J. Chinese Medical Ethics

Includes: 1994 Issues No.1, 3, 5; 1995 Issues No. 2,3,4

Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 5 (1995), 147-9.
Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 6 (1996), 71-73.

Abstracts (page numbers: title: author: abstract)

Ed.- To aid the dissemination of Chinese medical ethics some abstracts and contents from the JCME were put on the www. Their editorial office is:
Dr Yu Lin, Prof. Shi Dapu
Journal of Chinese Medical Ethics
Xi'an Medical University
Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, CHINA

J. Chinese Medical Ethics 1994 Issue No.1

8 Progress for the advanced medical techniques and traditional medical ethics - Shi Dapu
There appears to be a moral crisis. So long as there is advancement in medical science and techniques, especially the great advances in biomedical techniques with each passing day, they pound heavily at the traditional ethical sense regarding the problems of life and death, humans and human nature. The breakthrough in medical techniques and the stability of traditional ethics and conservative thinking, are unbalanced and there are conflicts in many ways, including: 1) The wide use of advanced medical techniques has brought changes in the relations between the medical services and the positions held by traditional ethics. 2) The different points of view regarding the quality of life by the advances in medical techniques and the traditional medical ethics. The traditional morality of medicine is characterized by the holy nature of human life, the right to live. Though advanced medical science has improved the value of human life, it has made the quality lower. 3) There are various principles regarding the rational distribution of health care resources in the eyes of traditional medical ethics and advanced medical techniques. 4) The advanced medical techniques have brought traditional medical ethics into question and consideration. 5) The cardinal principle for the development of advanced medical techniques in medical science. The integration of science and techniques and moralities can come into being only when a better readjustment of the relations between them is made, by joint efforts of people, moral supervisions and legal contracts. These may result in less negative effects.

Other papers included:
Morals and the way to keep fit - Zhu HanMing, Chen GuJia
Chinese medical ethics and its cultural background - Men Wei
Lao Zhunag's morals of the way to keep fit - Lu, XiCheng
America's course plan about death education - Huang Tian Zhong
Japanese practice ethics and disease - Yu ShouYun, Zhen Xin

J. Chinese Medical Ethics 1994 Issue No.3

Contents included:

2 Humanitarianism: Eternal theme of medical ethics - Shen MingXian
4 Market economics and the relationship of doctors and patients - Li Yi Ting
29 Discussing the important problem of contemporary sexual medicine - Meng Ji Xian
33 Life ethics and secular humanitarinism - HT Engelhardt
38 Moral risk evaluation of biological techniques - Hans Martin Sass
42 Ethical consideration of resurgence - James G. Adams
47 The thought and investigation of the model of hospice care - Guo Qing Xiou et al.
51 Social ethical countermeausres against senile hypertension - Quan Zheng Liang
61 The 28th meeting of the World Medical Scientific Organization Council was opened - Qiu RenZong

J. Chinese Medical Ethics 1994 Issue No.5

3 Bioethics, health police and transforming technology - Zhigniew Bankowski

10 The cause - analysis and countermeasures of the balance - loss of medical morals during the transition time from the planned economy to the market-economy - Liang Xingbang, Zhang Wei (Xian Medical University)
To develop the market economy is not to cancel or wear down the purpose for health care workers to serve patients, instead it strengthens the service. This article discusses the reasons why medical morale has lost its balance during the transtion time from a planned economy to a market economy, and it suggests some counter measures to construct medical morale.

11 Hospital ethics committees are a vital organization - Zhang Hongzhu, Chilian Zhang

14 Discussing several matters of medical humanitarianism - Shen MingXian

17 Getting a glimpse of medical ethics at present - Cong YaLi

22 Discussing the contradictions and unity of developing medical causes and medical morals using market mechanisms - Chang HuaRong, Wang hai
Based on the cultural background of a market economy, the effects of market economics on developing medical causes were examined. There were two effects, one positive and the other negative. However, the general tendecy is good. Under the given conditions the developing medical cause and medical morals can be in unity.

23 Discussing the relationship of doctors and patients in a socialist market economy - Zhao Yongyao YuLin

27 Necessity of strengthening medical morality for health administrative cadres - Cheng Ailing, Wu Xiaotao (Xian Medical Unversity)
At present there are the phenomena of asking for money from patients, writing out unneccessary prescriptions and getting medicines without payment among physicians. This is not in accord with humanitarism for patients in China. As everyone knows, the medical morality of health administrative cadres are involved whether the quality of the health services correspond to the needs of the patients or not. So the authors discuss how to strengthen the medical morality for training of cadres.

