Attitudes to Biotechnology in Japan and New Zealand in 1997, with International Comparisons

- Darryl Macer (Macer@biol.tsukuba.ac.jp)
Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Tsukuba,
Tsukuba Science City 305, JAPAN

- Howard Bezar (BezarH@Lincoln.cri.nz)
Crop and Food Research, Private Bag 4704,
Christchurch, New Zealand

- Nicola Harman (Harman@hort.cri.nz)
HortResearch, Private Bag 92 1169, Auckland, NEW ZEALAND

- Hiroshi Kamada (hkamada@sakura.cc.tsukuba.ac.jp)
Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Tsukuba,
Tsukuba Science City 305, JAPAN

- Nobuko Y. Macer
Eubios Ethics Institute, P.0. Box 125, Tsukuba Science City, 305 JAPAN

Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 7 (1997), 137-151.


The attitudes that people have towards biotechnology are basic to the acceptance of new applications of biotechnology in agriculture and medicine. There have been surveys for the past 7 years on public opinions in Japan and New Zealand, which allow trends to be examined. One particularly interesting question is whether the arrival of foodstuffs from genetically modified organisms into supermarkets, and the associated debates, has altered opnions.

There are various methods used in surveys, such as face-to-face interviews (Couchman & Fink-Jensen, 1990), mail response (Macer, 1992, Macer, 1994) and telephone interviews. For the 1997 survey we used telephone interviews, using the Eurobarometer 46.1 questionnaire, with minor modifications for local conditions from that used by Einsiedel in Canada (1997), as part of the international study on attitudes to biotechnology (BEPACG, 1997). This paper reports the results of this survey with some comparisons to the 15 countries in Eurobarometer 46.1 (called EU here), and Canada (Einsiedal, 1997). The EU sample includes Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, UK, Finland, Sweden, and Austria. Further in-depth comparisons of all the results is expected later.


Response rate and sample

The 1997 surveys in Japan and New Zealand were national random telephone number surveys, and responses were obtained from every region in New Zealand, and all 47 prefectures in Japan. The average response rate in Japan was 44% (N=405) with the survey conducted from 28 December 1996 to 8 April 1997; and in New Zealand it was 25% (N=489) with sampling from February 1997 to 18 June 1997. The margin of error at 95% confidence level for these sample sizes and responses rates for a 50% answer to a question is 4-5% in both countries.

Correction Notice January, 2001 The authors of this paper regret to inform readers that one of the interviewers of the public sample in Japan (N=405), who is not an author, has admitted research fraud and that 88 responses were obtained by written responses to survey forms not by random digit telephone dialing as understood by the authors or in the contract for interviewing.

In each country about 20 interviewers were used, and while there were differences between interviewers, there was no significant difference between a professional telephone survey company and the part-time interviewers which were used for the majority of samples. In NZ sampling was more difficult in Auckland where there is more tele marketing activity causing respondent fatique. The response rate for 156 questionnaires conducted by the Business Research Centre, a professional market research company was 22% in Wellington and Manawatu, which is lower than the average overall suggesting that either interview experience was not an important factor in refusals, or it could be that the South Island respondents have a higher response rate. The average time for the questionnaire in Japanese was 30 minutes, and 24 minutes in New Zealand, and in both cases the response rates suffered because of the warning that the questionnaire would take about 20 minutes to complete. We can compare these response rates with 25% in Japan and 22% in New Zealand in the 1993 random mail response surveys of Macer (1994).

In Japan 48% were female, the mean age was 41 years, 66% were married, 60% had children, 33% were university graduates, 3% had postgraduate training, and13% attended religious services at least once a month. In New Zealand 58% were female, the mean age was 45 years, 58% were married, 71% had children, 17% were university graduates, 10% had postgraduate training, and 27% attended religious services at least once a month.


Attitudes to science and technology

A question on the perceived impact of seven areas of science and technology began the questionnaire (Table 1). Comparisons with the data from the European Commission Eurobarometer 46.1 reveal that there is more optimism about solar energy, new materials and space exploration, in Japan and New Zealand (and Canada) but similar optimism towards computers and information technology, telecommunications to the EU. However there is less optimism about biotechnology in Japan and New Zealand.

In Japan and NZ there was no statistical difference in the postive or negative attitudes towards science and technology applications by sex, education, religiousity or among those who had heard of cloning or food from GMOs.

There was significantly less optimism in New Zealand about genetic engineering than in Japan, Canada or EU average (Table 1) suggesting New Zealand is more similar to Austria, Germany and Greece in Europe over this issue. We should note that there had been considerable media debate in January 1997 over the import of foods from genetically modified organisms, but this was not unique to New Zealand. Interestingly there was more optimism about telecommunications in New Zealand, and the different scores between different examples suggest people have selective views on science and technology.

The more negative attitudes to genetic engineering in New Zealand compared to Japan have been seen in surveys in 1990/1991 and 1993 using similar questions on attitudes to science and technology. The 1990 survey in New Zealand was conducted by face-to-face interviews (Couchman & Fink-Jensen, 1990), and the 1991 survey in Japan (Macer, 1992), and 1993 surveys in Japan and New Zealand (Macer, 1994) by mail response. In 1991 76% in Japan, and in 1990 57% in New Zealand, thought that genetic engineering would be a worthwhile area in their country, while 20% and 8%, respectively, were extremely worried about it. In 1993 57% in Japan and 41% in New Zealand believed that genetic engineering was a worthwhile area for scientific research, while 15% and 49%, respectively, had a lot of worries about it. There may be a trend against genetic engineering over time, which was also observed in Europe (BEPCAG, 1997).


Public understanding & images of biotechnology

The next question was an open one to examine what images came to mind from the term "biotechnology", "Q2. You've just indicated to what degree you think various new technologies will change the way we live. Now, I would like to ask you what comes to mind when you think about modern biotechnology in a broad sense, that is, including genetic engineering." A list of responses is given at the end of this paper. The comments were placed into upto two categories following the method of Macer (1992, 1994), and the comparisons presented in Table 2.

Comparisons can be made to the open comments to Q14 in Table 13. There were more value statements made in response to Q2, especially in New Zealand where 39% expressed a concern, and 19% expressed a positive view of science, both much more than this type of statement in Japan. There may be people in society who a optimists and pessimists about genetics, but many expressed both, saying control was needed. The pomato was cited by 8% of respondents in Japan, being the development of biotechnology that is most familiar.

A set of ten statements on biotechnology were then asked to examine the understanding of biotechnology and also the images people had. The results are in Table 3. The knowledge of biotechnology expressed by correct answers to option 1, 5, 6, and 7 in New Zealand was highest, and Japan scored lowly on this scale. This is interesting given that in Japan 96+% of people in previous surveys since 1991 have heard of biotechnology, the highest in the world (Macer, 1992, 1994). It appears that this question may not correlate to correct answers on this list. Japan had the most correct answers for option 8, a question that looked at whether the media image had suggested larger animals were made by genetic engineering. This question shows that while New Zealanders have a high degree concern about genetic engineering in Q1, they do have relatively high awareness, which is a point also noted for some European countries which oppose it (BEPCAG, 1997). The answers to these questions are sometimes difficult to interpret, such as option 3 where the answer is no, because of environmental differences (e.g. in media these differences were discussed much after cloning story).

Q4 explored beliefs about nature/nurture of human characteristics. "Q4. There are differing views about whether people inherit particular characteristics, that is, whether people are born with these characteristics or whether they acquire them mainly from their upbringing, or the conditions in which they lived. Please tell me whether you think each of the following characteristics is mainly inherited or mainly the result of upbringing and living conditions"... The results for the ten options are in Table 4.

The strongest consensus in both countries was inheritance of eye colour (cf. C 98%, EU 94%), then in New Zealand body size (as in C 90%, EU 85%) but not in Japan. In Japan a person's body size was seen as inherited by only 61%, and athletic abilities were higher at 75% (cf. NZ 64%, C56%, EU 45%). Logically this could be related to the perceived excellence of black athletes in track and field and many other sports, and the generally poorer performance of Japanese athletes compared to other races. In NZ genetic susceptibility to mental illness was seen as the major cause by 69% (cf. C 78%, EU 61%). Japan was significantly lower at 45%. Canada was particular high, perhaps suffering from the geneticization of disease by the media reporting that has been speculated in the USA (Nelkin & Lindee,1995). Japanese were generally less likely to put the emphasis on genetics compared to the other countries, which may also be related to the idea that everyone is born equal and their work and environment mould them. Attitude to work, criminal tendencies and tendency to be happy were seen as a result from upbringing as in the other countries. People did express the understanding of mixed origins of behaviour, and we should note that some people insisted to say both inherited and upbringing half and half - and in this case the answer was put as DK.


Table 1: Attitudes to seven areas of science and technology

"Q1. Science and technology change the way we live. I am going to read out a list of areas in which new technologies are currently developing. For each of these areas, do you think it will improve our way of life in the next 20 years, it will have no effect, or it will make things worse?". J=Japan, N=405; NZ=New Zealand, N=508; EU=European Union, 15 countries, weighed average, N=15,000 (Eurobarometer 46.1); C=Canada, N=1002 (Einseidal, 1997). Note that only some people were asked to respond to both biotechnology and genetic engineering. About 2% of the respondents wanted to put both 1 and 3, which was put into Don't know.

%
Solar energy
Computers & information technology
Biotech-nology
Genetic engineering
Telecom-munications
New materials or substances
Space exploration
JNZ JNZJ NZJNZ JNZJ NZJNZ
Will improve92 927780 625854 327687 717154 50
No effect55 464 578 1387 81730
Make worse0.51 9912 171239 533 668
Don't Know32 10522 192721 6218 152312
No answer0.50 200 0.400 0.500.5 0.20.5 0
EUC EUCEU CEUC EUCEU CEUC
Will improve74 857783 687254 548188 647649 55
No effect159 9412 6139 11513 103031
Make worse43 81120 93626 356 779
Don't Know73 62- 13-11 5217 7145
No answer00 00- 0-0 000 000

Table 2: Images of Biotechnology

%
NZ
J
Notstated / Don't Know11 33
Sheep cloning153
Human cloning43
Organ transplants1.4 0.5
Other genetic engineering6 12
Plant genetic engineering / labels5 15
Medicines or combat disease18 10
Environment44
Human assisted reproduction3 1
Other food or agriculture12 16
Gene testing21
Gene therapy0.23
DNA fingerprinting0.4 0.2
Pomato08
Future is positive with S & T19 4
Ethics or concern comment39 8


Specific applications of biotechnology

Earlier studies (Macer, 1992, 1994) in both countries have found people give stronger support to applications of biotechnology that are specific and perceived to be more acceptable than those which they object to. Attitudes to a series of six specific applications of biotechnology were examined, and the results of each option and the means of four point scales of agreement are shown in Table 5. In Europe it was found that risk was less significant than moral acceptability in shaping public perceptions to these applications (BEPCAG, 1997), as has been observed in the analysis of open comments in the Japanese surveys in 1991, and surveys in ten countries in Asia and Pacific in 1993 (Macer, 1994).

The proportion of Canadians who had heard of the six options were 66%, 64%, 62%, 82%, 66%, and 64%, respectively (Einseidal, 1997). Again New Zealand scored highest in awareness of specific developments. Japan scored particularly low in option 5.3., the option which has the longest history of practical use. Japanese also showed low awareness of the medical options in 5.5. and 5.6., which may relate to the lower use of transplants and genetic diagnosis than New Zealand or Canada. The means of the scales provide the easiest method for comparisons, and are given for all respondents (not only those who had heard of the developments).

The application least acceptable was the use of pigs to provide hearts for organ transplants, although in Japan it was seen to be as useful as other applications and the least risky. This was also the third most commonly mentioned story of biotechnology in the open comments, behind crop genetic engineering and cloning. There was also less support for mouse model as of disease in New Zealand, consistent with the previous studies which suggested more concern with use of animals in research there. There was more difference between applications in New Zealand than Japan, with use of bacteria to make insulin being the most acceptable application. In the 1990/1991 studies a question found plant genetic manipulation more acceptable than microbes, then animals and least humans. In this study insect resistant crops were well supported, but the use in food was considered less morally acceptable, as in Europe.

There were no significant differences in the series of questions and statements concerning biotechnology between those who mentioned cloning or foods from GMOs and those who did not within each country.


