Respect)
To treasure things in nature (including creatures) leads to treasuring oneself. That is necessary for sincerely treasuring of oneself. (Making a world where all of nature can coexist and co-prosper is necessary). 155V (+Respect)
Since humans are living in the earth's environment, there is always the problem whether humans are allowed to change it for only human convenience. And then I strongly feel that we should not be indifferent and ignorant to these problems nowadays when they extend to genes which is the origin of life. 171 (+Debate)
In order to respect all the life. it will lead to the preservation of the environment and species. 188W (+Respect)
Make them think of techniques together with environment and respect for human life. 198W (+Respect)
To foster the attitude of respecting life in order for the human race to continue to live. To try to preserve the natural environment which holds this life. 207W (+Respect)
To make clear human status among the living organisms will make humans continue to live longer on the earth. 228V (+Respect)
As a reason for preventing environmental disaster and the effect to the ecosystem. 282W
Changing both the environment and the mistakes of the past are concurrently necessary. 300W
Because I think that the view of ethics taught by nature is decreasing to children who have been getting less opportunity to commune with nature. 384W
We need to know that we human beings are also one of the members living on the earth and we cannot survive without coexistance. 400V
Be aware that humans are one part of "nature". 407W
I think that as the opportunity to feel nature is decreasing while children grow, they are becoming indifferent to life (they do not treasure the present). 408V (+Respect)
Earth is a community with the same destiny. 421W
Because I imagined that keeping species seems to be important in a long term view. 431V
Because I think we should think also about the weak, animals, and plants, and the environment, not only ourselves in order for human beings to live as human beings. 447W (+Respect)
Because I think the time has come when the human race, as a member of the life of the earth, must be concerned with other life. 485W
Humans are one part of nature. 499V
All the living organisms have a right to exist and have the duty to convey the situation where various living organisms exist into the next generation. 502V
It is necessary to maintain the whole earth environment, including humans. 507W
From now on, I think bioethics is needed in the process to a more international society for us human beings to think about things and act with a global earth view, and considering the enormous effect on the earth and other creatures. 519W
The view that science is almighty isolates human beings, one part of nature, from nature, and leads to environmental disaster. 522V
It relates to the environmental destruction of the earth. 538W
Nature is not an existence subordinate to human beings. 554V
Because I think there is a part that humans should not touch in the natural world. 560W
I think that scientific technology that has no view of ethics is dangerous. 5sW
I think that for students who have been brought up (growing) in the environment where science has developed, and thinking it is a matter of course, to know the history of the relationship between humans and nature, and what kind of problems have happened and are going to happen from now on, and to think how we should think as a person who will carry the next generation, is important. And I think it is dangerous to entrust the future development of scientific technology to those who don't know that. 17sW (+Science issues)
I think that the basic knowledge and viewpoint concerned with this are involved with life which surrounds people from present to the near future. This will be an important indicator when we think about all creatures including humans and the earth's environment. 35sD (+Issues)
It is needed to teach the dignity of life and the bad effects on the environment under the development of science and technology. 60sV (+Respect)
As the order of nature is beyond human ability, to touch nature more than necessary has an awful fear to destroy the natural balance. 65sW
We should think about the meaning of life to solve crime and environmental disaster in the present day. 72sW (+Respect)
To treasure oneself and other lives. 84sV (+Respect)
Coexistence of nature and the human race. 126sV
As a living life on the earth. 198sW
Health for the human body, healthiness of human society and preservation of the natural environment. 216sV (+Other)
To know the existence and structure of humans and creatures coexisting with humans is also to know about human beings themselves. 323sV (+Respect)
To foster a mind which has awe to oneself, others and the environment. 381sW (+Respect)

Animal experiments
New Zealand

Important aspect in teaching experimental design. NZ17W
Guidelines are required to regulate animal use. NZ38W
The use of vertebrate animals in even simple behavioural investigations is severely restricted by over-careful present regulations. NZ67W
As a guide to both teachers and students so that animals are not abused. NZ131V
To show students that there is a real need to provide care for animals (and plants) and that they have rights and an essential place in the world environment. NZ139V(+Respect)
Someone has to put the animal's point of view. NZ142sV
Students often do not consider bioethics at all,and can design quite cruel experiments without realizing. NZ148V
To make our biology students aware of the issues involved in working with living animals - to prepare them for tertiary education in these fields. NZ157W
Provides sensitivity to animals needed. NZ196W
To make students aware of facts about "using" animals. NZ221V
To explain why we keep animals - how need science and technology w learn from them. NZ254W
You only need to read the paper about human treatment of animals / ask the average person about their knowledge. NZ256V
So that animals are not but under stress. NZ274V
Experiments with animals are essential for many aspects of biological / medical etc. research and advances - rather than human "guinea pigs". NZ282V
To teach students respect for living things. Some students are ghouls and experimentation can give them a thrill. NZ285W(+Respect)
Not as a specific topic but NZ290W
To control the use of animals and their treatment. NZ296V
Australia

I do not use excessive numbers of organisms and I ensure that they are killed humanely. Most biologists would do the same. A1Z
To stop idiot teachers traumatizing kids (and mice) by non instructional dissections. A134W
To prevent extremists from performing unsuitable experiments in front of students; to heighten students' awareness and encourage decision making. A214V
You can't take animal lives for granted, even if they are dissected. A232W(+Respect)
Japan

Because human beings are one species of animal, and animals are no more than one part of living organisms. 2W
The biology class has a part which cannot be established without other creature's life, and I hope everybody has the same feelings about food itself. 31V (+Respect)
Because it always comes up as a topic when we do animal experiments. 41W
Although it is necessary to treasure life, but all by emotions killing could be evil. Rather we should have the class, where we kill a chicken. After doing this, we should start bioethics education based on it. 72D (+Respect)
I think we should make them have experience, the practice concerned with life (animal, plant) rather than in the classroom. For example, to kill the chicken, and cook and eat, I think, it is also part of education. It will lead to thinking about what it is to live or life. 173W
Contents are not clear. But what I think is strongly needed is "the experience to kill a living thing". I think they need to have this during childhood. 197D (+Biased)
Because the number of children who don't kill by themselves are increasing. 248W
The importance of life. Sacrifice is sometimes inevitable for research, for example experimental animals. 280 (+Respect)
They sometimes consider organisms as experimental materials and ignore the existence of it's life. 315V (+Respect)
First, I worry that students are indifferent. I don't want them to be a person who feel nothing when they are faced with the opportunity that experimental animals are killed in large quantities. 369V
I think we should do the animal experiments which are necessary to know the mysteries and importance of life. And I'm always thinking that we should make them realise that we're using various animals everyday by killing or eating or wearing to live rather than animal experiments. This may be against the position "to respect natural life and we should not do gene manipulation, etc". I think it is important that we do not waste life. 389W (+Respect)
Human beings, one of the species of creatures, need to think well about handling other creature's lives. 450V (+Respect)
We should think about animal welfare. 526W

Debate is good, dangerous not to think
New Zealand

Students should be taught to be reflective and justify everything they do. NZ224V
To give all students the opportunity to learn all aspects of biology and become aware and informed on moral issues regarding trends in biology. NZ225V(+Issues)
Students need to learn ethics it doesn't come naturally. NZ280V
Australia

To enable students the opportunity to be involved in reasoned debate, discuss issues rather than accepting ideas as fact. A82V
Many students would not independently think of asking or discussing the sort of issues that are going to become even more important as they get older. They need to be trained in the selection and evaluation of material on which to base opinions. A84V(+Issues)
Students need to be informed but from each side. A96V
The question is whose bioethics? And what philosophical base is it approached from. An evolutionary base gives no one the right to tell anyone else what to do- only a consensus which is not binding. A121W
People to think about their actions - young people need to develop values with guidance. A132V
This is a wide range of opinions on bioethical issues. Some people find it immoral to kill animals for food. Others consider animals a resources to be exploited. Nevertheless, current practice should reflect current societal values. A133W
The students I teach will be future adults I want than to have more information than what they need in papers. A152V(+Science issues)
To present both sides of argument. A217V
To be informed; To be able to enter debate, take a personal position. A222SW
Informed students on both sides of issues. A248W
Because attitudes developed in adolescence will affect adult behaviour. A288V
Japan

To teach the dignity of life. To make them find the right bioethics. 45W (+Respect)
Various techniques have been created accompanying the development of natural science. How to use them may cause enormous bad effects on creatures including humans, earth and environment. I think the value judgements, either to use technology or not, is related to ethics (bioethics). 56V (+Science issues)
Ethics should be nurtured during high school days. 58V
because high school students have less concern about bioethics because of the bad influence of the media. 59V
If we leave it as it is now, nobody will teach. I think it will be good if [bioethics] can be the opportunity for students to try to think. 65W
The opportunity to teach is decreasing. 84W
Ethics is human moral and extremely important in education, and then as part of it, bioethics education is also important. But ethical views differ depending on your situation, ideology, and we have to strongly deny to force the certain ethical view. 98W (+Biased)
Knowing something is better than knowing nothing. But I think to make [student's] understand with education is limited. 123W (+Biased)
The meanings of a correct viewpoint of life as bioethics. Though a diversity of views of value are said, it should be supported by bioethics. 132W
To get knowledge and then to have our own opinion based on it. 135W
To have the opportunity of thinking by themselves, they need knowledge to some degree and they need some time to do so. 153W
The human race has begun to know playing life. It seems that they are going to begin to put the life like a machine in a class, if we don't make them think about life in various situations, from small children, or at primary school with insects and plants, to high school student's ethical views. 191W (+Respect)
To foster the appropriate judgement for the research which relates with bioethics. 214W
As they cannot understand even the meaning of news reports from the mass media without minimum knowledge, they will face the problems like the origin of life, from which human beings came, or human rights, so it is very important. 216V (+Respect)
1. It can be the material to think about the existence of humans or oneself more deeply. 2. Live through the reality of life by judging by oneself. 227W (+Respect)
Students cannot have correct knowledge because of the overflow of information from TV or newspaper, and most of them have no opportunity to think by themselves. 242W
I'd like to give opportunity to think well about life. 246W (+Respect)
It is necessary to foster wise citizens who are also able to judge even if their individual future courses are in different directions. 302W
It seems that the feeling towards life is getting less. It may be the result of the effect of TV. What is life? We have to make them think why we have to respect life. 327V (+Respect)
To make them have the thought of the dignity of life, and to then recognise that humans are killing some creatures to live. 335V (+Respect)
Because I think that the minimum knowledge for judging by oneself is needed. 361V
I think the important thing is to inform the opinion and status quo of various positions, and to make them think how it should be. 392V
The issues concerned with life and death like organ transplantation or therapy at the gene level, mean that we need to give the knowledge which enables them to examine from various angles the reciprocal actions of various creatures in the ecosystem as their own problem. 393W (+Environment)
To foster the children who can think by themselves. 401V
It is necessary to foster the ability to judge correctly to prevent science being almighty. 403W (+Science issues)
It is the subject that everybody has some interest in. It is necessary to give an opportunity to start. 405D
Correct view of bioethics for students. 414W
Because everything is still at the stage of as a whole society and most children have the right and duty to know (think). 415V
I'd like them to have the influence from giving and a view of ethics. 416W
From now on students should be given [taught] the importance of life and at the same time, calm knowledge. 434W (+Respect)
If they graduate from high school and become a member of society without understanding anything, their future interest and concern will decline. 438V
All the people, not only researchers, have the duty to recognise correctly. But compelling is not permitted. 449W (+Biased)
As at high school level we handle the fundamental things which are before we reach there [bioethics], I think it is enough to direct "students to think". 459D
In the development of present science, student's way of thinking about bioethics is premature, so I think we need to educate. 465V (+Science issues)
It may be the fear of one way compulsion. because IO think that to obtain by oneself, through the correct surroundings of treating creatures from childhood, with substantial fundamental education of biology (especially including the ecosystem), is important. 477D (+Biased)
As bioethics is an extremely new subject and even one of the fundamental principles of it, "The principle of self-determination", has both pros and cons, education is needed as the subject to make students think by themselves. 488V
We will think only about the benefit for humans (or some humans) if we don't have a correct view of life. 489V
I hope for them to understand the information from the media with their own opinion. 495V
I think that understanding about life phenomena from various angles can be a chance to get as close to the essence as possible. 501V
Individual persons need to have fundamental knowledge to judge pros or cons. 506W
To foster the basic way of thinking as a human being. 515V
To build the student's view of the world and life. 516W
Various thoughts and ideas are becoming problems when humans handle life. 520W
To think about life will be related to how we live. 521V
We have to think about the meaning of handling "life" because humans have not yet succeeded to resurrect a lost life. 524W
The experience to teach is necessary, and it will lead to the future. 525W
To make students grasp by themselves that there are various ways of thinking is important, not only to bioethics but also to education. 556V
Correct view of life and ethics is needed. 40sW
Because it is needed to make them recognise the existence of problems. 99sW
Eliminate the illusion that life consists of objects, and make them understand carefully the process of how things arrive to us, and make them think if there is any danger. 133sV (+Respect)
Rather than being persistent to decide if the results are good or bad, to make them think is important. 135sW
We teacher's didn't have a class concerning bioethics at our age. That is why we're trying to get information from books by ourselves, but as it is very hard to grasp it systematically, I hope it can reach a level which we can treat it in class. 153sW (+Other)
I think that as the future generation, without knowledge at some level and our own judgement, we'll be unconsciously drawn into the whirlpool and to live independently is getting difficult. 178sV
Each person needs to foster the view of value to some degree. 189sW
It is a subject lacking too much. 192sV
I think we need to formulate a new ethical system at the citizen level. 208sW
Because it is the advantage of school education that we can have a multi-sided approach, not biased information. 209sW
Fundamental materials for judgement are needed. 220sW
Because we should know it as knowledge. If we know various thoughts of various religions, we can avoid to be fixed to one particular thought. 239sW
I think that not only the fragmented knowledge, but also the overall thoughts to connect those are needed in each subject. 259sW
In Japan it is rare to inquire or even think about brain death problem. 261sV
We have a duty to tell both sides opinions. 276sW
Teaching up to some degree in the early part of high school age is also important. 283sW
Some students seem to be lacking it. 291sV
This problem is certainly highlighted in the future. Therefore the knowledge for each student to think is needed as the form of describing both merits and demerits. 303sW
It is necessary to make everyone seriously think and understand the importance. 312sW
Most Japanese are indifferent to religions, and there are almost no opportunities to think seriously about the value of life except at school. 317sV (+Respect)
Because they tend to slight too much their lives with improper knowledge, I want them to think about it as their won way of living by all means. 324sV
Ethics and morality. 326sV
We should make them understand the sphere which humans can do (may do) and the domain which God (=Creator) has. Well it may sound like Catholic thinking. 330sV (+Respect)
As humans are one part of nature, and on the other hand, are a social animal, if we don't foster the person who has both these views of bioethics, a coalition of people who have no view of ethics will ruin themselves and others. 335sV (+Environment)
Because I am concerned about the basis of how to think as human beings. 337sW
Originally ethical education has been performed at home, but accompanying the developments of science, I think it is necessary and desirable to be done at school. 338sV (+Science issues)
To make students think about things. 351sW
As Japanese don't have a common view of ethics as a nation, we need academic knowledge. 356sW
Because to have human life more comfortably, we have to have correct knowledge and views of ethics as they are. 361sW
As we tend to easily think about issues of life, we have many things we have to think about such as life, science, environment and the difference between human beings and animals. 370sV (+Respect)

