Medicine and Philosophy (China)

(ISSN 1002-0772). For information on this Chinese journal which has some abstracts in English (abstracts from some issues have been put on-line, and were printed in EJAIB 7 (May 1997); contact:
Prof. Du Zhi Zheng, Editor, Medicine and Philosophy
No. 4 Chang Bai Street, Dailin, CHINA

Medicine and Philosophy 18 (No. 1, 1997)
On the Strategy of Cancer Research,5-8, Xie Shusheng
In the past 25 years, according to the biomedical model, the basic scientific studies on cancer have greatly advanced. However, the overall mortality from cancer in USA has actually risen according to a report of National Cancer Institute in 1995. This fact indicates that it is necessary to reevaluate the strategy of cancer research. The following aspects were considered to be the main reasons for no decline in overall mortality of cancer. 1) Cancer is a kind of Bio-Psycho-social diseases, single study of tumor biology can not uncover the complexity of carcinogenesis; 2) Cancer is a disease of the whole organism, single study on abnormality in behavior of biology of cancer cells cannot uncover the natural history of carcinogenesis; 3) Tumor biotherapy based on molecular biology of cancer and tumor immunology have no ideal effect on the treatment of cancers; 4) There is no way to prevent the recurrence of cancers, even after radical cure of primary cancer.
Ribozyme Strategy on Gene Therapy of Tumor, 9-11, Cheng Jin
Ribozymes are RNA molecules with enzymatic activity, which can result in the sequence-specific cleavage of the targeted RNA. The features of ribozyme binding and cleaving targets provides an advantage over conventional antisense RNAs, and effectively blocked expression of the oncogene. The broad potential of ribozyme technology can be translated into a new class of gene therapeutic agents for tumors. Discovery and application of ribozyme technology is the specific reflection of achievements in modern scientific the technology revolution, imbued with philosophic consideration and creative think.
Effective Tumor Therapy Needs Reconstruction of Immune Recognition, 12-4, Feng Qi, Cai Yong-ning, Sun Bing-shong
There are three steps in the development of cancer including mutation of normal cells, recognition and killing against cancer cells by the immune system. In the fighting against cancer we come to understand that the recognition against cancer by immune system is the key step concerning whether the cancer may happen or not. It is clear that the reconstruction of immune recognition against cancer cells is a hopeful idea. This article will discuss this question in the philosophical point of view and point out that it is important to reconstruct the immune recognition against cancer.
An Alternative Viewpoint about the Structure of Life: Physiological Template Theory, 15-7, Luo Fei
Under a background of modern science and technology, this article proposed an alternative viewpoint about the relationship between the function and structure of life. It suggests that a creature contains a functional structure as well as a physical structure, and the latter is directed by the former in performing certain functions. These functional structures were put together under a name of physiological template. The author proposed that modern medical theory might be reformed under this viewpoint. The medical system of the East and the West may be able to understand each other and even be merged together to form a novel modern medical system.
Essential of Cultural Model of Traditional Chinese Medical System, 18-21, Cao Li-ying, Chang Cun-ku
Part of traditional Chinese culture, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) developed from its mother traditional Chinese culture. Therefore, traditional Chinese culture must exert a tremendous influence on TCM. On the basis of traditional Chinese culture and the principle of cultural anthropology, six aspects were explored as the following: theoretical characteristics of TCM, integrated concept, thinking logic, diagnostic methods, therapeutic thought and the relationship between the Heaven and the Man.
Does Patient Agree to Our Plan of Treatment?- Problems of Relationship between Doctor and Patient (Part III), 39-40, HuangPing et al.
Health Education -Problems of Relationship between Doctor and patient (Part IV), 41-2, Zhang Sufan et al.