Table 3: Public understanding and images of biotechnology (%'s)

Q3. Here are some statements. For each of them, please tell me whether you think it is true or false. If you don't know, say so and we'll skip to the next statement. True False DK

IMAGE=relates to image people have of biotechnology; TRUE/FALSE=understanding question

1. There are bacteria which live from waste water.(TRUE)

2. Ordinary tomatoes do not contain genes, while genetically modified tomatoes do. (FALSE - IMAGE)

3. The cloning of living things produces exactly identical offspring. (IMAGE)

4. By eating a genetically modified fruit, a person's genes could also become modified. (IMAGE)

5. Viruses can be contaminated by bacteria. (FALSE)

6. Yeast for brewing beer consists of living organisms. (TRUE)

7. It is possible to find out in the first few months of pregnancy whether a child will have Down's syndrome. (TRUE)

8. Genetically modified animals are always bigger than ordinary ones. (FALSE - IMAGE)

9. More than half of the human genes are identical to those with chimpanzees. (TRUE)

10. It is impossible to transfer animal genes into plants. (FALSE - IMAGE)

NZ12 345 678 910
True98.414.6 71.111.145.8 86.881.0 13.143.129.6
False.251.1 15.765.021.7 4.35.552.8 14.429.6
Don'tknow1.434.1 1323.732.0 8.513.033.8 42.340.5
No answer00.2 0.20.20.4 0.40.40 0.20.2
Japan
True85.920.5 52.210.137.6 55.257.4 10.437.439.5
False2.247.8 19.361.613.1 10.49.459.2 18.323.3
Don'tknow11.931.7 28.228.249 33.932.730.2 43.837.2
No answer00 .20.2 .5.5.2.5 0
Comparisons with EU and Canada on % who said true (false)
C9515 (52) 542056 (18) 777724 (54) 5330 (38)
EU8430 (35) 462348 (19) 688135 (36) 5129 (27)

Table 4: Perceptions on genetic and environmental contributions to human traits (%'s)

NZ
Body size
Intelli-gence
Homo-sexual tend.
Eye color
Tend. to be happy
Criminal tend.
Attitude to work
Athletic abilities
Susc. to mental illness
Musical abilities
...inherited84.062.3 33.698.219.8 10.910.964.2 70.061.3
...upbringing10.530.4 34.60.471.5 78.983.827.1 12.530.4
Don't know5.57.3 31.81.48.7 11.15.38.7 17.68.3
No answer00 000 0000 0
Japan
...inherited61.146.8 8.9953 8.26.974.8 45.350.7
...upbringing33.943.3 63.41.784.9 79.581.717.3 37.638.4
Don't know4.79.7 27.5311.6 11.910.67.4 16.610.4
No answer.2.2 .2.2.5 .5.7.5.5 .5

Table 5: Perceived use, risk, moral acceptability and support for biotechnology applications

Q5. I am going to read you a list of applications which are coming out of modern biotechnology. For each one, please tell me whether you have heard of the application, then let me know whether you definitely agree, tend to agree, tend to disagree, or definitely disagree with the following questions.

5.1. Using modern biotechnology in the production of food and drinks, for example, to make them higher in protein, keep longer, or taste better.

5.2. Inserting genes from one plant species into a crop plant to make it more resistant to insect pests.

a) Have you heard of this application?

5.3. Introducing human genes into bacteria to produce medicines and vaccines, for example, the production of insulin for diabetics.

5.4. Developing genetically modified animals for medical studies, such as a mouse that has genes which causes it to develop cancer that can be studies in the laboratory.

5.5. Introducing human genes into animals to produce organs for human transplants, such as pigs for human hearts.

5.6. Using genetic testing to determine whether human embryos have a genetic predisposition for serious diseases such as muscular dystrophy (People not familiar to cystic fibrosis or thalassaemia).

%
Food and drinks
Pest-resistant crops
Human genes in bacteria
Mouse to develop cancer
Pigs with human hearts
Preimplantation diagnosis
JNZ JNZJ NZJNZ JNZJ NZ
a) Have you heard of this application?
Yes56.674.8 64.875.6 31.763.162.6 88.342.6 76.035.874.1
No36.424.0 2922.2 60.135.132.9 10.951.9 22.656.524.6
DK71.2 6.22.2 8.21.84.5 0.85.5 1.47.71.4
b. How useful do you find this application is for society? Definitely agree 1, 2, 3 4 Definitelydisagree 5 DK
++14.933.1 21.855.8 33.263.327.4 54.916.2 29.324.959
+43.736.3 49.327.8 40.624.848.3 29.335.8 25.737.625.1
-22.312.7 15.66.0 10.53.610.7 5.120.9 12.512.44.8
--5.511.9 3.25.4 1.53.43.7 8.19.5 23.84.75.1
DK13.66.0 10.15.2 14.25.010 2.617.6 8.720.36.0
c. How risky do you think this application is for society? Definitely agree 1, 2, 3 4 Definitelydisagree 5 DK
++14.620.8 12.718.1 12.219.616.2 22.226.1 43.614.720.6
+33.732.3 32.828.0 27.725.629.7 21.232.8 26.723.622.8
-3020.6 29.818.5 30.419.431.4 21.218.2 11.729.619.0
--2.518.1 6.527.4 4.225.26.7 30.13.7 10.710.227.7
DK19.18.1 18.38.1 25.410.116 5.419.1 7.321.89.9
d. How morally acceptable do you think this application is? Definitely agree 1, 2, 3 4 Definitelydisagree 5 DK
++4.233.7 9.943.1 11.545.410.4 24.25.5 14.914.740.4
+40.930.0 42.425.0 44.427.432.6 21.418.2 16.431.125.9
-29.812.1 25.114.3 20.710.530.1 22.439.3 19.422.414.1
--6.713.3 5.09.9 4.58.710.4 26.723.1 39.09.512.3
DK18.48.9 17.67.1 18.97.016.4 5.413.9 10.322.37.3
e. All in all, do you think this application should be encouraged? Definitely agree 1, 2, 3 4 Definitelydisagree 5 DK
++18.625.0 23.137.5 28.244.422.9 30.314.0 18.023.743.0
+38.223.8 42.526.0 3831.241.5 24.034.2 14.335.724.0
-26.320.8 21.113.1 20.27.719.2 14.926.9 17.819.510.1
--6.521.6 3.514.3 2.89.55.2 24.613.5 38.86.713.5
DK10.48.7 9.79.1 10.87.211.2 6.311.4 11.114.59.5
Means of answers 1-4 for Usefulness, Risk, Acceptability and Encouraging...*
b2.22.0 2.01.6 2.11.41.8 1.72.3 2.32.01.5
c2.32.4 2.42.6 2.42.62.3 2.62.0 1.92.52.6
d2.52.1 2.31.9 2.21.82.5 2.52.9 2.92.32.0
e2.22.4 2.12.0 2.01.82.1 2.42.5 2.92.11.9

*Note that 95%significance for 2.0 is +/-0.10. The mean of answers 1-4 (without DK)


A later question also examined the optimism that people expressed about biotechnology, "Q8. I am going to read you a list of things that might happen within the next 20 years as a result of modern biotechology. For each one, please say whether you think it is likely or unlikely to happen within the next 20 years.". The results are in Table 6.

Significantly more Japanese hesitated to predict the future saying don't know (DK), compared to Europe averaging about 11% DK, then New Zealanders, and Canadians were most confident in their expectations, with only 1-2% saying DK. On the optimistic side, half the J and NZ respondents thought environmental pollution would be reduced (cf C 58%, EU 48%); also similar proportions in J 38% and NZ 39%, thought hunger could be reduced (cf. EU 37%, C 45%). Japanese were significantly more optimistic about cures for genetic diseases than any of the other countries surveyed (EU 56%, C 50%). On the negative fears, J and NZ were less pessimistic that the range of fruits and vegetables would be reduced (cf C 36%, EU 28%); or that most existing food products would be replaced (cf. C 47%, EU 45%). Many people in all countries believed dangerous new diseases may be created (cf. C 73%, EU 68%). There were less fears of designer babies being made in Japan than in NZ (cf. C 43%, EU 40%). Given that NZ was less optimisitc about biotechnology in Q1, in the specific applications they were not so different from the other countries.

Also despite the concern expressed about genetic engineering, 35% in Japan and 41% in NZ said they would buy genetically modified fruits if they tasted better (C 53%, EU 27%), suggesting they do have postive images to products. However, in NZ 52% agreed with the statement "We have to accept some degree of risk from modern biotechnology if it enhances New Zealand's economic competitiveness", but in Japan only 12% agreed (C 62%, EU 28%). This suggests that Japanese respondents have some particular concern about the term risk, and also maybe about regulations given that 8% in Japan and 27% in New Zealand thought current regulations are sufficient to protect people from any risks linked to modern biotechnology (C 36%, EU 24%).


Table 6: Expectations of biotechnology

%
Japan
New Zealand
Likely
Unlikely
DK
Likely
Unlikely
DK
1. Substantially reducing environmental pollution. 45.434.120.6 47.646.65.8
2. Allowing insurance companies to ask for a genetic test before they set a person's premiums. 38.831.829.3 48.645.46.0
3. Substantially reducing world hunger. 37.938.723.4 38.756.74.6
4. Creating dangerous new diseases.79.9 5.814.372.0 21.66.3
5. Solving more crimes through genetic fingerprinting. 46.030.923.1 85.310.54.2
6. Reducing the range of fruits and vegetables we can get. 14.160.525.4 19.474.46.2
7. Curing most genetic diseases.78.7 8.313.042.3 52.05.8
8. Getting more out of natural resources in third world countries. 37.419.643.0 69.422.28.3
9. Producing designer babies.30.4 48.221.436.3 56.76.9
10. Replacing most existing food products with new varieties. 19.057.423.6 38.556.74.8


Regulation of Biotechnology

These previous two questions came from a number of questions focusing on the regulation of biotechnology (Table 7). New Zealanders were more similar to EU (23%) that current regulations protect people from risks, whereas Canadians were more satisfied (36%, Einsiedal, 1997). Japan was significantly lower than any other country in Q6.1. However, Europeans were least trusting of the biotechnologists with 56% agreeing that they would do whatever they like (C 38%). Japanese respondents tended to agree less with any statement, making the acceptance of novel foods (Q6.7) agreement more significant. In NZ, Maori organizations were seen as providing input by 45%, similar to religious organizations (48%).

When given a range of bodies, international organizations like the UN and WHO were considered the best placed bodies to regulate modern biotechnology by 62% in both countries, "Q7. Which of the following bodies do you think is best placed to regulate modern biotechnology? Please indicate the most appropriate people or body. (up to two)" (Table 8). There was no difference in the bodies that were trusted most also among the persons who mentioned cloning and those who did not. In Europe 34% chose them from the six bodies given (BEPCAG, 1997).

There were two further questions on trust in a range of information sources (Table 9, 10). In NZ schools, universities or research institutes were trusted by most people (Q9) and also the most trusted by 54%, as found in Canada (71% said they could trust them). In Japan consumer organizations were most trusted, but environmental organizations were a close second, whereas they were significantly less trusted in New Zealand. In Canada and Europe environmental organizations were trusted more than consumer organizations, as in Japan. In Japan industry came ahead of public authorities, the reverse of the other countries except for Denmark. Q11 was split so not all the respondents answered both options, for confidence in information about genetically modified crop safety and animals for human organ transplants. There were some differences with medical profession most trusted for organs, then universities, whereas for crops the answers were more similar to Q9.


Table 7: Beliefs on Regulation of Biotechnology

Q6. People have different views about the benefits and risks of modern biotechnology, and about how they should be regulated or controlled. I am going to read you a number of statements. For each one, please say whether you tend to agree or disagree.

1. Current regulations are sufficient to protect people from any risks linked to modern biotechnology

2. Irrespective of the regulations, biotechnologists will do whatever they like.

3. Only traditional breeding methods should be used, rather than changing the hereditary characteristics of plants and animals through modern biotechnology.

4. The regulation of modern biotechnology should be left mainly to industry.

5. Modern biotechnology is so complex that public consultation about it is a waste of time.

6. It is not worth putting special labels on genetically modified foods.

7. I would buy genetically modified fruits if they tasted better.

8. Religious organizations need to have their say in how modern biotechnology is regulated.

9. We have to accept some degree of risk from modern biotechnology if it enhances New Zealand's economic competitiveness.

10. Traditional breeding methods can be as effective as modern biotechnology in changing the hereditary characteristics of plants and animals.

11. Maori organisations need to have their say in how modern biotechnology is regulated. (Only in NZ)

Japan12 3456 789 1011
Agree8.012.3 17.86.315.1 8.035.422.6 11.630.9-
Disagree62.266.2 48.572.865.6 81.936.953.3 70.917.3-
DK29.821.6 33.720.919.3 10.127.624.1 17.651.8-
New Zealand
Agree26.647.0 40.321.422.6 12.341.549.0 52.244.644.6
Disagree51.841.5 50.871.674.2 84.746.842.9 40.932.346.4
DK21.611.5 8.96.93.2 3.011.78.1 6.523.08.9

Table 8: Appropriate regulatory body

JNZ EU*C
1. International organizations, UN or WHO 62623440
2. Public bodies in our country.6 211013
3. Ethics committees12 38811
4. Our national parliament3 1455
5. Scientific organizations24 402328
6. Local Iwi or Maori organization- 9--
DK103 9-
No answer0.80.6 --
All0.54 --
None of these1.21.4 43

*In the EU also 7% chose public bodies in the EU


Information Sources

Table 9: Most trusted information sources

Q9. Now I would like to know which of the following sources of information you have confidence in, to tell you the truth about modern biotechnology. Yes No (DK/No answer)

Q10. Of the sources you mentioned you have confidence in, which would you say you have MOST confidence in to tell you the truth about modern biotechnology? Most trusted

%
Japan
New Zealand
YesNo DKMostYes NoDKMost
1. Consumer organizations68.6 24.96.543.6 78.719.51.8 46.6
2. Environmental organizations65.8 28.95.339.5 65.931.92.2 22.7
3. Animal welfare organizations53.8 39.76.522.7 50.247.62.2 6.7
4. Political parties7.0 88.44.50.6 5.093.51.6 0.2
5. Trade unions15.877.9 6.309.7 87.92.40.2
6. Religious organizations7.3 87.75.01.9 20.477.42.2 3.1
7. Public authorities21.6 73.45.06.5 36.561.32.2 5.1
8. Industry26.468.1 5.58.219.4 77.82.81.4
9. Schools, universities*57.5 34.97.537.2 80.616.72.8 53.7
10. Maori organizations (N=237)- --- 18.079.42.8 0.8
11. Don't know4.8- -9.11.8 --5.3

*In New Zealand option 9 included "or research institutes".