Other
New Zealand

There is no understanding or provision for Maori values. NZ154sV
It has no more reason to dominate the curriculum than any other subject. NZ165sW
It is not necessity of interest (or relevant) to all students. NZ210W
This is one of the things a reasoned adult should approach. NZ214W
To ensure children are aware of the reasons for doing things. NZ231V
Because people need to have some understanding of what is an issues in our society. I do disagree with an approach that is not based on the Bibles teachings. NZ255W(+Issues)
New field. NZ258sV
Australia

It fits into a syllabus which has bioethics as a high priority objective in its design. A128V
Students need do know what bioethics is and need to know the social and moral value of it. A139V
Those evolving fields in which judgement of these issues is involved should be aware. A176SW
Bioethics is a subset of ethics. Why worry about how to treat a tomato if your father beats up your mother. We more reflection on ethics first, bioethics second. A177D(+Respect)
Makes the biology real and especially of interest to girls. A182W(+Science issues)
Effect upon, culture, environment, and future societies. A266SV
Because it has implication's for the future - possible career choice. A277W
Because acceptable standards must be set. A278V
Unless students aware they cannot vote for political problems which uphold their views. A286V
Irrelevant to my subject. A312D
Most schools have their time taken up with teaching basic content - ethics, is in my opinion, peripheral. A330Z
Yes. Not for assessment. A336W
Japan

It is an issue of primary and junior high school, and home. 44D
Most science course students choose physics and chemistry not biology (because they do not have biological knowledge). 75V
Mysteriousness and holiness are needed for human beings. 90W
Because the experience which is directly related with life (parent's death, to keep animals) is decreasing extremely. 95W (+Respect)
Sacrificing is necessary for science. let them know biology, and then the way of thinking of ethics is needed to be sufficient. 166D
It is necessary, but because of decreasing class periods the time is not enough. 252V
Even if we have no original curriculum it is necessary to include it. 255W
One thing is to prepare for being parents. Another is to make them feel the importance of life. 274 (+Respect)
It is necessary, but direction from the Ministry of Education is unnecessary. My colleagues are studying well, rather we need time. 307W
"Bioethics" is unnatural. 334D
The view of life is also made more various by the increasing variety of views of value. 412W
It might be an extreme opinion, but I think that science, earth, and everything are based on human existence. 446V
I wonder what kind of contents, and how to teach. 470W
Because it is also demanded as a member of society. 478W
I think teaching the subjects about what is now being done comes first. 518D
We should teach fundamentals, but there is no time to spare in the present curriculum. And the contents of the curriculum have not reached that level. 557W
It may not be suitable for high school level. 140sD (+Biased)
Although I think the education of bioethics is most necessary for scientists involved with it, but because at present it's not sufficiently done, it is too early to bring it into the place of education. 162sD
To teach social rule is necessary. 223sW
I think that the education that should be done before is insufficient. 282sD
As the result of this survey. 287sV
Bioethics itself has not been shaped into a system such as other ethics. Therefore I think we cannot deal with such a thing. But, if it would be established, it is not the same. 290sD
In the present Japan, not only the attitude towards such kind of problems is vague, but also it is even not well known what kind of thinking exists. 302sW
Guidelines are necessary for anything. 311sW
The education of high school level will be necessary to some degree, but the education for university students or above, who are concerned with professional research will be more necessary. 320sW
I think it will become important to think about our own life and death and the relationship between nature and human beings. 347sW
I myself feel miserable because my opinion is contradictory with answering question by question. 350sW

May be biased
Australia

At school, students have little knowledge and are often not able to understand the whys wherefores of bioethics. So an introduction to very broad bioethics- but leave the "nitty-gritty" to university. A102W
Too many people are emotional into their thinking on these issues; scientific background and bioethics should go hand in hand. A200V
Japan

Although I think it is necessary, I wonder how far [bioethics] should handle. I think it has big differences between the way of understanding among individuals, so I think there are many parts which are indefinable. 30W
Because we cannot have our own determined judgement or faith. 35D
Although I think it is necessary, in the present curriculum it would pose a heavy burden on students. And to think bioethics, much correct knowledge will be needed. To obtain this is difficult. 80W
Because there is nothing to be as strongly supported as bioethics, and there is no education for teachers. 104Z (+Other)
It is a very difficult issue and it is not something that makes our own standpoint clear. 122D
For example, food culture is different between Western countries and Japan. Japanese cannot understand the idea that eating beef is permitted but whale is not. 142D
It should not go against the average viewpoint of common value or life of that time. I wonder whether it is acceptable to direct with education. 147Z
As it is an issue of personal individuality, which is above basic knowledge, intentional education has a danger to narrow the individual's individuality or view. 157D
To agree or to disagree about these issues is up to one's own judgement, and it should not be judged by the pressure from somewhere else. But future people have to understand about these issues, and then should agree or disagree. To agree or to disagree without knowing (understanding), or to have no interest should not be allowed (national duty). Anyway opposition or trouble arising from ignorance is not allowed. In this meaning, teaching these issues is the basic duty for the teacher involved with high school biology education. In other words, who will teach if nobody teaches? 162V
It should be done in social education. I wonder who makes the bioethics taught at school, for what purpose, and how? If you teach this from one side, what is different from militarism before the war. 164W
The definition of bioethics is not clear. 181D
Prohibiting unreasonable killing should be taught, but more than this is not necessary. It should be judged by oneself. 246D (+Other)
We have to think about it, but school education might make it enforced moral. 247D
Forcing ethics is dangerous. 284Z
I think that what kind of "bioethics" to have is a completely personal problem, not social. Compelled education is just harmful and meaningless. But I think the mind treasuring creatures and nature should be fostered through school education in the present age when environmental destruction has advanced. 292D (+Environment)
Ethics is not the subject to teach, it is the subject to learn by our own ability, or parent's education. School should not compel their own view of ethics. 299D
Such kind of education will visibly fall to just the theory of animal protection rather than teaching the dignity of life. 336Z
It tends to be a one way compelled view of ethics. 358D
I'm not sure whether to educate (at school) or not. I think it shares largely (part) something which is educated in society. 359D
It might be my little understanding, but what is necessary in Japan is unclear. 380D
There is a fear that religion and philosophy may prevail. 418Z
It tends to go in the wrong direction if we discuss only with the concept without getting sufficient knowledge. 430W
We should not make common guidelines for bioethics because cultural, racial, and historical differences are big. 439X
Because I feel it may force the teacher's opinion. 544D
They are just students, and they still do not know their responses to interests and concerns. 550D
It is sure that it is necessary for human beings, but it is not sure whether it is possible to "teach" at school. 559D
I myself don't understand clearly about the problems concerned with bioethics. 35sD
It is the problem to be solved in each home. It'll only be a formality in the big class. 75sD
I think bioethics concerned with human rights, even of the fetus, is needed. But I disagree to lead by educational power because, if we over seek, it will be a religious area. 182sW (+Respect)
As everybody has their own opinions, the fear of biased education may appear. I think that we need considerable preparation to deal with it. 207sD
I think that scientific knowledge is necessary, but teaching ethics is impossible. 273sD
Teachers do not have enough ability to treat it as teaching material. 308sD
Also, I'm often perplexed to judge. About food and disease, I hope for a role for science, but about inheritance of humans I don't know how to judge. 309sV
It will end up with only agitation without academic decisions won't it. 340sD
I accept its necessity, but about the problem of how it should be, we need a summary such as in what scope and to what extent. 372sD

Don't know
New Zealand

Don't know. NZ44sD
What is it? NZ123D
Is easily concerned by outside agencies. NZ192sZ
No opinion. NZ287sD
Australia

This is too difficult. A307D
Japan

I cannot say anything at this time. 23D
I don't understand well. 224W

Q22. What do you need, for example what teaching materials, if bioethics is included in the school syllabus in future?


No initial = Japan; NZ = New Zealand; A= Australia; s = social studies teacher.

