Bioethical attitudes of Japanese university doctors, and members of Japan Association of Bioethics

Darryl Macer, Yuki Niimura, Takayoshi Umeno, and Kunio Wakai
Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Science City 305, Japan.

pp. 33-48 in Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 6 (1996).


Appendix: Open comments

Q1: What is Bioethics?

University hospital doctors

3 Ethics that doctors have towards patients who are same human beings.
6 I feel at home living on this earth in order to see, hear, talk and judge. I would like to seek same worth in other creatures.
9 We should be extremely conservative towards "life". If the person still have "life", we should respect their will. (Informed consent)
10 Because of the sympathy towards new life. (In some cases, this means to abort on purpose.)
12 How the medical science gets into life to decide the aim and also to think about the usage and the limit of the medical science.
15 To respect every life and social welfare at a time.
18 Ethics that makes human's life significant to the person.
20 It is the method that we keep our dignity of human individual as we have built on the process of founding human culture by observing and following the rules of the world of living thing.
22 It is a notion of society in that age and a something which puts a certain limitation to the adjustment of scientific technology.
23 It is morality which occupies human behaviour and relationship within the society as we live on (including birth and growth).
24 It is an ethical side related to life, health, medical treatment, biology and etc.
26 Fundamental idea or base towards life science that doctors should have before their speciality.
28 It is an academical field which studies the way human life suppose to be within the development of scientific technology and reality of its practical use in medical treatment from various point of view.
29 It is something which should be the basis for the practical uses of science that are related human bodies and practical guidelines at medical researches and medical treatments.
30 It is an occupational ethics as to be doctors and a life ethics which has developed with the growth of advanced medical treatment.
35 It is something respects the quality of life.
36 It is a guiding principle which should be considered seriously that all living creature on the earth to love their lives equally and ask for the biggest happiness as far as they can own together.
37 It is the step(study, behaviour), process or history of seeking as possible for the significance, value of the person(human being or patient including myself) who are given life.
38 Like the stream.
39 It is an right of self-determination.
40 What? Definition?
41 It is an ethical view which considers a life as the most important.(In order to back up this view, each philosophy is needed.)
42 I think it is the way of love(socialistic) for lives of themselves and others. We can not help principles and procedures gathering towards the average more or less but applications should be individualistic and flexible according to the circumstances.
44 "Bioethics" is the logical basis of solving a problem which is relevant to a life phenomenon in a way to respect it.
46 The dignity for the life. Especially in human beings, we should consider inclusively that physical life and mental life as one whole life and respect each other.
48 Life is accomplished from satisfaction within it but it is hard to do so in society, today.
49 It is ideology which is necessary for the medical treatment in order to prevent the human dignity.
50 It is a moral in the field including medicine and biology.
51 It is a moral for the life within the society and the culture responding time to time.
53 I think it as the rules to protect the human rights.
54 The views of life and death every person has and in every type are considered most important.
55 Dealing the problem risen by ultramodern medical service, separated from the major fields, with duties or rights that we have as persons.
56 One of the most important fields that asks how medicine ought to be and all doctors should have interest in it.
57 This is not the issue that could be regulated just in two lines.
58 The translation of bioethics to Japanese. This was systematized as isolated study by the movement of patient's rights in US in 1960-70. This deals with the new ethics of medical services based on right of autonomous decision making and public policy for the existence of people living on earth.
59 It is idea of person's life and death( or only death). Though generally these differs naturally depending on individuals, consistent rules are needed when one gives or takes medical services.
60 Medical science of humanity. The aim which is needed when one was driven into a step of life or death and one must consider in very serious and complexed stage.
62 Ideas that lead human being to live as person.
64 It is a philosophical standard which has good sense that is needed in scientific study towards life and its practical usage with the consideration of every country's background.
65 Not only a simple sustenance of life, but life view including value of life.
67 It is learning from the ethical studies related to life. One of the practical application is to assess several problems attended with the progression of ultramodern medical technique from the ethical view point.
69 The ethics that doctors should know.
75 Translation of "SEIMEI" into English which is life, but life can be translated into many different Japanese words. The word life includes life(biological), life(ability of individuals to live), life(social life), life(subjective life) and "life ethics" is to respect every one of them. Therefore it is not appropriate to translate bioethics into "SEIMEI RINRI".
77 A sense of values as a life of human beings.
79 It is a study to think about living things from an ethical standpoint.
80 I do not know well.
81 I think it is not to violate the dignity of lives. I also consider it is to create a society in which born lives live healthy until natural deaths.
82 Not known.
83 It is for the patients themselves and their family not to regret afterwards.
84 It is abstract and hard to understand. But I think it is to meet the patient in reverence to every lives as a human being and not to control the patient's will as a doctor.
85 This is a systemized value standard for judgement without contradictions which is based on sympathy of living organisms and creatures which are going to live as a member of the living organisms.
90 To aim at how persons should be as a member of human society.
91 The idea as an index to make medical treatments and other behaviours as much as possible in order to make humans happy naturally.
92 I can not understand the word's meaning itself.
94 The limit of the changes of fates by humans towards natural livings or births.
95 The mass of lies and hypocrisies.
97 To respect life and to protect genes which were inherited to nowadays.
99 Issues not to be controlled by humans.
100 A scholarly interdisciplinary compendium to examine whether a life science, a medical study or a medical treatment are appropriate from the ethical and the humanitarian point of view.
103 A person who is engaged in medical treatments should have a fundamental will of bioethics.
105 A criterion or a rule to think the existence and to decide(or limit) the range of usage on the development of the techniques to control life directly.
107 Something that protects our rights.
108 I have not heard the word bioethics before.
109 Not sure.
110 A sense of value that an individual and the human race have.
112 It is to raise the quality of life and respect it.
113 It is to think thoughtfully about the meaning of life.
115 It is to think what we should put priority on or respect within the life.
116 It is how to think of the safety, dignity of unborn humans, and the origin of life, which we could not have controlled before.
117 It is the most important thing.
118 It is to be thought from various views and it should be put in the general theory.
119 This is a theory to think about how much we can be involved in the problems relate to individual lives(especially individual births) and how much we should let them be as in nature.(God's will.)
122 I can not express using words, yet bioethics is not to exceed the limit of essential medical treatment. (To exceed means it is possible to do anything.)
123 A significance toward the existence of an individual organisms in nature. Something that can be obtained and changed by the background of cultural science.
130 A goal where everyone to endeavour and live more happily to die happier.
131 To think about the utility and the limit of how medicine enters life and decides the course.
133 In a broad sense, every ethics that is related to a life is included. So environmental problems, problems on resources, preventing wars and the like are included in bioethics. On the other hand, if we look at a narrow sense, I think it is ethics related to the discrimination of right or wrong whether to adapt the consequences from the studies of lives.

Members of Japan Association of Bioethics

1 The life of a person is a possession of that person. It has an essential quality of `respect for human rights` which supports a person to be able to judge what to do with his/her life mentally and emotionally.
2 I think bioethics is a principle which considers reverence of life as virtue, and something that denies, disgrace and disturb life as a vice.
3 It is a principle that considers the meaning of life adequately and thoughtfully as introducing new medical technology and use in clinical fields.
4 I think it is a mortal principle related to human life and death.
5 It is making a decision with a free will about one's life and death and to recognize the same lesson and freedom of others.
6 I think ethics is to put human life at the centre and think about all the ethics (thinking the best way to act and doing it), and to think about all the ethics related to this.
7 It is something that scientists should never forget. When they do so, they would think their research are not for them but for all human beings.
8 It is a principle for deciding what to do in order to respect life.
9 It is an important issue related to all human beings which questions fast growing scientific faith.
10 As we, living in this universe, think of controlling everything, try to change with scientific power we have or think that we can do such a thing, we end up with trying to dominate lives. I think it is wrong. It is needed to remain a mysterious part untouched from human society.
11 It is an unanswerable issue which is deeply related to medicine.
12 It is an inquiry for the meanings of life and death, the way decision making over dignity of life should be, and presenting its vision.
13 It is to carry out practical acts in order to keep lives after recognizing what is life and its importance in order to protect its value.
14 The way that lives and souls should be.
15 It is a decision system for humans about lives.
16 It is something that builds a standard for the way of living of humans on the earth.
17 It is a help in order to build a social and mutual agreement about the use of lives.
18 I think it is a thought and the way lives should be, which are based on a harmony of social, cultural and physiological lives for humans.
19 It is to regulate the limit of human freedom according to the dignity of lives or the dignity of humans.
20 It is a practical principle of an applicable life engineering in order to put a dignity of lives and lives that has a humanic value into practice.
22 It can be said as a process seeking for a resolution and a standard when two positions within lives conflict each other by asking how humans should be.
23 It is an ethics related to brain death, terminal care, and genes.
24 It is a duty for human lives and rights that humans should abide by.
25 It is to think how things should be about humans themselves, humans against humans, and humans against environment.
26 It is to appreciate lives.
28 It is a standard in order to build a proper social discipline.
30 It asks a procedure and a method in a field aiming to study science on lives. It further asks humans who carry out science. It teaches how to appreciate lives.
31 It is an existence of a controlling mechanism over a practical use of scientific technology.
32 It is how the way to live should be.
33 I think it is a knowledge which to support humans naturally in order to live as humans. We did not have to think when we lived in a harmony with nature as a species Homo sapience on the earth. It means we live today unnaturally.
34 It is the basis of a standard rule which is required in researches and uses of their results when human lives and bodies are handled.
36 It is a rule for us to live which aims for QOL.
37 It is a moral, and ethical principle related to human lives and bodies.
38 It is an ethics that make us to be conscious and regulate acts of research related to lives and people carrying those research, in order not to violate dignity for lives.
39 It is something that indicates a standard how nature, society and culture is supposed to be by requiring a basic value in lives themselves. (Its formation is still at a progressive stage including its content and method.)
40 It is a guide line for a life engineering.
41 As you read.
42 It is a practical standard for people related to lives such as a doctor.
44 Bioethics is often used from a medical view point. A part of bioethics that considers a relationship between humans and wild animals should be called living ethics.
46 It is an ethical limit for a medical technology which has gone too far.
47 I think it is a thought for people that have an ordinarily education who should have in order to live in a society.
48 It is an interdisciplinary ethics related to lives that concerns issues which can not be solved by former medical ethics any more.
49 It is an ethics about a relationship between living organisms and a social environment including human beings.
50 It is a study that seeks a method for solving and easing a trouble that is caused between people who have a different senses of value and status especially in the clinical field.
51 It is an academic field that discusses lives interdisciplinary by philosophers, chemists, scientists and doctors and finds a way that should be mutually followed.
52 It is an attempt that builds a universal common ethics for humans about a biotechnology by discussing ethical issues brought about by a development of life science technology.
53 It is a something that deals with ethical issues related to life and death of individuals, and the way how life in general should be.
54 It is a something which seeks the way humans should be as a supporter of human lives ( a unity of existence which leads to inter relational growth of bodies, minds, and communities. ) .
55 It is how to think about lives, how to place it within selves.
56 It is something that seeks an ethical norm which protects the value of lives humans, animals, and plants as much as possible. Basically, liberalism and utilitarianism become its prop.
57 As life science progresses what humans can do has broadened. However "we can" does not always equal to "we are allowed to do". To seek for its norm is a theme of bioethics.
58 It is mutual understandings within an individual way of living.
59 It is a study related to "a principle of choices" in a case of adopting a technology which manipulates lives in many ways for human lives.
60 Bioethics is that people who participate in medical research, medicine, and public health gather academic knowledge, seek for happiness of humans and practice without ignoring global moral and ethical principle.
61 It is a field of philosophy which seeks how we should act when humans interfere with lives especially when we interferes concretely.
62 It is to train thoughts in order to overcome a prejudice in a region that relates to human lives directly.
63 It is an ethics related to the issues of lives.
64 It is to ask about the ethicity for all issues related to lives that humans are interfering especially in a field of scientific technology and medicine.
65 It is a guideline for how far we as a society can accept an effect that our technology and actions have on humans and other lives.
66 I think it is impossible to show the thought of bioethics in two lines. Though it is no good if bioethics is only for humans, I would like to think about an ethics for all living things. (This already causes a contradiction.)
67 It is medical ethics related to human rights.
68 It is a moral norm in order to live as human beings.
69 It is a basic principle how a person and his/her surroundings (especially medicine) interfere each other about human lives and how they live.
70 It is a rule for appreciating lives. It can changes from time to time. We should also concern about all humans and living things.
71 It is a moral and a principle in order to regard how humans interfere with all living organisms on the earth including human beings ( through our science, technology, and culture) and put it into practice.
72 It is an academic field that explains a relationship between possibility and capacity of an artificial manipulation for birth and death of humans and other organism lives.
73 It is a practical norm ( standard) based on love and an ethical truth as human beings. ( Yet there is thought to be no absolute standard since a definition for love and truth changes through time, place and culture.)
75 It is a basic idea for manipulating or involving human and animal lives. (medicine, experiments, and research)
76 Even though it is a very important theme in order to live like human beings, it can easily be changed by its way of living, a sense of values and a standard for right or wrong.
77 It is a practical research that carries out ethical consideration on a use of technology over the fields of general science, life science, medicine, and its treatment and that determines the propriety and methods on the use of technology (or its adaptation).
79 It is a something that makes us to think about given lives.
80 It is a preventive measure against recklessness for doctors, scientists, and others.
81 Since we are given lives in this world, we live in a state of mind that gives us comforts and neces.
82 It is a coexistence and a balance of living organisms on the earth such as human beings, other animals, and nature.
83 The way that various cases for approaching lives that are based on human dignity should be.
84 It is an ethics and moral related to human lives and human rights. It is often related to medicine in recent years.
85 It is to accomplish life without disturbing its dignity and meaning on purpose nor inflicting it artificially. It is to appreciate life as they are.
86 I think it is a life and death of human beings but basically I believe there is a soul in every living organism. It includes an act and a thought that approach reality with this mentality.
87 In a broad sense, it is a something which is considered to be the best for everything (the earth, universe, organisms, and inorganic matter) in every fields (philosophy, religion, laws, medicine, sociology, natural science, social science etc.). "To be the best" means to be in a harmony and to have no interests. In a narrow sense, it is to think how things should be in order to be harmonized in an inter relation with human beings and to put it into practice.
88 It includes environmental ethics (an ethics which guarantees a long lasting coexistence of every lives on the earth) other than traditional medical ethics.
89 It is to think about a sense of value over lives. It should be for every animal and plant that has a life.
90 It is a philosophy or a decision giving standard that gives a decision and a correction over science and technology related to lives. It is considered to be a right hand when science and technology are the left hand. It also takes part in guiding and developing science and technology.
91 It is a study for or to research the issues related to lives from a view point of human welfare especially its use and putting it into practice.
92 It is to study systematically human acts in a field of life science and health care as these acts are examined with a moralistic value and principle.
93 Japanese translation of bioethics which is "SEIMEIRINRI" is not good. It is Bioethics. It is an academic field dealing with issues of humans from birth to death. It differs from ethics of medical ethics or political ethics. It can be thought as a movement requiring a medical field which respects human dignity, respect for individual rights and free will of patients.