Table 10: Confidence to tell the truth about GMO crops or pigs for xenografts

Q11.1 Now I'd like to know which of the following organizations you have confidence in to tell you the truth about new genetically modified food crops grown in fields.

Q11.2 And now, which organization would you have confidence in to tell you the truth about introducing human genes into animals to produce organs for human transplants?

J Crops N=266, Organs N=255; NZ Crops N=263, Organs N=241.

%
Japan
New Zealand
Crops
Organs
Crops
Organs
YesNo DKYesNo DKYesNo DKYesNo DK
Consumer organizations30.6 53.316.119.0 54.826.277.9 18.33.847.3 46.95.8
Environmental organizations27.2 56.816.013.0 61.026.071.1 24.34.645.2 50.24.6
Animal welfare organizations9.9 74.116.015.2 58.726.032.7 63.14.249.4 46.54.1
The medical profession10.3 73.716.025.6 48.426.058.9 36.54.668.9 27.43.7
Farmers' organizations13.2 70.816.05.4 68.526.538.4 55.56.121.6 72.65.8
Religious organizations0.4 83.516.00.4 73.526.014.1 79.56.518.7 76.35.0
National public bodies8.6 75.316.06.8 67.126.131.6 63.15.328.6 64.37.1
Industry5.478.5 16.16.767.3 26.020.276.0 3.812.482.6 5.0
Universities30.553.5 16.030.543.5 26.080.615.2 4.278.017.4 4.6
Political parties084.0 16.00.074.0 26.03.890.9 5.33.791.7 4.6
Maori Organizations- ---- -15.278.7 6.112.981.3 5.8
Television and newspapers22.6 61.316.021.1 52.926.030.8 65.43.830.3 63.16.6
None of these (spontaneous)5.3 3.6 0.8 3.3
Don't Know16.9 27.8 3.0 2.1


There were several questions examining how frequently the respondents had discussed biotechnology, and whether they had heard of it in the media. The degree to which they perceive it to be worth listening to depends on the importance given to the subject. "Q12. We've been discussing several issues to do with modern biotechnology. Some people think these issues are very important while others don't think so. On a scale from 1 to 10 where 1 is not at all important and 10 is extremely important, how important are these issues for you personally?" (Table 11). Europeans give biotechnology less importance than J, NZ or Canada.

The question on media sources was "Q13. Over the last three months, have you heard anything about stories or issues involving modern biotechnology?", and 75.4% in NZ and 43.2% in J said they had (cf. C 54%, EU 47%). Then they were asked "Was it in newspapers, magazines, on TV, radio or from other people?". The responses are in Table 12. The most popular sources were TV than newspapers, and over time there seems to be increasing use of television as a medium than newspapers (Macer, 1992). Radio is significantly more important in New Zealand than in the other countries. Magazines appear to be growing in importance compared to 1990/1991 surveys in NZ and Japan. People were less important as an information source in Japan. A following question directly asked about this, "Q15. Before today, had you ever talked about modern biotechnology with someone?". The responses are shown in Table 12. Significantly more people in New Zealand had talked about biotechnology, which may be related to the survey being done during the cloning debate.

In Q14.if the answer was affirmative, people were asked "Could you tell me what the story or issue was about?", and the open comments are listed in the appendix. They were categorised and are shown in Table 13.


Table11: Perceived importance of biotechnology

%
J
NZ
C
EU
one (Not)1.30.8 1.33.5
two2.00.6 0.53.1
three4.01.6 1.15.4
four2.54.6 2.56.3
five8.510.5 9.714.5
six]9.012.1 11.413.8
seven12.617.5 20.718.0
eight21.423.9 26.517.3
nine6.89.3 7.66.8
ten (Extremely)22.918.3 18.611.4
DK7.80.4 --
No answer1.30.4 --
Mean7.4 7.37.26.2

Table12: Where did you hear of biotechnology?

% (of Yes)
J
NZ
C
EU
Yes, TV51.276.9 64.333.2
Yes, Newspapers39.565.4 38.020.8
Yes, magazines16.930.7 32.613.6
Yes, radio3.532.8 16.37.8
Yes, people I know10.5 24.426.4-
[Spontaneous] Yes but don't remember source 15.24.55.1 6.5
Have you ever talked about biotech with someone?
No, never49.731.8 4450.9
Yes, frequently5.812.1 5.9
Yes, occasionally20.1 36.826.3
Yes, just once or twice19.1 19.114.7
DK5.30.2 2.1

Table 13: Content of media stories remembered

% of those with commentsNZ-346 J-118
Notstated / DK(8% not) (30%not)
Sheep cloning62 14
Human cloning5 2
Pig hearts for organ transplants12 2
Other genetic engineering8 8
Plant genetic engineering (+labels)24 (7) 43 (7)
Vaccines11
Med/disease (+ Gene therapy)13 (0.3) 21 (6)
Environment (+ Calcivirus in NZ)2 (1) 4
Ethics comment6 2
Human assisted reproduction4 3
Other food/agriculture (J- 4%orchids)6 13
Genetic testing1 2
DNA fingerprinting0.6 1


Discussion

There may be a trend for decreasing acceptance of genetic engineering in general in New Zealand. However, there was acceptance of specific applications, and if we want to develop a bioethically mature society, one which can balance benefits and risks of science applications, this is the better measure of acceptance of science.

One of the major questions is whether the media coverage of sheep cloning, and the event itself, would influence public opinion over biotechnology. Comparisons within these surveys between people who mentioned cloning and those who did not was made, revealing no significant differences between these groups to a range of questions. In Japan 35 mentioned sheep or human cloning debates, and in New Zealand 232 mentioned these. Another method that could have been used to measure the influence of cloning was date, before or after the media release, but there were no differences found in these groups.

Of those who mentioned cloning, in Japan 71% were male, the average age was 46 years, but in New Zealand 38% were male, and the average age was 42 years. There was only one significant difference (95% confident level) found between samples - that in Japan more males mentioned cloning than females. However there was no significant differences in either country found between the frequency that the persons talked about biotechnology with their friends, and the responses to political left-right and environmental interest scales, or the importance that was given to biotechnology as a subject.

There are several possible explanations for the small impact of awareness of cloning upon attitudes to biotechnology. One is that awareness of cloning will be higher among those who more frequently read about biotechnology and science stories. These persons may have already formed their attitudes to technology. Although there was no significant difference in the reported frequency of discussing modern biotechnology with someone else, there was a trend for those who mentioned cloning to have discussed it more. In Japan 50% said they had never discussed biotechnology, while 38% of those who mentioned cloning said they had not, while in New Zealand 33% said they had never discussed it, but only 27% of those who mentioned cloning said they had not.

Before the cloning debate was conducted, there has also been a world-wide debate on the labelling of food made from genetically modified organisms, and this issue was specifcally mentioned by 11% in Japan, and 16% in New Zealand. During the period of the survey there was considerable media coverage of biotechnology, and 57% in Japan and 74% in New Zealand reported that they had heard something about stories or issues involving modern biotechnology in the past three months (47% in Europe). The most popular sources were television than newspapers in both countries. This debate began before the surveys were conducted, which may also have influenced the awareness of biotechnology. Those who mentioned cloning were not any more aware of the six cases of biotechnology given, suggesting that people who took notice of the cloning story had already heard of other examples of biotechnology.

In conclusion we could say that the public in Japan and New Zealand does not appear to have been fooled by the cloning debate into changing their attitudes to biotechnology in both general and specific terms. The impact of media events need further study, especially into the group of people who do not respond to surveys, but it appears that the cloning debate may have filled the media but not the hearts of persons deciding how to use genetic technology.

The results also suggest that education efforts may not always work as intended. The USA is probably the most supportive country towards biotechnology (Hoban, 1997), with Europe less supportive. This has been claimed to result from education, however, awareness of biotechnology is less in the USA than Japan and Germany, Austria and Denmark, who are more concerned about genetic engineering in many questions. The acceptance of biotechnology in the USA may have also been the result of regulations allowing the large scale sales of products of genetically engineering earlier than in other countries. It has also been suggested to be a result of a more technocratic than traditionalist view in society (Einsiedal, 1997). The results in New Zealand suggest that education does not correlate with broad acceptance of genetic engineering. However this is encouraging in the sense that people have discretion of areas of science and technology, although increasing knowledge of applications was seen in New Zealand in the 1990s.


Acknowledgments

We thank the members of BEPCAG and especially Dr. Edna Einsiedal, for design of the survey instrument. We especially thank all the interviewers for their work, especially Yukiko Asada, Makiko Fujii, S. Fujimoto, Hisanori Higarahi, Yusuke Honda, Setsuko Ikeda, Takao Imai, Masaharu Kyo, Kiyoshi Matsuda, Hiromichi Morikawa, Masaru Morita, Yoh Sasaki, Rumiko Sonoda, Daisuke Taguchi, Nao Urata, Kazu Watanabe, Kyoko Yokoyama (Japan) and Nancy Bome, Suzanne Cross, Clive and Cathy, Joy, Kristie Gedye, Marc Greven, Sofia Hammed, Helen Thornton,

The funds for this survey came from a grant to HK from the Japanese Ministry for Health and Welfare, from the Eubios Ethics Institute, and in New Zealand from Crop & Food Research, Hort Research, Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Research, Science and Technology.


References
BEPCAG, Biotechnology and the European Public Concerted Action Group, "Europe ambivalent on biotechnology", Nature 387 (1997), 845-7.
Couchman, Paul K. & Fink-Jensen, Kenneth. Public Attitudes to Genetic Engineering in New Zealand, DSIR Crop Research Report 138. (Christchurch: DSIR 1990).
Einsiedal, EF. Biotechnology and the Canadian public: Report on a 1997 Survey and some international comparisons. Report to the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council. University of Calgary, August, 1997.
Eurobarometer 46.1 on Biotechnology, Biotechnology and the European Public. Concerted Action (June, 1997).
Hoban, TJ. "Consumer acceptance of biotechnology: An international perspective", Nature Biotechnology 15 (1997), 232-4.
Macer, D.R.J., Attitudes to Genetic Engineering: Japanese and International Comparisons. Christchurch: Eubios Ethics Institute 1992.
Macer, D.R.J., Bioethics for the People by the People, (Christchurch: Eubios Ethics Institute, 1994).
Macer, D.R.J., et al. (1995), "International perceptions and approval of gene therapy", Human Gene Therapy 6: 791-803.
Nelkin, D. and Lindee, MS. The DNA Mystique. The Gene as a Cultural Icon (NY: WH. Freeman & Co., 1995).
Appendix : Open Comments

Q2. You've just indicated to what degree you think various new technologies will change the way we live. Now, I would like to ask you what comes to mind when you think about modern biotechnology in a broad sense, that is, including genetic engineering.