28 Moral conflict and medical moral education in the relationship of doctors and patients - Zhu EuJiang

32 Life ethics and secular humanism - HT Englehardt

37 The rules and standards of medical ethics committees in Dong Jing Medical University with Doctors and patients asking for death - Timothy E. Quil

41 Moral risk evaluation in biological technology - Hans Martin Sass

44 Chinese traditional culture and Chinese unique view of fertility - Wang XiaoYan

48 The modern significance of Chinese traditional dying wisdom - Zheng XiaoJang

58 Ethics of thought of the AIDS epidemic tendency and it's harm - Wang MingXu, Liu Xiao Hong (Xian Medical University)
The paper discusses the AIDS epidemic and its tendency, the harmfulness of AIDS to the health and socio-economic development of human beings. The dangers of AIDS in China are pointed out, and prevention and treatment of AIDS is urgently needed.

J. Chinese Medical Ethics 1995 Issue No.2

6 The Problems and Contermeasures in Medical Moral Construction Engineering at Present - Caorongrong, Thoracic Hospital in Shanghai City
Under a market economy, it is of important significance to realize correctly the double nature of the health service which affects medical morals positively and negatively, and to find out the relationship between the natures. The counter-measures to construct medical moral engineering are as followings: to lay-out the integral framework, develop every side, and carry out several steps to grasp the guidance of values, and strengthen the principles of medical morals and to increase the degree of taking part in and gain the aid of media and social opinion.

9 Standard Service: One of Targets of Medical Moral Construction Engineering - Shenxianghui, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Second Medical University
The realization of standard service under the present status of medical morals depends on the construction of medical moral engineering at every level and in diversified forms, strengthening management and increasing the interest and efficiency of construction of medical morals. Therefore, standard service is the object of medical moral construction engineering under a market economy, meanwhile, the deepening of standard service also depends on medical moral construction engineering.

16 Hospital Culture and Medical Moral Engineering - Heguopin et al, Shanghai Second Medical University
From the ways of medical model, inter-personnel relationships and medical moral construction, the paper discusses the nature, core roles and structure of contemporary hospital culture.

21 Moral Construction Engineering - Fanshanrong, Children's Hospital in Shanghai city
It is necessary to deal correctly with the relationship between "the big and small environment" in caring out medical moral construction engineering. The experiences in the Children's Hospital in Shanghai city are as follows: (1) to change the big environment and build a good small environment, (2) to extend the influence of personality and increase the effectiveness of medical morals, (3) to develop efficaciously medical moral education in diversified forms and ensure it by systems, (4) to encourage mentality and construct medical moral engineering, (5) to strengthen education in legal matters and increase the quality of health staff.

23 To Carry out a System Checking Medical Morals and to Strengthen Medical Moral Construction Engineering - Liiaitiing et al, The First Worker's Hospital of Liaohe Oil Field

In the First Worker's Hospital of Liaohe Oil field, a system for checking medical morals has been devised and carried out, medical moral construction has been carried forward and therefore, medical morals and style have been improved.

28 A Study on Human Ethical Engineering - Renoangrong et al, Xian Medical University

The paper discusses the relationship between ownership types of economy and ethics in contemporary society in China. It designs an ethical system which is "individual, mass and society" with the theory of system engineering, discusses research aims, content and methods of the system, defines "human ethical engineering", points out that "medical ethical engineering" is an important field in "human ethical engineering", and thus, constructs the form to research human ethical engineering.

31 Education, Activity, Administration and Research - Gu Weimin, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Second Medical University
Under socialist market economy, the construction of medical moral engineering directed by a theory of system engineering should be based on political education, conveyed by competition, combined with administration and led by the research of theory.

33 Ethics and Nature of the Health Service Market - Wang Mingxu, Ya Kahou
The health service market is an objective reality. But it is a failure itself. We must bring into play the role of government macro-control and market micro-regulation. We should strengthen the construction of medical ethics and medicine so as to strengthen the management of the health service market further.

35 Difficulties and Counter-measures in Medical Moral Education Engineering - Jangguohe, Janxi Health Bureau
The education of medical morals in health staff on posts remains at a low level. For example, it often pays attention to doctors and nurses and not to administrators etc, it is replaced by the education of service manners, and its forms are out of date, dull, stiff and short of assessment indices. It should develop medical moral education from hospital to society, organize and study the theories of medical morals systematically, research ethical problems from the easy to the difficult, propagate medical moral emotions, work out the standards and strengthen medical moral behaviour so as to carry out medical moral construction engineering forward on all sides.