94 It is to think about a scientific treatment related to lives from an ethical and moral viewpoint.
95 Constructive design for keeping of human rights according human life or health.
96 It is a standard that we should abide by on phenomenon and issues related to minds which are not totally physically phenomenated such as lives of humans and animals, directly and indirectly.
97 It is a standard for us as a living organism how to think and act against organisms including ourselves which can be differentiated depending where and when.
98 I think it is a "SEIZON" science something more than "The science of survival" (Potter) and something not just Medical Bioethics. (Survival and "SEIZON" is not always the same.)
99 It is an individual philosophy related to lives.
100 It is to maintain a feeling of reverence for lives. Especially doctors and other people who have medicine related jobs should be cautious about it since they have a tendency of being self important against others. Also it is needed to think from an ethical view point as medical technology including brain death and organ transplant develops.
101 Ethics related to lives.
103 It is to treat lives as they coincide with the ways of nature and not to do anything against it.
104 It is a crystal of human intelligence. It also includes a self discipline for its direction not being against God's will.
105 It is to appreciate the value of lives and understand the meaning of being given lives.
106 It is a very important thing. We should look at myopic medicine from a broad multidisciplinary view point.
108 I think it is a process from birth to death of animals and plants including humans in nature, how they coexist and live.
109 It is to appreciate lives of all living organisms.
110 It is related to the basics of lives.
111 It is an academic field that seeks a feature of biological or medical research and medicine on humans, animals, and plants and also seeks a border which we should not cross even though we are possible to do so.
112 It is a study for seeking a knowledge for humans to coexist and keep harmony with environment.
113 It is a rule or thought including a model and moral related to life control that takes part in development and happiness of society and humans.
114 It is a study preparing rules for humans in the aim of continuing to live in s harmony with nature.
115 It is a standard for a sense of values on human activities in the field if life science and health care. (ethics of coexistence)
116 It is an ethics (a principle) related to human lives especially its life and death.
117 It is a basic way of thinking about issues related to human lives especially life and death.
118 It is one of applied fields of ethics which deals with ethics of life science, medicine, and environmental science.
120 Dignity of lives. Human rights for equality. Partly human rights for patients and a family. The way to live. The way to die.
122 It is a thought and an attitude should be taken by humans as humans about lives.
123 It is a standard for organizing a thought for lives and gaining an agreement within a society. It should be continually given since a society changes time to time.
124 It is to think what is to respect lives and put it into practice.
125 It is a practice and an academic field (ethics) considering what should be done in a field of biology, medical
researches, and medical treatment.
127 Quality of life, value of life, the way we live.
128 It is a very important issue for medicine and publics.
130 It is a basic thing that is necessary for giving various decisions related to lives academically and socially.
131 I cannot work without realizing bioethical understanding in daily lives since I am a researcher who carries out animal experiments. Apart from a work, I as a living
132 It is a thought of people about "lives" within a society and science of a particular man, still think all of my behavior somewhat relates to bioethics. I cannot help making my value standard and principles even though it is still not systematized time.
133 It is to ask how far scientific technology can be involved into a region considered to be a natural selection for humans to live better and whether it is good for scientific technology to be involved or not. Also it is a study to concern its standard.
135 It is a groping of new ethics which became necessary in order to solve a contradiction of such circumstances that newly appeared in medical field which can not be solved with traditional medical ethics.
136 To ask the ethical meaning and ethical permission of artificial intervention by scientific technology.
137 It controls medical treatment and biology from human position.
138 I think it is an ethics related to lives that is a basic principle over human existence even though it is mixed up with methods and procedures of the astonishing development on scientific technology in recent days.
139 It is a practice for gaining a consensus on our understanding and use of science and technology which are related with lives through discussion.
140 It is very important. Original lives should be respected.
141 It controls human life and death.
142 Respect for lives.
143 1, A never solved goal which is the same as a proposition of philosophy. 2, In the reality of Japan, especially someone who call themselves as specialists are false scholars possessing a strong self appealing emotion.
144 It is to think how far we can manipulate lives artificially. (Medicine has been always an artificial manipulation ( in a direction to develop it) of lives.)
145 It is to seek the way humans are supposed to be through humane acts, feelings, and thoughts and by knowing the real human behavior.
147 It is to realize the reality of lives (include not only humans' but every other lives as well), bring up a real live surpassing control by simple reason and feelings, and to support it.
148 How to think about ourselves.
149 It is human lives and their maintenance and a norm for medical acts which deal with human death (including excessive treatments, an operation for organ transplantation, the use of apparatus for prolonging lives, etc.).
150 To protect the dignity of lives.
151 It is an ethics related with not only humans but also all living creatures. It is broader than medical ethics.
152 It is a wisdom to think about how development of medicine, laws, a social economic system should correspond to the better expression of life power that humans have.
153 It is for a person's personality to be respected (as an existence of a human being) recognized, and cared for a human being.
154 it is a fundamental thought that is related to the existence of the earth's' environment and all living organisms.
155 It is an attitude and/or a duty related to lives that we should abide to as human beings.
156 It Is something which every living organism has that should not be basically disturbed by others.
157 It is philosophy that suggests a way and a feature of life value chosen by an ethics group, what is supposed to be and a means to search for it.
158 A life is valuable and it is to think about the valuable life and tell people that we have to value it.
159 It is a system of norms which has an appropriate universal assertion related to life phenomena.
160 Medical science, Medical ethics, and Social morals.
162 It is an important human moral principle not to disturb living lives.
163 It is to place to live as they are in nature, but since the concept of 'nature' is swaying, the concept of bioethics also sways.
165 I do not understand well.
166 The conflict between human dignity and quality of life should be reduced, and live humanity as a human being.
167 It is to add a system which criticizes artificial manipulation of lives.
168 This is the subject about the study of life and to have something to do with people related to life.
169 It is ethics related to life, especially human life and the existence of personality.
170 A criterion that we should bear in mind when effecting some action on living organisms by using scientific technology.
172 I think it is a principle for protecting human rights, the right to live by respecting human lives.
173 It is to respect the existence of all lives.
174 To ethically deal with a living phenomenon.
175 It is to promote human dignity following natural providence. Therefore a useless life prolonging apparatus is against bioethics.
Prenatal Diagnosis
General question G; Personal question P; Y = Yes; N = No; DK = Don't know
University doctors

G1Y The margin could be got from cutting down the waste of insurance.
GP2N We should not think eliminating the weak easily.
G3N There is no need to do it for everyone.
G6Y This has a great influence to the rest of lives of fetus and also parents, but if possible to treat, I would say yes, but only applicants.
P6N Person can accept their life themselves.
G9Y It is permitted in the case of high possibility of the appearance of symptoms.
P9Y If there is a chance of doing it.
G11Y Because of the sympathy towards new life. In some cases, this means to abort on purpose.
P11Y Not to give trouble and burden to others or society afterwards.
G12Y To obtain medical expenses in future and citizen's quality.
P12Y To maintain the family tree.
G13Y It is the principle to deal with the diagnosis by health insurance.
G14DK It depends on the frequency of the appearance of the genetic diseases.
G15Y This would be the standard to judge the degree of the obstacle that fetus has, the patients' duty of bringing up and the burden towards social welfare.
P15N If there is no danger in particular, I would not depend on welfare.
G18Y It must be accurate and safe. If there are applicants. (Suggestion: better to take off the word "national(kokumin)" from national health insurance. To be exact, current medical insurance is much better.)
P18N It is important to know what will happen.
G19Y It is natural if we think the character of national health insurance.
G22N If it is necessary to undergo such a test, it should be paid at one's own expense(not insurance amount).
P22N I would not undergo such a test unless there is a big risk of getting a baby with a disease.
G23N Because insurance finances are in difficulties, such advanced medical treatments should be eliminated from insurance payment.
G24Y There is a high possibility of improving health and social welfare for mothers and children.
P23N It is easy to understand if we think about in vitro fertilization, but I do not think medical treatments as something which always respond patient's requirement.
G26N This will progress to the selection of children.
G28DK My opinion is still indefinite.
P28N This act did not exist as a real problem to be practiced.
G29N A system in not yet established.(In the future it should head towards the way for responding the needs of restricted patients with certain diseases.)
P29N I do not feel any necessity.
G30Y Prevention of unfortunate babies(according to a family and society).
G35Y I think individuals can decide whether to carry the term or not after the diagnosis.(The doctors tell people the possible conditions after the birth.)
P35Y I would undergo such a test in order to know the disease or combined diseases which might happen to children. If such a disease has strong possibility for suffering the baby themselves after birth, I would consider an abortion as well.
G36N I would like to know what happens after the diagnosis. I answered "no" because the question does not mention it.
P36N I am afraid of myself dealing cruelly with a bad result.
G37Y Necessity of medical treatment should not be affected by the difference in economic condition of each person.
P37DK It depends on type of disease and also spouse's opinion.
G38N Because it is against the spirit of securing minimum medical treatment.
P38Y As well as fetus I wish for the happiness of the wife.
G39Y If the patient wishes to.
G40Y This should be done with small financial burden. I think abortion is possible.
G42Y (According the genetic diseases we consider are very serious ones.) Genetic problems are something burden some for both someone who is directly involved and society itself. Also there are some genetic diseases which we can prevent on-set by prenatal diagnosis.
P42Y Serious genetic diseases cause overwhelming pain for both patient themselves and their parents.
G43N It should be carried when it is possible and a husband and a pregnant wife wish to do so.
P43N I have a will to bring up a child given to us even though they possess any genetic gift.
G44Y Because there is no reason to exclude such a diagnostic test from any other ones of which expresses are covered by the insurance.
P44N Because both myself and my spouse have not experienced any problem that may require such a test.
G46Y It increases the safety for fetus and mother. Also it lets us prepare and accept (+++) for the future. Though genetic diseases, they are diseases same as others and we should support them as a problem of whole society.
P46Y Giving birth to a life is sanctity. We cannot ask the will of the fetus. But there is some cases which can be found and treat at the level of the fetus and it will rapidly develop in the future.
G48Y It is important to know while it is still a fetus.
P48Y I would like to have composure to think about what will be happening in the future.
P50Y For the preparation or for the peace of mind.
G51N It is against my ideology.
P51N It is against my ideology.
G53DK I'm not sure how the citizen accepted the diagnosis.
P53DK The question itself lacks the concreteness and it is difficult to answer if the person is not concerned.
G55Y If we can diagnose clearly and the parents have decided not to have the handicapped baby, the price of the diagnosis would be cheaper than the medical expenses needed after birth.
P55 COMMENT: Question itself is wrong.
G56N In this situation, this depends on person's free will.
P56N I would like to leave it as natural.
G57N I am anxious that some would choose abortion by financial reasons.
G58Y People doubtlessly have genetic diseases in their family tree also have the right to have babies.
P58N If one of the couple has the inherited abnormality in their family tree, I would prefer to prevent conception.
G59DK I could not decide because there is the difference in severity of genetic diseases and this includes the issue on economics.
P59Y If there is a possibility of the severe disease, naturally, this rises the responsibility of parents, so I prefer to get the information before making a decision.
G60N There is a high possibility, if health insurance is adapted, of this diagnosis to be enforced at all time. Coping with the result of this diagnosis would rise problems. If needed, informed consent should be taken from mothers.
G61Y Gene therapy is possible to realization.
P61N We should leave it natural. We should set limit only to person who has a possibility of the appearance of genetic diseases.
G63N This should be person's charge.
G64Y Human could have individual difference when they reach more than 20 years old, but we have to equal as possible when they are just born.
P64Y The question is not clear. If I assume as a diagnosis such as in question 3, and to say it is as general consideration to the last, the reason would be like the following. If there were a genetic disease in my or my spouse's family tree, I would take a genetic diagnosis, and then try to prevent the progression of the genetic disease by gene therapy.
G65N This should be an individual charge towards person who requested the diagnosis.
P65Y At least we could be prepared.
G67N In our country, the result of personal diagnosis would easily be the reason for abortion.
P67DK The meaning of "such as question 4 " in this question is not clear.
G69Y Every citizen can use the medical service by national insurance.
G75Y Parents especially mothers have their own choices in their lives. These choices should be made based upon informed facts. COMMENT: The word "national" should be omitted from national health insurance.
P75Y Same as above.(Parents especially mothers have their own choices in their lives. These choices should be made based upon informed facts.)
G77Y Nowadays the economic conditions are not good.
G79Y I consider the psychological and financial burden of people with genetic diseases is enormous.
P79 Same as above.(I consider the psychological and financial burden of people with genetic diseases is enormous.)
G80N It should be carried out for the people who wish. Otherwise it is a waste of national expenditure.
P80N Because we consider we have a low risk of getting genetic diseases.
G81Y I consider there are people who need it. But it is a different question what we do to the fetus as a result.
P81N I do not need it.
G82Y It is better to know the diseases of not only adults but also fetus.
G83Y Apart from a question whether this test is appropriate or not, it is a serious problem for the concerned.
P83DK The ways of Heaven are mysterious.
G84N Because it should be decided after thoughtful consideration, I prefer it to be out of insurance.
P84DK I might wish if there are any risk for genetic diseases.
G85N I would disagree if the test is carried out on every diseases which can be done today. But I would think "we should" when the case is with high risk because of carrier parents. COMMENT: The question itself is not clear enough to answer.
P85DK I would check for Down syndrome if my wife is older than 35. This is because I would like to deal and respond to high risk in my own way.
PCOMMENT: The question is not clear.
G90Y Because they can choose whether to have a treatment or an abortion.
P90Y It is better to consider how to cope with the situation than knowing nothing at all.
G93Y I think it is necessary.
G94Y Because it is necessary.
P94Y If we could get the assumption of a baby before birth, I want to.
G95N If we extend the extent of presentation of health insurance further more, this would lead a puncture(he used the word as the meaning of losing a function or destruction) and be a minus for citizens themselves.
P95N I would leave it natural.
P96DK If I take this diagnosis and know that a baby has chromosomal defects which are severe and impossible to treat, then I think it is useless to know before hand, because nothing could be done, but some preparation is possible from knowing in advance.
G97N A fetus with a genetic disease should be left to natural selection.
P97N If there is a genetic disease, someday it would be selected naturally.
G99N I entertain apprehensions that if everyone could have a fetal diagnosis easily, the number of artificial abortions would increase.
P99N I can not think that most could be treated, even if I know something from a diagnosis.
G100Y I believe every disease, including genetic diseases, should be covered by health insurance.
P100Y If there is a possibility for a severe genetic disease in my family tree, I would try to have healthy baby comfortably.
G101Y Reproduction is one of women's proper rights and to know a condition of fetus should not be accepted as a special treatment.
P101Y To know the means to have greater choices and this leads us to a full life.
G103N I am against applying insurance, because whether to take this diagnosis should be decided by individuals.
P103N Because it is unnatural from my feeling.
G105N This diagnosis should be done by an individual burden in order to make an individual will of choice clearer.