New Zealand
DK. 39, 80, 97, 107, 112, 128, 202, 237, 256, 279, 280, 291, 390, 433
Nothing/No idea 19, 21, 75, 77, 89, 90, 125, 127, 133, 135, 150, 201, 211, 264, 286, 288, 292, 295, 330, 337, 357, 394, 395, 396
Good potential, need to watch carefully. 1
Good as long as not too much change, eg. new organism. 2
Medical ethics; repercussions possible. 3
Messing around with things they don't understand; not much. 4
Good and interesting. 5
Most technology is advantageous, some could be a danger. 6
Computers, new medications. 7
Happening with fruit and veges; doing with humans; not healthy. 8
Improvement is general attitude of people in workplace, & home life. 9
Meddling with unknown. 10
Positive aspects for genetic disease, RCD disease. 11
Don't like the sound of sheep cloning. 12
Reduction of illness and disease. 13
Plants hardier, genetic engineering - help improve human makeup. 14
Don't approve of genetic engineering. 15
Great potential and dangers. 16
Bad weakens gene pool. 17
Mutate humans if gets out of hand; growing food is important. 18
IVF helps childless couples have babies; Interfering. 20
genetic engineering-just playing no help; Biotech is good, 22
Cloning could have advantages. 23
Split genes to make what you want. 24
Will make everything extinct. 25
Curing genetic diseases. 26
Some of it is quite frightening. 28
Cloning ridiculous, no good. 29
Nothing in particular. 30
Caution. 31
Better farming methods - bigger fruit. 32
Fear of genetic engineering going too far or getting into wrong hands; new technology has both + and -. 33
Science improving productivity in plants and animals. 34
Biodegradable products great; cloning sheep; genetic engineering don't approve. 35
Clones - lots of the same people walking aroundpeople. 36
Genetic engineering no no. 37
Playing with fire-gene engineering. 38
Safe. 40
Not natural should not be interfered with. 41
cloning bad unnecessary, unnatural. 42
Somethings alright; somethings not risky. 43
Definitely not; trying to play God. 45
A lot good but a lot harm; genetic engineering is good. 46
Against genetic engineering in humans; plants OK. 47
Don't agree with it; things should be left to nature. 48
Ethical danger; vast possibility for exploitation. 49
Eventually be for better of mankind. 50
Don't believe in genetic engineering. 51
Elimination of diseases-good. 52
Cloning-tampering; IVF; genetics could be good. 53
Could help remove defects it would be good but things do go wrong. 54
Overall things getting worse off. 55
Improve mankind; lessen defomities. 56
Good thing, it has to be. 57
Technology moving too fast. 58
Cures for diseases. 59
Some things improved; heading towards wrecking the planet. 60
Might find cures for cancer-great. 61
Solar power will be hell of a lot better. 62
Genetic engineering - improvement to all living things. 63
Playing with nature; better breds of living things. 64
All for it; elimination of diseases; abnormalities. 65
Doesn't always agree with everyone. 66
Genetic engineering not much use; money could be better used. 67
Improved production of cows for dairy or beef. 68
Plants/crops resistant to disease. 69
Nazism/scientists meet where they shouldn't be/things going wrong/unable to consent. 70
Genetic engineering interferes with nature. 71
Microwave. 72
Improve medicine. 73
Weather changing; no seasons; things worse. 74
Health - developing cells to cure disease. 76
Has to come. 78
Computers get better; communication easier. 79
DK could be better. 81
DK. Some animal technology good. 82
Makes things worse. 83
Selective breeding - no but could improveq. 84
Believe nature should be left alone. 85
Modification of DNA. 86
Reservations re improvement; interference natural things already caused problems. 87
Humans could be (lives) ordered; no free will. 88
Cures for diseases; new ways of surgery. 89
Provided properly controlled it is good. 91
Medical use, fighting disease, provided used in right way. 92
Good to research, but not good to tamper with nature. 93
Genetic engineering not happy tampering with things. 94
Dying of cancer and hopes for a cure. 95
Computer technology makes jobs easier. 96
Space technology impact on medicine; satellites and engineering. 98
Don't agree with it. 99
Dangerous but may help medical science; why more diseases. 100
Human bodies, reproduction, transplants. 101
Depends on use; don't believe in cloning, but improve cures for illness. 102
DK-make things worse. 103
Improve people has pros and cons; underlying not. 105
Cloning. 106, 232, 235, 243, 262
Horror. 108
Microbiology student so uses microbes to produce recombinant DNA; gene therapy. 109
Transplants, better health maybe. 110
Terrible, leave alone; sheep/human cloning is horrible. 111
Medical side/donor. 113
Interfering with nature; some ways good eg cancer research. 114
DNA, cloning humans. 115
OK if keep it undercontrol; early days for a layman to make a judgement. 116
Only fiddle around with nature. 117
Cloning -risks; natural reproduction should be left alone (Computers take jobs). 118
People panicing about cloning. 119
Technology generally good thing.120
Got to progress. 121
Getting away from mother nature not good for us. 122
People. 123
Somethings are a bit risky but it is progress. 124
Could do some good-human studies people and genetics. 126
Make change plant/animal improve food source without thinking of consequences to food/ecosystem. 129
Genetic engineering introduces genes for resistance to disease in plants & animal but should not muck with humans. 130
The more they can do the better. 131
Tampering. 132
Complicated needs research, expensive in a lot of areas. 134
Improved technology to grow better plants and animals. 136
Oppose GE; animals suffer enough; science and technology makes us lose ability to survive if go wrong. 137
Treatment of infertility; new strains of plants; disease free crops. 138
Better things left natural; don't agree with cloning. 139
Cloning; biofuels. 140
Food production; medical research. 141
Hope to God that things don't get out of control. 142
Will improve agriculture, forestry and diet, food consumption. 143
X files; help with medicines for things like AIDS. 144
DNA mapping; mapping chromosomes. 145
Child birth; what you see in the papers. 146
Testtube babies; tinkering with nature; I'm not against science but we're going a bit too far. 147
Cloning animals. 148
People experimenting with animals; crossbreeding. 149
Health; medicine; nature. 151
Improved health; better way of living. 152
Agriculture; germ warfare. 153
Unsure; maybe danger. 154
Animal husbandry; animal and vegetable development. 155
Rabbit disease; cloning. 156
A lot of mucking around; just get on with the job. 157
Chemicals. 158
An Aryan race, evil. 159
Messing with nature. 160
Clones, superrace, disease free. 161
Eradication of present diseases. 162
Nazi's Aryan race. 163
Genetic engineering will eventually reduce number of diseases, but new ones evolve. 164
The use of technological discoveries, to help find cures for illnesses. 165
Different foods, and similar animals. 166
Abusing nature. 167
Exploration, furthering of science, though doesn't make better. 168
I agree with it, especially if it is to do with serious diseases. 169
Not so sure about; Don't really approve of genetic engineering. 170
Human aspect should be considered more. 171
Horrified. Scientists are a bit mad! 172
Depends on how far they take it. 173
If it helps improve food deterioration, and most importantly benefits people with serious diseases, should be encouraged. 174
Some scientists get carried away. Most are only tests though not much is used in scoeity really. 175
Depends how much is actually finalised and used in society. 176
If it is kept under control and well monitorred, I think it will help the society in which we live. 177
Most of it is still under development. Useful concepts. 178
I am in favour of it. 179
A bit unsure but I guess it will help the way we live in the future. 180
I don't think I like the idea of genetic engineering. I dont know how fully testig these things are. 181
DK. Really unsure about it. Haven't heard much about it. Accept to make products have longer lives. 182
I guess it is safe enough. 183
Biotechnology must help some people but a long painful process in finding answers. 184
Genetic engineering can be helpful in some ways but out of control in others. 185
Suppose it is beneficial in the longterm. 186
Helping people, useful research. 187
Should be encouraged although the human aspect shoul be carefully considered all research applied. 188
I don't think I know enough about it to comment. I believe most research work done for good and helps the population. 189
Good use of science. Help people in the future. 190
Good research for the people with cancers,etc. In favour of most aspects. DK all aspects of research or what farming products it is applied to. 191
Suppose it will be the future. I guess ifit was not safe, the technologies wouldn't be applied. 192
I agree with what I know. 193
Cloning - -do not know enough. 194
Uncertain about use - can it be balanced who is controlling it all. 195
Don't think about it - all negative. 196
Babies - helping people have them. 197
Recent developments in birth technology, IVF. 198
Need to be careful, limitations put on research. Ehical conseuqneces. 199
Cloning. Genetic engineering should improve life. 200
Cloning, whether going to do anything with human beings? Big scary question. 203
Hardwork, difficult. 204
I don't know actually enough. I don't know science or laboratory. 205
Animal research. DK really. 206
Something scientific, DK. 207
Like the idea to be applied to health. 208
Altering the natural ways. 209
Natural life, DK? 210
DK, Operating hospital. 212
Difficult to say to what extent they go. 213
It will help us in the future, isn't it? 214
Horrible laboratories, unpleasant experiments with living things. I don't like it. 215
Plants and bodies, something scientific. 216
It depends whether animals or human beings. 217
Compost, cannot explain it. I don't like changing nature. 218
Experiment on animals, bad enough. 219
Altering gene structure. 220
Disposal, biodegradable, DNA. 221
Euthanasia, improvement in birth defects. 222
Dolly the sheep. 223
Science influencing nature. 224
Genetic engineering is something we should be very careful-ultimately I can see as much harm, If not more than good. 225
Food technology, genetic engineering, laboratory tests. 226
Greater technology to determine birth defects. Cloning. How to control genetic disease. 227
Animals in labs. Playing with nature. Improved medicines. 228
Spray resistance. 229
Crop improvement. Dolly the sheep. 230
Improvement. 231
Cloning. More people. 233
Cloning. New plants. 234
Genetic engineering not necessary. 236
Depends on use but should improve for sciences and so help people. 238
Test tube babies and cloning. 239
Yuck! Messing around. Playing God. 240
Not given it a great deal of thought. 241
University. Improvements. Advancement. 242
Apprehension. Exciting. Breakthroughs to be made extending life expectancies. 244
Longterm good for civlization. No difference to society short term. Unwise to rush genetic engineering. 245
Medicine. 246
Man playing God. Some benefits - better yields. 247
Cloning people. Helping with food production; feeding more people. 248
Reproduction of species that were extinct. 249
Plants. 250
Medicine. Research. Cloning. 251
Cloning. Disease. Guard against ulcers. Breeding in animals and plants. 252
Mucking around with genes. Cloning. Improved crops by bioengineering. 253
Enhanced biotech. Interfere with nature. Some improvement. 254
Robotics. 255
Gene technology. rDNA. Fertility drugs. Easy treatment - general medical advances, improve health, esp. children. Increased life expectancy and quality of life. 257
Science and medicine with plants and animals. Food production. 258
Use of science and nature for man's gain. 259
Growing crops to improve yields; making better quality foods. 260
Food resources - improvement. 261
Not enough information. 263
Penicillin 265
Cloning and stuff is bad. 266
Benefits, new sheep and everything. Double edged sword. 267
In the news at moment - improvements in medicine, prevention of diseases. 268
Pluses and minuses. 269
Ethical questions; strictly controlled it should continue. 270
Agriculture, fruit and animals. 271
Food. Chickens and hormones. Soyabeans. 272
Genetic engineering can improve things if used properly. Plant resistance, there's always another problem after we've found a genetic solution. Pandora's box. 273
Tampering with nature but does do some good. Potential for good, some stuff getting into is pretty crazy. 274
Stuff of Science Fiction. Debatable if a good thing or not, could be dangerous, 276
The more we know the better life will be, as long as not too expensive. 277
DK; makes me feel nervous. 278
Improved plants, medical, animals, etc. 281
Don't like genetic engineering, certain areas are OK -hybridization. It is unforseen disaster. 282
With food it is OK, but they rush too quickly. 283
Not very good at it, world will go forward. 284
Advantages production of food, better humans. 285
Some techniques of biology; benefit for human life. 287
To search for new things and make use in daily life; enable our life better, 289
Cannot say, may be some improvement. 290
Some improvement in our way of living. 293
Some improvement makes the world very different. 294
Some changes in the science and technology as a result lives will be better by then. 296
I feel alarmed. 297
The frigtening aspects - genetic engineering, improper use. 298
Improving life styles. 299
genetic engineering, cloning. 301
I have grave concern. 302
Life will be quite easy. 303
Will improve the living style and life will be more easy. 304
The intervention in normal processes by identifying genet characteristics that can be transferred artificially to produce a desired/perceived improvement. 305
Fear, concern about what we are doing to nature; playing with gene pools of animals and plants. What we have done to our food. 306
Suppress genetic characteristics, so improve species, improve food crops, no improvement for human evolution. Still a lot to learn, very complex. 307
Cloning, calcivirus. 308
Clones. 309
Help improve animals, do not touch humans. Cloning good, can breed what you want, wool can be improved as well as meat. 310
Science without qualifications. Create mutations, control of animals; cloning, how will they be, they will be all the same. Cloning. 311
Test tube babies, cloning. 312
Cloning, medical gains, leads to reproductive organs, increase life expectancy, useful? 313
People playing around with nature; getting into God's territory. Playing around with fetuses, artifical breeding. 314
Playing around with animal/human breeding. Green things are natural, composting. 315
Women's reproductive health, potential exploitation. 316
Cloning, curing diseases, medicines. 317
Cloning, disagree. 318
Help medically, most is good idea, got to be done. 319
Crop modification, cancer research, viral remedies, cloning. 320
Grow skin artificially; synthetic drugs; cloned sheep. Incredible inventions to enhance life; seeds unable to reproduce. 321
Leave things alone, DK much about it. 322
Cloning sheep, cloning people; gene manipulation; plants, animals, humans. 323
Genetic babies being born without parents; Dolly. 324
Genes. 325
It would be detrimental to us, as far as cloning goes. Someone might go out cloning and leave the human race in danger of a superhuman. 326
New drugs and things like that. New drugs to help cure diabetes, cancer, AIDS, arthritis, and all diseases that they haven't cured yet. 327
Nothing; Auto and transplants. 328
Bioengineering & cloning - issues being talked about on TV. 329
Medicine might improve our way of life. Discovery of new medicines. 331
Medicine, processed food, cannot think of any more. 332
Experimentation of cloning. Set of ethics put in place to control the experimentation. 333
Genetic engineering is topical, genetic engineering of humans; developing new drugs for diseases etc. 334
I don't approve of genetic engineering, but it could improve lives of people missing limbs etc. Someone might be able to get an eye and see again. 335
Health improvement. Produce as in vegetables and crops, will improve the quality and production level, lower risk of diseases. 336
Substances used in technology I think; Cloning. 338
Agricultural stuff like pathogens, grubs we put on grains to take away other pests. We brought in bugs to kill wasps. 339
Important when looking at disease; not cloning. 340
Cloning of people; Changing foodstuffs adding unnatural additives. 341
Actually doing dangerous things to food; creating strains of foods that don't necessarily have the right nutrients. 342
Research of illnesses such as AIDS. 343
Cloning sheep. 344
Cloning of animals. 345
Complicated. 346
Its got to be done, it just depends on what has to be done. 347
They are dabbling in things they possibly shouldn't be. 348
Genetic research; cloning. 349
Cloning: human tissues; IVF; actually now that I have to explain it. I feel I don't know what I am talking about. 350
Fear related to genetic engineering that it is not natural. 351
It shouldn't be explored if not really needed; we don't know where it will go. 352
DK; I cannot really say I know anything about it. 353
Cloning; fiddling with genetic material. 354
Mad scientists aren't as clever as they think they are. Moral sense has been changed through technologies, people get hurt, emotional damage through cloning babies. 355
I can think of cloning, but that's not a good idea, people shouldn't be allowed to clone. 356