36 Medical Moral Culture in 21th Century Life, Justice and Responsibility - Sunmuyi, Applied Ethics Center, Nanjing Railway Medical College in Southeast University
Four prerequisites to construct a Chinese culture mold of medical morals are as follows: (1) correct direction; (2) based on people's living needs; (3) the status of medical science and technology development; (4) to revive new moral culture by medicine.

39 Humanitarianism: Choice of Medicine and Medical Ethics - Shiveixing, ZheJiang Medical University
Medical humanitarianism stresses very much the voluntary view and medical ideal, stresses the spiritual motive role which is thought to be decided by the nature of medicine, the special profession. Humanitarianism never excludes utility and benefit. Medical humanitarianism is the unity on the contemporary voluntary view and utilitarianism, and it is medical humanitarianism not utilitarianism that should play a role in the medical practice

43 An Explanation on "The Organization Rules of Hospital Ethics Committee of China (Draft)" - Ji Zhong
This paper gives a detailed explanation on the purpose, significance and content of "The Organization Rules of Hospital Ethical Committee of China" drafted by the medical ethics committees in Qianjing city.

46 Ethical Problems in Applying Techniques to Distinguish Fetus Sex - Liuqin, Beijing Medical University
The paper discusses whether to maintain a non-healthy fetus, the reproductive control of patients with hereditary diseases, the aim to apply the technique to distinguish fetus' sex and personal morals and social ethical problems for health staff. It is pointed out that the technique can be applied only to check hereditary diseases as to be a benefit to bearing a good child and increasing people's quality, and the technique should be controlled properly so as not to serve feudal ethics.

48 To Understand "Showing Love Care on One's Deathbed" and "Euthanasia" in View of "Health for All" in 2000 - Mamingzhi, Shanghai Medical University
The rights and interests of health care include that of health resources and services. The former includes materials and services, and the latter includes the rights and interests of health staff to supply services and of patients. The task for health care is meant to keep the individual and the masses from the effect of natural factors, society and in itself.

52 Medical Moral Consciousness and Medical Behaviour under Market Economy - Zhang Xiulan et al, Tianjin Shigong Medical College
The paper discusses three questions as follows: (1) the linkage of market economy to medical moral consciousness; (2) reasons to develop the new medical moral consciousness and behaviours; (3) reason analysis of bad medical moral consciousness and behaviours, under a market economy.

57 A discussion on Anaesthetist's Moral Training - Liguoming, The People's Hospital in Jingtan city, Jonysu Province
Besides performing medical moral rules, anaesthetists should be of special morals and deal with the relation to patients and surgeon.

61 Bioethics and Secular Humanism - H. T. Engelhardt (Transl.)

J. Chinese Medical Ethics 1995 Issue No.3

3 Medical Ethics and Big Culture - Shi Da Pu, Yulin (eds.)
The paper discusses the relationship between medical ethics and big culture. On the one hand, medical ethics can improve the development of human culture as its major manifestation. On the other hand, medical ethics needs nourishment and enrichment of culture.

7 Behaviour Standard of Hospital Administrators - Guo Liang, Zhang hongzhu, Tianjin Hospital System Engineering Research Institute
The Hospital Administrative Moral Standard has the effects of guidance, encouragement, harmonization and rectification. Administration should reflect principles of respect, justice and benefit. It should connect with the purpose and the way of setting up the hospital, with the aim of educating health staff. The institution of the standards should combine administrative power with its function. The nucleus is to rectify opinion, action, discipline and attitudes of the health staff.

10 Hospital Administrative Morals and Medical Quality - Huang Weichan, Shanghai Hospital, Second Army Medical Hospital
The Market Economy has some negative influence on hospital administrative morals and has some restrictive effect on the improvement of medical quality. So new concepts of hospital administrative morals are required to overcome the negative elements of socialist market economy. At present, the urgent requirement of hospital administrative morals is to handle the relationship between the two benefits correctly, using medical quality as a nucleus.

12 Medical Moral Conflicts between Medical Health Reform and the Guide of Value - Liu Yaoguang, Hunan Medical University
The paper analyses five medical moral conflicts of medical health reform. It indicates that connotation of the guide of value is collectivism and service to patient's heart and soul. In order to guide values positively, 5 points should be noted: a) to correctly recognize the dialectical relationship of medical health reform and medical moral engineering and keep equal emphasis on them; b) to fully exert medical education functions of guiding benefits; c) to insist on socialist justice principle; d) to lead socialist competition into the reform; e) to carry out principle of "cutting benefits apart" and set up a mechanism of increasing the tendency for benefits.