P105DK Thinking of the risk of combined diseases.
G107Y Their births would cause suffering to parents and the nation.
P107Y Because they are born unhappy.
G108Y After a birth if a baby starts to show a symptom of a disease, the burden that parents should carry would be dreadful.
P108 Same as above.(After a birth if a baby starts to show a symptom of a disease, the burden that parents should carry would be dreadful.)
G109Y It depends on parents whether to take the diagnosis or not. I can not say it is better to take, yet it may be desirable for parents who want to take the diagnosis.
P109Y I can know the actual fact at an early stage.
G110N It would easier to put a brake on the diagnosis if we leave it as a special treatment.
P110DK If a spouse or I would have a cause of a genetic disease, I would rather like to take the diagnosis, yet not in the present situation.
P111N It is foolish to select before birth.
G112DK There might be a possibility that a diagnosis and a treatment for genetic diseases can connect to eugenics.
P112DK Same as question 3.(There might be a possibility that a diagnosis and a treatment for genetic diseases can connect to eugenics.)
G113Y I put more weight on the (pregnant)women's right for choosing.
P113N It bothers me to carry out such diagnosis when there is no apparent risks for problematic genetic diseases.
G114DK There must be many people who do not wish prenatal diagnosis.
P114Y I wish my children to have a "handicap" as little as possible.
G115DK There is a question whether the fetus is human or not at the early stage of pregnancy.(There must be some people who would go on an abortion when they find genetic diseases in their fetus.)
P115N I would probably suffer because of a reason I mentioned in question 3.(There is a question whether the fetus is human or not at the early stage of pregnancy.) Then I prefer not to know.
G116Y In order that many people can have them.
P116DK I probably carry out the test if I have some genetic diseases which could be inherited, but I would consider the safety of the test. I think the discovery of genetic diseases at an early stage is good.
G117N It is against the ethic of life.
P117DK Professed intention and real intention are different. There is also a financial problem.
G118DK The consensus over the propriety of induced abortions is still not clear.
P118Y I do not mind to carry out an artificial abortion.
G119N It results in expansion of medical expenses. But I would think about an exception of insurance for the people with higher risk.
P119Y I do not wish children who obviously have genetic diseases.
G122N I do not think every fetus must be born healthy. I think none should do further management than now.
P122DK I think we need not to do this kind of diagnosis, yet I have little confidence to say definitely when I think about my own child.
G123Y I think essential insurance means not to treat the patient who started to show a disease but to prevent to have diseases.
P123Y I can organize a home environment well for after birth.
G124Y This is no longer a problem just to the child and their family.
P124Y Naturally.
G130Y I want to prevent the situation that because of a large burden, low-income earners can not have a diagnosis even they desire.
P130Y For an equilibrium of mind and body while in pregnancy. For a preparation toward the condition of a child.
G131Y To sustain medical expenses in the future, and the nature of citizens.
P131Y To maintain the family tree.
G133Y If we can get a social consent, this should be done by national health insurance in the future.
P133N A child is a gift.
Japan Association of Bioethics Survey

G1Y A chance should be given to every person equally.
G4Y An artificial abortion should be possible to be carried out when severe genetic diseases are found.
G5N It should be done by one own responsibility and with thoughtful consideration.
G6N I think it is alright to include the test into the insurance if anyone is able to take when they are pregnant. On the other hand, since medical insurance is expanding, I also feel it would be better to pay by ownselves. All health insurance is insurance today, but it needs to be reconsidered.
G7Y Even though they are fetus, what they have are human diseases.
G8Y We should act as if patients have diseases.
G10N It would cause more artificial abortions.
G12Y Diagnosis should be given easily for those who worries.
G14Y Happiness for the human race, but it should be limited to those that wish.
G15Y It should be given to everyone if such a diagnosis has already been done.
G16Y For preventing genetic diseases.
G17Y It is a big issue to decide which genetic disease would be a target.
G18D A philosophy of an "insurance" and issue over humanity are involved.
G19Y I do not think it is a proper society that forces parents to give birth and bring up a baby with a genetic disease even though the selection of fetus does not seem to be favorable. Should not we let the parents decide?
G20N Carrying out a life manipulation easily with an egoistic motive can result in neglecting respect for lives.
G21Y Since theses genetic diseases concerned are rare, they cannot be covered by a research fund and a cost, time, and hands are required. (As you may know, human genetic society has been demanding the use of a health insurance for a diagnosis of genetic diseases. Dr. Yoshikazu Kuroki as a chairman, The Centre of Child Medicine in Kanagawa has been requiring for the use of a health insurance for the genetic counseling.)
G22N Prenatal screening helps a human egoism called a selective birth. Even though it is tough, we need to be prepared for the reality of lives (God, Buddha). (general opinion)
G23Y Everyone is able to have a test. It enable us to think about the future of a mother and a baby.
G26D It is reasonable to be paid by self share when the economic status of a nation is low.
G28D I do not understand why the question brings up a health insurance. Is this by considering an economic burden some people have?
G29Y After a strict selection of appropriate cases.
G30N It may result in causing an uneasy condition for lives of fetus just because of convenience of humans and parents.
G31Y Individual share is too big when we consider genetic or congenital diseases.
G33N It can result in eliminating weak people.
G34N Some one who requires information should bear a special expense. There is no need for spreading these test more than it is today.
35Y By considering a social system and considering my own opinion, I would disagree. But considering society I would agree.
G37Y I would like to lighten the economical burden.
G38D Is there not any possibility of including unnecessary tests?
G39N There is a possibility of causing the diagnosis to be official and obligatory.
G40N Since it is an examination.
G44Y It may let only a portion of people use it when we consider its cost.
G45N Since abortion of a handicapped fetus is not recognized by everyone, if it may cause an abortion, it would be difficult to include in general medicine.
G47N It should not be included into health insurance when medical economy is concerned.
G48D There is a problem in a handling of a diagnosed baby.
G49D What to do with an issue of privacy.
G50D We should not when we can not treat even if we diagnose. If it is treatable, it would be no problem.
G52N Prenatal screening should be given to people who wish.
G53Y It should be given as a basic need for a health.
G54Y Chances should be given to those who feels its necessity.
G55N Someone who has a severe handicap which makes it unable for him/her to live would not be born in the first place.
GP56Y Mothers have rights to decide whether to give a birth or not.
G57Y The worry of pregnant women should be reduced as much as possible.
G58Y Right to know. Insufficient social responses.
G59Y Since it is a diagnosis recognized socially, more people should be given an opportunity to be diagnosed equally.
G60Y By exempting the person concerned from a heavy burden of payment, it enables them to have an opportunity to be diagnosed equally.
G61Y There should be no distance between the poor and the rich in order to have a benefit of a genetic examination.
GP62N There is no system which supports patients after knowing the results of tests. (such as a social welfare etc., an abolition of eugenics etc.)
G63Y The fetus should be treated as human beings.
G64N It can leads to an elimination.
G65N Diseases do not always equal vice.
G66N I am worried more about discrimination of the fetus who are subjected to the test than whether to have a test with a health insurance or not.
G67Y It is a social duty to nurse the children.
G68Y I should consider the condition of knowing too much.
G69N It should not be done easily since there is a possibility of causing various measures related to fetus lives.
G70D It does not have to be included in a health insurance.
G71Y it is a proper measure since it is considered as a general diagnostic technology as medicine and medical technology develops. But individual privacy and preservation of human rights are considered as absolute conditions.
G73Y It is good to have choices in general since it is thought to be a rational choice.
G74Y Severe genetic diseases should be aborted by a primary diagnosis.
G75Y I think it is a matter of course.
G76N It should be kept as a diagnosis for a special case and should not be generalized.
G77Y A health insurance is good to be used as a guarantee for rights to access medicine, (but...)
G78D It is unclear what we are going to do after the diagnosis.
G79D "yes" it enables everyone to selecting lives. "no" it enables only the wealthy to have it.
G81D I do not understand the meaning of genetic diseases.
GP82D I do not know how far parents can decide (including abortion).
G83Y Ecologically it should be considered as one of the choices for general citizens. Decision should be given by each individual.
G85D It is a difficult question. An opinion or a standard is required.
G86Y It enables to tell a quick diagnostic information to a person concerned, and lets him/her decide with informed consent.
G87N Diagnosis itself seems to have a problem. We should consider what should be done as after care.
G88Y since chromosomal abnormalities are very common. (such as Down syndrome)
G89Y A health insurance should be adopted to the cost related to a management for pregnancy in order to give a birth for good children.
GP90N It can result in neglecting lives. There is no reason to forbid it to those wish it, but it is a different matter from whether to use a health insurance or not.
G92N the examination which has a possibility of causing abortions should not be a target of a health insurance.
G93Y Health insurance is offered for consumers with a disease as a premise. Yet as a global stand point of preventive medicine, it (health insurance) should be used in such cases.
G94Y Since early discovery results in early treatment, it is good to provide an insurance for ones who wish.
G96D A diagnosis is done with an abortion as a premise. But it can be said numbers of humans with genetic diseases should be reduced if an attitude named genetic diseases and mental human value can be treated separately.
G97N It should not be done as it simply ends up examining someone who has no possibility of getting diseases.
G98Y Abortion with informed consent is necessary.
G99D It is good to know previously as to accept and be prepared for the babies after the birth but by doing so, it might result in bringing a prejudice against children. I would not like it to be done easily.
GP100Y It enable us to be prepared mentally and physically for the nursing and education of babies after the birth.
G103N It should be done voluntarily under self responsibility.
G104N It is not necessary to be done routinely since it is rarely required.
G105Y To remove anxiety from the people who had a previous pregnancy, birth, and high risk, and to be aware how to face it.
G106Y I cannot answer accurately.
G107Y I actually would not like to support, yet there should be no obstacles who really needs it.
G108N It might be reasonable when many of the babies happen to be born with congenital abnormalities in the past or a family.
G109Y The right to know should be fulfilled. Later decision should be done by the person concerned.
G110N I would like people to appreciate lives more.
G111Y Diseases are better to be found fast and treated fast.
G112Y Chances should be given to poor people equally when they wish.
G114Y Test of chromosome by amniosynthesis lightens the worry of those who are pregnant.
G117Y By knowing the fact, we are able to consider how to cope with it.
G118N Health insurance should be applied to the general public.
G119D I would not like to accept the thought of eugenics. Yet I do not have any right of disturbing the rights for appreciating scientific progress.
G120Y (If it is social,) it should be paid by health insurance as much as possible.
G122Y An insurance is necessary for anything related to a health care. But it should not aim an abortion.
G123N There is no system for an after care even if many people are given primary diagnosis.
G124Y By knowing we think how to cope with.
GP125Y It can be a quality for an information when we give a decision whether to give a birth or not. There should not be a promise commitment to abort.
G126N It should be limited to the special cases, also it is necessary to keep privacy.
G127Y It would be good if it is included in a social guarantee of rapid discovery and prevention of abnormalities.
G128Y Since it is abnormal.
G130Y By introducing an examination into a system of health insurance, it can reduce the common cost and provide an environment where everyone can easily take the test.
G131Y It is a matter of course.
G132N Fetal diagnosis is possible but not a duty. How to deal after being diagnosed a genetic disease should not be indicated by doctors but should be decided by a person concerned with referring to an opinion of professional. It should not be adopted by a public insurance since it is a personal thing. But if a disease which has a concrete treatment, then it is better to be dealt with an insurance.
G133Y It enables us to deal and prepare faster.
G136Y A genetic disease happens by a cause which returns back to the person's responsibility.
G138Y The social burden will be too big if we know it after the birth.
G139D There is an issue to be thought about which is whether insurance is optional or compulsion.
G141Y Since it is a matter of course.
G142D According to medicine it is '1', but in a field of self decision...
GP143Y In order to reduce high mortality rate after the birth, a control over the process of fertilization to development is a theme.
G144N It will not be accustomed to Japanese health insurance. The cost which is necessary for curing diseases is covered by insurance.
G145Y It is not good that only special people can be benefited.
G147N It may put a negative meaning for those having handicaps. Judging what is normal and what is abnormal can not be decided by human egoism.
G149Y A parental burden can be reduced and an appropriate measure to cope with a situation can be considered.
G150Y It is useful for those like to carry out prenatal diagnosis.
G151N If a cheap test is carried out by health insurance, it may cause easy thoughtless abortions.
G152Y Prevention can cut down future medical expense.
G154Y As a source of information for self decision making.
G155Y Probably. Since these tests are expensive, public support would be necessary.
G156Y In order to reduce the burden.
G157N It should be limited to someone who has autonomy.
G158Y Since the fetus is a child of a human being, it should be treated as a human. It has a valuable life. When elderly people are using insurance for many tests, lives for the future also have rights to use it.
GP159Y In order to carry out parental responsibility.
G162Y Though it will be used by specific people, it enable them to be prepared for after the birth and to cope with it by a treatment since the way to genetic treatment is open today.
G163N I am against to burden health insurance that far.
G166Y It is insurance for everyone in Japan. It supports the right to know and enable us to carry out self-decision.
G168Y In order to make it possible for anyone who wants to take it.
G169N It may promote abortion.
G171Y To meet a person's demand who wants to undergo it.
G172Y It is related with health conditions after the birth. If medicine is covered with insurance after the birth, prevention and treatment before birth should be paid by insurance, too.
G175Y By finding out the fact at the early stage, we are able to consider whether to give birth or not and when we decide to give birth, we are able to plan for the future lifestyle.
Personal
P1Y I am interested in it from a scientific view point.
P3Y When the possibility is high.
P4Y An artificial abortion should be considered depending on the kind of genetic diseases.
P5N I would not have any child.
P6D I do not know until it would happen.
P7D I do not know at this moment.
P8N There is no worry of getting genetic diseases.
P12D If I am worried or I feel it is necessary, I would.
P14Y I would like to predict.
P15N Personally I do not like to have any diagnosis until the baby is born.
P16Y For preventing genetic diseases.
P17N I am not particularly worried. (since my family and relatives do not possess any genetic diseases.)
P18N An unknown world is worth living.
P19N Though I do not believe in a particular religion, I do still believe in destiny.
P20N I would like to appreciate the misty and super nature as I appreciate the dignity of lives.
P21Y I feel sorry for handicapped children.
P22N Since It was a pregnancy after an operation for a myoma of the uterus, we diagnosed fetus. But we did not ask for a test especially for genetic diseases or disorder. Also a doctor did not say such a thing either.
P23Y If there is any disorder in a fetus, my spouse and I would think whether to give a birth or not.
P26Y I would carry out a test if it is hard to adapt to the society after the birth. (A burden is too much for a baby itself, family and society.)
P28Y It would be necessary to consider if we know the fetus surely has a mental disorder.
P30N I do not think a situation naturally gets better by carrying out the diagnosis.
P31D Depends on its risk. I would think about it if there is high possibility for its necessity.
P33N A life given a birth is valuable.
P37D I do not know whether it is safe or not.
P38D Physiologically I refuse.
P40Y It enables us to be prepared and to treat before hands.
P41D There is no possibility any more.