Genetic engineering will help feed the starving world. This is both plants and animals and I have reservations about applying this technique medically. This comes hand in hand with modern biotechnology. We've got to find new power sources for space flight and this will also need new techniques in suspended animation. 358
Frankly I'm appauled by biotechnology. They shouldn't be messing with genetics its very dangerous. They could make a human with missing hands or legs, etc. 359
Need precision in doing something like this; hopefully won't change our food chain. 360
Don't like genetic engineering because I don't like the way scientists try to be God and change the natural order of things. I am quite for anything to do with medical advances and as long as its helping people, and its prolife. 361
Things like organic stuff, laboratories. 362
It should improve the quality of life, especially in medical advances with treatment of diseases and possibly the ability of food production from special crops that can be grown in presently poor agricultural areas. 363
Worthwhile benefits to mankind. 364
Getting carried away, it won't make much difference, not a good idea. We should go on the way we are. I believe in the old fashioned way. genetic engineering means altering the way we go in reproducing, it's not a good idea. 365
Not in favour of that; they might be in a bit too deep. 366
It depends where you're getting living organisms from, like animal research. People donating organs, like if they donate a heart to save a life it's good. I believe it will save a human, but when it's your time to go it's your time to go. 367
Things to do with medicine. Researching medicines, cloning, genetic engineering, cancer, and dealing with antibiotic resistant bacteria. 368
Not happy about it; its the results of what they might be doing that worries me what could happen to humans. 369
Experiment with cross breeding apples. 370
Never heard of biotechnology before. 371
Gene splicing; Cloning people 372
Haven't thought about it really. 373
Cloning people - not a good thing I think it's too open for abuse. Cloning fruit and vegetables if it can improve world famine then good. 374
Method making cloning, new medicines. Research in labs, research in general. New ways of farming crops. 375
Cloning; Engineering cells or genes to improve health and find cures for diseases. Altering genes to try and improve life. 376
DK. Very selective crops. 377
Don't like it, it advances some things, but some things I think are interfering with nature. The sort of things they do with chickens and other animals feeding them withhormones is bad. 378
Potential for danger, i.e. cloning of humans. Potential for usefulness if all ethics are taken into consideration; vurses. 379
Cloning and splitting. Interfering with nature. 380
I'm not so happy with that. They tamper with things a bit too much. 381
Manipulating things; plants and animals to improve their characteristics. 382
Interfering with nature. 383
It all goes against nature, its not right - all that cloning. 384
All the genetic stuff, the cloning, biological controls. Where one organism is used to control another, i.e. herbicides to kill gorse. Trying to get rid of something by using something else that has no effect on anything else. 385
Biotechnology - I think of homebrew I am doing that right now. Genetic engineering - I think of that sheep in Engand. 386
Sort of spare parts for organ donation. The whole genetic thing, and the ethical thing that goes with it. 387
Cloning that's going around now. 388
Disease that we can't fix, viruses, world's destroyed. Like we blow each other up. Nuclear or chemical warfare. 389
It may improve the way we live or do things. 391
Think its strange, not natural. Don't really know. 392
Cloning of sheep and babies. IVF, preventing genetic disease. 393
Most things are improving. 397
Difficult area. 398
Animal technology, mainly in genetics and plants. It mainly affects foodstuffs, and leads to medical preparations. It affects animal and plants rather than foodstuffs. 399
Cloning, finding genes for getting rid of bad disease. Discovering genes that cause cancer, isolating them and getting rid of it, diseases, making you a lot healthier. 400
Could not express an opinion here. 401
Makes me afraid, because of the unknown developments that might have a negative influence on life. 402
I'm very concerned about genetic engineering, its upsetting the ecosystem. Biotechnology could be very healpful for health, genetic engineering could be very dangerous. 403
Very dangerous, nature is a very strong thing if tampered with. In 100 years we may be able to handle it we are very violent race of people. 404
It doesn't really worry me. 405
I think its fooling with nature, there will be terrible repercussions. 406
Don't believe genetic engineering will improve. Overall modern biotechnology will improve. It will look at more communications, health and better information. 407
I don't like the way they're messing around with people's genes; maybe if it improves the standard of living in developing countries I'm for it. As long as there's no adverse affects on the environment. 408
Mainly PC type stuff, computers, medical stuff, new operations. 409
Improved plant growth, plant yield and crops. Cloning of animals and human beings. Plant growth in new areas where they previously do not grow. Pest and disease resistant. Pest and disease control through other pests and diseases. Biological control rather than chemical. 410
Natural environment farming, food prodcuts. A lot of household goods are now biodegradable. In stock movements sheep have been changed. It will have an effect on people in the long run. It could be a good thing or a bad thing. 411
Horror - I disapprove of cloning. 412
Sometimes I think it is good and sometimes bad, but I am definitely not into genetic engineering. I don't know too much about it. 413
Applications I suppose. Food technology in relation to the fact that we want to feed everyone. Medical applications. Human issues in terms of human reproduction and extent to which we're playing God. Computers and the ability to grow things, new materials and new machines. To a large extent we'll be growing new structures, as well as materials. 414
I think messing around with something they shouldn't be. 415
Bad. Genetic engineering - they're playing God and that'll lead to trouble. 416
You get faster growing animals and resistance to diseases. 417
I'm a farmer so I think improving performance of livestock. 418
Anti-nature, not natural. 419
Human kind needs to go cautiously, there are a lot of fish hooks in it. They've started with animals, are they going to move onto humans next. We don't want anymore Hitlers or anything. 420
Genetic engineering really concerns me especially cloning. Even testtube babies or donor people or creating new life, having a lot of children running around with the same father that they'll never know about. 421
Not interested in it. 422
Don't like it. Breeding being interfered with. Produce new varieties especially in vegetables. 423
Advanced technology. Useful but not proven yet. No success yet in using genetic engineering like eliminating or fighting disease. A lot of work still needs to be done. 424
I think it is here to stay it will create a great impact on the food chain. I'm not sure that's such a good thing. A bad thing in the case of genetic engineering. 425
Its only a matter of time, we'll obviously become moredependent on mechanical means, i.e. hearts and body parts. 426
Adolf Hitler tried to make superior race without all the technology, with the genetics you could make the perfect human being. You could have the perfect army, warrior or war person. You could also get artifical babies. 427
Concern. I am a little worried about genetic engineering and how far they will take it. My husband is a plant scientist and we talk and I hear from him about things, that they cloned sheep and cross species. It's like playing God and I don't know where they will draw the line. 428
I've just had a heart operation, and the things they can do today in hospitals. They can transplant this and that and the other thing - it's fantastic. Heart pacemakers are fantastic. 429
Possible cloning is all that comes to mind.430
That's going to take things too far. I think it is steeping into grounds they don't need to; tampering with things they don't need to. 431
I don't like the transferring of genes from one person to the next; the cloning etc. It's a good idea to use rats and mice (for experiments) to improve our health, but not for cloning. 432
Don't agree with genetic engineering because of the long term ramifications. I am not too sure whether it is good or bad for people having to make choices for themselves about this type of thing. 434
I think of it with respect to improving production of farm animals, or improving animal production.435
Tampering with natural. Sheep cloning processes. 436
Don't believe in it;no I don't think it's going to improve anything. It's breeding animals using science to breed genetically and testing animals. 437
Everyone should have a DNA test from birth. Genetic faults in families can be corrected and where it comes from. DNA would tell us where the Maori people came from, i.e. some from Hawaii, America, and show up that the claims were correct or not. DNA could tell you where you originated from. Cancer would also be cured from DNA. DNA test before they are married. 438
It is going a bit too far; taking over from natural run of things; taking over from what nature produces. 439
Food stuffs, livestock improvements; Jurassic Park may not be quite viable but certainly vegetable and livestock are. 440
Misuse of it does come to mind when concerning biotechnology and possibility of misuse rather than sinister misuse. 441
Cloning, artifically tampering with life. 442
We evolved over thousands of years, why interfere now, they'll just make a mess. I'd rather it went it's own pace gradually. 443
Better products, food, wearing apparel, transport, engineering. 444
Caution, obviously there are questions about genetic engineering, it has potential in a way it could improve health issues but may be likelihood that it could end like the Holocaust with experimenting in areas are morally wrong. 445
Slightly dangerous, the cloning issue. 446
Changes to medicine and food, new therapies or treatments for illnesses; genetic engineering foods. 447
Improving human life, life expectancy; I think of tadpoles that we experiment on and small creatures. 448
I just hope it is in the hands of the right people; I think it could be dangerous. 449
Everything will improve as time goes by. 450
I think they could do more; they have to be cautious. 451
IVF, ordering semen, etc.; less coupling of parents and more solo parenting. 452
Structures, changes in bridges; Making buildings earthquake safe; cars; For fighting diseases and finding cures. I am definitely for this. 453
Cloning, altering nature. Either the abuse or misuse, can be easily abused or misused. I'm basing that on what's been told in the media, and I don't know whether that's true or not. It also has the ability to radically improve life, e.g. maybe cancer and altering foods. 454
Could be quite a few advancements made in that area, i.e. in production of plant food. There will be more development of everything we already have. 455
Modern biotechnology in a broad sense can change and improve for the better. 456
Cloning artificial life, recreating organs. 457
Genetic engineering, microrobotics come to mind. 458
Disease control perhaps or chemical warfare and new chemicals which don't have bad side effects the way some do at the moment. 459
Animal husbandry, food crops, grains, fruit and vegetables; having improved yields in harvesting a higher quality; better looking product for consumers. Year round production, cheaper production resulting in more availability for poor people; raisinf cattle and sheep purely for food supply. 460
Cloning, improved foods and things like that; limb regeneration. They are cloning limbs that people have lost. These work to the benefit of people. 461
Cloning things kind of repulses me and I really don't know anything else. 462
Things on TV, cloning. I don't think that's a very positive outlook. 463
Cloning sheep or plant material; making new hybrid species etc; Illuminating genetic diseases. Making things disease resistant. 464
Things like food, radiation, cloning. 465
Genetic engineering is all I can think of off hand. I really don't know just yet. 466
BSE mad cow disease, fluorescent mice. 467
Advent of everything being computerised. People dictate their lives by it and that could be a problem. Development of new substances, alternative energy, genetic engineering, and computers, will have the major effect on life. 468
Disease eradication; cellular breakdown and prevention, improvement in nutritional assimilation, improving food, i.e. more energy efficiency in food. Improvement in bodies immune system or enhancement of bodies ability to replace cancer cells or for any other disease. Brain augmentation, i.e. improved brain efficiency is better use of neurons, synapic response. Brain enhancement. 469
For the benefit of the newborn and the general health of mankind, people. 470
Posing more querstions and answers. In medicine there comes good benefits and also concelaed risks, always risks to do with humanity, food and medicine. 471
Genetic replications of genes, the cloning. 472
The whole thing of manipulation and gene cloning, there's more than that but I can't find the words. The maniuplation of DNA and understanding the way things work in the growth process. 473
Cloning - I don't see the point in it; nature can do it naturally.i.e. identical twins. I don't see the point in human cloning. I can see the sense in animal cloning but I don't necessarily agree with it. 474
Cloning, it concerns me that we will be going for a superbrain race, everyone having blue eyes. Biotechnology may fall into the wrong hands and they might do something dreadful. Fears of Jurassic Park. 475
It's not a good thing. It's not natural to develop animals and humans but it is OK with vegetables and fruit. We need to develop vegetables so we have more for people. 476
Improved treatment for illnesses; conditions that at one stage were untreatable. 477
Treated with the greatest of caution; more control on what scientists are doing; and all science courses should have ethics included in their teaching. 478
Food, growth hormones in vegetables. 479
Better way of life. 480
Manipulating nature is bad. 481
Great medical benefits, if in a regulated environment. 482
Concerns over limitations e.g. with humans. Effects over disease and over, say, genetic engineering of humans and animals for particular purposes. How can these be revered without damage or tragedy. 483
I definitely do not support genetic engineering in any form, i.e. human, animals, plant material. It will always eventually be obtained by unscrupulous for power and profit and not necessarily for the good of the Universe. 484
Frightening, meddling with nature to unsafe degree, out of control; and creating massive ethical moral issues. Trying to play God. 485
Experimenting with living material, be it plant or animal, altering or improving its structure/character to make it stronger. 486
Improvement. Cloning. 487
Grave concerns about use of biotechnology in food chain, possibly consequences. I totally oppose human genetic engineering and the resulting legal, family, pyschological problems. 488
We are playing with things we aren't meant to I believe. trying to break things down to far and recreate. Not a good idea. 489
Difficult to understand. Some groups say it may be harmful. Don't know what it is really. 490
Interference with natural events of life. Full of ethical concerns, especially with regard to genetics, e.g. insurance claims, termaination of pregnancy, devaluing of human life. 491
To improve the overall quality of life of all living things. 492
Artificial - not natural. Would prefer to live in a simpler lifestyle knowing the effects of things. Also knowing what you're eating, knowing what the product you're using is made of. 493
Cloning. Food technology, improvement of products, manmade fruit and vegeatbles, etc. 494
Expensive, lengthy research. Sometimes urgently needed. Sometimes remotely connected to the world's greatest problems and needs. 495
Hybridism, Cloning, Genericism, Confused ethics, Breakdown of natural forms. 496
Cloning for superior breeds of animals or plants. 497
Help in solving crimes. 498
To improve quality of life, when making life and death decisions. 499
As the world's population increases ways and means must be found to increase our food and water supply, this can only ben achieved by exploring many new technologies. 500
Better means of growing and harvesting of foos, improved seeds. 502
Germ warfare and 'defense'. Cloning. Irradiated food technology. DNA studies for health and medicine advances or criminal forensics. 503
Artificial life. Genetic mutations. 504
Very scary. I don't think that there can be any real control. Look at the nuclear scientist they worked without any real thought for the consequences - pure scientists are scary. 505
Information must be made readily available. The way computer science is developing. Look at banking industry. You don't need to go inside a bank these days. 506
Improved crop yields, resistance to pests, disease. 507
Speed. Mutation. Development. Distortion. Progress. Rogues. 508