16 The Safeguard for Patients' Right and the Morality of Hospital Administration - Zhu Wuj Jiang, Shenjiang Medical College
Advancing patient's right adapts to the great democratic tendency in the world today. The principle of patients' freedom is an important component part of the basic principles in modern medical ethics. Patients' rights have both the properties of law standardization and the significance of moral sense. In the new situation of the market economy, strengthening the moralities of hospital administration plays an important role in safeguarding the patients; right and interests, correcting the general mood of trade and improving our service.

19 Patients' Right Defence and Hospital Moral Duties - Ma Xiansong, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical University
Doctor-patient rights conflict should be noted at present. Hospital administrators should strengthen the "sense of patient's rights" and make economic administrative aims and patients' right protection consistent, while making administrative choices. They should realise the combination between rights and duties of health staff and reach the harmonization of society, patients and hospital benefits

22 Research into Medical Consumers' Rights and Duties: A summary of research into rights and duties of domestic, and alien patients - Guoqingxiu, Feng zhiping, Wang lifei, Geijing Army Medical Senior Training School
After summing up history and current situation of alien patients rights and duties, the paper emphasises domestic patients' rights and duties. It will have great theoretic and practical significance towards perfecting our newly built medical model, confirming medical consumers; benefits and improving medical morals.

26 The Important Effect of Philosophical Ethical Nucleus on Modern Hospital Administration - Dongping et al, Capital Medical University
Administrators and administrees all live in a certain mood of hospital culture. So the philosophical ethical nucleus of hospital culture is the marrow of modern hospital administrative knowledge; hospital administrators sense of values, especially the moral principle and style of thinking, deeply impresses and conditions the modern hospital administrative principles and methods, determines its enforcement and effect.

29 The Status and Effect of Medical Moral Construction on Hospital Classified Administration - Sixifeng, Central Hospital of Zhengzhou Railway Bureau
The paper indicates the important status and effect of medical moral construction of medical classified administration from three aspects: 1) medical morals is an important content in hospital classified administration; 2) medical morals is its guarantee; 3) medical morals is the basis of constructing and developing achievements in classified administration.

30 To Analyse the Essence of "Bonus Phenomenon" - Yuan Wenwei

32 To Accumulate the Minimum Effect on Medical Moral Construction Engineering - Guoleinzhu, Liuwei, The Third Central Hospital in Tianjin City
The paper indicates the methods and the effects of using common people to relate to common people, using behaviour standards to standardize people's behaviour, using great strength to improve the quality of the administration of medical morals, using good effect of cadre's behaviour to raise the medical moral level of the whole staff.

35 Detailed Regulations of Principles of the Ethical Committee of Trianjin First Central Hospital

37 Features of Educating Medical Students for the Effective Medical Ethics - Zhaojjian,Wangyuyin, Fanweidong, Leiyiming, Xi'an Medical University
In order to fit in will the needs of socialist cultural and ideological progress, medical moral education should be strengthened and its methods should be improved. The only way to improve the methods is to liberate the thoughts, renew ideas, from new style ideas and educate students comprehensively for medical morals.

41 Relationship between Humanity and Nature and its Ethical Principle - Li Zhong, Sunming, Chongqing Medical University
Humanity and nature are interdependent. So only respecting nature fully utilizing and exploiting nature scientifically can be of benefits to humanity, or it will be no end of trouble for the future.

43 Medical Ethical Problems brought by New Technological Revolution - Ligenlin, Hangpeilin, Capital Medical University
The paper indicates the problems and challenges that new technological invention brings to medical ethics. Also, it gives three representative opinions of new technological relations and discusses their contradictions and unity.

46 Research and Analysis of Question Papers on Classified Health Staff's Opinions of Euthanasia - Fanyinong, Huangrong, Shanghai Second Medical University
According to the research and analysis on 317 classified health staff's opinions of euthanasia, results show that health staff of every class all have rather sound opinions of euthanasia and they generally use humanism at the level to assess euthanasia cases. Clinically, passive euthanasia has objective feasibility. Thus a study on its feasibility is suggested, and strengthening legal measures is suggested to be an urgent matter to improve enforcement.

51 The Effect of Affection and Training on Doctor-Patient Communication - Chenghong

53 Ethical Researches into AIDS - Qiaolidong, The Fourth Army Medical University
The paper indicates the clinical ethical problems that AIDS brings and the according counter-measures.

55 Qualities and Training of Nurses showing Love on One's Deathbed - Liu yuexia, Beijing Army Medical Senior Training School
The paper discusses what qualities the nurse showing love on one's deathbed should have, and researches the methods of training, by showing nurse's effect in supplying a service of showing love on one's deathbed and showing their qualities.