P43N My spouse and I do not think we possess any genetic diseases.
P44Y Only if there is reliable technology and after care is carried out without any problems.
P45N I do not feel any necessity for an examination which may cause an abortion.
P47N Japan, today, has not recognized the necessity of its examination. (what can we do when we have it?)
P49D My spouse is over the age of pregnancy.
P50D Same as above. (We should not when we can not treat even if we diagnose. If it is treatable, it would be no problem. )
P52N Humans are not existing to be valued whether they have a handicap or not.
P53Y For happiness of a child.
P54N I would not wish for humanic or artificial manipulation for lives.
P57D A doubt to the limit that a recent medicine can solve.
P58N Leave it to nature.
P59Y Since parents have a responsibility for genetic diseases, a diagnosis and a treatment should be given by parents' decision.
P60Y I would answer "yes" since I have been diagnosing many genetic diseases for years. (even though we, my spouse and I, do not have any genetic diseases.)
P61Y If the fetus has a severe and untreatable genetic abnormality, we would like to have an abortion.
P63D I would answer "yes" if there is a high possibility of getting a severe genetic disease otherwise I would answer "no". It is same as going to a hospital when we have a high possibility of having a (severe) disease.
P64N We should leave it to the nature.
P65N I would accept by thinking diseases are not necessarily demerits only.
P66N Though I am already over the age for a reproduction, it is unnecessary for me even if I were young. My spouse and I would bring up any child given by God with a responsibility. Also it is nonsense to have a test since there is no perfect treatment, today.
P67Y For mental preparation for a child's future.
P68Y It enables us to manage before birth.
P69N Even though we find out the risk of our fetus having an abnormality, we would not like to carry out any measure.
P70Y Today, we still worry about consequences yet I, myself, do not.
P73N I think it is the best to follow natural providence.
P75Y I would like to avoid misfortune for parents and a child by discovering a genetic disease and aborting a fetus on an early stage.
P76N It is a dangerous technology that can cause a selection of lives.
P77N Though it depends on a method for a fetus diagnosis, it is still unclear what kinds of effects they have on fetus. Also if it is my child, I would like to bring up with my responsibility.
P79D "healthier is better" VS "a selection for lives"
P80Y Only if there is a concrete or a general method of a treatment.
P81( ) I have heard of its name but I do not know more than that.
P83Y I would like to choose my coming life by knowing a fact rather than just being a passive without knowing.
P84Y If the risk is low, the prevention would be better. But a harmful diagnosis is non-acceptable.
P85D I did not actually have to worry about such a thing, but if there is a possibility for genetic diseases in my relatives, I would.
P86Y I, myself, would say "yes" (according to the reason answered in Q10). But, I do not know the decision my spouse would choose.
P87N I think I would accept a baby with a genetic disease when he/she is born.
P88Y Depending on cases, I may wish. As a prerequisite there should be a proper genetic counseling.
P89N I would leave it to nature since one who has a life has a right to live no matter what state he/she is in.
P92N My motto is to let nature decide.
P93Y In order to bring up a healthy child. (But a heartful care is also necessary for children with genetic diseases. )
P94Y I think I have a duty to bring up any children as they are given lives. But I would like to have a test and try my best since if a disease is preventable.
P96Y If there is a condition that a probability of getting diseases is high, I would. I would follow the latter past of the answer for Q 10.
P97N It is given.
P98Y We should not give a birth to humans with genetic diseases.
P99N I would like to accept facts as they are since I believe that is a starting point.
P103N There is a possibility of harming a fetus.
P104N Will of heaven, destiny.
P105N I would like to let my destiny decide.
P106Y I would like to treat babies who can be prevented to have congenital abnormalities when treated.
P108N I would not like to have a test before I am mentally prepared.
P109Y In order to be mentally prepared.
P110N What shall I do when I have it?
P111Y I would like to know the health condition of a mother and a fetus.
P112Y I would carry out tests only when I agree with my spouse.
P114Y Safety for the chromosomal test is guaranteed. Genetic diseases are excluded since they are diagnosed individually.
P116N Personally I do not feel it is necessary to have.
P117N It might be reasonable to carry out these kinds of tests in general, but I do not do that.
P118N Luckily, I have no reason to worry about.
P120Y For a future plan.
P122Y As a necessary and important step in a process of a pregnancy, it could help us to think how we deal with a pregnancy.
P123N If I know about it at an early stage, I would suffer whether to abort or not. I would probably accept it after the birth.
P124N I do not think there is any possibility of getting genetic diseases.
P127Y Fast discovery of abnormalities.
P130Y We should know as parents. (no avoidance of abortion)
P131Y Since I am old.
P132Y I simply would like to know fast. (The test which can be carried out on fetus is able to be done after the birth. Therefore I would take it only when its risk is considered to be relatively low.)
P133Y It enables reduction of worry by letting one of many unknown things to be known that can almost break myself. It also enables us to deal with and prepare with it.
P135N Let it be.
P136Y The best benefit for family.
P138D I cannot think of it as a reality since I am old and have no possibility of having children.
P139N It helps genetic discrimination.
P140N I do not know what kind of test will be carried out.
P141Y Since it is a matter of course.
P142Y For self understanding of lives.
P144N We can diagnose only diseases which can be recognized.
P145Y I would not disagree to take such a test if it is necessary.
P149Y It enable us to consider an appropriate measure to cope with a situation.
P150Y for happiness of babies.
P151D I do not think I have a genetic disease.
P152Y Having no secret is a fundamental condition for mutual reliance.
P154Y In order to gain the right information.
P155Y It is to know correctly about a condition of a fetus. (It does not matter whether to have an abortion or not.)
P156Y In order to deal with it without being puzzled after its birth.
P157Y Since I have autonomy.
P158N I think it is a destiny given to me even if I conceive a baby with a genetic disease.
P161N Nothing can be done even if something has been understood.
P162Y I would like to have it if it is clarified that the fetus has a genetic disease. Same reason to Q10. (Though it will be used by specific people, it enable them to be prepared for after the birth and to cope with it by a treatment since the way to genetic treatment is open today.)
P163N I am not worried about genetic diseases.
P166Y Same reason as above. (It is insurance for everyone in Japan. It supports the right to know and enable us to carry out self-decision.)
P169N We should accept basically any child who is given a birth.
P172Y By knowing, I would be able to prepare mentally.
P175Y Since I wish for a healthy child.
Gene Therapy
P - Personal question, C - children question; V = very willing, W = somewhat willing, U = somewhat unwilling, X = very unwilling,D = don't know
Only if it involves myself, I have scientific interest. pv1
First of all, I will respect my child's will. cw1,cd20
If it is possible to cure disease. pw3,cw3, pv40,cv40,pv44,cv44,cv55
If it is not too dangerous, I want to take it. pw4
For his or her happiness. cv4
If the result of therapy gives a clear benefit. pv5,cv5
There is a possibility not to get diseases by gene therapy. pw7,cw7
Health care is to respect life. pv8,cv8
It is possible to make a second or third level serious handicap. px10
I will decide after getting enough information. pd12
I will respect his/her will after getting enough information. cd12
We should take it if it is established. pw14
We should let our children take it if it is established and they hope. cw14
Because we have such a technology. pw15,cw15
To lead a better life. cv16
Gene therapy is not different from others in particular. pw17
I don't want to lose my children. cw17,cw70
There is no way to choose better than this. pw18,cw18
I will accept the reality because I am a fatalist. px19
It is undesirable. But when I explain to my child and he/she hope, and I consult with his/her mother and she hopes, I may allow him/her to take it. But it is needless to say that it is only when gene therapy is established as a therapy. cw19
It is undesirable to manipulate natural providence. px20
The techniques of gene therapy are untrustworthy. Human desires would deny human natural life in uncertain medical treatment. pu22,cu22
I want to maintain health as long as possible. pv23
I want to have my child play with normal children. cv23
I am anxious about the cost. pu24
Gene therapy is still at the experimental stage, so I am afraid I am operated on as a clinical experiment. pw26,cw26
I need to prevent disease. pv28
It is natural to cure disease. cv28
I want to have my child enjoy his/her own life to some extent. cw30
To improve my quality of life. (That is better for my family, too.) pv31
Parent has the responsibility for his/her child to consider and choose a best way. cv31
It is unnatural to manipulate artificially. px34
I don't have child. cd34
I don't know. cd35
I don't want to bother my descendants. pv37
It's a matter of course (because of urgency). cv41, pv42,cv42
children have a future. We should try possibilities for them to get well even if it has little chance. cv46
It costs too much money. cu47
Because the result of therapy is uncertain. pu48
It is precious to live with healthy life. pw49,cw49
Because I respect human life, I want to try. pv50,cv50
We don't know the degree of success. pu51,cu51
Is it possible to confirm the safety of gene therapy? Even if it is, making the social support for quality of life. px52
I will accept a disease, and live with it. cx52
If it can eliminate the suffering, it is better to do. pw53,cw53
The present issue of technology in Japan and human life are not limited to the human body. pd54
It is difficult to decide because the present issues of the technology in Japan and human life support each other cooperatively. cd54
I want to have a hope to cure disease. pv55
I want to my child to take it as much as possible. cv55
I will decide after I consider the risk of gene therapy. pd56,cd56
We should accept the limit of human life (,while we should respect children's' hope). px57,cu57
We cannot change the limit of human life. pu58
I keep my children in a good condition as a parent until they can judge by themselves. cw58,cv152
Leaving a fatal genetic disease to children in contrary to the duty of parent. pv59,cv59
If it will be an example of a trial, I want to take it. But I reserve a right of stopping. pw60
I want my child to take it. But I don't compel when he/she refuses. cv60,cw153
I want to avoid the life suffering from disease as much as possible. pv61
My children will hope to keep their health as much as possible, too. cv61
I feel so. pu62
Parents have the duty to save their child's life. cv62
It's a matter of course (as a parent) if it is possible to cure a fatal disease. pv63,cv63,pv91,cv91, pv98,cv98
The result of therapy is still obscure (and can get worse). pu64,cu64
To have only genetic disease isn't a handicap. I accept both advantages and disadvantages as they are. px65
To have only genetic disease isn't a handicap. But I respect his/her will. cx65
I don't know now because the basic concept of philosophy is unknown. If it is made clear, I may take it. pw66,cw66
I want (my child) to live long and well. pv67,cv67
Because I trust the possibility of scientific technology. pv68,cv68
Though I want to live well and not to bother those around me, the result and the safety of gene therapy is still obscure. pu69
Though I want my children to live well, the result and the safety of gene therapy is still unknown. cu69
Because I am old (, I may not get a child). px70,cd139,px146px163
It depends on the safety and certainty of the therapy, and dependability and humanity of a doctor in charge. pw71,cw71
It is still at the experimental stage. px72,cx72,pu167,cu167
I want to live naturally. pu73
It depends on the dependability of therapy. cd73
We should not leave bad genes to descendants. pv74,cv74
I think it is progress of medical science, and I will take it. pw75,pv152
I accept the progress of medical treatment positively without give up. cv75
I trust the contribution of medical science to humans. pw76,cw76
Even if gene therapy doesn't have to do with generation, I feel unnatural against a gene operation. (But I will respect my child's judgment.) px77,cx77
Though I want (my child) to be healthy, gene therapy is playing God and has the possibility of a bad influence. pd79,cd79
I don't want to be treated like a stuff for an experiment. px80
On the condition that it is certain and general. We don't want to undergo an experimental gene therapy. cw80
I don't trust in the medical treatment doing gene therapy. px81
Because it can be an act that profane God. cx81
I want to make an effort for a therapy within a personal limit. pw82
It depends on my child's hope. cd82
It is hard for me to live with the anxiety of falling ill. pv83
I want to extend the possibility of my child's life as much as possible. cv83
I want to keep health. pw85
Though I don't want my child to suffer from therapy, I will let him/her take it for his/her future. cw85
If I will have a fatal genetic disease not possibly but certainly. pv86
Because of maintenance and realization of the quality of life. But I don't think so about any relation with other like an organ transplant. cv86
I want to obey my destiny. px87,px155
Because that is my child's destiny. cx87,cx155
It depends on the expectation of succession of therapy. pu88,cu88
I want to respect my life naturally. px89
To have a genetic disease would be his/her life. cx89
Though I don't deny the techniques of gene therapy at all, We should ask act first for a philosophical and religious meaning of disease, so a physical or biological therapy cannot solve a fundamental problem by itself. px90,cx90
Gene therapy is still at an experimental stage, so I don't regard it as a therapy. px92,cx92
I may take gene therapy if it can cure a disease. But I don't know it is still at the experimental stage at the present. pw93
It depends on the situation and content of therapy. pd94
It depends on his/her will and age. If he/she cannot judge, I will let him/her take it. cd94
After informed consent. pw95,cw95
Because the bad gene is an accidental one as me who exist already, I don't think it is a part of me. pv96,cv96
We will die certainly by some reason. px97
I want to wait until my child can choose alone. cd97
We can make the best effort to be alive and live. pw99
I want to do something for my child as much as possible if I can. cw99
I will choose the way to live naturally. px100
Even if my child is so, I want to live strongly (without gene therapy). cx100
It depends on the age and the result of it. pw104
Though it depends on the degree, I will consider whether it is for my child or not after I consult with my wife. cw104
I will leave it to nature at the present. px105, px135
Though I don't want to undergo gene therapy, I would want my family - particularly a child - to undergo it if we have a fatal genetic disease. cw105
I want to live positively. pv106
I want to value a life and accept any possibilities. cv106
I have just finished to take care of my child. So the issue of this therapy is not only for me. pw107
Because the influence on the generation is unclear. cu107
I will leave it. px108
I will consider and learn about the way to live with my child. cx108
I want to avoid any disease as much as possible. pv109,cv109
Though I may want my child to take it, we should not do it because of the essence of life. cu110
Because I want to prevent a disease. pv111,pv124,cv124,pw132,pw154,cw154
If there is a therapy. cv111
I won't feel willing to undergo it without the gospel because I am 66 years old. pw112
I want to do anything for my child if it is possible to reduce his/her suffering even a little. cv112
I want to live naturally as is. px115
I want to leave my child to judge as much as possible. cd115
It should be decided by myself after consideration of a variety of conditions. pw117
I hope my child to lead better life. cv117
I can't judge it in such an unclear condition. pd118
I am opposed to genetic diagnosis before conception. Even if this diagnosis is done after conception, I can't judge to do it at the present. cd118
I don't want to take a test to find a genetic disease when I am fine. pd119
It depends on the risk of therapy. If a disease is fatal, I will do something. cw119
If there is a therapy which can cure a disease, I think it necessary for a health care. pv122,cv122
I haven't got thoughts about fate into shape yet. pd123,cd123
The life with a disease is also significant. pu125,cu125
After ethical consideration. pw126
After consideration of ethical and technical issues. cw126
If we can correct the gene and it doesn't inherit to descendant certainly. pw127
I want to help my child's health in the future by mutual agreement of will if we can expect an effect of gene therapy. cw127
Because we can cure a fatal disease, it is same as a normal one. pw130,cw130
It's a matter of course to want to undergo a therapy as a person if there is a possibility of recovery. pv131,pv156,cv156
I want to do anything I can for my child as a parent. cv132
It depends on situation and kind of disease. pd133
I will decide after comparing all demerits with merits and the rate of recovery. cd133
We don't know the safety of gene therapy. pd136,cd136
If gene therapy is necessary to fulfill my life. pw139
If I think the best way for my child's life. cx139
According to medical progress. pv141,cv141
I want to offer myself (my child) as one examples of a disease. pw142,cw142
I will try gene therapy as much as possible if the cause and the effect of a disease are clear and the artificial manipulation is certain. pv143,cv143
It is unclear if we can modify only bad genes. cd144
There are some cases to take it. But we should think of various conditions (the position in family, age and so on). pw145
It's a matter of course when I think the future and if it is possible to cure diseases. cw145
It is necessary to consider about genetic disease from the position of human existence. Because human soul, consciousness and sprit is unknown and may change physical gene. px147,cx147
To prevent diseases. But the result of cure should be certain. pw149,cw149
To be healthy (and for my child's future). pv150,cv150,cw168,pv172
If it is not done for germ cells (and the safety of vector is make sure). pv151,cv151
I will take it after I consider about my life in the future and my descendant. pv153
There is no possible to be so. px157,cx157
That is a gene's fate. px158
I don't want my child to take a therapy which causes a pain. cu158
Everyone has the responsibility which they accomplish the way they think the best. And I think it is the best way to undergo a therapy. pv159
To exercise parent's right sincerely needs to do so. cv159
I have no knowledge about gene therapy. pd161,cd161
I want to be independent as much as possible while I live in the limited time as a human being. pv162
I want to overcome my child's suffering from diseases however large a sacrifice is. cv162
But I hope my child to make much of his/her life. cd163
Because I will fall into a dilemma. pu164
I will do so when I agree to it on a budget and the view of life. cw164
I think it is same as vaccine. pw166
I want to try if we can prevent a fatal disease. cw166
As a part of treatment. pw169
It is of course because gene therapy is admitted. cw169
If there is a guarantee that we can avoid diseases by modification of genes, I think it necessary for life. pw170,cw170
I am anxious about side effects after gene manipulation. pu171
I want to get rid of my child's suffering. cv171
Since being giving a life, too keep the health condition good is a human right and a duty.