Japan
Don't know. J16, J25, J42, J44, J45, J52, J53, J55, J60, J63, J78, J87, J91, J98, J102, J106, J107, J143, J149, J159, J161, J164, J178, J180, J183, J185, J192, J224, J231, J262, J263, J277, J320, J321, J334, J355, J357, J362, J379, J388, J402, J405
Nothing J6, J19, J27, J32, J33, J40, J68, J111, J112, J123, 125, J129, J146, J166, J226, J233, J236, J238, J314, J322, J323, J367
Analysis of human DNA, Pomato. J1
To create a human being from a cell. J2
Pomato. To handle cells in a Petri dish. J3
Medical treatment. Improving agricultural products. J4
Improving varieties of plants. J5
Improving plants. Pomato. J7
Genetic recombination techniques. J8
Improving varieties. J9, J11, J46, J47, J69, J85, J189, J205
Food like vegetables. J10
AIDS therapy. Agricultural products like apple and nashi, etc. J12
Agricultural products. Genetic recombination. J13
Genetic recombination. J15, J39, J41, J65, J207
Affect to food. J17
Improving varieties of plants and vegetables. J20
Creating new varieties by genetic modification. Gene therapy such as ADA deficiency therapy. J21
Improving varieties of vegetable. J22
I don't know very well what biotechnology is, maybe about genes. J23
Sounds difficult, I don't know. J24, J326
Food products. Imported fruits. J26
Medicine; genetic modification of plants. J28
Improving varieties. Don't hear very much about this topic. J29
Gene therapy. J30, J105, J186, J344
Biology class, Human Genome Project. J31
Food problem. J34
Related to food. J35
Nothing occurs, maybe pomato. J36
Pomato. J37, J160
Outbreak, or panicking films such as Parasite Eve. J38
Improving agricultural varieties. Ecosystem imbalance by changing species artificially. J43
Medical treatment. Medicine. Treating senility. J48
Should be OK as at present. J49
Makes things bigger. I don't have a good feeling about it. J50
I have heard of the word vaguely, but nothing comes to mind. J51
Recreation of endangered biological organisms. J54
Food. Risk when you apply to human beings or animals. J56
Developing new variety. J57
Something abnormal may happen if you touch things which human beings should not touch. J58
Vegetables, flowers, organisms, plants, etc. J59
Giving birth. J61
Growing plants. Recombination technique. J62
Genetic modification. J64, J142, J275, J330
Growing plants quickly. J66
To change human genes. J67
Anxious for things to change. J70
Developing medicine. J71
Something most necessary. J72
Bright society. J73
Treatment of illness. Improving plants. J74
Benefit create new species, risk disturbing nature - poss. To destroy balance. J76
Gene manipulation. Something related to medicine. J77
Genes. J79
Not to use human hands. J80
Genetic engineering. J81, J152
Good if we don't have Downs syndrome. To treat disease. J82
Human experiments. J83
Difficult. J84, J86
It's OK to promote. J88
Plants become bigger. J89
IVF. J90
Necessary for advancement of humans, but too quick and can't follow, not an issue only in Japan. I don't like to be against nature. J93
Plants become bigger, Ayu becomes bigger, Disease resistant plants. J94
Medicine. Improving varieties. J95
Agriculture. Make tomatoes bigger. Human genes, etc. J96
Medical treatment. Recombination of human. Interbred among different animals. J97
New plants, application of drugs. J99
Improving varieties, cure disease. J100
Cure disease, IVF, to grow plants. J101
Increase species, varieties. J103
Production to increase better kind. J104
Clone, cyborg. J108
Genetic modification. Affects balance of nature. To step into God's area. J109
Bacterial weapon. J110
Genetic recombination. Cell culture. J113
Biotomato (saw in USA 6 years ago). Gene therapy. J114
New varieties of plants, etc. J115
Gene therapy. Developing varieties to suit humans. J117
Ecosystem erosion. J118
Genetic recombination. Improving varieties of species. J119
Bioengineering. Artificial intelligence. Gene therapy. J121
Human genome project. J122
Worried. J124
Research to create new vegetables from present ones; and to understand diseases. J126
Clone. J127, J255, J389
New species of vegetables and products. J128
Developing new species. Improving species. Scared. J130
Dominant genes, reduce cancer disease by improving immune system. Energetic genes! J131
Preserving and improving species. J132
Animal experiments. Birth of creature which doesn't exist in nature. J133
DNA research. DNA which causes disease. J134
IVF. Research on cloned humans. J135
Radish shoots [0-157?] J136
Treating genetic disease. J137
Cloned human. J138, J168, J188, J244, J399, J403
Improving plants. J139
Something that affects human life. Scared. No need. J140
Food products. Small vegetables, fruits are getting bigger. J141
Birth of new species. J144
Creating new species. J145
Mimicking nature; mass product. J147
to make new vegetables/fruits. J148
Present creatures are damaged. J150
Treating cancer. J151
Pomato. Big plants. J153
Something vague. DK. J154
New kind of vegetables. Personal information given by DNA analysis. J155
Research on genes. J156
Newest science; most advanced research in Agricultural Dept. J157
To create animals, plants, bacteria, which did not exist will be born. To harm the ecosystem. J158
Genetic diagnosis. J162
Biotomato. Biotreatment of flower seedlings. J163
Artificial organs; stimulating growth of plants. J165
Wonder if it is OK to use genes. J169
Biotech- related to plants. Genetic engineering something to change human - I don't want very much. J171
Making more bacteria. J172
Bioethics; genetic modification; double helix. J173
Technology which adds new characters to plants. J175
To treat disease. J177
Putting human hands on creatures which were not touched before. J179
You can understand unknown parts of tissues like brain. J181
Production of vegetables. J182
Agricultural products. J184
Improving species. J189, J205
Medicine. J193, J237, J245
To make something exactly the same. (clone?) J194
Test-tube. Growing tissue. J195
Create new species not existing in nature artificially by interbreeding with different species. J197
Scared. Researcher's ethics are questioned. Things which grow naturally taste best in their season, and human life shouldn't be against nature. J199
Imagine both a good side which is improving plants and animals, and a scary side - creating bad creatures for human beings. J200
Developing species. J201
Development of agriculture, livestock, forestry, medicine. J203
Techniques which applies genes effectively. J204
Cultivating plants. Treating diseases. J206
Birth of entirely new organisms by genetic modification. J209
Technique creates plants which don't get disease. J210
New kinds of plants and animals. J211
Technique which uses the unique function of living organisms for producing, detecting and measuring substances. J212
Cell modification. J214
Can expect certain improvement of life, but there will be bad effects as well, depends on conquering possible bad effects. J217
Crossbreeding of vegetables and fruits. J218
Improving animals and plants; investigate crime; treat disease(produce medicine). J219
Bring baby to infertile couple; save animals who are becoming extinct. J220
Quality of food becomes better. Don't know genetic engineering well. J221
New agricultural products; treat genetic diseases. J222
Developing new species of bacteria. J223
Jurassic park; to create organisms which don't exist now. J225
To make domestic animals bear only females. To make same kind of plants a lot, so that you can sell orchids cheap. J227
Already existing things may be harmed. J228
Agricultural products; medicine. J229
To change all the blood of a baby before birth. J230
Recombination. J232
To make new thing joining something with something. J234
Food. J235
Something mechanical. J239
Food products, plants. J240
Technique which is used to make new food. J241
Human's desire. J242
Colitis germs. J243
Medical treatment. J246
Improvement of creatures. J247
New field. J249
Improvement and mass production. J251
Developing new species of plants and vegetables. Medical treatment. J253
Growing new species as fruits. J254
DNA. J257, J336, J404
Gene manipulation. Animal experiments. J259
Human innovation. J260
Maintaining life. J261
A little afraid. J265
Destroy environment. J266
Satellite broadcasting system, gene, computer, etc. J268
Worried about side effects of gene re-construction. J269
Out of order. J276
I don't think we'll get a good result if we control the things made by God. J277
I don't understand such a field. J278
Against the Providence of God. J279
New medical treatment and life science. J283
Worry about wrong gene manipulation. J284
Copy. J285
Biocrop. J286
Create new value genetic recombination of animal and plant genes. J288
New plants (Giant fish, rice plants which grow big etc.). J289
Giant tomato. Gene therapy. J290
Make situation different as it should be by adding human hand. J292
Sounds useful to conserve food. Can cure disease that could not be cured before. J293
Mystery. Bacteria. Enzyme. J294
Developing agricultural products. J295
Nature is deeper than ability of man. We always need to keep this thing in our mind when we do genetic engineering. J296
Improve technique of medical treatment. J297
Theory of new evolution. J302
The Island of Big Moro. Be patient! The sacred precinct should be kept holy for ever. J304
Insufficient knowledge will create a monster in the world. J306
New vegetables, tomato and potato become pomato. Crossbreeding such as white lion. J307
Ethics. J312
Artificial organ and blood, etc. J313
To make new varieties of vegetables. J315, J316
Developing new varieties of plants. J317
Attempt to make new varieties. J318
Attempt to make new variety. DK because difficult. J319
Changes genes of plants and animals. J324
Genetic modification. Gives the impression that tobacco and liquor companies are leading. J325
Make new varieties of plants. A bit scared if applied to animals. J327
Create new organisms by modifying genes. J328
Modify genes of plants and animals. Make new varieties of plants. J329
Nothing occurs because I was asked suddenly. J331
New development. Cannot think as asked suddenly. J332
Make new varieties of vegetables and food products. J333
Organisms become high quality and simplified. Things which are no good are getting terminated, which might cause destruction of nature. J335
Growing seedlings such as orchids. J341
Developing new plants. J342
Developing biology, agricultural products. J343
Giant tomato. J347
Improving varieties of plants & animals; cancer treatment. J349
Parasite Eve (film on cloned woman). J351
Will more cloned animals be made? J354
I can only think of genetic engineering. J356
To grow a lot of tomatoes from one plant. J363
Gene introduced products; mass multiplication of flowers and vegetables. J364
Crossbreeding of vegetables and animals. J365
Mass production. J366
The fact that human beings added technology to recombination of life. J368
Hope both for elucidation of sequenced genes and its contribution to prevention of disease caused by inconvenience of genes, and protection of human rights are compatible. J369
Increased production of food and improve of medical science. J370
Developing and growing new plants and research on cultivation. J371
Improvement of plants for food. J372
In application it will contribute to better livestock and agricultural products, and in basic fields it is an efficient method to make genetically same research materials. J373
Artificial improvement of species. J374
New species. J375
The use of techniques for cosmetics, and to create agricultural products or livestock efficiently by modifying genes. J377
Cure disease. Lives close to National Institute Genetics in Mishima. J379
New vegetables. J380
Improving varieties. Biohazard such as to build a P4 level building. J381
Difficult. Method of treatment by genetic recombination. J382
To make new plants. J383
Clone sheep. Hybrid rice. J384
Non-pesticide products. Organic growing. Insect-resistant agricultural products. J385
Modification of DNA. Clone. J386
Interbreeding. Improving varieties. J387
Clone. J389
To make food; culturing fish. J390
Difficult, DK well. I'm not sure if it is OK to use clone techniques to human beings. J391
Increasing food products. New species. Animals. J392
Clone sheep. New varieties by cross breeding. DNA modification. J393
Development of agriculture. J394
Clone. Child is student of agriculture department. J395
Using waste when you make drink as a food. J396
Genetic recombination. Cloning technique. Treatment of disease. J397
Applied technology to use animals, plants, chemistry. J398
Clone sheep, and cloned human being. J400
Improving variety. Vegetables which are genetically modified. J401