Videos / TV
New Zealand

Video/computer resources. NZ7 (+other)
Non sexual materials - videos showing actual issues so we can discuss the issue. NZ50 (+discuss)
Wall posters. There are plenty of TV current affairs programmes that could be edited into a video specifically aimed at schools. NZ51s (+Other)
Videos, up-to-date developments. NZ85(+info)
Booklets / worksheets - teachers written at an appropriate reading level, videos. NZ91(+discuss)
A balance array of opinions about a topic - the for and against, and a clear unbiased account of the procedures being carried out, and videos / slide / text / pamphlets. NZ92(+discuss)
Information, videos, exercises. NZ127(+discuss)
Plenty of videos. NZ134
Videos on investigations into organisations involved in using life for research e.g. Biobombshell (Otage Resource Centre) NZ152(+facts)
Video resources. Written material - discussion material. NZ157(+facts)
Videos would be good - with worksheets, more information that is aimed at a more junior level e.g. 4th / 5th form. Computer programmes. NZ158(+discuss)
Good visuals, simple language, proven research, statistical information. NZ166s(+discuss)
Not sufficient material, but I would like to see purpose designed videos that considered issues in brief - and stopped to pose questions. NZ177s
Videos, worksheets. NZ196(+discuss)
more readily available research material and videos. NZ231(+info)
Video etc., short lesson with impact. NZ233(+discuss)
Videos / task-sheets on individual problems as "in the hand: resources for teacher use. NZ260(+discuss)
"Hands on" kit. Specific videos or booklets with appropriate headings. Reading and worksheets / question for discussions. NZ266(+discuss)
Good cheap booklets, videos. NZ269(+other)
Quite a lot of videos resource pucks etc. NZ279(+discuss)
Video, examples, worksheets, assessment, e.g. ABA. NZ301(+discuss)
Fact sheets, suggested discussion topics, examples of that have occurred. Videos - e.g. SAFE materials. NZ302(+discuss)
Australia

Time! Access to kits/ videos/ editorials etc on the issue. "Letters to the editor" of newspapers etc provide useful material. A7(+4)
Videos at a reasonable price. Perhaps some worksheets with video. A19(+other)
Visuals that present the technology and activities clearly. A30(+discuss)
A.V. material, updated views from media sources. A42
Students responsive to video material. Genetic engineering education from CSIRO is useful though too long on bioethical issues. A50(+other)
Suitable videos needed. A65
Videos which present a critical perspective on the techno-scientific approach and present case studies of the successful application of human ingenuity working with nature, not against it e.g. on the demise of the green revolution in Indonesia and the recent solution. A70
Videos, kits expressed in colourful but simple form. A81(+discuss)
NIL or more "quality" vs. emotional videos. A90 (+other)
Discussion materials i.e. case scenarios- get students to take sides in a debate, videos- scientists discussing pros and cons for variety of situations. A102(+discuss)
Recent articles from e.g. magazines and newspapers; perhaps a stimulus video covering various issues, with good graphics. A129(+info)
1; Sufficient latest ideas on bioethics. 2; videos and film. A139(+other)
Don't know of any other than those mentioned in Q.11 (T.V. newspaper, New Scientist, Scientific American). A143(+4)
A video where an open- ended questions are presented. Up to date information. A148(+discuss)
Some good quality videos would service a broad cross section of issues- to prompt discussion by heightening awareness. A159
Films- visual material. A172
Videos, activity sheets- articles plus actively sheets and overhead transparencies. games for younger years. A180(+discuss)
Videos, information, posters, developed unit, teacher in-service training. A201(+other)
Resource articles for specific issues, videos. Discussion topics with guidelines. Simulation questions and directed answers. A223(+other)
Already have plenty for senior use. Need videos, books, worksheets etc. for junior areas. A241(+other)
Good videos. A253
Overheads with key questions. Videos with examples followed by leading questions for discussion. A257(+other)
Videos, Paper. Guest speakers,kits put out by various organisations e.g. Australian Conservation Foundation, Australian Gen-Ethics Network. A260(+other)
Videotapes- short duration- of all sides of the debate. Kits- where students role-play to discuss the issues. A267(+discuss)
Videos/ guest speakers/ posters/ overhead transparencies/ worksheets/ use of easy language in information. A277(+other)
Audio-visual material. A278
Videos which present the issues, guest speakers, reading material with recent information, perhaps give students "hypothetical" situations- role playing etc. A300(+other)
Videos, more relaxed program, excursions. A317(+other)
Videos, worksheets, recent information- newsletters. A327(+other)
Videos, Interactive computer software, up to date literature surveys. A331(+info)
Videos material of real scientific projects and the consideration and actions that we are required. A332(+discuss)
Japan

Materials which show world movements and the actual situation in Japan. Videos (or something visual) are popular among the students. 22 (+facts)
The theory seems good. I want concrete examples as visual teaching materials. 33
Visual materials like videos. 54
Video materials. 63
Videos. 86
Pictorial education seems effective, so [I need] equipment and films. 90
Teaching materials, text books, reference books, and videos. 127 (+text)
Information as much as possible, and visuals. 151 (+info)
Teaching materials (videos etc.) in order to make students understand. 156
Audio visual equipment. 158
Video materials, and materials about how to deal with this kind of issues in each country, etc. 182
I'd like to know the situations in detail how each country is handling these matters. Text books. 216 (+text)
Materials, videos. 260 (+facts)
Complete ordered materials of the actual conditions at the present time of life science. Complete ordered materials of bioethical issues in a historical process. Videos of current life science and social reality of bioethics. (biology volume, social science volume.) 353 (+facts)
Audio visual materials. (Something concerned with explanation of technology, medicine, and experience of patients and their families). 372
Necessary audio visual materials are needed beside text books. (It takes a lot of time to prepare.) Practical manuals which we can understand and experience the feeling of people and things such as counseling. 411 (+discuss)
Teaching methods. (Videos etc.) 414 (+discuss)
Something concerned with education using videos. 419
Pictures etc of the most advanced scientific technology and ethical views in each country. 443 (+other)
Audio-visual materials and equipment. 502
Materials such as videos. 503
Good video materials and guidance books. 533 (+text)
Audio-visuals such as videos. 554
Objective information using videos etc. 89s(+info)
Concrete cases, audio-visual materials, booklets. 109s(+facts)
Opportunity for study and training (lectures, attendances in universities, etc.) and easy to understand reference books, videos, etc. 121s(+courses)
Videos etc made from an objective standpoint. 153s
Discussion among students using video material. 189s(+discuss)
Video materials. 197s
Educational equipment, e.g. videos. 213s
Materials using visual equipment by which we can raise questions. 230s
Impartial view points, abundant knowledge, and materials, etc (e.g. videos) which students can easily get interested in. 213s(+18)
Video materials, material books, etc for high school students. 238s(+facts)
Videos, pamphlets.
First of all, it is important that I, myself (teachers themselves) understand issues. Explanation and pictures (e.g. special programs), etc, which are easy to understand even for people who are in different fields are needed. 284s(+think)
I don't have enough knowledge now, so that it is unclear. I want audio-visual materials to be enriching. I'm thinking that I try self-study from now on and in the future. 297s(+think)
Specialized books, audio-visual materials specialists (to make a position in charge of this subject.) 318s(+text)
Knowledge of genetic engineering, videos, etc. 339s (+know)

Textbook
New Zealand

Don't know as it would be in science or biology. Social studies or geography would use textbooks as we do now. Videos? NZ13s (+video)
Texts with information. Data from research institutions, e.g. use of monkeys. NZ22 (+facts)
Textbook. NZ30
Videos (introduction). Simple texts for juniors. Journals for discussion at senior level. Speakers. NZ55 (+others)
Texts, visuals, tapes, videos, software, simulations. NZ121s(+other)
Included with wall charts and texts within the topic of teaching. i.e., As an integral part. At F6 level could be provided for separately in texts, videos. NZ139(+other)
Relevant books discussing bioethics issues, worksheets for students to complete, discussion sheets, overhead transparency masters. NZ160(+discuss)
Texts, or articles, to keep staff up-to-date with problems of bioethics today with New Zealand examples where appropriate. Too many of our texts are not relevant to New Zealand pupils, in their minds at least. NZ168(+info)
Text books, videos. NZ221(+video)
Everything - textbooks, lists of interested groups, videos. NZ228s(+other)
Australia

Up to date textbooks with detail. Particularly needed at a senior high school level. Anything medical is often lacking. A25(+info)
Texts, videos. A28(+video)
Better reference material, covered in a suitable text. A59
Teaching material, text books, work books charts and video. A60(+discuss)
Ideas to be more developed in specialized texts in biology, chemistry etc. that students will encounter at school. A66
A good text describing techniques to be used, possible outcomes, hoped for achievements, impact on people, other organisms and environment - Pros and cons on each issue clearly and briefly. A99(+discuss)
Suitable text. A111
A text with accompanying visuals that presents an unbiased analysis of the issues. A130s
Videos, good overhead- reasonably priced. Texts relevant to particular sections which teachers could use as reference. Society or Council like anti-council foundation! A152(+video)
A specific text book and a book that has this as a significant topic. Ideas as in new scientist and suitable for high school students. A153
Should the incorporated in text where relevant. A173
Videos and text books. A207(+video)
Texts and audio visuals relative to the issues. A231(+video)
A good text book on bioethics at a student level. A295
Text books. A309
Texts and/or a kit along the of the lines of the transplant or genetic kit. Assessment guidelines, teacher text. A338
Japan

Publication of a guide book compiling the latest knowledge and current issues, etc. 5
Development of teaching materials. 16
Textbook. 43
The most advanced technology of life science concerned with bioethics, knowledge about issues in the advanced site, and teaching methods and teaching materials. 46(+discuss)
Videos and a understandable manual. 52(+video)
Teaching materials that students can feel close to these issues with. 108
Development of an excellent teaching material which can be used in senior high school (primary and junior high school). 133
Textbook which has no one's personal view or bias. 282
Teaching materials and cases which show "the mystery of life" that we can never solve no matter how much science and medicine are developed. 308(+facts)
A specialised textbook. (Textbook called "bioethics".) 321
To include it in the guide for teaching, and in the contents of textbook. 351(+other)
A specialised teaching material. Practical examples of class methods such as debate. 355(+discuss)
Teaching materials, something which shows concrete examples and their dangers. 363(+facts)
Teaching materials, data, and time. 370(+other)
Curriculum and teaching materials. 408(+other)
Teaching materials. (As many materials as possible, anything is O.K.) 410(+facts)
I want teaching materials and handbooks. 431
First of all, I want a textbook to be made independently, including AIDS education, etc. 448
Knowledge and teaching materials. 489(+know)
Every kind of teaching materials such as textbooks. Lectures given by religious preachers and physicians. 493(+courses)
Appropriate teaching materials. (e.g. textbook) 516
Teaching methods, knowledge, and additionally appropriate teaching materials. 536(+discuss)
Teaching materials (including a guidance book). 544
I hope it to be included in the contents of textbooks. 546
The first thing we need is changing the contents of textbooks, or making an ethics textbook. The nurturing of leaders. 555
An assistant teaching material book. 65s
A teaching guidance book and reference book concerned with issues. Research how to take them up. 78s(+discuss)
[I] need most extra teaching materials which are appropriate for junior and high school students. Philosophy wisdom and religious wisdom which can be knowledge and a standard of value judgement about the progress of scientific technology. 138s(+think)
A guide book in order to explain to students easily. 194s
A textbook. 252s
First of all, teaching materials, and a guidance book about it such as a manual. 258s
Videos and materials dealing with bioethics from many sides. 288s(+video)
First of all, knowledge, teaching materials, and methods. 321s(+know)
Even if not a textbook, teaching materials such as a supplementary reading book, training teachers. 372s

Other books
New Zealand

Need reference books. Wouldn't imagine doing practical work on this. NZ17
Basic resources - data, books, facts etc. NZ59(+facts)
Suitable resource materials such as books, videos, etc. NZ74(+video)
A more balanced approach. e.g. a book on biotechnology might deal with the scientific breakthroughs and advantages - but nothing on the moral / ethical / social implications vice verse - the later becomes so emotive and does not always show any advantages. NZ199(+discuss)
Publications, up-to-date information. NZ270(+info)
Australia

Books with information. A4
Books- pamphlets with the latest information. A154(+facts)
Books, videos useful. A171(+video)
Good, practical books. A255(+12)
Literature, videos. A271s(+video)
It should be useful to have all these topics covered in the one publication. It is extremely important that many of those issues are handled in written literature in an open ended way as these will be diversity of opinion in the classroom. A291(+discuss)
Reference, books, posters. A306s(+other)
Japan