I am fine because of my age if I cannot take therapy.
COMMENTS
I cannot respond to a hypothetical question. p 47
You should have asked first whether people want to take a test or not. Because those who take it would want to take a therapy. pd119
Thoughts about gene therapy in Japan in the future
It needs discretion. 3,5,56,62,115,117
I hope that gene therapy research will advance. 4
It should be discussed more in Japan. I seem than they are in a hurry to get honor. 6
If the safety is confirmed (e.g. vector), we can try it. 7
I hope that the reliability on it is made strong. 8
I don't agree it at all. I am anxious about the danger and humanity is changed. 9
Though gene therapy is good, I feel danger when it goes too far. 10
I don't know. We can give up for fatal disease. It is also important to know the limit. 11
I disagree with it now because the genetic mechanisms of human being is still obscure. And I am fundamentally against manipulating life by other people. 12
If the safety and the effect is established as a therapy, it is O.K. to be done. 14
It should be allowed after enough control systems. 15
We need the consensus about ethics. (e.g. a patient's privacy, a problem of telling the name of a disease and etc.) 16
1.To establish the safety. 2.To expect the availability. 3.Cost vs. benefit efficiency. 18
I don't think gene therapy is good. It is impossible to established it and see through the result at the present. 19
Patient's will should be respected and his/her own choice (agreement) even if the probability of falling ill and of the success of therapy is high. 20
The problem is small because it is limited to somatic cells. Though now it is limited in the condition of a patient, it's better to try not only for dying patients but also for serious patients. 21
It should be done with the caution for excessive expectations and the self-control to be in no hurry. 22
When do we decide death is death? I want to hear some ideas of parents whose child has a genetic disease. 23
It is good to make progress. 24
Though I agree to positive gene therapy, I cannot understand such a difficult question. 26
We should consider safety in the first. It is needless to try it to be the first in doing. 28
I don't want to take it, but I don't object that other people take it. 34
We should consider sufficiently in an ethics committee before doing it. 35
It is useful to cure cancer. 36
I want to be opened to the public plainly about each cases. 37
I don't expect so much from it. 38
It is significant as a therapy. But I am afraid how the technique is regulated, and the scientists' ethics. 39
I expect that it will be done only it is effective and there are no other effective methods. 40
I don't know. 41
That is still at the experimental stage. 42
I expect that will be an establishment on the technique. 44
I agree to do it. 45
It needs some brakes not to manipulate life. 46
Gene therapy should have the purpose, expected result and risks open to the public to be discussed. 48
We should consider about the informed consent, the system of a counseling and the process of an ethics committee. 49
If it is safe as the result of enough research and a patient wants, it is O.K. to do. But it should be done with opening the information to the public and observing the ethical side of research. 50
I am expecting and interested in the results of gene therapy. 51
We need the exact inspection system of a central committee. Though opening information to the public is a principle, this is impossible now. So we have to solve some problems before trials. 52
1.If other therapy had not been tried completely, this trial was wrong. 2.It should be done with the greatest care in the future. 53
Because human life exists on the personal cross of a cooperative society, treating it technically is not no-problem. 54
I cannot oppose it because it is a hope for patients and their family. But we always have to have the ethical consideration for the degree and the management of gene management. 55
It is still the experimental at stage. Though I hope the success in the future, I'm afraid that it can be manipulation of human character. 57
It is still at the experimental stage. The safety and the effect of therapy should be confirmed more. 58
It should be done on the assumption that it is assured that the information will be open to the public and the exact judgment of an ethics committee. 59
It should be done after careful consideration of medical care and privacy. Though almost all of the trial at this time was reported, it was undesirable even as the first trial. It should be reported after some success. 60
This trial which imitated one of the USA was an proper step. We should research more, and do each trial carefully in the future. While doing so, the limit of application will be decided naturally. 61
Trying it is no-problem if we don't lose the respect of humans. 63
It is needless. We should leave it to nature. 64
I oppose it strongly. We should not manipulate gene and human life. 65
I don't how it will be done philosophically in Japan. But it is constructive and good if it is done with modesty for God and respect for God. 66
I hope it will advance after the information is opened to the public and they get social sympathy. 67
I agree with gene therapy because it is desirable for human to live well. 68
It needs enough informed consent and public announcement of the result and the cost. 69
It should be advanced after confirmation of the safety. 70
Though the experimental stage is necessary, we should be thorough to obtain informed consent to protect the human rights of patient. 71
t should be done after careful recognition of an ethics committee. 72
We cannot prohibit it because we don't know the suffering of patients and their family. It is good to extend the way to choose. 73
It is desirable to advance if the safety and ethics are guaranteed. 75
It is O.K. to do gene therapy positively. 76
I have a question against manipulating gene before thinking the issue of social consensus. Even if the rule which we cannot manipulate germ cells is observed. We don't know how effect is occurred by manipulate gene. I'm anxious about the effect to a person. And I think there is no answer to ethical aptitude. 77
It still needs to be discussed more. 79
Though I don't want it advanced essentially, we could not stop it as the reality. 80
Though who does gene therapy should realize that doing it is not a right but a duty. I hope them to advance it carefully with respect for a patient's will. 82
No side effect ! I'm anxious about the advanced of gene therapy without the effect of ethics committee and the opening of the discussion about it. Will the ethical judgment progress though the techniques will do so? 83
When I think of it as a problem of policies which are concerned with human existence, it might be necessary according to circumstances. 85
It should be done after each examination when it is necessary to maintain a newborn baby's "quality of life". A medical organization is very important. 86
Can it contribute to human welfare? Do we have the right so far? I don't know. 87
It is regrettable to have excessive expectations by the media's way of dealing with it. 88
It is O.K. if there is no damage without therapy. 89
The advanced of only techniques is undesirable. We should ask the meaning of disease, which is inseparable from these question : What condition is getting well? We should not fear that the progress will be late and we will have wasted techniques because of it. 90
Informed consent should be done completely. 91
Gene therapy is a experiment. The announcement which gives a good impression as if it is established as a therapy gives us a wrong information. We should stop it because an artificial manipulation of gene has a danger unknown. 92
If it is possible technically, we can try it carefully. But we should respect a patient's free will. 93
Though it is possible to cure a fatal disease, I agree to the advance of gene therapy. 94
Advanced study needed. 95
It is no-problem about a therapy (for the somatic cells) after the fact which exists a person with a genetic disease. 96
Because gene therapy is one of the advanced techniques, it is necessary if it is done carefully. 97
I have no comment. 98,101
I have many questions about doing it. 100,114
Gene therapy should be done continuously. 103
The technology should not be used as a techniques. Gene therapy needs a cool judgment which selects the contribution to human happiness. 104
I feel anxiety because there are some dates of the effect but not of the harm. 105
The idea of normalization is necessary. 106
Because the influence on the generation is unclear. 107
It should be done after careful consideration at an ethics committee. We should protect a patient's human right. 109
If it is possible to cure diseases, a protocol which meets a demand should be allowed. 111
I hoped it is researched more and result shown. We can do nothing if we always fear a failure. We should study carefully but energetically. 112
I'm opposed to gene therapy individually. 116
Though Japan is behind the time on the system of reciprocal checking and opening information (access) extremely, it thrusts into high technology and new knowledge. We should introduce new medical treatment as slowly and carefully as possible. 118
We should not prevent a right which we take the best cure or treatment. The other hand, We should remember that the right could grow into eugenics and threaten the right to live for a handicapped person. 119
It is necessary to research more not only ethics. 120
I hope it is done only for patients who want and know the danger of gene therapy. I am against that gene therapy is done as a research. 121
I want it announced to us about an information of therapy and so on. I hope it is researched more. 122
Be careful a little more. We should make much of an ethics committee. 123
I hope the technique is advanced. 124
It should not be done for generative cells which can effect to descendants. 125
Gene therapy will be stopped some day. 126
I expect an effect of gene therapy. 127
It will be a big problem from now on. 128
It should be confirmed the safety and the availability in full by animal experiments. We are likely to slight basic work and to introduce only result. This is a problem. 131
Though gene therapy research has no problem, We should attach a large limitation and make an organization for it. The information should be announced. 135
It should be done carefully. The information should be announced within the limits that a patient's privacy is protected. 136
There is a more important human mental attitude than medical progress. 137
The standard of the examination on each university and institution is unclear. It is necessary to open the information to the public and examine proposals with an outsider. 139
I have no knowledge because the information is lacking. Measures should be taken to meet the situation after making the fundamental and essential causes more clear. 140
More research is still necessary. 141
To spread life education to the public should be done first. It is essential to establish the civic society which everyone is able to decide by oneself to all problems about one's own life. 142
I want to seek after truth as research. I save human life as a doctor. 143
A doctor cures a person of a disease after he/she compares the risks by treatment and one with no treatment. We should consider each disease sufficiently. 144
I cannot deny that the medical research is competition. Though it is a right to progress it as a research, we should consider the economic conditions and uncertainty sufficiently. 145
I am opposed to gene therapy because it doesn't improve everyone's autonomy but it makes more dependence on medical treatment. But each case should be examined in detail. 147
It is impossible to make clear the result of cure positively. It should be done carefully. 149
We must hurry to establish the safety of vector and to discuss about gene therapy for germ cells. 151
I hope it doesn't fall in the competition to distinguish university, the information is opened to the public and it is advanced carefully. 152
It is the most important to protect human right. I am anxious about it at the present. 153
I agree to progressing the research. whether a patient undergoes gene therapy or not is his/her own selection. 154
I will watch the future change carefully. 155
It should be done if it is safe after enough examination. 156
Gene therapy is done only first at a national university hospital. So new problems will be raised in the future. 157
It is O.K. if it doesn't cause a pain and side effect. But I hate a clinical experiment. A patient is younger, I feel pity more. We should arrange environment first to protect our gene (e.g. pest, air pollution). 158
It should be advanced with careful examination of ethics. 159,170
There may be no problem if it is used peacefully. I am afraid that it is used for military purposes like as an atom. 161
I hope it is taken as an object of health insurance and that everyone could undergo it any time. 162
It should not be done until the trust of public in doctors. I cannot believe them because a therapy is done by ambition and experimental interest at a big hospital. 163
The application should be limited to which diseases (ADA deficiency, cancer, AIDS, leukemia etc.). 164
I have a doubt about the safety and the result. 166
We should proceed with the step wise review with a premise of open public information. 167
It would be necessary things. 170
Since it is not 100% completed and is still being researched, I would like to look forward. 172
I hope it is established as an effective treatment for fatal diseases. 175
I could not understand. 74, 81, 106
Feelings about persons with disease
Disease codes: A: AIDS (HIV infected), H: Hemophilia, L: Leprosy, M: Muscular dystrophy, D: Down's syndrome, O: Huntington's disease, C: Cleft Lip, A: Alcoholism, S: Schizophrenia.
Y = Yes, konw someone, N = do not.
6HN I wish it could be treated. People who got HIV should be compensated by the government.
6MN I wish it could be treated. Also try to set up a system to support the family.
6AN You can choose oyur sexual behavior as you want, but think about its' compensation. Also please think and behave not to infect others.
6SN There was a problem of the family. Nuclearization of the family is advancing, so I hope an education, a home and whole area of Japan would wrestle with this.
6DN In this case, I wish a genetic treatment would be admitted.
6LN There seems to be no more recently in Japan, but even with the change of a body image, I want them to live in the area by excfluding a sense of discrimination from Japan.
6WN The age of drinking in Japan is getting lower, so I am afraid of from now on. I think they have to carry their responsibility, but in Japan there are a lot of stresses, so we should build a supporting system in order to cope with them.
14HN I want to develop the eradicative as soon as possible.
14MN Same as above.(I want to develop the eradicative as soon as possible.)
14AN Same as above.(I want to develop the eradicative as soon as possible.) It is only a infectious disease.
14SN I want to make a society where they can live happily.
14DY Same as above.(I want to make a society where they can live happily.)
14LY An infectious disease which is already solved.
14ON I feel sorry, and I expect the development of a treatment.
14CY There is no difference from the normal.
14WY An unhappy person. It is necessary to get self-consciousness and cooperation of the family.
19HMASDOCW N Though I feel sorry for every disease, it is unnecessary to treat them distinctively one by one. Society should accept patients and also support totally, and make efforts to establish treatments.
19LN I think there is no problems with this disease now.
20HY I feel sympathy for them, because they happen to suffer the disease without their responsibility, so I am eager to relieve them by the development of a technique of medicine or by consolidation of a social welfare system.
20MN Same as a case of hemophilia.(I feel sympathy for them, because they happen to suffer the disease without their responsibility, so I am eager to relieve them by the development of a technique of medicine or by consolidation of a social welfare system.)
20AN We have to make exertions to diffuse or educate knowledge on sexual health, and in the same time, not to make patients suffer by groundless discrimination.