Q14. Content of media stories remembered.
New Zealand
Animals, cows more milk; tomatoes and genetics. 1
Soybeans. 2
Modified crops. 3
Testing and eliminating animal diseases, new lines of fruit in apples. 6
DK, No. 8, 49, 150, 258, 291, 293, 302, 364
Cannot remember. 74, 124, 130, 241, 288, 289, 294, 366, 368
Sheep cloning. 12, 13, 22, 24, 27, 28, 32, 34, 36, 38, 100, 111, 139, 148, 194, 205, 210, 213, 215, 217, 239, 246, 248, 250, 252, 256, 261, 262, 267, 278, 282, 283, 285, 296, 298, 305, 309, 311, 312, 330, 335, 336, 340, 344, 346, 359, 373, 379, 405, 417, 437, 439, 441, 450, 475
Genetic engineering of fruit & veges; Sheep cloning. 11
Genetically enhanced tomatoes. 14
Vaccine for whopping cough. 15
Genetically engineered wheat; cloned sheep. 18
Cloning sheep; milk causing diabetes in children. 23
Genetically engineered food; cloning of animals. 25
Human genes into pigs for organ transplants; cloning of sheep. 26
Cloning. 29, 128, 140
Genetic engineering. 31
Sheep cloning; connection between milk & diabetes; modified soybean genes. 33
Sheep cloning (Dolly). 35
Genetically modified plants; cloned sheep. 37
Developing something in pigs to help human conditions. 42
50 year old who had triplets. 43
Woman becoming pregnant with sperm of dead husband. 44
Genetics; testtube babies, IVF programs. 47
Animal organ transplants. Genetic altering of plants. 48
Effect of genetically modified fruit and vegetables on digestion. 50
Breakthrough with treating AIDS virus. 52
Genetic testing on embryoes. 53
Food radiation. 56
Genetically engineered tomatoes grew ear on back of mouse. 59
Vaccine against cancer. 61
Genetic engineering of sheep. 65
Farming about stock or grass species. 68
Forestry to make biomass. 69
Soybean genetically engineered in America; refused entry to France. 70
Beef gene into tomato and potato. 75
Use of radiation to enhance foods shelf life; pigs with human organs by genetic engineering. 77
Pigs heart for humans. 81
Cancer research. 82
Transplanting pig heart into a human. 83
Plants/walnuts. 85
Genetically engineered fruit grown in North Island; tomatoes. 87
Growing new ears for humans on mice. 89
Women having children over 5 years of age. 92
Mucking around with genes. 94
Cancer, hydroponics. 96
Soybeans; tomatoes. 98
Ewe cloned. 99
Diabetes and cows. Fruits and pesticides. 101
Hearts and pigs. Diabetes caused by milk. 102
Cloning chimps. 103
Insulin manufacture connected with Mad Cow's disease. 104
Monkeys cloned, todays paper. 107
Cloning animals. 108
Microbiology; sheep cloning; at university. 109
Insecticide spraying on communities. 110
Biological control of fathen; cloning animals from TV/newspaper. 115
Children genetic discoveries. 117
Cloning sheep; milk protein. 119
Sheep. 121
producing insulin. 129
Treatment of hemophilia. 138
Been a lot but cannot remember any one in particular. 141
Also book. About a cruise boat which bought penguin remains into NZ. Ebola. 143
Pig hearts for humans. 145
Every week there's something about it. 146
Genetically modified potatotes and tomatoes. 147
Lots of things, e.g. crops. 152
Truffle infected oak trees; virus-free populars. 153
Dolly the lamb. 154
Green revolution in cereal production. 155
BSE - denial of UK government, of a link between BSE and humans. 156
Generally about yoghurt production. 161
About research into cancer cures. 162
Cloning of sheep in Scotland. 164
Some research into cancer. 165
Something to do with sheep. 166
Some genetic engineering with animals. 168
Technical progress in genetic engineering. 169
AIDS virus, how it can possibly be transferred from animals to humans - testing. 172
Artifically bred sheep from a single parent. 173
Using a pig's heart for a heart transplant in a human. 181
Crop related issues. 184
Using mice for cancer research. 185
Blood related diseases being tested on mice. 187
Something to do with developing fruit so it will keep longer than normal. 188
Ethicsof biotech and genetic engineering. 195
Poison issues -sprays. 196
Pig hearts for humans. 197
Gene transplanting to improve food, mad cow disease, sheep cloning. 198
Sheep cloning. Using rats in research for cancer. 199
Determining the sex of babies. Sheep cloning. 200
Sheep breeding in newspaper. 201
Cloning of sheep; first cloned sheep. 203
Children to search for parents, which I don't like. 208
Something about human beings, I cannot remember. 211
Rats! doing tests on them. 212
Sheep cloning. Genetic engineering with food on TV documentary. 214
Cloning of sheep. About mouse for cancer. 218
Cloning of Dolly. 221
Dolly the sheep. 222, 229, 230, 232, 233, 235
Cloning of babies/embryos. 223
Multiple births. Dolly the sheep. Testing embryos for illnesses. 224
Cloning of sheep - Dolly. Food supplies in USA. 225
Dolly the sheep; IVF. 227
Calcivirus, Dolly. 228
Supermarkets labelling genetic materials. Dolly, cloning, etc. 231
Dolly the sheep, China. 234
Pigs. 236
Improving fruit, stop disease, stay fresh longer. 237
TV, cloning and propagating vegetables, chemicals put in to make better. 238
Cloning a pig or sheep; genetically modified fruits/tomatoes. 242
Cloning of sheep in England and New Zealand. 243
Bill Clinton trying to stop some type of genetic research in America. 244
Cloning. Transgenic maize, barley, cotton, tomatoes. 245
Test tube monkey; pig's hearts. 249
Creating organs using animals and its ethics. 251
Cloning sheep, monkeys for research in America. 253
Cloning of Dolly the sheep. 257, 422
Monkeys response to force feeding marijuana. 259
Protein in cows milk giving diabetes. 260
Genetic cloned sheep. 263
Pigs heart, sheep clones. 264
Cloning sheep and babies. 265
Cloning of lambs, tomatoes. 268
Cancer mice; pig heart. 269
Recent cloning of sheep. 270
Cloning; and human clones. 271
Dolly the lamb; soybeans. 272
New crops available. 273
Cloning; pig's heart. 276
Cloned sheep. Modified foods/fruits, veggies. 277
Cloned sheep. Genetically altered fruit not labelled, Pigs live and heart go to human. 281
TV, future 10-20 years human life. 290
On TV - cloning sheep. 292
Close up on TV. 295
Cloning of genes in sheep. 297
On TV and newspaper, cloning ressheep. 303
Do not remember; but about bioengineering relating to genes. 304
Have a child fromdiseased father. Rabbits with cancer research. Wasps used for control of other insects. 306
Cloning of pigs. 307
Calcivirus, organ transplants. 308
Cloning issues. Pigs tissue used for humans. 313
No specific issues. 314
Dolly, cloning in general, what next? Humans? 315
Dolly the sheep cloned leads to ethical debate. Baby's being tested for sex leads to abortion of wrong sex. People cloning themselves, bank of organs. 316
Cloning sheep in UK, baby cloned (accident). 317
Sheep cloning. Pig hearts into humans. 318
Cloning of sheep etc. Genetically tomatoes. 319
Rapeseed experiment in North Otago. Sheep cloning; making human spare parts. 320
Cloning, animals transplanted into humans, fruits modified. 321
Cloning of sheep (Dolly); acceptable or not; disagreement Clinton! 323
Dolly. 324
BBC News. Animals and genetically changing things. Genetically changed foods and the fuss about what's on the labels. Testing on babies. 325
The one with the placenta, its a resource that could do so much good. They extract the blood from the cord then fiddle with it and inject into people with bone marrow problems. 326
About a Japanese person stealing a cutting and growing different varieties of apples. And about World Health trying to put a stop to cloning human beings. 327
Something to do with the heart. Someone needing a heart transplant and they couldn't find a donor. Cannot remember anymore about it. 328
Cloning of sheep in Britain. Documentary on bacteria fighting diseases through cloning (genetic engineering). 329
Cloning animals and injecting protein into maize. 332
Clinton's statement on availability of genetic material, that it is wrong to clone sheep, and that it should not be available to other countries. 333
Cloning of animals and sheep. Soybeans brought in from Austria (or somewhere) for baby food. They were genetic engineered. 334
I forgot, heard something. 337
Something about using animal hearts for humans, I cannot remember exactly. 338
Diabetes, cloning, introduced biological controls, genes in plants. 339
Cloning sheep; labeling of food that'sbeen altered. 341
Cloning babies. 342
Cloning of sheep; genetically changing animals and food. 345
Genetic engineering tomatoes, adding genetics to them. They cloned a sheep named Dolly in England, a replica of the original sheep and now there are two. 348
Jelly fish genes getting put into mice. 349
A German who found he could clone human cells I think; or clone animals. 350
Dolly the sheep being cloned; NZ to import these type of cloned animals. 351
Talking about cloning, cloning animals then people. They think they can do it; Cannot remember who they were. 353
Cloning issues- Dolly the sheep; use of cloned embryos for human research. 354
Cloned sheep, Dominion, also in relgious magazines. 355
Bill Clinton saying no to cloning. 356
Cloning of sheep and humans. 357
Cloning sheep and forestry, food crops and grain. The production of many multiples of the one superior stock. Precede with caution. Pig parts, like heart valves. This is where the DNA has been introduced into pigs to reduce rejection of heart valve material.358
Genetically altered animals; and about genetically altered foods. 360
Farming and the sheep being genetically engineered. The sheep has totally cloned sheep and the farming was about what the cows and other animals were feed. 361
Cloning little cats, I really cannot remmeber much. 362
Cloning sheep in Scotland. 363
About test tube babies; testing pregnant women for Down's syndrome. 367
Pigs and sheep being genetically treated. 369
Pigs being genetically bred to give provide hearts for humans. 372
Sheep cloning;thinking of human parts for spare parts and pig parts for transplants. The food labeling conflict. 374
Cloning of sheep Dolly on channel One. 375
Some say genetic cloning was immoral and shouldn't be done on humans. 376
Changing girls blood cells and putting a virus into her cells to give her immunity to common colds (TV); Cannot recall in magazines. 377
Something about leukemia using placenta. 378
Tomatoes genetically grown for size and quality especially for food products. Was not necessarily beneficial to the consumer I thought. You might get all year round tomatoes with colour and reasonable size but I don't think they have any taste. I'd rather have a homegrown tomato with some taste. 380
Genetically altered plants; cloning. How acceptable or good is genetically altered food? 381
Changing foods genetically; animal cloning. 382
About a sheep being cloned by a scientist in Scotland. 383
About cloning of a sheep and now they're talking of cloning babies. 384
The cloning, that Dolly sheep, and transferring it to human beings. The spraying in Auckland of the moths; the rabbit viruses, the Aussie one. 385
The sheep on TV; superbug immune to all antibiotics (in Japan) TV/radio/newspapers. 386
The sheep that's been cloned in Scotland. The cord blood bank for children, they take particular stuff from that, it's very new and it saves kids having transplants. They are genetically modifying our tomatoes. 387
MRSA; TV stuff cannot recall. 388
Using human genes and putting them into pigs to make livers, hearts, kidney, or something like that. 389
I saw a story on TV, putting genes into tomatoes to make them bigger, brighter or even look better. 390
Cloning of the sheep and something about a pig heart into a human. 391
About rats or mice that were green, glowed in dark nd had been genetically changed. Freaky. 392
Cloning of sheep, in England; food colouring. 393
Pig heart injection to get it used to human condition before being transplanted into a human. 394
Something about cloning sheep. Debate about what they can do with humans. 398
Cloning of sheep and how it impinged on the cloning of humans. 399
Debating over a man getting a pigs heart; genetically made gene for cancer and the cure; cloned sheep overseas. The pig was probably a tabloid, maybe heard it in the news. Discovered cancer is hereditary. They were very excited about cloning on TV. They weren't sure whether they would try it again, or on humans. My sister is doing research on viruses on sheep and goats and trying to find cures. 400
A banana had a vaccine in it; antibodies to vaccinate against a disease. 402
Also from Internet. Aspartum (artificial sweetener) has been shown to be evil. Roundup herbicide is not safe, it is compared to a load of chemicals. 403
Some fuss in a supermarket over labeling of some food products. 404
Scottish group wanting to clone sheep in NZ. 406
Genetically cloned sheep in England. Basically about using the genes and replicating identical sheep through technology. 407
Dolly the sheep, the American Presidential Committee on ethics in genetic engineering. The issue about NZ's labeling of genetically enhanced meat. 410
Food, development of food in relation to biofarming, related to farming industry, making cultured foods. Cows are feed foodstuffs with biotechnical substances rather than natural things. Watties are making money from biofarming, i.e. peas, vegetables. 411
That lamb thing in Scotland, and the one in America with a ban on cloning that Bill Clinton has pushed through to stop the cloning of people. 412
The question of the quality mark for meat and the apparent lack of danger despite what was first claimed. Another one where genes were inserted into pigs to produce insulin. 414
Cloning - I didn't like it. 415
Genetic duplication of sheep in UK. Biotechnology in fruit, developing the perfect fruit for export to Japan. 416
Growth hormones through the meat board. It was a misunderstanding that the public were led to believe that growth hormones were wrong in meat - it is not wrong. It's a growth hormone that is natural in the meat anyway. 418
Something to do with a cure for cancer, experimenting with mice. 420
Cloning, one sheep that they were trying to clone. 421
Food regulation derived from gene technology. 423
Sheep, human cloning; genetic labeling. 424
Dolly, the cloned sheep from Scotland. As NZ was looking to do the same thing. 425
Mainly the question of cloning. 426
British scientists have cloned a sheep from cells from the placenta of another sheep and the thing that concerned me was that I heard that they are going to establish a farm in New Zealand, and I wondered if it was a lack of legislation in that area in New Zealand. 428
People refusing to buy certain foods in supermarkets, unless they knew whether or not they were genetically altered. 430
Cloning that sheep, we discussed it at work. 432
Cloning of sheep in UK; article about using pig hearts in human transplants. 434
Cloning of sheep and human parts in pigs or vice versa, whichever. 435
Genetically cloned sheep. 436
They were not going to clone people, but they are already doing it in Bermuda for people who want it. 438
Cloning of sheep and moving industry to NZ, I think from Scotland. 440
Genetically interfering with food products and vegetables: Labeling genetically food products or not. 442
Genetically altered food, written by people who wanted to push it, so they had an axe to grind anyway. 443
Cloning sheep, using pigs for transplants, and I read about plants being looked at in laboratories for better crops and pest resistant. 444
It was about putting fluorescence from fish into mice with the thought of using it to track cancer. It made the mice glow in the dark so the idea is they could design it to attach to cancer in the body so it can be located by X-ray or whatever method that could be developed. 445
Cloning of animals; Fruits and vegetables being genetically processed. 446
Japanese technology - wherein mice are artificially created under a fluorescent light; genetic engineered from jellyfish. 447
Mad cow's disease. About fruit, they genetically are changing them but they haven't told us. Haven't informed the public. Fruit in general. 448
A tomato was found shaped in words of the Bible scriptures. 449
Genetically modified food; something gross about babies I cannot remember. 451
Cloning (sheep, human?) & animal testing (fluoresent mice for cancer). 453
Sheep in Scotland; Baboon hearts used in human organ replacement. Genetic engineering. Crops resistant to Roundup herbicide. Sheep with radioactive gene put in them. 454
Cloning of sheep, debate about possibility of cloning human. 455
Vaccines and cancer on TV. They said they supposedly found some sort of cure or something which slows down cancer. Give you vaccines by eating bananas. 456
Cloning sheep; using pigs for transplanting organs. 457
Cloning a sheep, a glowing mouse, microrobotics. Little robots that flow in your blood stream, they have little flappers to help them swim and clogs, and they will latch onto things in your body. Same as computer chips.458
Cloning of sheep by a Scottish company which wants to set up in NZ. And the one about the woman who wanted to have a baby using her dead husband's sperm, but legally she couldn't because she did not have his authorization. 459
Certain consumer groups are concerned about groceries not being labelled that they are genetically enhanced. The safety of genetically enhanced goods is in doubt. I saw a photo in the paper about a mouse and jellyfish being genetically combined. Also the cloning of sheep. 460
The glow in the dark mouse. There is an operation that can be done in the dark if a special fluid is injected in the wound. The sheep cloned in Scotland that they have cloned. 461
Sheep cloning, I can't think off hand of anything else. 462
Sheep cloning I think. Genes in rats and mice causing cancer. Genetically altered food and how it should be labeled or sold at all. Blood from the placenta curing leukemia or along those lines. 464
Sheep cloning; genetically modified soybeans. 465
Making obese mice to see if fatness was genetically based. 466
About rabbit viruses in Australia about to be introduced to NZ; Fluorecent mice. 467
Alternative energy; genetic engineering of fruit; thats all in recent times. 468
Sheep clones. A media item because it was genetic manipulation of sheep eggs which produced genetically identical sheep. 469
The gene treatment of animals, food and plants. The cloning of sheep. The reuse of the blood from the placenta for medical advancement. It's a great breakthrough for New Zealand medical research. 470
Dolly the sheep. The question as to cloning and the advances in human genetic cloning. Also the age of the cells and the rate of which the cloned will age and die. Transplants, the ability to cause unheard of or manufactured cloned diseases like viruses to mutate and jump across species boundaries. Prenatal diagnosis and interpretation of genetic information. 471
Genetic cloning of sheep; Massey University is dealing with genetic cloning as well. 472
About a sheep and some illnesses they could manipulate. 473
Dolly the sheep animal cloning issue; human cloning. 474
Cloning animals, sheep was cloned. DNA testing on sheep and mice. Don't remember anything else. 476
Cloning Dolly; Lab rats and mice with genetic implants to make them gain weight. 477
Dolly the sheep, cloning, food irradiation; generally everything. I'm doing my own research on biotechnology. 478
Genetic testing in Gisborne by a foreign company; Food in supermarkets 479
Cloning and gene manipulation. 480
Tomatoes. Dolly the sheep. 481
Dolly the sheep and related issues in America. Also genetically modified soybeans are not labeled. Artificial chromosome developments. 482
Genetic manipulation of our food. The future of Pit Ball Terriers - apparently genetically engineered to kill. 483
Genetic sheep "Dolly". 484
Article about genetically modified foods sold in supermarkets. News story about cloned lamb with "old" DNA. 485
Making fejoas bigger. 486
Sheep cloning. Baby sexing. Head transplant on monkeys. Disease resistant plants. New medicine for AIDS. New varieties of plants and fruits. 487
Cloning of animals. Human genetic cloning. Fruit cloning. 488
Cloning sheep. Genetic fingerprinting to identify criminals. 490
Animal organ transplants. Mad Cow Disease is related to embryo import. Hepatitis C in growth hormone. Cloning achieved in animals. Genetic testing for bowel cancer. 491
Genetic engineering. In vitro fertilization. Organ harvesting and transplantation. 492
The cure for multiple sclerosis being parts of embryos used in abortions. IVF. 493
The cloning of animals. 494
Procedures to help infertile couples to have babies. 495
Cloning sheep. Creating insecticide resistant crops. 496
Growing genetic pigs for organs. 497
Blood and organ donor. 499
Cloning. Genetic engineering in food (soybeans). Using pig hearts in humans. 500
Genetically altered animals. 501
Modifying crops. 502
Food irradiation. Cloning. Warfare uses. Forensics. 503
Fat genes of a rat compared to human gene's are similar. 504
Sheep cloning. 505
I think it was about the cloning of babies. 506
Cloning of sheep, improved crop strains, risks, e.g. BSG? in beef. Poultry scares. 507
Use of pig hearts in humans. Use of baby placenta for AIDS. Genetically altered food not labeled in NZ. 508