Books which I, myself refer to, and teaching materials which I show students and make them read in a class. 95(+text)
Videos and guide books arranging everything systematically. 136(+video)
Appropriate books, videos. 186(+video)
Books, TV, and a study meeting and training. 195(+courses)
Appropriate guide books. 328
Something dealing with death. e.g. "Education for preparing for death" (A. Deekins)
Materials. (Books and videos written about what is done in the forefront, e.g. genetic engineering.) ???
A guideline of things that we should teach. 365
Books for reference, and a study meeting and training, etc. 368(+courses)
Teaching materials, deeper knowledge, and concrete teaching methods. 398(+discuss)
Appropriate guidance books, videos as teaching materials, and preparation period. 405(+video)
References. 412
Books and videos etc. written about bioethics from the newest and comprehensive viewpoint. 428(+video)
Descriptions in a textbook, reference books etc. 455(+text)
Enrichment of supplementary books. 479
Books about teaching methods. 520
Something which can be a guideline in the guidance of bioethics. 97s
I have trouble finding systematic reference books, so I need something like manuals in this field. (I don't ave enough time to prepare teaching materials in daily practice.) 135s
Writings about bioethics. 169s(+facts)
Philosophy books and ethics books etc. bout bioethics. 173s
Visual materials and books which [we] can ave a feeling of living all lives. 193s(+video)
Reports of real experiences, e.g. "Saraba Kanashimi no sei." [Goodbye to sad sex]. 244s(+facts)
An appropriate introduction. 245s
Appropriate materials and introduction of books for references which can help one to think. 259s(+facts)
Books to get knowledge, and audio-visual materials for use in a class. 264s(+video)
For many easy to understand materials and books concerned with bioethics to e published. 272s(+facts)
Books looking at the relationships between religion and ethics and science from both sides. 280s
An explanation and outline books which people can understand who have little knowledge. 312s
I want you to improve by all means videos, materials (pamphlets) etc. 370s(+video)

Newspaper / Magazine
New Zealand

Resources - periodical papers etc. for students to research. NZ20
Recent publications, photocopies etc, of material that would keep teachers up to date with little cost. NZ129(+info)
More published material (appropriate for pupils) NZ167s(+discuss)
papers / books on topics for discussion. NZ249(+14)
Australia

Recent journal articles. A3s
As the most likely subject area for bioethics would be in science subjects. I would not be able to comment on teaching materials. However I have found most journals associated with legal studies syllabus in N.SW provide excellent resources. A67s
A sound understanding and perspective of the value of life, esp. animal. A list of legal requirements for school operation. Relevant articles, examples of legitimate use. A71(+other)
Information- journal articles. Teacher packages are okay but tend to limit the imagination of the teacher. A79(+facts)
There is material in the press also scientific magazines. A106
A collation of journal articles. A134
Readable journals or magazines designed with 15-17 year olds in mind. Audio visuals with some group in mind. Science text books which take ethical issues seriously and see them as essential to the course and subject. A169(+video)
Non-judgemental material. Current AV material with discussion questions. Informed newspaper articles. A213s(+discuss)
Up to date resource material journal articles (New President). A287(+info)
Papers, books, booklets, articles, video, speakers. A335(+other)
Japan

Magazines. 85

Other / Many
New Zealand

A clear guideline on what areas to cover. Material to base units and lessons on. Clear indication of benefits and disadvantages. NZ26s (+STS)
Bioethical issues should be raised with all developments. I would expect this to be part of any information from cheese production to genetic engineering. NZ42
Computer software that doesn't cost anything. Videos that don't cost anything either; games etc... NZ43
Scenarios. Government legislation regarding - ability to trial/field test; protocol for research and trials. NZ54 (+STS)
Human materials / teaching guides and objection. NZ62(+discuss)
Not sure - maybe a cash grant to purchase suitable resources texts etc. as required. NZ89
Video tapes, posters, outside speakers, newspaper and magazine articles, material from DSIR. NZ100s(+facts)
Time not materials is the limiting factor. NZ104
General leaflet type material suitable for photocopying. Please not textbooks. Material from many sources both pro and anti-particular issues. NZ105s(+facts)
Haven't really thought about it. Would appreciate more on each of the subjects mentioned in Q10. Books, articles, kits, etc., Worksheets, questionnaires, films, etc. NZ110
Nothing special. NZ114
I don't think it should be a separate topic - it should arise within existing topics. NZ125
The issues - what is possible. Any existing guidelines. Case studies of situations. Examples of what could be implemented. NZ137s(+discuss)
Kits with overhead materials, journal articles - watered down for juniors, as is few seniors. New paper articles from around the world. New Scientist and Scientific American articles, National Geographic also. Wall charts. NZ141(+discuss)
Social / ethical implication materials mast be needed. NZ150
Manuals, examples and strategies to avoid breaching rules. NZ153
That which is appropriate, I would guess that a lot would have to be developed. NZ165s(+discuss)
Fact sheets. Work sheets, computer simulations. NZ178(+facts)
Examples of gains made using organisms for research and examples of abuse by scientists as situations to avoid / learn from for the future. NZ181(+discuss)
Information. NZ187
This is not a difficulty I think - with a bit of lead-in time, resources can be quickly gathered together. NZ197s
Actual data. Information on present usage of bioethics. NZ201(+facts)
Books / pamphlets which active both sides of any or all issues - videos. NZ205(+discuss)
Yes, but not only in the science area. What about social sciences. NZ207s
User friendly resources. Books, videos, posters etc. NZ208(+other)
Cooperating learning resources - brilliant subject to teach with this strategy. NZ224
Definition - as students to generate discussion material for students to use as the basis for debating. NZ225(+discuss)
Accepted guidelines. NZ229
Resource packages - especially for town children - on carrying for pets etc. NZ241
Don't know. NZ246s
A clear guideline listing all the topical issues and a yearly up date on new developments. NZ253
Not a biologist - I am not sure. NZ263s
Information on various topics is always needed. NZ264
Australia

Some guidelines, treatment of issues. A8
I am not aware of what is available. A20
Easily digestible. A27s
Unbiased up-to date information, or video. Perhaps visiting scientist in the field. A31(+discuss)
Unsure - since content is unsure at present. When prescribed then resources could be needed. A44
I don't know, as it would more logically be taught in the science dept, not the social science dept. A45s
More time (It's already included in syllabus). A77
Hard to say at this stage without knowing what the topic audience would be. A92
A clear statement of its parameters and purpose. A105s
Generally the material is available, the problem for the teacher is finding time to read, assess, summarise, collate, duplicate, etc. Open copyright on all materials purporting to offer guidance or assessment of the problem. A120s
I would have thought that some is provided within present syllabus, i.e. Biotech, AGR, Eco's, legal studies, geography. A127s
Anything useful. A147
Not much- there are plenty of books, articles around. A155
More time!! A184
Case studies from a number of nations and cultures - on video and in books. A193s(+discuss)
To introduce bioethical decisions at appropriate places in already being covered. A199
Would need a lot of careful planning! A200
Kits. A210
If anything better surveys than this which is poorly designed. A226
I don't know. A227
A little more time to research through reading, contemplating nature, etc. A236
Lots of current resources. A239
Clearly explained 'faith or belief" positions which lead to certain bioethical views. A242
More general information needs to be made available. The ethics committees of hospitals reports etc. could be useful; various church documents could be collected. A244
In terms of a social science/ English perspective, I think there are already some good resources. A256s
In-service/ time/ time/ time. A266
It already is. See questions 10 and 11. A268
Proper syllabus- and information less ambiguous than this questions - with opportunity unable in this questionnaire to develop ideas. A274s
Upper school students are committed to syllabus completion before external examination. A281
Simple terminology. A293
Up to date information on uses and implication of bioethics. A298(+discuss)
Everything. A303
Genetic engineering teaching resources. A310
Material from bioethics department at a university. A313
Not at all same. A320s
All varieties of materials. A328s
Information re unnecessary use of animals in testing in industry- e.g. cosmetic testing! A330
Japan

An except from legislation, related articles from a newspapers, and a report of class practice. 72s(+discuss)
Theology. 2
I agree with dealing with bioethics in school education, but I don't think that we should do it with standardized teaching materials, and results. I persistently consider that a set of individual opinions should be standard. I disagree that it si to be determined by the judgement of one scholar or bureaucrat. 10
[I] need something built in an area which is above the standpoint of subject-education. 28
The difference between science and technology.38
Complete spread of the common recognition of understanding about the dignity of life among teachers. 57
The consensus of educational institutions (the Ministry of Education, committees, inside school, etc.) 65
Knowledge that human beings cannot live without killing other organisms. 72
The rights and wrongs of artificial life manipulation, and its standards of judgement. 74
I suggest to set a new subject and a specialist of this subject. 92
Establishing contents which can be accepted by many people as bioethics. 104
A natural healthy way which places importance on life. 137
[We] should think from various points of view, science, culture, medicine, etc. 142
Science and religion. 144
[We] need religions sentiments rather than methods and knowledge. 149
It is a religious idea in a new meaning, not in the old meaning. It is not necessary to be named religion, it can be called psychology, education, science, or philosophy. 155
A technique with which I don't mind speaking what I don't believe. 164
A view of bioethics from prehistoric time to the present time, and the direction of future science. 166
History of bioethics education in Japan, and in the world. 178
The way of scientists' taking responsibility for their own research. 202
[We should] teach [bioethics] in the subjects we have already, such as biology, health education, home making course, and ethics. 209
Environment and humanities. 211
Social standard. 213
Scientific view of life, human, and the world. 223
The definition of living organism is necessary. 240
It will be difficult to introduce [bioethics] because of the five-day-school week. We cannot decrease school hours of their subjects. Even if we know it is good, it would be difficult in high school education (university-bound schools.) Why don't you pressure the Ministry of Education to change the curriculum? 252
Structuring it in a curriculum. 255
I only wish that this kind of education is not done uniformly. 292
Systematic relearning. 294
It should be done in social education and home education. 309
I want to get a clear answer of what the equality of all human beings is, and what the relationships between organisms are. 314
A certain standard. 317
Kindness to organisms and life. 322
Including it as a guide to teaching. 335
Unanimous understanding of how to understand life and also same purpose. (e.g. environment, human rights, and peace.) 345
Human love, love for nature. An ecosystem. 346
Enrichment of history, religion, ethics, science history etc. 362
Sufficient debate. 394
A common view, an easy to understand explanation. Never use difficult ambiguous words and phrases. 399
There are commodities everywhere which we don't know the mechanism of, such as electrical appliances. I want to be able to solve them. 407
A guideline for the time being, because I think there are big differences depending on the individual's knowledge, and religion, etc. 409
Guarantee of freedom of individual ideas. 415
Time to think about bioethics! There are many materials, but no time. 427
A general standard of view of ethics. ([We] tend to force our opinions.) 433
Assertion of each standpoint such as law, human rights, and agreements, disagreements. 437
The difference of the view of life in each race and religion. 439
Life philosophy. 457
A standard of judgement? 468
Bioethics and its definition. (What is defined as "bioethics"?) 487
The common understanding among all teachers centred on teachers who are in charge of biology education, and social science education. 491
I think we need a proper research centre. To improve current "science" condition which cannot predict clearly, even for example the rise of the surface of the sea caused by [global] warning. 496
I wonder whether it is possible or not in the current structure of Japanese classes. 518
Something which makes not only positive aspects but also negative aspects in applications clear. 523
Non-ideological social consensus related with bioethics. 531
Development of medicine, etc. 535
Everything possible. 548
I think it should have the object of not only schools but everyone, including adults, as an educational system, and killing is also needed in order to know life (not persons but small animals). 550
I don't have anything special. It would become strange if it was fixed, so we should grope. 551
I want to get anything. 6s
Knowledge form the viewpoint of science, ethics, and religion. 11s
It will very broadly cover religion, law, ethics, morals, and biology, etc.
Biology and health classes. 31s
Something beyond subjects, something like human ethics or human relationships. 33s
Social science, science, and physical education (health education). 34s
Making clear the light and shadow of science. Regarding the shadow part as important.
Although teaching materials may be important, there must be opportunities to be able to teach even in school life. 59s
Something related to philosophy and religion, education of concepts from material things to the heart. 91s
A social consensus. 130s
We should not treat it lightly in an entrance examination for a university etc.
A comprehensive dictionary which is free from the frame of subjects (science, religion, and law, etc). 177s
To make "ethics" compulsory. 190s
Everything. 198s
Teaching methods, knowledge, and everything. 200s
I don't know. Rather it will be everything that exists. 202s
Respect for life, respect for human rights, and the irreplaceable earth (harmony between nature and humans.) 203s
Time to research teaching materials. 207s
The environment and humanities. 226s
If you introduce new curriculum to current school education, you primarily need to secure compulsory study and training time for teachers by the authority of the Ministry of Education. 232s
Our school is conducting education based on Buddhism. We should maintain this properly, and deal with contemporary new issues. 250s
Everything such as specialized knowledge, and teaching materials. 260s
Something like a standard of thought about bioethics. 277s
It is necessary to satisfy the above-mentioned things. Something like for health education, home-making course, ethics, and biology to be accompanied by a common theme and recognition. 306s
Many. 310s
I am wondering whether we need such a development that we comprehensively examine individual knowledge and knowledge about human existence or the world of nature (in which humans also coexist.) 316
I'd like to know how much I am required to have a standpoint of religious neutrality as a public employee. 317s
Everything. 319s
Because [our school is] a university-bound school, it si problem whether we secure time. and give it a share. 359s
The list of demerits in case if there is no bioethics. 360s
Grasping consciousness and the actual condition of students, then education after confirming the level society needs. 381s