20SY We have to make exertions to relieve them from the stress by the discrimination, and to consolidate a system or a facility in order to let them live at ease.
20DY This disease occurs not by the patient or family's fault, so we need to make an effort to support them by whole society.
20LI think it urgent to abolish social discrimination such as an isolation, because this is the infectious disease that could be cured by medicine.
20OI would rather not express my opinion, because the state of the disease is unclear.
20CY I recommend to modify by surgery, and also maqke an effort to prevent suffering from discrimination.
20WY I want to make an effort to modify and prevent a disease or a character by education or a system, qand let them be r3elieved from stressed envoronment.
21HN There are several kinds, and this is because of the mutation of blood clotting factor.
21MY Because the gene of dystrophin is very large, the number of suffer gets also large.
21AN We can find some inheritance in homosexuality.
21SY The rate to suffer this disease is up to 50% even in identical twins.
21DN Because of 21 trisomy. Giving birth at higher age goes to environmental factor.
21LN If there is no leprosy bqacillus, no one gets the disease.
21ON Beacuse of the increase of the repetion of three bases.
21WN We can find a lot of isozymes in alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase.
23HY I think they are normal, because they have same out-looks aws general people.
23MY I would like to give them chance to utilize maximumly their remaining functions.
23AN There are several reasons for seroconversion, but they are socially avoided.
23SN I wish there was social acceptance, because they can somewhat make a social life, but excluding the acute term.
23DY They will enrich emotions to certain degree by the relationships of people around them.
23CY I think they are normal by the surgery to almost exclude the change in out-look.
23WY I want to help them to overcome the disease.
24MN I do not know.
24OI do not know.
27HY Recessive inheritance.
28HMASDLOCWN I do not know well.
31AN I feel sorry for patients who were infected by drugs.(Someone who did not have re3sponsibility to themselves.)
43DY It is a genetic disease, but it is not inherited.
45DN Including a chromosomal abnnomality as a genetic factor.
54HMY We should support each other as a social member.
54AN We should support each other as a social member.
54SY It is important to accept each other socially.
54DY They are normal members of a society.
54LY There is no need to isolate patients, because of the small chance of infection.
54CY We need to fix it by an operation in childhood.
54WN We should support positively tom let them join an Alcoholics Anonymous, a meeting in order to stop drinking alcohols.
55HY Genetics is greatly related.
55MY They are making hard efforts to live.
55AY I wish the vaccine, the drug for curing, would be ready as soon as possible.
55SN I can permit if others are the patients.
55DY Kind people. I want them to be accepted by the society.
55LN No longer the disease.
55ON I do not know.
55CY It could be treated by surgery.
55WY I am afraid that this could be found around me.
56HMN I only have knowledge as facts, and I also do not have a patient that I know, so I have nothing to say on the person.
56AN I hope an improvement of an effective medicine is realized as soon as possible.
56SY More than a problem of the patients themselves, the awy how society accepts them is a big issue.
56DN 50% in environmental factor. In the meaning that there is a possibility of a relation between an environment of mother's body and chromosomal abnormality.
56WY I have understood this as one of diseases, but I can not empathise because I can not drink at all.
57HN I feel really sorry because it is not their responsibility.
57AN Reporting of information or education is needed in order to make the number of the infected small.
57LN We should let people who have recovered take part in the society.
57CN We should minimise the patient's disadvantage by adequate cosmetic surgery.
57WN The patients' consciousness and education are needed.
58HY That's the way it goes.
58MY For inheritance, that's the way it goes. Developmental factor must be improved.
58AN I feel uneasy of an infection from mother to fetus. I want them to make best effort.
58SY I deo not want them to be impatient, and want them to take the treatment.
58DY Cute.
58LN There is little anxiety.
58OY That's the way it goes.
58CY Please avoid a consanguineous marrige. That's the way it goes.
58WY Be independant and strong.
59HN I do not know well.
59MSY We should care socially for the injured as far as possible.
59ADLN We should care socially for the injured as far as possible.
59OI do not know.
59CY We should develop a treatment by cosmetic surgery.
59WY It is necessary to prepare an adequate facility for treatments and the treatment itself.
61HMY Symptoms may vary from mild to severe by mutations.
61AN Even it is rare, there are people who have resistance to HIV.
61SY It may vary by the kinds. There is a big possibility that more than two genes are relating.
61DY There would be such things as trnslocation to another trisomy o9f chromosome 21. Trisomy occurs by accident. Many Downs's syndrome are these kind.
61LN There would be some genetic relationship depending on the sensitivity to Leprosy Bacillus. The same as tuberculosis.
61CY There is an example of the Hapsburgs, but still many occur by accidents inside uterus.
61WY This never happens if we live in the world without alcohols, but the more we drink, the higher a character which is mainly caused by genetics is related.
62HSDY One of the patients.
62MALOCN One of the patients.
62WY I do not think anything.
63HMASDLCWY I feel sorry.
63ON I feel sorry.
64HMASDLOCN I feel sorry.
64WN Their fault.
67HMASDLOCWN I feel sorry.
68HY In the case of surgery, it is followed by difficulties.
68MY The difficulty of managing respiration.
68AY It is necessary to educate on prevention of infection.
68SY To offer after care and social prevention policy(depending on a case).
68LTo offer a policy for patients at higher age. Same as a policy of adult diseases for general public.
68CY To offer A countermeasure of cosmetic surgery in early stage.
68WAlthough there is a treatment by accommodating, there is nothing but an effort of the patient.
70HY There is no difference foundmentally between any person and a healthy normal person.
70AN There is no difference foundmentally between any person and a healthy normal person. But we should ask and know how did the person infected.
70WN This can not be thought of as early as the other example. The person also has fault.
71HY I believe there is a factor as a condition of environment of the interior of the womb to suppress the expression of genetic factors.
71AN By thinking a viral infection as a host's environmental factor.
71DN A factor of host's age.
71LN We should call this as Hansen's disease. By thinking an infection of pathogenic bacillus as host's environmental factor.
71ON Huntington's chorea.
71CY Environmental factor of the interior of the womb, such as abnormality in hormons.
72HY Now they can live normally.
72MN I'm quite not sure.
72AN I wish to discover a medical treatment.
72SY If in an early stage, it could be cured.
72DN I'm not sure.
72LN It is necessary to modify an existing law as soon as possible.
72ON I'm not sure.
72CY I do not think of it as a disease.
72WY A treatment is needed.
76AN There is no one who wanted to have. I strongly demand to discover an effective treatment and to establish facilities for care.
76SY It ids necessary to progress more returns to the society and the completeness of the facilities.
76LY They are victims forced to get social discriminations and prejudices by governmental policy, so it is necessary to improve as soon as possible.
76WY Everyone has a risk to be so by continuous drinking.
77HY We can supress the symptoms by using drugs, so by regulating environment, they can accomplish their lives.
77MY In some tyoes of muscular dystrophy, there is no inheritance. I know some people living creatively by controling their environment by computers or using respirators.
77AY I feel angry toward AIDS by contaminated blood clotting factor, and I am supporting thye innocent victims. I am also assisting in the case of infection in order to accomplish their lives.
77SY We can not deny the inheritance, I think, but environmental factors are big. (I understand this as their speed of the process of thinking is getting very fast.)
77DY Though genes are mutated, there is not any inheritance children with Down's syndrome are angels.
77LY AIDS, nowadays, has misunderstandings and prejudices which are the same as leprosy.
77OY It is difficult to control the symptoms, but there are some people living with devices and designs.
77CY Obstacles would almost disappear by surgical treatment.
77wY I think there is an influence of physical constitution, such as alcohol dehydrogenase. This could be cured by social support.
78HN I feel nothing.
78MN People with unhappy disease. I feel sorry.
78AN There are a lot of people infected by using blood clotting factor, so I feel sorry.
78SN I feel nothing.
78DN I feel nothing.
78ON A rare disease.
79AN It is the natural consequence of their own to get AIDS by impure playings.
80HN I feel sympathy because of unhappiness and unluckiness.
80MLON Same as above.( I feel sympathy because of unhappiness and unluckiness.)
80AN Same as above.(I feel sympathy because of unhappiness and unluckiness, but excluding some people.)
80SDCY Same as above.(I feel sympathy because of unhappiness and unluckiness.)
80WY I can not feel sympathy so much.
82HY It is necessary to modify a medical environment, such as from the problem of AIDS by polluted drugs.
82MSDOCN I do not have enough knowledge.
82LN Even the preventive law on leprosy has abolished, I have an anxiety whether they can get into the area, and of a structure to accept in the area.
82WY I feel it necessary to get a consciousness of their own.
83HON I feel sorry.
83MSDCY I feel sorry.
83AN I feel sorry. 100% in environmental factor, but in the case of the infection, a mother to a fetus, 100% in genetic factor.
83LN I feel sorry. 100% in environmental factor, but in the case of the infection, a mother to a fetus, 100% in genetic factor.
86DY There is a factor of a little damage in brain like Down's syndrome.
86CY In the case of environment factors of fetus.
87HMN I feel sorry.
87AN I feel very sorry to those infected by an irresistible force.
87SY Because it is a disease of heart, I feel sorry.
87DY I assume they are weak in mind and body, and also the suffering of a family is big.
87LY My heart aches by thinking of the sad history of the isolation from a society.
87CY The cure is already developed, so i think they should be treated as soon as possible.
87WY I think originally that a weak physical constitution, mental problems and social problems, in piles, leads a person to the disease. I hope they would recover by themselves.
88HMSDCY If possible, I want to help them.
88ALOWN If possible, I want to help them.
89HN Because this is a disease of hemorrhage, whatever they do, it is a battle with bleeding, so I think their life would be hard.
89MN Because there is no essential treatment, I feel hard to see people get worse as they get older.
89AN This is a matter of prejudice or discrimination, and has a relation to human rights. I would like to come in contact equally with them, because this could be prevented.
89SY I think it is common symptoms to appear for w2hile in adolescence. I believe it is better to be treated by noticing patient's change as soon as possible. We should not discriminate as handicapped.
89DN I think nothing special because they can live together although they have mental development, retardation or deformity.
89LN They have to live in isolated society from others, because of the infectious disease. It is necessary to get correct understanding to the treatment and preventive methods.
89ON The symptom of involuntary movement itself or gradual process would make them feel uneasy toward the disease, I think.
89CY Although the appearance of a difficulty such as in soeaqking, I believe the progress of medical technique is making their future brighter.
89WY Most of them could not stop drinking and repeating in and out of hospital, so the warm contact by people around them is important. Revising the environment is important.
92HMASLON I want them to live positively by accepting a disease as one of the personalities. Prejudices should be excluded from the society.
92DY I want them to live positively by accepting a disease as one of the personalities. Prejudices should be excluded from the society.
92CN The prognosis would be better by the cosmetic surgery of a lip.
92WN I want them to adopt to the society by thr effort to stopn drinking
94HN They can spend normal lives by taking the treatment of blood clotting factors and paying attention in everyday life. Because of the recent priblem of HIV infection by blood products, I want to let hemophiliacs take treatments at ease from now on.
94MN They have to be in bed by the withering or declining of muscles, and they also have short lives. I think they are with respirator in home, these kind of home-cares should be provided more.
94AN A sexual disease with a image of death, and it easily raises prejudices, so if we look at the feelings of those people, I think diacrimination should be excluded and education would be important. It is necessary to understand the feelings of the infected in order to correspond with them.
94SY A lot of symptoms of schizophrenia are seen in the society with many stresses. It is necessary to show them understanding and try to decrease stress.
94DN Because of the attendance of mental retardation, I feel the sufferings of parents in growing up.
94LN A symptom would appear by an infection, but for the patients, I have no idea of aan image, so I do not know.
94ON Although it is serious, I think it is necessary for the surrounding people to show the patients understanding and support because they show dementia when they get to middle age.
94CN There is no special problem because it is very hard to notice even if the person takes a surgery, because of the process of cosmetic surgery.
94WY Weakness of mentality is the main reason. It is necessary to maintain a strict will.
96AN After the infection not to blame the person but to feel sympathy. Preventive effort should be made.
96LN I think it possible to extinct the disease.
96WN We should feel sympathy.
97HN Now, there is a blood product, so the limit of life is getting relatively small.
97MN I wish the treatment would be developed.
97AN Even if there are people who are infected easily, such as hemophiliacs or who have little resistance to infections, most of them are infected though intercourses so it is inevitable.
97SY For the society, I think it is difficult to correspond with them, but on the other side, I still believe they do possess sensitivity that normal people cannot understand.
97DY For parents, it is going to be haard work, but still they can learn a lot from the child. I think people with Down's syndrome are not the subjects to exclude also for those around them.
97LN They are treated unfairly even if leprosy is an infectious disease.
97ON It is a dominant inheritance and the expression rate is also high, so I wish if there is a treatment.
97CY Although mental handicap is big because of sa deformity of a face, the acceptance of people who have overcome is high.
97WY Problems of abuse are not only on alcohol. This is caused by environment of a life or the way of living.
99MY I wish the curable medicine become into realization in someway.
99AY Because this disease could be prevented, so making an effort is necessary.
99SY I wish they could take part in the society as a member by the development of the treatment.
99DY I would like to let them have a chance the best life for them.
99CY This will not be a big problem because of the progress of cosmetic surgery.
99WY It is necessary to support both the physical and mental side.
103HMASN I feel sorry.
104HY I want them to do out of gratitude for favour of society as persons.
104MN I do not know directly, but I want them to accept their fate pleasantly.
104AY There is a part of self-responsibility. I want them to make best effort to devote themselves to society for the rest of their lives.
104SY I have to try my best to understand their world.
104DY I want the child and the parents to live positively in the given environment.
105HN I want them to exert themselves to live with cares not to be injured.
105MY Please live as best as you can. I have learned endurance from them.
105AN I still have a little attitude to look down them.
105SY I want accept them who have these kind of characteristics without looking down.
105DY There are many people who are honest and kind. I wish the system to go to a normal school in order to learn normally would become realization as soon as possible.
105CY I want them to do their best till the treatment finishes, because this could be cured.
105W Y They need a friend, a best friend, because originally they are nice.
108AN I feel sorry. People who got HIV by blood donation should be given the enough conpensation.
108SN It is difficult to control. We had better not to let them live by themselves.
108DN The rate is higher with giving birth in higher age. I think it wonderful to see the way how seriously both the child and parents live. Cute aren't they?
108LN I have heard about it before. We still find the patients in Philippines, and some in Japan too.
108CY I feel sorry, because they have to take surgeries several times. It is a hard work to follow up with them because of their strong complex.
108W Y Because of mental stress and inadoptation to the environmental change, they can not find a value in the existence, so I feel sorry for them.
109HN I want them to be treated properly.
109MN Difficult disease.
109AN It is difficult for people with AIDS because the fear of this disease is exaggerated.
109SY I want the parents to bring up their child in good environment.
109DN Paqrents are great.
109LN Difficult disease.
109CY They are facing great obstacles.
109WY They can overcome with a good support.