59 Nurses' Cultural Ethical Accomplishment and Nursing quality - Fang huiling, Shangluo Regional Hospital
Through the research and analysis of patients' group ages, cultural level and profession structure, etc, combined with the requirement of new medical mode, the paper raises the cultural ethical accomplishment nurses should have, and gives examples to discuss the relationship between this accomplishment and nursing quality.

63 Bioethics and Secular Humanism - H.T. Engelhardt (Transln)

J. Chinese Medical Ethics 1995 Issue No.4

6 Research and Enforcement of a Check on Medical Moral Quantification in Tianjin City - Zhang Guixin, Zhou Zhongyuan, Li Jiliang
Tianjin Health Bureau has researched into methods of checking medical moral quantification. They made a standard of checking, built up a group to examine, planned the time and methods for checks, and worked out regulations concerns rewards and disciplinary sanctions.

9 Usage of Fuzzy Poly-Gradational Comprehensive Assessment in Medical Moral Education - Xue Qinxiang, Dang Jingpin
The paper discusses the way of using "Fuzzy Poly-Gradational Comprehensive Assessment" to analyze and evaluate the results more scientifically and reasonably.

10 Conception of checking and assessment of hospital medical moral quantification - Chen Fangging

16 Satisfaction degree of society is an important index of assessing medical moral engineering - Jain Yao Lin et al.
Xiabei District Central Hospital in Shanghai has developed medical moral engineering effectively with good results.

15 Rules of hospital medical moral checks and assessment

19 To rebuild a new medical moral civilization model - Shi Dapu, Yu Lin
Through analysis of the current situation of medical moral engineering, this paper effectively puts forward several thoughts of the modern medical moral civilization model, and proposes suggestions for medical moral theory.

22 Medical ethics problems brought about by advanced medical techniques and the study of its countermeasures - Chen Jiulong
Starting with ethical puzzles brought about by advanced medical techniques the paper discusses the way to avoid defects that arise by the use of advanced techniques.

25 Research into euthanasia culture - Liu Yuexia

26 Ethical research into health service disposition service of "showing love and care on one's deathbed" - Zhang Zhao et al.

27 An analysis of "Customers - Health - Skilled Worker Group - Society" Ethical Systematic Engineering - Ren Yanrong
Staring with general health opinion, the paper analyses the relationship between human "needs and benefits", and indicates that to be hygienic and healthy is the goal that any specified person, staff group and society is chasing. This is the historical mission shouldered by skilled health workers. Also the paper indicates the ethical systematic engineering of "Customers - Health - Skilled Worker Group - Society" and a basic model of moral behaviour of skilled health workers obtaining self "need" and "benefiting" customers.

28 Using the "standards of productive forces" to research euthanasia legislation in China - Li Tianjian

30 Ethical analysis of the quality of life - Liu Xiangchen et al.

31 Familial adenoma polyps coloni and the psychological and ethical affects on family members - Ma Hongji et al.

37 Security - its Ethical significance, Defense and Usage - Wang Yanguang
From the angle of medical ethics, this paper discusses the significance and the ethical basis of the security principle. Using this theory, the paper analyses and defends the value conflicts related to the principle of security.

39 Mistaken diagnosis and treatment and medical moral engineering - Jia Zhaoxin
How shall we pay special attention to the medical morality and practices, and reduce the number of accidents in diagnosis and treatment from the present? The following proposals are given: 1) To stress education and pay attention to practice, 2) The party committees and party branches all should take it seriously and make sure these are followed, 3) To attach great importance to the value of medical personnel, 4) To strengthen the management and set up a medical legal system.

42 Ethics perspective of medicine management behaviour in hospital - Yian Jue (Xi'an Medical University)
This article gives investigation reports of medical management in hospital of provinces, regions (cities) and the county level. The result shows that there are many channels to introduce medicine; unreasonable utilization of expensive imported and capital medicines cause the increase in health costs which makes the economic burden to the patients greater. The article also puts forward some ethical countermeasures to enhance the medical management of the hospital.

43 Medical moral construction and its countermeaures in stock hospitals - Guo Zhihai et al.

47 Research into strengthening the internal cohesive power of hospitals - Geng Jun et al.

48 The art of creating good morals - Chen Maogen

51 Sexual moral education in Taiwan - Yu Lin

52 Bioethics and secular humanism (translation) - HT Engelhardt

60 Take good care of the homeland where humans live - Hydegle and Modern Environmental Ethics - Wang Wer
The paper discusses the thoughts of ecological philosophy and the environmental ethics of the German philosopher, Hydegle.

64 Market economy and the Army medical moral construction engineering - Xiong Qiguui (General Hospital, Guanzhou Military Region)
The paper indicates the effects of the market economy on the morals of the Army medical system, and suggests several appropriate countermeasures.

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