Discussion sheets / questions / STS
New Zealand

Strategies/activities for teaching this area. NZ10
More information on areas of contention, e.g. list of pros and cons, or articles on both sides of an issue. Maybe a book specifically on Bioethics that covers the important issues in these topics would be possible (It may even exist now!). NZ14
Perhaps material covering both sides of issues - not partisan material. NZ15
Readable pamphlets for discussion. Activities, situations, starter topics. NZ16
Case studies. NZ23
Unsure - However, some form of written material which is well illustrated. NZ28
Material with opinions expressed both ways. NZ37
Work book on this topic. NZ38
Case histories / Role play situations to compare various positions. NZ40
Both sides of the debate. Students begin with fixed ideas - two sides of an issue. NZ45
Explanations and examples of its use (esp. in NZ) in suitable language. NZ46
A lot of articles outlining biological principles, and impact on society and environment, for pupils to read and discuss. Videos outlining biotechnological processes and raising questions/issues for discussion. NZ47
Lots of easily readable, illustrated, short articles. NZ52
Text of different case studies that provide discussion on pros and cons of issues involved. NZ58s
Both sides of the discussions. e.g. the development side and the conservation side. NZ70s
More resources of all kinds, more examples relevant to our students. NZ76(+other)
Discussion skill / starters / case histories. NZ83
More information on presenting both sides. NZ96
Resources outlining the main issues and arguments to consider. NZ101
Available material, presenting information / actual cases / future possibilities and asking students to discuss, decide, recommend etc. NZ102
Both sides of an issues - written work, possible exercises written for the new curriculum, OHP acetates, videos, charts. NZ106
User friendly (Readers' Digest type) resources at an appropriate reading age. High student involvement exercises to cover range of ability - not just an academic treatment. NZ109
Teachers must taught how to conduct such lessons to avoid "pushing own barrow". NZ116
Details of what is really involved in producing vaccines from animals, the value of vivisection and value that animal experimentation has had on the quality of human life. Methods of genetic engineering and its effects as above. NZ131
Balanced information. NZ136
Background information, specific examples, handouts / worksheets. NZ147
More simple articles on 1) what bioethics is , 2) case studies etc. NZ159
Kitsets with materials discussing all views as we may not be aware of some. NZ164
Explanation of terms, examples of applications, opposing viewpoints and examples of each. Teachers written by subject specialists advised by bioethics specialists. NZ186s
Case studies - latest examples. Discussion papers. NZ189
Material concerning an extremely wide range of view points - i.e.. students are given opportunity to form "balanced" opinions. NZ202s
Articles written at student level presenting ethical issues for/against. Worksheets ideas... NZ210
Some structure guidelines and work units suited to the particular level of academic achievement. NZ219s
Student work packs at different levels - process explanation --- benefits and disadvantages --- environmental impacts --- social impacts --- ethical arguments. Include videos and teacher background notes. NZ220
Specific kits on main topic - history, points for and against, 2-4 case studies (national, global and local). NZ222s
The greatest challenge will be to give a balanced view in any material produced. My main concern is how one prevents extremists from pushing a narrow view. NZ230s (+info)
Case studies and resource material below the current form of material i.e.. less different language and presentation. NZ237
Role playing scenarios, rather than sheets of questions following a reading sheet. NZ265
perhaps more simple information. At the lower level for say, form 1-4 students. NZ268
Material that gives both sides of the issues and examples of where research has benefited humankind. NZ274
Information on topics in an accessible form. NZ284
Case histories and open ended questions, background information, list of local expert. NZ297
Balanced discussion, debate material. NZ303s
Australia

Videos showing both sides of the debate. A9(+video)
Videos, magazines, articles for decision and debate. A13(+video)
More "real world" examples of what biotechnology etc. is capable of. A15s(+info)
Dilemmas. Test case scenarios. A17s
Students worksheets which explain simply and clearly the issues to be covered. A18
Hands on material. A22s
Case studies of successes and failures. A29s
Discussion starter sheets with questions like those posed in this document e.g Q13, 14, 15 would be helpful. A32(+other)
Objective stimulus material - quality material - videos - case studies - no indoctrination. Issues must be presented dispassionately to allow reasoned debate - material should not be "long winded" - quick "grabs" - to stimulate discussion. A43
Stimulus material, current research, information, postures and negatives of a situation. A46
Overheads, film, worksheets that topic specific. A48s(+video)
Videos, discussion papers. A57(+video)
Medical questions need to be examined as they arise- relevant to the topic/ experiment living studied/ conducted. A64s
The freedom to discuss the issues openly rather than having a prescribed imposition of "legitimate" ethical positions laid down. A73s
Text with explanatory notes on technicalities. Text with case studies. Text with arguments for each view point. A74(+facts)
Starting ideas, topics, pros' and cons' of different issues etc. A78
A complete kit, syllabus, brochures, posters, Teacher's book, student's book and activities, and videotape. Dealing with the ethical issues - debate of prominent scientists, ministers, etc. A80(+other)
Materials with both for and against positions presented. A84
Well written (not sensational) articles in the media and information sources accessed by students. A91
Easily accessible background factual material/ case histories etc, collations of media and other data, opinions etc, for distribution for student use. A93
Structured analytical ethical/philosophical frameworks. Audio-visual and print sources on current issues. A97(+video)
Case studies, with possible discussion questions. Perhaps some background information. A112
Some publications of case studies etc., which could be provocative for class discussions. A114(+discuss)
Ideas- summary and facts and concerns. Discussion questions that are suitable and understandable at various age levels. Videos. A118(+discuss)
A.V. [Audio-visual] aids and worksheets. A119(+video)
Sources which ensure all moral questions are addressed with a balanced approach so facts are presented in an unbiased way. A126
Plenty of up to date articles and discussions. A135(+info)
personally none. However, some kits similar to the transplantation kit from kidney foundation, with topics and discussion pointers, possible games, role plays etc. A138(+facts)
School kits- for and against. A146s
Access to easy to understand and discuss materials, videos are useful. More information on current legal position would be interesting. Information on a range of views in society on various issues. A156(+other)
Articles, science papers, books. There is an excellent product from Victoria called "Transplantation the Issues" are all included in package video, worksheets, books etc. A164
A well informed teachers with the ability to develop informed debate amongst students. All the books/ films etc are useless without an experienced human resource. A168(+other)
Basic information for year 6-10 which can be introduced at relevant times. More set of work for discussion as produced by Monash for year 11-12. A179(+discuss)
Materials similar to disease and society workbook. A181
This is the same as question 12! (I would like to know more about the opinions of people working in these fields. Also actual case studies and their outcomes (We often hear the first of last part of the story only.)) A186(+discuss)
Objected kits, charts, videos which present the issues in an interesting manner and at a suitable level. A187(+video)
Lots of core studies... A192(+discuss)
Much propaganda material from industry presenting a biased view. Therefore it is required for alternative views to be presented in some leaders. A195
Plenty of case studies and exercises which engage students (in a real way) with the issues/ dilemmas. A198s
Opposing arguments- debates/articles. Clear, unbiased (as far as possible) video examination of issues. Computer simulations, role playing? A205s
Some pretty good curriculum material that hits at the topic and shows both sides of the issues equally. A206
Videos, simulation games. A208(+video)
Exercise for discussion/ worksheets targeted at lower year levels, videos. A209(+video)
Materials for discussion e.g. articles- short and well laid out. Should be able to lead students to wake up their mind on it. Posters. A215
Suitably structured material highlighting both the advantages and disadvantages of a particular issue. A217
Scenario descriptions, background material for discussions. Role play descriptions, worksheets. A220s
Source material- issues discussed for/against. A221
Videos, scenarios. A225(+video)
Balanced issues material on the use of animals in experiments and agriculture. A232(+other)
Information about what is happening in the scientific world. Set at an appropriate level for students. A233s(+info)
Good, well structured guidelines to and discussion activities- analysing issues. A234(+other)
Discussion articles, case studies. A240(+discuss)
We have very useful teaching materials- videos are the most appropriate and speakers. A252(+video)
Specific examples including- What was done, the benefits, disadvantages, possible alternatives. A254(+discuss)
a) clear user friendly, plain English definition of terms. b) suitable/ range of situations for discussion. (textual or visual!). A258s(+discuss)
Articles discussing issues (all aspects). Articles not to be emotional and one sided. A264(+discuss)
Balanced materials- i.e. Those that independently look at all issues involved. A265
A wide range of video information. Information from both sides of the issues. Speakers from both sides of issues. A269(+discuss)
Specific issues materials- case study type material. A275s
Packages of resource materials. A282
Up to date information/ papers for discussion. A285
Worksheets for "open ended" questions. A286
As much as possible. Information as a decision format would be useful. A288
Information about the areas of ethical problems and the nature of the problems could be useful. A290
I believe a speaker is a great teaching aid- one who is expert in their area of science and able to debate from a technical point and ethical point, case studies. A319
Something to promote discussion i.e. article, video, incident in the community. A334(+discuss)
More books, pamphlets, models and videos. Also guest speakers. A336(+other)
Japan