117HMADLOCN I feel sorry for them. We must strengthen the swystem of social support.
117SWY I feel sorry for them. We must strengthen the swystem of social support.
118HN HIV infection in Japan is terrible. We must criminate the person responsible.
118MN Prognosis of the disease varies. I hope we can find some way to delay the prognosis.
118AN I am hoping thaqt there will be3 a solution sooner or later.
118SY As a study of psychopathology it might be difficult. But medical treatment must be simple.
118DN Too delicate. There is various degree. I hope for the establishment of gene therapy.
118LN Japanese society would not give us much information.
118ON Too miserable that it's difficult to answer. I believe there are few patients.
118CN I will rely on medical treatment teckniqus.
118WN I can't make comments easily.
120HN It is necessary to get more strong governmental support for studies, systematic studies, of all diseases written below.
120SN We need to make intermediate facilities and also hospitals much more diverse as facilities.
123HMADLON I think all diseases written below are only diseases. There is no difference to other diseases such as an infection disease.
123SCY I think all diseases written below are only diseases. There isn no difference to other diseases such as an infection disease.
125HLOWN There is no problem.
125MCY There is no problem.
125AY No problem specially. It is inadequate to think percentages of genetic factors and environmental factors, because there is an infection from a mother to a child and etc.
125SDY No problem specially.
126HY Possible to control.
126AY It is considere3d to be able to be controled sometime. Both fractors. There is no meaning in the rate.
126SY I want to do something by medicine.
126DY They should be given a help in someway.
126LY We should eliminate discrimination and accept as normal people.
130SN People in the society should know that the treatment with internal medicine has come into realization.
130LN At last, discrimination has become rare. I feel the importance of the prevalence of knowledge.
132HMSLON Unlucky.
132AN Not only unlucky people but also careless people.
132DN Unlucky. Same face.
132CY Unlucky.
132WY People who can not control themselves.
136HASLON I sympathize with them.
136MY I sympathize with them. I hope them to improve themselves.
136DCY I sympathize with them.
136WY I hope them to overcome the disease.
138HMN I feel sorry because the person does not have any fault and I think it is very unlucky.
138AN I feel so sorry for hemophiliacs who are infected by blood transfusion. But for the rest, I think it their faults.
138DY I feel so sorry because this is caused by chromosomal abnormality.
138ON I feel so sorry because I've heard about this as a severe genetic disease and when people start to show symptoms at older ages it is horrible.
138CY I think they will get better because of the better cosmetic surgery.
138WY I've known a person who died of drinking to release frustration. I think there is a inheritance like if a parent is a drinker also the child would be, but I still think the will is important. On the contrary, I know people who can not drink because they lack an enzyme to decompose alchoal.
139HN There are people who could live better social lives by treatments depending on symptoms.
139MN Although it is difficult to cure, they can enjoy their lives while they are young.
139AN If people around them have knowledge, they can spend social lives till they get to show symptoms.
139SN I do not know well.
139DThey can live and play roles in society under the understanding of people around them.
139LN They can spend social lives if they are cured, even they are discriminated now.
139CN Problems would vanish by the surgery.
139WN Illness that own fault is the issue to some dgree.
140HMASDLOCWI do not want to have interesings. I should think not to have these diseases.
143SY The reason is unknown.
143LY Thinking as Hansen's disease.
144HMADLOW N, SCY I admire people with diseases which are untreatable or uneasy to treart but possess and find meaning in ligving. I have little confidence in helping them.
145HMOY I feel sorry.
145AY Importance of education. Poverty.
145SY Mainly relationship in family. Experience of childhood.
145DY They are honest as pesons and most of them are good persons.
145LY I want to delete misunderstandings that we used to possess.
145wY Even I still feel natural causes, the problems are relationship of family in childhood and the wayof education.
147SY Mainly this is caused by the effect of division of culturalsociety's existence, so it is only a prejudice to talk about the natural cause.
147WY Problem of consiousness between individual and society.
149HMN I feel sorry.
149DON I do not know.
149AN Excluding the infections by blood donation, I think this could be prevented by own consiousness.
149SN I feel sorry because there is a tendency to say this is not acquired.
149LN I heard that there is an effective treatmant now, so no need to worry like we used to.
149CN I feel sorry that this is mainly by genetic factor.
149WY I think this coud be supressed by self-controlling.
152HMASLOCWN Ifeel sorry and we should give social support.
152DY N Ifeel sorry and we should give social support.
158HMASDLOCWN I feel sorry.
159HMADLON Respect for human rights.
159SCWY Respect for human rights.
162HY I want to support them as same living person even they will get severe handi-cap if they show symptoms.
162MY I do have a idea that dignity as a person is important, but still I want to support them even they have hard lives.
162AN Dealing normally with correct knowledge.
162SN I wish a more development in medicine.
162DY I want to support their hapiness and sadness inside small society where they live.
162LN At this present stage Leprosy prevention law has become useless, so I want to deal patiens by new knowledge.
162OY It is neccessaryto create a public system to support every people with difficulty.
162CY I want to support them to take part in society as soon as possible by immediate treatments.
162WY There are many cases of falling together. I wish that they could have a recognition of independance.
164HN I feel sorry for the patient who got that disease through blood trasfusion.
164MI feel very sorry for this man.
164AN I feel sorry only for the patient who got it through blood transfusion.
164SY I think this disease is very difficult to be treated.
168HN Ah, I feel sorry.
168MN A serious matter. Please do best for reharbilitation. I hope various symptoms would not appear.
168DThere are people with Down's syndrome who live cheerfully and finely. I sometimes come to see them. Even because the number of 21 is one more, when I come to see them in the train, I notice the high aged woman, so maybe the environmental factor would also affect.
168CN I want them to overdcome by cosmetic surgery.
168WN I want them to overcome addiction by themselves and to be strong.
170HY I really feel sorry because there are injuries of AIDS infection by imperfection of medicine.
170AN Even there are a lot of cause of unfection, I still think the prejudice of society is terrible. But still we need a policy for infection.
170SY Even we can not deny the cases that they are causing problems in society, I foundamentally think they are victims.
170WY Even we can not deny the cases that they are causing problems in society, I foudAmentally think they are victims.
174MY It depends on the sub type.
175HMADLOCN I feel sorry.
175SY I feelsorry.
175WY Person with weak will.
Images of Life (Not in the printed version)

2 Just only gratitude under the feeling of God's or Nature's greatness.
3 Heavier than Earth.
4 1) My comrades' "inochi" who died as special attack corps in war time. 2) The "inochi" which belongs to the physically handicapped who lives desperately they cannot move even a limb at all by themselves.
5 PICTURE
6 There is no difference among plants, animals, insects and human as having a life(same value).
7 Something that is supposed not to be able to be investigated forever by human wisdom. Scientists should be more modest.
9 I think "inochi" is something that is given to be lived. I have an idea of a chart like
: to live simply----to live better----let it be lived.
10 Because it is finite, when there is "inochi" I would like to take good care of "inochi" in order not to have regret. I believe that both my and other's life could not be sustained by anything.
12 Most important thing or thing that I want to take good care of. A life of a day is superior to money or luxuries. Above all, it is important to put this value of life as a basis of education. I'd like to get to know that to take good care of a person's life is directly linked to their (self-) happiness.
14 Everything has a life, and the life of a person is consisted by a soul(heart) and a body. A life is the only and unique thing, and could not be substituted for another.
15 Water.
16 A person, life and death, existence, universality and a consciousness. I am taking care of a meeting for thinking on life for doctors, nurses, theologians and the general people. There I hold meetings on medicine and religion five times a year. "Shijihosu Meeting", I am working on a same matter with doctors and people relating to medicine for ten years.
17 A dear and important thing.
18 1)A physiological life of a living body, if we look on an individual, there is a infinite past, but to an individual, there is always death. But still a possibility of continued existence is kept in DNA. 2)Though an individual is physiologically finite, their "inochi", the life of a person, there is a cultural and social life in addition to a physiological life. In this point, we can say, the 20th century is an age with equally exclusive view toward "inochi", life.
19 The value which shouldn't be taken for a reason except for natural death and death which you choose yourself. Life is a thing that can be given but not taken away, however, in case it is given it is necessary to behave while considering its dignity sufficiently.
20 A dignified thing with irrecoverable individuality and creativity which cannot be permitted to be treated easily by human knowledge, so this should be treated with piety as a thing with an admirable power.
21 PICTURE: Human's life is in a cerebrum, so I admit a brain death as a human's death. Cell or DNA is only an element of life.
22 1)I recall my father, mother, brothers and daughter. I lost my father when I was 7 years old and my mother when I was 3. I associate the foundation of self-existence with the continuance of physical characteristics and characteristics features in me. 2)I actually feel an enriched life and breath when my body and heart come into silence during I am doing Zazen. 3)I am moved by life when I see flowers, trees, animals and babies.
23 Precious. Not to stop by ourselves. Let to be lived by someone, not me.
24 Something with dignity that must be respected above other things.
25 The existence that is given and supported by something big.
26 PICTURE: The book of "inochi" is the planet called Earth. Clouds in the sky or the earth or ocean. The book of "inochi" of Earth is great nature. Many stars. Eternal time.
27 the ground, a spring, life, to live, a life, life and death, to bring up, to protect
28 Because a life of a person is the existence that is beyond human's consideration, so if possible, we should try to pull out natural power 100%. There is nothing more wonderful than to be able to complete a life with a healthy soul. For a mission of medicine, or for maintaining a life of a person, animals, except for human beings, have fallen victims, but I think this is nothing but an extravagance of humans. Please pray for the repose of souls of animals that lost lives for medical studies.
29 the sky
30 an eternity, an universality, an immortality, a light, a reincarnation
31 alight of a candle, a candle
32 Only one and important life.
33 Life is the thing that anyone cannot institute for others. Something that is a round globular form.
36 life = the world that the person could live in
37 I would like to take good care of life that is given by my parents. It is my duty to God to utilize my life in order to serve the society.
38 Your life is only one and an important thing.
39 An extreme value.
41 Not as a biological life but an image of "inochi" to see human beings and moreover other animals in total including all, mental, feeling, good parts and bad parts. "Inochi" , my favorite word. So, for me, to answer this question, I want to value "sincerity", because we can not understand anything by the word that only slips on a surface.
42 Respect for life. Life is the ground for everything. "Life is heavier than Earth."
43 abundant, warm, green, Earth and love.
44 When I heard the word "inochi", I recall "death". On the other hand, I also think about a cheerful life.
46 Only countless happiness, countless light and eternity is life.
47 Life should be left to natural responsibility I think. I have a doubt to value "inochi" extremely.
48 Dignity of life. Life is sacred. You can not make by human power. " A reverence to life." Quality of life. I don't know how to protect a life of a vegetative patient. I do not know what to do and what the patient and the family need. When they can not stay in hospital forever.
49 finite, dignity, value
50 It is a mysterious energy and conceals infinite possibility. Also, because it is fragile, it is necessary to cultivate a safe environment.
51 Many and various , big or small, lives have been lead on Earth where the only living organisms exist in the universe for several hundred years. I feel an infinite mystery in the future of life of birth and growth.
52 "Inochi" does not have the same meaning as "life". "Inochi" is an expression of original life which makes life, and it is impossible to manipulate. In the sense, I think that "inochi" is a spiritual existence of "to live" from let "to live in".
53 an infinite and important thing. Something easy to break. Something that I want everyone to take good care of. Something like fallen leaves that run down the steam.
54 Human life is the process that organizes the body, mentality and the cooperation of both, and in the same time, if we see this in a big view, life would support the mutual complementary existence of these and also lead these totally, so human life could be accepted subjectively in personality as existence. This human life would be realized as personal life through the existensive association, and in the extreme, this is supported and realized by religious associations or devout associations.
55 Something that is inherited from parents to children. From conception until a person loses all. Signs of life.
56 I do not have a nice impression to this word, because this sounds, more than a word, "seimei", to appeal to the emotions.
57 It is universal to not only human beings but also to various animals and plants in the sense of a living organism, I mean from every kind of living organisms, we should direct our thoughts to the universality called "inochi".
58 Take better care of yourself. A little light or hope.
59 1) Comparing the words seibutsu(living organisms) or seimei(life), this is the word that includes a lot of emotional, poetic and literary images towards life. 2) It shows a composition of not only human beings but also all creatures, living things that live, on the Earth, and still more including non-living things, behavior of all Nature. The word with the most broad meaning. 3) "Water of inochi", "the word of inochi", "a benefactor of inochi" and "a rope of inochi", these contain gratitude toward the most important thing in this world.
60 " Inochi" has not only a biological meaning but also an emotional meaning. If we are given birth in this world, I would like to take good care of life by growing up in good health and cheerfully, but unfortunately if I get a fatal disease which is impossible to be cured, the treatment would be a palliative therapy under my consent after enough information disclosure. I want to avoid measures only to prolong my life. Also in the case of showing severe dementia or being in a vegetative state, I want to avoid a radical cure of combinations of diseases, but a treatment depending on symptoms. I have given a living will writing down the same thing to Japan Death with Dignity Association and am always carrying the document too.
61 The beauty of universe. Something that is enchanting and mysterious. Something that cannot be substituted.
63 A life is put between two points, that are "the beginning of inochi" and "the end of inochi". We should accept the two points at both edges as sacred(not to treat artificially), but in between these two, we have to give the best care under the recognition of it as our duty. Murdering or IVF is treating both edges, so these contain ethical problems, but for "gene" therapy, we are treating something that already exists in this world(even inside mother's body), so there is no matter.
a life
------------------------------------------------
the beginning of inochi the end of inochi
"a doctrine of sacredness in the two edges of a life"
64 a hope
65 PICTURE: Something infinite in time and space, so we can accept death. Physical life is temporary. We have to call it different from God or Buddha. A person shines the most when they touch life. When it breaks, we can touch(such as deficiency or damage).
66 First we think of "a person" when we hear the word "inochi", but when what is "a person"? Even many people have made good efforts to deal with a proposition of "what is a person" for a long time, still the definition of "a person" is undiscovered. So we interpret a proposition of what is "inochi" in various and arbitrary ways. I also mention that my idea is still immature and incomplete.
67 The most important thing for both human beings and living organisms.
68 Drama on TV. Because it's stage is this place. And also on this chance, I wish establishment of medical centers for mothers and babies would be more active.
69 Because "inochi" is a gift from God, it is not permitted to treat as our pleasure by our own or social will. But it is necessary to think well, on physical death and after death (I also meant religiously) because of the very transient inochi of a person.
70 Human beings are living things.
71 "inochi" is something that belongs to the self for every person and every living thing, so we should not, never, entrust this to other people. Also there is the end of "inochi" and no one can avoid death, so I want to take good care of "inochi" that I have now and accept peaceful death. Human society as a whole should continue to make an effort in order to make all people like the above .
72 Respect for life. But this is not same as "human dignity" which is am absolute matter. A person cannot reach to true happiness only by living morally right, a person wishes to live religiously.