Japan
Cannot remember/DK. J14, J23, J36, J41, J46, J53, J126, J131, J135, J151, J171, J191, J201, J226, J235, J316, J328, J334, J364, J380, J389, J396, J402.
New variety of tomato. J10
Biotechnology accepted as an AIDS therapy. J12
Pioneering new varieties of orchids. J17
Soybeans (USA). J20
Related to gene therapy. J21
Fruits made by biotech are going to be on the market. J26
Something related with my work. J28
Dr Tonegawa, he discovered something I think. J29
Making scar on plants. seeing if they have antibody. J35
Inserting cold tolerance genes into tobacco to make transgenic resistant tobacco. J38
Making pesticide resistant plants, plants with insecticidal proteins, and risks. J43
Agricultural products. J54
To make Ayu fish 3 times bigger than usual by biotechnology. J56
Plants. J58
Bio of flowers. J59
Importing new fruits, "Bio", , putting labels. J61
Orchids. J62
To make resistant (strong) plants using "Bio". J66
To grow a lot of orchids using "Bio" and sell cheaper. J67
Genetic recombination. Tomato. J70
About person who did genetic modification for the first time. J71
Growing cyclamen using biotechnology. J72
Cure diseases. J73
Improving plants. Cure diseases. J74
(In School class) plant genetics. J77
Huge radish. J79
Cloned animals and cows. J82
Plants, vegetables and fruits. J86
Blue roses by Suntory. J89
IVF. Freezing genes. J90
To make tomatoes bigger. J91
Use biology in Dept. Biology in technical college. J94
Food. J95
Read a book, not magazines. J96
Muscular dystrophy. Down's syndrome. Biotherapy at early stage of pregnancy. J105
BM. J106
About biofood. J114
Treatment of genetic disease. J117
Antibody and life. J121
Producing insulin. J127
Transplanting pig heart into humans. J132
Crops not eaten by insects in Africa. J134
New flower, vegetables. J140
Decrease crimes by chromosome. J144
Related to immunity. J147
Treating disease. J155
About clones. J157
To produce lots of tomatoes from one plant. People who have genetic disease cannot get insurance in USA. J163
Hydroponic tomato. Make dairy cows make more milk. J168
New products. J174
The story of an animal with a different animal brain because brain nerve was exchanged in utero. J175
Capturing an Inomote mountain cat which is endangered to preserve genes, which was not suitable as it had AIDS. J176
Genetically modified soybean. J177
Genetically modified products were imported. J179
The fact that gene therapy has been done. J180
Gene therapy. J186, J318
Gene therapy at Hokkaido University. J188
Growing plants. J193
Breeding of cows. J194
Bioplants, e.g. cedar which is harder to be burned. To sell frozen sperm of Nobel prize winners, more than half the babies had IQ over 200. J197
Improving varieties of vegetables. J200
About cows. J205
Fact that soybeans which are resistant to disease and insects are sold without labels, and also no test of what kind of effect that soybean has to the genes. J207
Products of genetic modification. J208
Growing plants by Bio. J217
Wide range. J219
Tomatoes last longer. University Professor in Okinawa making water using biotechnology. J221
Treatment of diseases; New plants like pomato. J222
Making big vegetables and tomatoes in USA. J225
Treating disease. J227
Genetically modified tomato; beans; barley (used to talk when at agricultural training place-Q15) J229
On TV news: developing new fruit with biotech. J232
Q15-talk with family about TV news or movies. J233
Q15-because my child is sitting entrance exam for university. J236
People from work - Orchids. J240
I have heard from an acquaintance in the past, but cannot remember the context very well. J241
Somebody made a radish cabbage by joining radish and cabbage, and they can make it every year. J243
Agricultural products. J245
Growing soybeans in USA (developing soybeans resistant to herbicides). J250
Cow fertilization and pregnancy. J255
Cause of Parkinson disease. J256
Xenotransplants from chimpanzee to human. Transplanted some parts of chimpanzee to human. J268
Soybean genetic recombination. J273
Bacteria eats oil. J283
Composing new species of plant. J288
Preserving tomatoes for a long time. J289
I heard an research institute of biotechnology will be constructed in Takatsuki city. J292
A tomato which is possible to be kept for a long time. AIDS treatment by genetic engineering. J305
New kind of flower. Vegetable. J307
About plant genes. J310
Issues of IVF, surrogate mother. J317
Gene therapy for diabetes and cancer, etc. J325
Gene therapy for cancer. J329
Fact that they succeeded to make clone of sheep and monkey. J332, J333
Genetically modified potato and Japanese one look exactly the same from outside appearance, but there is no label that one is genetically modified. These two are mixed and sold. J340
Growing orchids from seedlings. J341
Necessity of agricultural products which are genetically modified. J343
Mass production of Matsutake mushrooms [very expensive]. J345
Cancer treatment. J349
Related to food, cannot remember. J351
Cloned animals (either sheep or goat, I forgot) was born. J354
Making clones of organisms. J361, J375
Clone monkey. J367
Cloned organisms (sheep and monkey). Developing plants that are strong for harmful insects. Producing food when human beings move to Mars. J370
Preventing disease which will develop by genetic screening. J372
The fact that a clone was made by somatic cell of sheep. J373
Cloning sheep and cow. American President said that they don't use grant for clone research. J374
I remember that I was worried about new environment which was brought by the progress of technology, but I cannot remember in detail. J376
Cloned sheep and monkey. J377
Clone. Pollution problem, bacteria eats it. . J378
A phage which works against O157. J381
Cloned human being. J383
Cloned sheep. J384
Insect-resistant soybeans. Importing GMOs. J387
Medical related, cannot remember well (Doctor). J390
Clone. I don't now very well because it is difficult, but I hear the word very often. Tomatoes. Flowers (orchids). J391
Clone. new varieties of plants; artificial insemination of animals. J392
Clone. interbreeding; DNA modification. J393
Clone. vegetables. tomato. J395
Cloned sheep, chimpanzee (USA, England). J397
NHK. Tokyo Agricultural University Lecturer on biotech in general; and for purifying water. J398
Cloned human being. Genetically recombinant plants. J401

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