I'd like to make a place for thinking about bioethics. I hope that [we] can exchange opinions in order to know how each student is thinking. 30
Educational methods and knowledge is needed. I also need equipment depending on the situation. 48(+know)
Educational methods and knowledge about bioethics. 49(+know)
A technique how we can make students understand contents and debate. 59
Both educational methods and knowledge. 83(+know)
The guidance method such as can be explained for each grade, and level. 115
To know in what contents this education can put into practice in primary school, junior high school, high school, and university. To know how to connect the development stage of children and the contents. 123
The trend in the world, some examples in practice. (I'll not be tied by this.) 165(+info)
Both educational methods and knowledge are necessary. 214(+know)
I'd like to know an example of development in a class. 224
Every sort of teaching materials, systematic teaching methods. 225
Technologies used in the place of science research, the possibilities that we can accomplish by that technology. The consciousness of life that people in the research place have. As many past case as possible. The communication methods of knowledge which is objective as much as possible. 227
An essay as an example based on a real example. ([I will] use it as home-room material.)
Educational methods so that teachers don't force their opinions on students. Every sort of information about bioethics. 247(+know)
A technique making [students] debate. 253
Knowledge and guidance methods. 276(+know)
An example of guidance, and a reaction from students. 303
I consider that bioethics is something which [we] naturally acquire at a young age. And I think that higher ideas are being gradually built up through elementary school, junior high school, and high school. I'd like to know as a high school teacher, how to deal with it in the previous stages, primary school and junior high school. 315(+other)
I consider that it is important to teach not only knowledge. I deed educational methods. 324
An example in practice and information. 327(+info)
There is no precise information. (e.g. concrete data, methods.) 330(+info)
Own knowledge including guidance methods. 374(+know)
I wonder what should be central, and how I should teach. 386
Opinions from people of various standpoints. 392
An concrete example being done. 416
Both educational methods and knowledge are insufficient. 442(+know)
Concrete examples. 450
Various kinds of information and opinions, an the environment where we can discuss it freely. 488(+info)
Both methods and knowledge are needed. 12s(+know)
For the teacher to acquire collect knowledge and educational methods. 63s(+know)
Systematic synthesized educational method, and knowledge. 102s(+know)
Including teaching ability (knowledge) and methods. 123s(+think)
Enrichment of guidance contents, its methods, and a leader. 146s(+other)
Knowledge about bioethics. To establish teaching contents steadily through repeated research. After this, to acquire educational methods respondent to the student's actual condition (and interests). 174(+know)
First of all, a certain knowledge about bioethics, an example in practice in a class, sufficient materials, and teaching materials. 178s(+know)
Both educational methods and knowledge. 182s(+know)
Systematic guidance contents based on scientific understanding. 184s
Something which [I] can introduce various ideas in. I hope not to be one-sided. 188s
Knowledge of religion, philosophy, and history. I'll practically teach lives of other organisms at the same time as respect for human beings. 215s(+know)
I have almost no knowledge now, so I want a pamphlet of the way of thinking and issues, etc. 229s
The disputed points of current medicine, etc. Religion and philosophy. 247s(+know)
Such correct information as the arguments from medical practice which we cannot always say that it is open for all to see and the actual condition of genetic manipulation connected with "economy". 279s(+other)
At the moment both educational methods and knowledge are needed very much. 285s(+know)
Many parts of the educational methods are unknown. 356s

Fact Sheets
New Zealand

Both sides of the argument - an honest statement - to show students before asking them to form an opinion it would be good if this was available at a level for students to understand. NZ1
Up-to-date information sheets on Biotech., Gen eng., pesticides. Developments are fast. Something like the Alpha series would be useful. NZ2
Up-to-date factual information (not 3rd hand). Excellent texts, videos, computer programs programmes. tried and true experimental guides. NZ3 (+video, experimental ideas)
Both points of view. NZ9
Good, understandable, attractive, CHEAP information - written, video. NZ27s (+video)
Resource material. NZ35
Descriptions - at a low enough reading age - of current Bio issues and teacher support material. NZ49
Fact sheets, easily updated would be good. NZ53s (+up-to-date)
Facts, debate issues, readily understandable material. NZ57 (+STS)
Resource material on topics which are not generally discussed. NZ61
Biological material, teaching guides, practical help - group activities. NZ64
Resources - overhead transparencies, videos, and worksheets. NZ71(+video)
Accurate data (and up to date) about environmental effects of situations under discussion. Accurate information about consequence (biological, legal, etc) of situation under discussion. NZ77(+discuss)
Up-to data material (packs) of current research, implication for society. Background material on how research was carried out. new judgemental material. NZ78(+discuss)
Accurate information on principles, processes presented in a readable diagrammatic way. NZ99
"Backgrounders" to the changes "scientifically". Resources to help develop discussion format. Research on possible impacts on human of these studies. NZ120s(+discuss)
Short detailed resources - both views shown. Open ended - so they form their own view on them at the end of the course. NZ183(+discuss)
Concise, factual, balanced information on relevant New Zealand issues. NZ184(+discuss)
Correct information on specific issues. The process on how to tackle the topic. NZ238(+discuss)
Information and the skills needed to communicate well - i.e.. facilitate discussion. NZ242(+6)
Basic material produced for each level - work sheets, flow diagrams, etc. NZ248
Basic knowledge of topics (e.g. fact sheet for each topic taught), list of issues raised by each topic a pros and cons of each issue. Case studies relevant to issues above for students to work through. References for further information. NZ259(+discuss)
Ignition material - videos - plenty on public TV. Perhaps more specific material from the scientific community on safeguards, etc. NZ278(+discuss)
Information. NZ286
Australia

A4 worksheets, pamphlets. A1
A resource pack with facts, worksheets, material for simulated role plays etc., videos, and list of contact organisations/personnel who could visit or be visited. A41(+other)
More information on theoretical background. A47
Film/ video, statistics, visual aids. A49s(+video)
Basic, clear information. A56s
Videos need visual aids to demonstrate of show how the procedures work. There is no use talking about IVF if they do not have an understanding of the procedures. Booklet on each major new technology with the issues discussed. A68
A suitable text - or series of informative leaflet. A85(+text)
Resources and knowledge of topic. A86s (+know)
Information about biotechnological advances. A94
Explanation of what is done without their opinion i.e. not one sided.96
Every detail should be provided. A104
Accurate facts and figures. Exactly what use of living (including human guinea pigs) is made. Results and statistics. A107
Stimulus material (videos, slides, pictures). Background information for teacher and pupil. A123(+discuss)
Present textbooks used in my school introduce some of these topics and provide opportunities to introduce the others. Ideally, there should be a 1-2 page "handout" on each topic, giving 1) a case study; 2) a number of simple questions on the case study; 3) one or two discussion starters and thought provoking problems. A133
Work books/ activities, "Hard data". A145s(+discuss)
Simple explanatory material; balanced video tape treatment. A149s(+video)
Reliable, unbiased material. A163
Any useful relevant, high-quality resources would be appreciated. A175
Easy to use teaching package as described(Q.12) (video, background information, role play simulations etc.). A189(+discuss)
Material that gives the facts and alternative beliefs or approaches. A229s(+discuss)
An object view!!! Comprehensive layman's description of various aspects especially philosophical. A230(+discuss)
Objective discourse on: fact, benefit, disadvantages; questions. A308(+discuss)
Statements of many opinions. Science data and case studies. A316(+discuss)
Japan

Understandable explanation and data on how to deal with bioethics. 23(+know)
The advanced trials and preparation of materials. 23(+other)
reliable knowledge and data. 31(+know)
Educational materials about bioethics. 39
Various data. 42
Materials with every kind of concrete examples. 58
Approximate data and issues about biological science which is currently done. 99
Issues in the present situation, various data, and something fundamental for thinking (something historical). 139(+other)
Knowledge, data, and judgement. 152(+think)
Lay people's opinion, ideas of academic researchers such as scientists. 153
Various data from the present are needed. (i.e.. the number of applications of in vitro fertilization, and the number of babies born by it.) 160
Anyhow I want something from a neutral standpoint, explaining basic knowledge that is easy to understand, and dealing with information form old ones to the latest. 162
Broad knowledge of a special research subject, and both the opinions of agreement and disagreement. 228(+know)
The situation where bioethics is required, and opinions from many directions such as an idea in the place. I'd like to teach that there are various ways of thinking the conclusion is up to everyone. 243(+other)
Because I don't know which field you are asking, I'm afraid that [my answered] is out of place. If you mean experimental animals, I will not teach it. If you mean issues including organ transplantation, etc, I especially want materials of medicine and religion etc. 246
Contents which were argued in various places. 251
Opinions of intelligent people. 263
My own view of bioethics, a debate of all teachers, and materials of a debate of people from different fields. 269(+think)
An outline of science that is done at the present. Concrete matters about danger and safety. 290
I'd like to know an example of the development of products in a company etc. 300
Something collecting the assertions of both standpoints of agreement and disagreement about something. 305
Data. 312
I'd like to refer to the ideas of scholars around the world. 331(+know)
Every sort of materials. 349
A standard about bioethics in various academic associations and university hospitals etc. 356
Not only educational materials in Japan but also a connected one with foreign countries is needed. 367
Reference materials. (Introduction of the latest technology and issues.) 400
The actual conditions of each country in the world (including developing countries). 418
the neutral and precise data or cases with which we can discuss beyond the difference of religions, the types of jobs, and nationalities. 421
Sufficient materials about facts. 430
Materials showing good points and bad points of each subject certainly. 438
Correct materials. The way of thinking and explanation of intelligent people (world level). 449(+other)
Materials on how people in the world deal with these kinds of problems. (i.e.. a questionnaire conduced from the neutral standpoint) 465
To get more objective information, not emotional ones. 492
It is expected to establish bioethics not biased for a religious view of ethics but based on a scientific view of society, so I want a collection of materials to do that. 508(+other)
To touch something untouched and close to nature, and materials based on the data in which there is no lie. For example, the actual condition of radioactive pollution. 522
Many data, examples, and my ability. 542(+think)
Concrete materials. 37s
Materials which can be used as teaching materials. 57s
The primary materials. 66s
Materials and concrete data. 126s
Materials. 136s
Systematic educational materials. 142s
Materials about the actual condition. 249s
Materials that objectively compare with different ideas. 302s
Materials collecting the actual condition of progress of science and technology, and its advantages and disadvantages. 303s
Concrete data, and knowledge beside newspaper. 327s(+know)
Something collecting policies of governments of each country about this issue. Something showing policies which are concretely done at the present. 330s
Research materials so far (up to now). 351s
Materials raise students' interests. (The contents of which are close to [us] and easy.) 355s

New Information
New Zealand

Up-to-date information on what is happening in, e.g. human gene therapy, genetic engineering. NZ36.
Information about current research and developments including data from trials. NZ6
Up-to-date information - written or video. Contact people at research institutions who can visit schools. NZ40 (+teacher courses)
Balanced factual material on technology available, + and - aspects, downstream effects, current use. NZ72(+discuss)
More simple - up to date - information. NZ98(+discuss)
Up to date information. NZ112
Certainly comprehensive updates relating to latest developments and newsworthy incidents occurring in the judiciary re. the above topics (Q10). Overhead transparencies; clear factual information, handouts, videos, etc. NZ115(+other)
Up-to-date written and visual material - objective and not too technical. NZ126(+discuss)
Good, up-to-date student texts which are clear, easy to read, fair and factual. They should state with "sides" of each issues and leave it to students to make their discussions. NZ143s(+text)
More up to date resources. NZ151
Up to date information. Information accessible for student use. Activity ideas for students. Things kids can do to interact with the ideas and have their views challenged / extended so that they come to own their own values. NZ156 (+discuss)
Appropriately pitched "up-to-date' material for discussion. NZ162(+think)
Up to date, factual, balanced information. NZ170s(+discuss)
Readable, up to date information well presented as basis of unbiased information. NZ171(+discuss)
Resource to keep up to date with development is industry. NZ173(+other)
Other aids would be some framework of biological ethics as a study and action area. Some reprints of actual up to date essays, papers, etc from a range of viewpoints of ethics of the above areas of biological science. NZ176(+6)
Couldn't really comment - set resources tend to become outdated very quickly and therefore become little real use. NZ180s
Contemporary data giving both sides so value judgement can be well founded. NZ188(+discuss)
Up to date information on recent technological developments in the area of genetic engineering etc. NZ194
I'd like a lot more up up to date material on techniques and potentials in all these areas. Also would like reasonably objective statements of the various points of view with respect to each topic. NZ214(+discuss)
Information about current students used, where the resources is going. NZ223
Up to date material on all aspects both / ll sides of the debates. Material would need to be easily up date-able!! NZ240(+discuss)
A database or modem link up to the latest research information, e.g. New Scientist, Nature, etc. NZ244
Research material / data / discussion question seminar material / question-opinion surveys / questionnaires. NZ256(+discuss)
Up to date material on current debate and ideas. NZ280(+discuss)
Updates on research developments, discussion starters / guidelines, reports on test-cases. NZ281(+discuss)
Newsletters. NZ293s(+other)
Current guidelines, current use, current concern. NZ286(+other)
Australia