73 universe, truth, love, vision
74 I had experienced that a lot of children and adolescents lost their lives unreasonably in war time. I also lost my parent, my sister and young brother by diseases when I was young, and also myself, while in the war and after the war, was in hospital for a long time because of severe tuberculosis and I recovered. Moreover I have lost my wife by cancer when she was 38 years old. Because I can feel the dignity of human life keenly, I have enjoyed organizations relating to bioethics such as of progression of organ transplantation, of death with dignity etc., and with my private resources. I am also working in many aspects and for now self-group organizations in Japan, they are eager to enact their movements, but still I feel the ability to achieve the aim in order to get together is lost.
75 As for my job, I do have more chances to think about "inochi" of animals rather than that of human beings. Under the thought that "human beings", "beasts", "insects", "trees", "flowers", and all others are raise "inochi" up in the same principle, I want to accept the development of medicine with natural gratitude and not being too proud.
76 PICTURE: peace, hope, love
77 a coacervate in primitive ocean---plankton in ocean---an ecosystem
an ocean=liquor amnii, Earth=an uterus human is part of nature.
Though I think if we write life as which English cannot express, "inochi" belongs to an individual in the same time not to an individual. Not for anyone, in the same time, but for everyone. Every kind of "inochi"(such as of a human, of a monkey, of a cat, of a plant ) is all same. But I feel it difficult to call bacilli as "inochi". If an origin of life is a coacervate, also bacilli have "inochi".

78 Though humans cannot live their "inochi", lives without eating, I think we do not have enough consideration toward food. Care "inochi" much more.
79 A thing that cannot be made by human power. A thing that is given, we receive from the big existence.
80 If I look a distance, it is beautiful, valuable and magnificent. If I extend this, it is selfish, arbitrary and hopeless.
82 A common fortune which is very individual.
83 a light, a depth, a growth, an everyday life, ordinary people, woods
A gap between everyday life and the wonder of life. A value and dignity of human's life and my own life. Human life: what kind of human life makes life brighter? What is my life? my hand(a part of life) Life that can be seen and life that cannot be seen.
84 a spring, a shoot, young greens, blood, a libido, a steam, a swirl, a reflection, blue, green, to live, to move, to shine, response, autonomous, a rhythm, a language, a conversation, a nest
85 1) Because it is precious, I find "inochi", life in the playing figures of animal babies and human children. 2) I find "inochi", life when flowering plants which were cut start to grow roots in water of vase. 3) I find "inochi", life when I saw a new shoot of a flowering plant which already seems to be dead from the soil of a pot. I can feel
big "inochi", life in an occupation of great nature. There is a person in a terminal stage who suffers rheumatism for 40 years with no aim or objects to live. Sometimes the person cries, "let me take euthanasia as fast as possible". If I could, I want to convert this suffering and sadness to A brighter object in some way. I always make conversations considering what can be done in order to give a light to and brighten life.
86 Though I do not have a special religious background, the image of "inochi", life that I, in presence, can consent by understanding is the recognition and actual experience of "a birth, to get old, to get diseases and a death" and "an occupation of a tree and a grass".
87 A gift from above. A thing beyond human power. A value and an infinite power.
88 Teaching children to take good care of life. It is important to teach the reality of every organism.
89 PICTURE: heavy, finite, bright, an important thing. The image of "inochi", life that occurs to me is the drawing of the heart. I am a midwife. In the spot of a birth, ant child in any situation, it is the start of "inochi", life. I face seriously the moment or the short time in thinking how important it is. I always wish that a child whom I helped deliver would live happily, and take good care of their "inochi" and also other's "inochi". Take good care of "inochi" until the time comes. I also tell this to the parents.
90 I think "inochi" seems to be a gift given to living organisms, human beings, animals and plants, so we cannot easily say the existence of them would also disappear because the figure that we can see has gone. I also believe "inochi" sometimes dwell in non-organisms. Physical and biological living being is one type or only a vessel of "inochi". I think that is looking at only one aspect. There is "inochi" and philosophy which govern it in a right hand, then for a first time science and technique in a left hand would start to be utilized. Running alone with science and techniques involves a danger that might cause irreparable destruction or sins. The conception that easily justifies the first of science and technology dies not value the name of philosophy. I want especially scientists and researchers to consider about this seriously and freely.
91 it is versatile, multivocal and unknown.
92 The image that occurs is a blue Earth floating in the universe.
93 "Life history" of around three billion years. Transient "inochi" of only one chance. one chance of the existence of human being.
94 I think life is a great thing. Even the persons who were considered to be unable to be alive, some would recover miraculously. A power which was not expected would be shown. Some have said that life is eternal, but I think even a person dies, life is continuing as a soul.
95 Life is limited. How to live.
97 When I see people in the spot of obstetrics and gynaecology, two ideas would be intricate. Two ideas are 1) because every life that is going to be born is precious, so even there supposed to be any disadvantage I still believe they should be given births, and 2) when I see parents whom they are going to be in the place of a gynaecologist, I would have a idea whether they can bring up a child with handicap. We cannot easily say what is right, even there is a necessity of a limit or a promise matched to the century, there also always exists cases of exceptions. The most terrible vision that I have now is the age might come when all people would think to have a natural pregnancy by a natural conduct of a couple in love is dangerous. Can we get a healthy child whose sex is to parent's taste and at the favorite term, when pregnancy comes under a complete control and a diagnosis using a fertilized egg is done? Where does love go?
98 1) The eyes of a chicken when they hatch out from eggs. 2) The first cry of a new born infant at the room for births. 3) The sad eyes of injured people going to die at war in Bangkok.
99 Dignity, something that have the best value happiness and something finite.
100 Something that is most respected for living organisms.
101 I cannot answer easily to ask me on life over again, because I was in the condition to think always of life.
103 "Inochi" is important.
104 Inochi must be brightened with a good care only because it is everlasting. Not to lament for your unhappy life of this time, but, in the view of eternity, how to endure this time, because of human's reincarnation. Also a person to endure is an ascetic. I am trying to let everyone to support patients by overlapping a beautiful figure overcoming adversity to inochi.
105 1) Something given by God, great Nature(great power). 2) We should treat not only my life but also others' lives with good care while we are alive. 3) Life is to live like a person.
106 To live, next generation, pregnancy, oocyte, sperm, conception, fertilization and heart.
107 I've learned a lot from "A First Night of Inochi"(Tamio Hohjo). Inochi is beyond convenience or pleasure, and is the existence which necessarily accompanies suffering or sadness. The essence would not change even if we move anything from one place to another in any way. The effect that ignores this essence is only the effort just to put suffering or sadness to another aspect. The effort of shijiphos. But still we have to do these kind of efforts.
108 A heart that flies in the blue sky. A kind thing which is easy to break like a glass. A thing that is bright in lights of seven colors like blue, red or yellow. Something that is necessary for a person in order to live.
109 Fragile but beautiful and strong with energy. Future. Treasures for everyone.
111 Life is something you can take part in creating. "Inochi" is something you cannot give to somebody else. Life is a gift from heaven. We cannot invade its sacredness and dignity. I cannot admit suicide. I cannot admit euthanasia. I cannot admit death with dignity. I can say life is a soul. We must treasure it.
112 We put up the slogan " a life of a person is heavier than the whole Earth". On the contrary, we, Japanese, have made up the society where there is nothing so "light" as a person's life and we have been living in the society. We must think of this point in discussing about "Inochi", unless the discussion will turn out to be only the self-satisfaction of researchers.
114 Artificial environment and natural environment. Destruction of nature. Harmony of human being and nature. Ecological fascism. Relation between parents and children, discipline and fear of it. Neurosis and nervousness. Environment of fetus. My genes. Coexistence with handicapped people.
115 Infinite lives.
116 The most important thing in this world.
117 Mysterious and irreplaceable thing.
118 Too vulnerable!
119 Something that cannot to be replaced. Something sole or unique that we should take good care of. A right to live. One's own thing. Something that is governed by others.
120 An eternal life. Buddha. Biophilosophy. Namu Myoho Rengekyo("Glory Be to the Sutra of the Lotus of the Supreme Law!", reality of life.)
121 The first thing that comes to my mind is the smile and the active movement of a baby or a child. The word "inochi" reminds me the smile of any age. Next is a curiosity. The curiosity to see and think everything freely, earnestly and mischievously in various view makes the existence of a person brighter. A person with little curiosity makes me feel with small contents, and also the life of them seems to be like water. A person in any age who is challenging something seems to have brighter "inochi".
122 A spot when a baby is born. A baby themselves. A death. A gladness. Parents.
123 Something that dwells in all living organisms, and "inochi" is constructed only by taking "inochi" away from other living organisms.
124 Not only human beings but also plants or animals also have lives.
125 It is not a cool physical thing but a thing lighted by a warm light.
127 "To be alive", when I woke up in the morning "inochi"------to think, to behave, to be happy, to be sad and to be angry(emotions). "Sulky". "Fragile". "The birth of a new life". "Struggling with a disease". "The rest of inochi of a person who is going to die".
128 Last time Mother Theresa came to Japan, the word that she mentioned which I could not forget was "Japan has a poor heart even though economics has progressed". In our country, the idea of respect of human rights is poor. So bioethics would be a precious study. People relating to medicine should be able to a person who stands by patients.
130 A resource how to live and spend a "life".
131 Because it is too difficult, I do not know what to write down. 20 years have passed since I came to Tsukuba. For now, my parents are dead and children are independent, so I have built a cottage in Mt. Tsukuba and there I attend the university. It is in the forest where no houses are seen, but somehow I do not feel lonely. I think it because there are a lot of "inochi" of trees, flowers, insects and various animals. My cats are getting wilder and at home than when they were in the dormitory. I have noticed recently that there are something similar in them to us, human beings. On the other hand, I am deeply impressed to the author, myself, who does animal experiments as a scientist and sets forth an argument of its justification. (I'm sorry of the unclearness of the meaning.)
132 Fetus, dignity and fuzzy.
133 First the word, "dignity of life" comes to my mind.
135 Something important, mysterious and fragile.
136 "Inochi" is irreplaceable and vulnerable. Nobody cannot infringe on it.
137 Human beings obtain the way of crossing a river, flying in the sky and moving on the ground. We should aim at mental clarification after we are satisfied with food, clothing and shelter. We will find a way to make much of "inochi" in there. Medical treatment has already progressed to an extent enough for human life. So it is important for us to live facing death.
138 "Life" is something that acts, has an opinion and shows its opinion. It is strange to kill hundreds of people at war when we say, "a life is heavier than Earth". This is a basic issue that we, the human race, have and it is also a contradiction we have to take other organisms' lives for food. But if this contradiction does not exist, our lives, won't be possible to be carried out. (Of course there is a vegetarian who live on food from plant.)
139 It is a foundation of "a life story". It supports "self".
140 We should value "life" which is given by heaven. I'm absolutely against medical system which is based on excess medicines. Doctors should be more faithful towards justice and humanity. Health insurance should be reconsidered immediately. Abolish compulsory membership of health insurance.
143 I consider the instructions from Buddha as science or wisdom. I wonder how you consider or understand the international comparison even religions such as primitive Christianity or Islam do not include deep discussion.
144 Under the hypothesis that "inochi" is something very small, I image something beloved or cute, but this way of thinking comes from our unconsious superiority. If abnormality is found by a diagnosis before fetus gets into 22 weeks and mother decides to abort, I would do so. Even I do think about importance of "inochi" that exist there and the right to live even with deficiency, but I also think about, If the baby does not have ability to live by themselves, the burden that parents should take so the only way for me is to lend a hand to abortion.
145 1)Natural science has mad human's life abundant in materials and convenient in functions, but it also possess aspects to lose animation from us and make us dull to appetite for humanity. 2)We have to propel the development of metaphysical subjects. 3)Naturally a person is the extremely incomplete existence. 4)A power of life is strong. A person always grows and develops in own figure or status. It is only a form so we should pay attention not to misjudge human-like appetite or value. 5)all organisms are made to live. We should improve the view to pay attention to individuals. 6)Now all scientific knowledge and technology should be used to protect human health and peaceful life. The age of big revolution.
146 Life is respectable. Life is irreplaceable.
147 First I think "inochi" is something we trust and accept even in any forms. The source of "inochi" breaths deep inside our existence unrelated to human power. Movement of a heart, flow of blood, secretes of hormones etc. are controlled by life itself and we are not trying to move consciously. Also it is not depending on the work of genes. The moderns should touch irrecoverable "inochi" only from there total happiness arises. Our study or technologies are only ways or methods in order to see convenient world or "inochi", so the method itself is not the existence itself. We should understand and recognize this more correctly, so if we are going to adopt the method, from total viewpoint and not to over evaluate its efficiency, I think it is better to be more carefully and prudently.
149 It is an existence that even though it depends on the body deeply, it is not only a page of it but itself it represents an unique feature. Of course, its existence is very important.
151 I always think that all end by deaths. If there is a world after death, we have to think about "inochi" through it.
152 the origin of human vitality. The carrier of genes which have been passed from generation to generation. It is a crystal of mysteries of the universe.
153 It is the most important thing in the world. It is that one's existence is recognised. Life and death. Human beings are there to die, so we should value being alive.
154 PICTURE: the heart
155 The dignity of human beings. The existence of whom is alive. The most important thing which is to be protected.
156 It is your possession. It is also important for people around you.
158 PICTURE: Because life is something to be respected, we should not delete it thoughtlessly. I failed in expressing my images in drawing, but it is the existence that radiance's like sun and light up the world, I think. Recently people tend not to have chances to think about life and people are easily killing themselves or others, so I want to teach enough to my child about importance of life such as animals and plants also have life that why we have to take good care of in order to hand to next generation.
159 PICTURE: Responsibility to maintain health for self, family and community. Human rights. Improvement of medical system. Vanish sadness in order to be happy.
162 It is the only thing that cannot be replaced by other things. Each of them has a dignity and is important. I am an atheist who wish for everyone to think about importance of "life" and grow a heartful mind for not only human lives but also for "every things" and "organisms". Even though I hold all lives in reverence, I also feel the weakness of human lives and our powerlessness. Underneath human lives, there flows responsible ways of living of each individual.
163 "Inochi" is a combination(we would call it also heart or feeling) of a cell which is controlled by DNA and the energy that the cell has. In that sense the body and the mind is one and when one is changed the other will be also chanced.
164 1)To grow. To become big. 2)To have an interests in others and have a communication with others(if it is human beings). 3)It accompanies life , aging, diseases and death. 4)It has a function of self maintenance, self reproduction and self multiplication. 5)It includes death from its beginning.
166 It is a sight that a burning flame is slowly extinguishing.
168 a life, lives of everything, importance and respect of a life, living, a stir(activity)
169 The gift from God.
170 The most important thing.
171 The substance of this question is so difficult and I cannot comment. Sorry.
172 It is given by an absolute existence called God. It is one's who possesses it. But at the same time it should be protected for love from parents and for human society. The life is not only physical existence but also mental existence. It includes the issue of soul.
173 infinite energy
175 Even it is an important thing, it is inevitable to avoid the end. A living thing without dignity as person can not be called as "inochi".


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