Up to date information- teaching journal - type material which can be updated regularly. No text deals with it adequately at present and probably would not due to constant changes. Teaching videos - although many available from sources such as Quantum etc. A11(+4)
Case histories. Material supporting both points of view. A40(+discuss)
Need up-to-date information an exactly what IS being done - not "headline" misrepresentation from newspapers. A55(+other)
Regular update of materials on advances in science and technology. Videos of actual case studies if possible. A82(+video)
Accurate and up-to-date information about what is happening at government level and in the scientific community. (Not just emotive newspaper information). A88(+facts)
Processes used in bioethics - mechanics; current efforts. A121(7)
More up to date, synthesized information. A132
Current, up to date information presented in an interesting manner. A136(+discuss)
Cheap easy access up to date information and videos. A142(3)
Sound information, sound understanding of the Bible. A191(+facts)
Current legal implications, more case studies. A197(+discuss)
Minimum- just up to date information to keep be presented in media. A211
Need to be kept up do date with latest discoveries. A216
Current up to date literature or scientific material. A219
the current information and determination to include it in my curriculum. A228(+other)
The largest problem is time to disseminate and make up the work requirements and tasks for the students. Any material which can assist would be greatly appreciated. e.g. residual/ toxic levels of chemicals. e.g,update nuclear information. e.g. a unit suitable for biotechnology rather than just "research". IVF/ Diagnosis is reasonably well covered. Genetic engineering is difficult to convey at lower levels. A245(+other)
Adequate in-service for all science teachers at an appropriate level- too often it is aimed at the lowest common denominator. A259(+other)
Relevant, up to date, student oriented materials in student language. A262(+discuss)
Relevant published journals, articles, newspapers, videos. A279(+other)
Lots of current resource/ guest speakers/ up to able videos etc. A312(+other)
Japan

The historical pilgrimage of views of life. 9
First of all, study and training of ourselves is needed. 14(+think)
To get materials of present scientific research. 15(+facts)
Information and knowledge which are necessary to teach. 29(+know)
The current controversial point about bioethics, and materials about it. 45(+facts)
Technologies which are done, and researched in practice. 64
Information about something of the most controversial problem of bioethics in the world. 69
Information (about bioethics). 79
The present situation, issues. 84
New information. 97
I'd like to know how genetic manipulation is applied to living organisms at the present. I want you to teach what I don't know, i.e.. genetic engineering, fibre optics, etc. (I'm ashamed of my lack of study.)
Information of the latest scientific technology. (It is difficult to get the information, once graduated.) 109
The history of biology and medicine (the relationship between humans and nature) etc. 131(+other)
I'd like to know what is researched among scientists, how much it has progresses at the present. 143
The latest scientific knowledge and the spiritual background. 148(+know)
Knowledge and information. 194(+know)
Knowledge of the present situation about genetic engineering and in vitro fertilization. 218(+facts)
The actual situation of each country in the world, and its background. 221
Information. 281
Something which can quickly offer the latest information etc. 293
I'd like to understand the present situation of the latest technology. 302
Precise communication of information by the mass media. 316(+other)
The present situation of experimental animals, and the present situation and problems of biotech and genetic manipulation. 318
The actual condition in various foreign countries and people, and the situation where there are diverse ideas. 352(+facts)
I think it is necessary to get (be able to know) the correct information and the actual condition about research, application, and issues closely related to us. 379
The latest information. 384
More precise information, and the opposing ideas and opinions etc. 401
Broad information. 403
Technologies in the most forefront. I don't know how far it is progressed. 424
Correct knowledge, information. 476
The offer of correct information about cutting edge technologies. 478
The correct information about what is done in the cutting edge now, and what direction it is developing from now on. 483
Information about the latest technology. 495
Information about [bioethics], materials, and scientific explanation. 497(+facts)
Correct, precise information. (perfectly open information) 498
I want information. 501
I'd like to know the present situation of the cutting edge, such as genetic engineering. 507
The actual condition and philosophy in the world. 515(+other)
The actual condition (of the medical field, biological field etc) in Japan and the world. 521
It is needed to have a lot of information (knowledge). 524(+know)
New and correct information. 528
Technical, scientific information. 5s
The mechanisms of genes and the forefront of genetic engineering. 121s
Precise information about the fact. 156s
Broad information and various views toward these. 179s(+think)
I'd like to know the easy to understand research results of scientific research, the actual condition of application, information, and the point in dispute. 206s
The contents of the present scientific technology, and philosophical and systematic thought which makes these valuable. 228s
To open the information. 246(+other)
I want knowledge about the present situation of current medicine and genetic engineering etc. I'd like to know concretely what is studied now. 248s(+know)
The basic knowledge and the actual situation. 267s(+know)
Such new information will be needed about the actual situation and current ideas about bioethics and how they conflict etc. 281s
A lot of information and knowledge. 296s(+know)
Information of education from countries that have well developed bioethics education, and knowledge about life science. 301s(+know)
The situation of the current life science.307s
Precise information and support from specialists. Research about the relationship between science and ethics. 325s(+other)
More information that is multi-sided, correct, and reflecting the actual condition in the cutting edge. 337s
Reliable scientific knowledge, and information about it. 340s(+know)
Objective information. 348s

Reference list
New Zealand

Suitable reference material. This sort of topic can allow people to push their own barrow to some degree. NZ6s
Many sources of information exist for teaching bioethics. Most institutions would appreciate a reading list representing a range of views. NZ63s
Initial data base. Updated with articles as / when published - must be current as well as historical - perspectives / knowledge changes. NZ81(+info)
Teacher packs containing fact sheets, worksheets, suggested or available videos etc. would be great for each module. NZ161(+facts)
Australia

1. Reference material suitable for 16-17 years olds to understand. 2. Worksheet- discussion papers- questions/ answers. A166(+discuss)
Reference. A204
Text material, booklets, reference lists. A315(+texts)

Experimental ideas / comments
New Zealand

More resources, current ongoing information, audiovisual resources, local resource people, suggested practical activities. NZ75(+4)
Information / stories of poor treatment of animals in experiments list of factories / research places students can lobby. NZ236 Stimulus material showing different experiments not cause concern or have special permission to be conducted. Plus arguments for and against. NZ79(+discuss)
Prepare slider of insects etc, plastic models - we have them for human anatomy - not for other animals. NZ203(+other)
Current information - photo kits, pamphlets etc. Practical work that is achievable in a 1 hour lesson. NZ215(+info)
Good models are replacing some dissection material. We are lucky to have access to our local freezing works for materials - long may they continue. Students learn by doing. NZ254
Some appropriate resources. Accounts of past testing of drugs, cosmetics etc on laboratory animals. NZ272
Resource material from animal researches, SPCA, animal rights organizations. NZ282
Well illustrated booklets with colour photographs bring instant attention from students, videos are excellent. They must be balanced and include the necessity to test new medicine on animals before giving them to people. NZ283(+discuss)
Australia

Guidelines on the safe handling of livestock/ lab. animals. A12
Facilities and space for more experiments, especially microbial and plant tissue culture. A14
Videos explaining various avenues taken when deciding on the validity of proposed experiments. A89(+video)
Just about everything since I know very little about it. Practical books with case histories, interactive computer teaching program, radio, worksheets. A273(+other)
Japan

Easy obtainable experimental materials. (frogs, mice etc) 128
First of all, knowledge, and then educational methods. We want to have a lecture and explain at university etc. 138(+discuss)
Guidance methods for teachers. A lecture and studies which give students experience themselves, in addition to knowledge. 265(+courses)
Consideration of how to be able to do experiments with understanding of the essence of life and the Karma of human, killing [animals] so they suffer as little as possible, not just becoming superficially emotional saying it is cruel. 337
An index of breeding environments where animals can live comfortably. 525
I'd like to know the actual situations of schools that are doing it now. Since there is a doubt in biology experiments and experimental items are increasing in the new curriculum, it is unclear how to teach it. 541(+discuss)
In order to be able to do experimental study, extending the point of contact between the school and community.
I'd like to enrich [students] experience of respecting life such as volunteer activity. 219s
The guarantee of facilities, leaders, and latitude to be able to experience and study. 292s(+other)

Teacher's courses
New Zealand

In-service course. NZ21
Current examples - preferably popular items that will answer student interest, pamphlets, industry or anything really simplified experiments to try in class. NZ85(+discuss)
Videos / suitable text for students / suggested guest speakers etc. NZ86(+video)
Teacher's development in suitable strategies that can be used with the many examples currently found in the literature. NZ122
Help with teaching techniques and some thought provoking material would be good. NZ146(+discuss)
Teachers need opportunity to become objectively educated. NZ191
Teachers development would be the best area to put money into - there is no substitute for skilled teachers! NZ217
Australia

Recent texts/ newspaper articles, visiting expects. A24(+info)
Time to develop program, train staff!, share ideas, etc. A33(+other)
Information, up to date, on issues and access to scientists working in the area. A61(+info)
Lesson/ teaching notes. Diagrams/ videos. Speakers. A72(+video)
Teacher notes and resources. A100
New resources, information, different viewpoints videos. People to talk to students on the legal facts. A110
No extras needed. teachers need keep informed themselves. A128
I am happy with what I have/ know. Other teachers may need more in-service training etc. You don't teach ethics with test tubes etc. Students have to make up their own minds NOT have ideas rammed down their throats. A150
Japan

I'd like to train and study by listening to various talks. 35
Since I think education about bioethics is needed according to my judgement, I conduct it now. I'd like to know whether my way of teaching is correct, and whether there is no mistake, so that I want to learn contents of education and knowledge through a course and lecture of a specialist. 56(+other)
Having a national school training course. 88
The course, and study and train to easily explain the latest technology and research. 91
The lecture of a specialist. 110
In any case, [we] should change to be able to experience practical trainings, experiments etc at the research institutions. 161
Offering the latest knowledge which is changing everyday, and the practice conditions of production site in a company. (a tour of it etc.) 171(+info)
I need books, courses, and examples in practice from which I can gain such knowledge as law about bioethics and the present situation of current science etc. 185(+discuss)
Building up my own ideas, and a study and train to do it. 188(+think)
Educational methods, knowledge, and study and training are needed. 235(+discuss)
[Bioethics] doesn't have the contents so that we can teach it soon after the Ministry of Education tells us to teach it. Thus what we need is time (to get new information and knowledge, and to think). A con-official study and training, a club activity. 242(+other)
I myself had no chance to think deeply and study bioethics, so that I want time to think by myself without haste and materials, such as lectures and books of specialists. 342(+think)
The study and training which each teacher takes part in voluntarily, not compelled by the Ministry of Education and the Board of Education. 344(+other)
Understanding real social responses e.g. attending an open forum. 348
Lectures of specialists etc. 361
A study, training and learning of teachers. 371
A study and training course to think what bioethics is. 380
Opening a joint course about bioethics which has proper contents. 406
A research association. 436
I feel the necessity of study and training and reference materials. 440(+facts)
Reference materials and study and training are needed. 486
It seems that there are various ethics committees etc, first of all, I want such materials (data) as their reports, and questionnaire to the nation. Then, taking part in various discussion opportunities. 512(+facts)
Without saying, we need not only knowledge of each subject, but also knowledge from a whole and synthetic standpoint. Moreover the opportunity of studying and training is needed to learn teaching methods etc in order to practice it in the place of education. 519(+discuss)
Voluntary study and training by each teachers. 556(+think)
The study and training in order to make clear what bioethics is for myself. 557(+think)
The incumbent education for teachers. 28s
The debate of necessity in public opinion etc. 176s
The opportunity of self-study and training.185s
I'd like to get an opportunity to attend an explanation of a lecture and a course out of school in order to get information which is necessary for teachers to teach in a class. 186s
An attitude to learn with students, sufficient time for studying and training, and an opportunity etc. 192s(+think)
Some latitude and an opportunity of study and training in order to have comprehensive and systematic knowledge. 201s(+other)
The cooperation between each subject and study and training. 209s(+other)
Participation in study and training. 289s
Learning in an official institute of study and training. 294s
Substantial guidance materials, opportunities of studying and training, and a place for exchange between teachers. 352s(+facts)

Need knowledge
Australia

Methods of ethics. A141
Japan

Broad knowledge and morals of present medical science. 1
Deep and wide knowledge of biology. 26
Knowledge. 27, 103, 125, 230, 277, 288, 46s, 73s, 220s, 329s
First of all knowledge. 32, 112
Correct knowledge. 40
Knowledge of medical field. Knowledge of law. 75
Knowledge of the point of contact between technology and ethics. 106
Knowledge about the issues and way of thinking which is discussed in the society now. 119
Wide knowledge. 141
Correct knowledge of the facts. 159
Knowledge of what kind of concrete situation bioethics would be necessary in. 162
Biology, especially molecular biology and evolution. 192
The origin of life, genesis, ecosystem, life philosophy, etc. 196 (+other)
The difference of the way of thinking among each country in the world (about whaling, funerals, etc.). 222 (+other)
Creatures are built up from the food chain. 238
As bioethics contains many unknown parts, I think teachers need knowledge first. 256
Deep knowledge concerning life and technology. 264
Specialised organization (facility). Knowledge concerning scientific technology. 298
Fundamental knowledge and sense of balance. However, I want time and a chance to study at any rate. Japanese teachers are too busy with clubs and routine business. 37
Ecological structure of creatures and structure of human physiological life phenomena. 313
Knowledge of the philosophical view of life. 340 (+other)
Knowledge is necessary. 359
Specialised and the most advanced knowledge. 434
Synthesizing the knowledge of natural science and social science. 441 (+other)
Contents of present biology class: life, chain, ecosystem, earth, the solar system, human rights (It should be synthesized from natural science, social science and cultural science, and to understand the importance is necessary for humans). 446
Correct knowledge of scientific technology (including safety and danger). 475
Knowledge is lacking. We need to study again more systematically. 490
I think literary (ideological) thought is also important beside biological knowledge. 500 (+other)
Biology. 529
The basis of bioethics. I'd like to know also about religious views of life. 445 (+other)
Most advanced knowledge. 549
Anyway, knowledge. 21s
Knowledge of religion and biology. 23s
I think knowledge. 25s
Ethics and biology. 30s
Medical law. 44s
Philosophical and biological knowledge, historical knowledge. 60s
About the birth of life. 83s
Knowledge of "scientific technology". 88s
New knowledge for scientific elucidation of the mechanism of life. 99s
Philosophy. 149s
Knowledge of research and development, and applied fields of the most advanced research such as biotechnology. 171s
Acquiring knowledge (culture). 180s
I need especially knowledge of to what extent technology has developed, what kinds of effects and bad influences it contains (I'd like for careful attention to be paid especially to these), and what kinds of points we should take good care of. 191s
First of all, knowledge. 195s
Concrete knowledge is rather lacking. 196s
Knowledge about the possibilities that scientific technology will bring. 208s
To know correctly about in what field and how scientific technology is involved with the creation of life. 233s
medical relations and human ethics. 241s
Scientific knowledge concerned with life, genes and biotechnology. Knowledge of religion and ethics. 251s
Fundamental knowledge about things included in this survey. 257s
Detailed knowledge concerned with that matter. 268s
Correct knowledge and establishment of social regulation. 270s (+other)
Scientific knowledge about life. 273s
First of all, total knowledge is necessary. Such as the most advanced present research and its direction. 275s
medical knowledge and legal knowledge. 278s
Real knowledge and manual of software which corresponds to it. 287s
Correct knowledge (There should not be anything hidden). 299s
Highly developed specialised knowledge. 300s
Knowledge concerned with "bioethics". 305s
Fundamental biological knowledge. 309s
Although there are difficulties to place it in school education, especially in social science, knowledge of basic genetic engineering and biotechnology is necessary. 320s
Biology (macro, micro and molecular biology etc.). Past public administration, concerning these, done by government and the business world (including the correspondence of government to "Agenda 21" etc). Citizen's movements. 323s
True knowledge (Everything, even hypotheses that were introduced). 324s
Specialised knowledge. 326s
Natural scientific field. 328s
Position of medical science, social system and situation in each country. 332s
Knowledge of all the fields which are involved with bioethics. 345s
Scientific knowledge for social science teachers. Sociological views for science teachers. 354s
Al knowledge concerning life. 365s
Biotechnology and genetic engineering field. 366s
Human sexual behavioural science, physiology, cultural anthropology, ethics, law. 379s

Think - Need to make personal ethics
Japan

The proposition of evolution should be clarified first of all. I think, if we could capture the idea of the earth's evolution, a philosophy accompanying it could be naturally produced. 8 (+other)
A position independent from the Ministry of Education. 9
Confirmation of our own views of the value about life and living. 12
Something that is not knowledge which changes good and bad by the surrounding opinions. 21
We need to study by ourselves about what human beings are, what human dignity is, what humanism is, and what the pursuit of natural science is. 36
What is about human beings. 37
It is still on the level of thinking. 47
Enlightenment for teacher's themselves. 55
What is life on earth? Understanding of DNA = life, also including spiritual activity. And the views of the value of "conservation of DNA". 67
Understanding of the living way of creatures, in a board meaning, for the nature. 76
Specialised knowledge and what kind of views of ethical views and thoughts other people have. 93 (+other)
Objective (correct) knowledge concerned with every subject. To have one's own leading figure's philosophy (thoughts). 94 (+know)
Curriculum for bioethics education. How to manage to share the time for education. These two points are necessary, and the method and knowledge can be left for teachers to study by themselves. 98 (+other)
As there are various ways of thinking, it should not be regimented. 114
I think it's not the composition made of science versus religion. I want to think freely. 122 (+other)
Freely make the best use of our own experiences and elder's teachings. 124
Broad and further knowledge and way of thinking. 135 (+know)
The mind to love nature. 140 (+other)
Deep understanding towards human beings and other lives. 147
Knowledge (Actual relationship with the ecosystem, circumstances, effect, etc. But I think we cannot obtain a result in a short time. We shouldn't start without confirming the safety). 162s (+know)
Fundamental attitudes (improvement of humanity). 163
Philosophy. 176
Education which arouses the dignity of life, including oneself. Therefore, education of human rights is also important. 203 (+other)
Philosophical discernment of nature and human beings. 207
Correct knowledge and views of life. 208 (+other)
To make clear own views of ethics. 248
We need to study about it more. 249
I think philosophy concerned with bioethics and the basics of religions. 306
Philosophical methods of science, specialised knowledge of each issue (human level). 323 (+know)
Understanding of the contents of bioethics. 343
Ethics. 357
Not to force your ethical views. 358 (+other)
The fact that human beings are one of the billions of creatures, and that all creatures' lives are as important as our own life. 366 (+other)
Our ability to make thoughts about it. 375
I think of religious education is also necessary. Situating the human being as one member of the ecosystem and the awakening of it. heart, not objects. Attitude about what true riches are. 377 (+other)
Philosophy and religion. 378 (+other)
Many experiments of life so far. 395
Common guidelines (for the classes) and self training. 413 (+other)
Views of ethics which many people can have. 423 (+other)
To teach the breath of life movingly, and to continue it. 429
Knowledge and teaching ability which enable us to teach while dignifying each student's views of ethics. 452 (+know)
Own thinking way. To have faith surely. 453
Establishment of the way of thinking about one's own bioethics. 454
Establishment of views of bioethics. 460
Concept of what human beings are and what life is, and way of thinking about what the happiness of the human race is. 462
Concrete "life" experience. 517
establishment of ethical views and world view as a teacher or as a school. 14s
First of all, I think, it is necessary to establish the way of seeing and the way of thinking, such as world views and views of history, in the sense which involves my own knowledge and bioethics. 17s
The two points of knowledge of science and philosophy of respecting life are necessary. 42 (17s)
Make the value of ethical life the foundation, and develop the class from this foundation. 69s
Moral views. 81s
Deeper understanding and knowledge of bioethics. 84s (+know)
Establish consciousness towards bioethics. 117s
At first, establish own bioethics. It is necessary to have one's own opinion, not technique. 15s
The education is needed which easily explains the meaning of the word bioethics, and which protects the dignity of life. 204s (+other)
How should the heart be (not religiously). 205s (+other)
I think that though mathematical data is necessary to some degree, the most important is the views of ethics of teachers who teach it. 227s
Religious knowledge and consideration for human dignity. 240s (+know)
Philosophy. 253s
It should start from human life, and be education from the views of all creatures and earth, and not be the education for the development of technology. 255s (+other)
Religions. 291s
Warm heart. 304s
Various information, and the answer which allows choice and judgement. 315s (+other)
Teacher's study and knowledge which enables accurate explanation. 334s
Group of teachers who have the proper recognition about the dignity of life. 335s (+other)
Aim of education. I'd like to make it clear why we do such kind of education at school. 338s
The way of living of the teacher. 343s
Surely, knowledge and construction of the views of human beings. 347s (+know)
Knowledge about human being itself, [Human being] as the main subject who commands scientific technology. 349s (+know)
Absolute faith. 350s
Correct scientific knowledge and philosophy. 353s (+know)
Although I think we need to reconstruct anew our own views of ethics and religions, way of thinking of life, all of these, I wonder whether we have time to think about these. I think we could also have the subject which teaches bioethics totally. 357s (+other)
About the survival and existence of human beings. 358s
At the end of the "modern age", a philosophy which totally reconsiders the type of enlightenment thinking of analysable optimism, including the computer which is constructed from "on-off" logic, and takes the view of the coexistence with everything, is needed. 371s (+other)
Re-asking one's own views of value. 380s

No need
New Zealand

None, it should be part of the ethic of what you are teaching; it should be intrinsic not explicit. NZ34s
Nothing more. NZ204
None. NZ213
I have enough. NZ218
Seems to be adequate enough at the moment. NZ285
Australia

Have plenty already. A95
Nil. A103
N/A. (I presume you mean as a discrete subject.) We have it covered sufficiently- no need for a separate subject.140s
None.160
it is already included. A161
Nothing additional. A170
I don't need them. A176s
Not relevant for me. A183s
We are already well equipped. A214
N/A. Have sufficient materials. A251
Japan

Nothing special. 77, 250, 278, 381, 183s
Anyhow we have no time to spare. Students have many things which they have to remember. 80
Time. Teachers have so many jobs that they cannot spare the time to study teaching materials sufficiently. 117 (+other)
Nothing. 129, 339
We can obtain a teacher's licence for primary school even if you enter university by taking university entrance exams [Dept. of education] in literary course subjects. I don't want them to talk about bioethics using their subjective views of life. I think we can learn bioethics from the curriculum which has not only knowledge but time. We need more time. 191 (+other)

Don't know
New Zealand

Don't know yet - it would depend on the syllabus. NZ4
Not applicable to me. NZ12s
Don't know. NZ69s, NZ80s
Don't know. NZ169s
Unsure. NZ182s
I don't know - I'm a social scientist. NZ185s
You need to ask a biology teacher? NZ190s
Not a scientist - unable to answer. NZ192s
Not sure - would consider any material sent. NZ290
Australia

Don't know. A2s
I don't know!! Can you suggest some for our assessment. A21
You tell me. A23s
N/A A58s
Unknown. A87s
Unable to comment at this stage. A115s
Don't know. A131s, A165s
I don't know- it is an area I have not thought. A190
Japan

I don't know. 13, 68, 126, 499, 165s, 322s
I don't know well. 206, 333s
I'm not thinking about anything in particular because some students have religious views (Sometimes I take these into consideration.) 426
I don't know sufficiently. 547
I don't know what is necessary. 15s
I don't know yet. 112s
To tell the truth, I don't know what is necessary. I wonder whether it is necessary to build up from the discussion between school planners and practicing teachers. 214s (+courses)
For contact, comments on Eubios Ethics Institute, and Japanese orders should be sent to:
Dr Darryl Macer,
Regional Advisor on Social and Human Sciences in Asia and the Pacific,
RUSHSAP, UNESCO Bangkok,
920 Sukhumwit Road,
Prakanong, Bangkok
Thailand 10110
Tel: +662 3910577 Ext. 141
Fax: +662-664-3772 Email asianbioethics@yahoo.co.nz


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