Medicine and Philosophy 17 (No. 11, 1996)
On Medicine is a Kind Technique, 561-5, Du Zhizheng
The proposition of traditional Chinese medicine, that medicine is a technology of kindness is very important. It includes the aims of the medicine and both aspects of medicine and what we ought to do or not. It still has an important sense at present.
Age of Technical Medicine and Highly develop Scientific Spirit and Humanistic Spirit, 566-9, He Daren
Medicine has entered a new era of technical medicine owing to the revolution of leading technology in medicine. The technical trend of thought in the technical era of medicine and some negative influence of the external environment in the market economy resulted in a temporary failure of the humanistic spirit, hence it helped to bring about rejuvenation in humanistic medicine. Future medicine must highly develop both scientific spirit and humanistic spirit, realize the fusion of scientific culture and humanistic culture. Only in this way can it maintain the fast and healthy development of technical medicine and humanistic medicine in the 21st century.
Bring Forth New Ideas and Development in the Research of Promoting Blood Circulation to Remove Blood Stasis, 570-3, Su Qingming
The Chinese medicine characteristic in the concept of "blood" and "blood stasis syndrome" ought to be attached importance to the research of promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis and intensification of the understanding in the concept of blood stasis. The diagnosis of blood stasis should not be called by a joint name. The different kind of standards should be established according to disease and special field of study. The animal test study should be integrated with the Chinese medicine syndrome. Differentiation the syndrome should pay attention to the relationship between macroscopic and microcosmic, whole and part as recommending modern technology, method and target. The applying range should be properly used and evaluated; Strict scientific method should be gradually set up. It should pay attention to the theory method and technology for bringing forth new ideas in medical breakthroughs and subjects should pay attention to the concept. To develop in contrast to Chinese medicine and modern medicine.
The Thoughts about the Research of Hypertension Disease in the Combined Chinese and Western Medicine, 574-6, Kong Binyao
The research about the hypertension disease in Chinese or Western medicine should be set upon the basis of it's own theory. There are many common features about the pathology, therapy, complex prescriptions, body differences and the non-drug treatment in Chinese and Western medicine. The common features of hypertension becomes the basis for the combined medicine.
Darwinian Medicine - Postmodernist Counterthinking of Medicine, 577-9, Yu Kuanpin, Yan Qingshan
Modern biology with the speeding development seems to have no troubles in modern physics. Perhaps Darwinian medicine doesn't fit modern medicine. But it will be paid great attention on because of its close relationship to humanity. Undoubtedly, that Darwinian medicine treats the diseases from the viewpoints of evolution it will give us a new outlook on medicine. In a large degree, it meets with post modernist dissipating contrariety, for example science and humanity, metaphysics and positiveness, disease and health, individual and species etc. Will it cause the third shift of medicine?

Medicine and Philosophy 17 (No. 10, 1996)
Dialectic Thinking in Managing Primary Liver Cancer, 505-7, Tang Zhaoyou
In recent decades, a dramatic change in clinical aspects of primary liver cancer (PLC), a fatal malignancy endemic in China, has been observed. "Difficult to be diagnosed" has been changed to "easy to be diagnosed"; "incurable" has also been changed to "partly curable", which was mainly a result of progress in small PLC resection, re-resection of subclinical recurrence, as well as cytoreduction and sequential resection of initially unresectable PLC. It is clear that "small PLC could eventually grow up to large PLC". It is the rule that things are always changing to their opposite direction. Dialectic thinking is therefore important for clinicians to achieve more success in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
Where will medicine go? 508-11, Zhang Weifeng
This paper is devoted to a discussion of long-range strategy used to develop medicine in the 21st century: the pattern of biological medicine and bio-psycho-social medicine; technical breakthrough and social breakthrough; modern high-level technology and appropriate technology; individual treatment and group prevention and treatment; health education and treatment after having disease; technical education and quality education in the medical education. How can we treat these difficult aspects discussed here to face the challenges in the 21 century.
"Discussion of Medical Purpose" and Reform of Medical Education, 512-5, Ma Xuebo, et al.
This paper summarized "the discussion of medical purpose" and the present appearance of medical education as deviating from medical purpose. The main contents of that are as follows. Clinical medicine is divorced from preventive medicine. The curriculum still follows the developmental model of biomedicine and the content of teaching is out of contact with fostering that goal. Stress, in medical education, is put on the teaching of special technique, but yet the form of the humanistic spirit and the cultivated character is neglected. A dividing line is drawn between basic and clinical teaching. The traditional model of instruction is around the centre of teacher and classroom. The specialized fields are becoming more and more narrow, and the increase of specialty courses in colleges is excessive. The educational system and the degree is not beneficial to keeping with international conventions. The writer, according to the medical purpose, proposes new ideas and measures for the reform of medical education.
Initial Study about Review of Medical Documents, 516-8, Feng Zhengzhong
Document review (publication review, book review) meets the needs of both individuals and the development of science and technology. Nowadays, there are only a few reviews and contention in the medical journals, which are roughly classified to four sorts: criticism, advertisement, science and technology, and affirmation, and each has it's own traits. In recent years, the way to clinical epidemiology has been turning into an important means to lead and help the readers identify the papers in the periodicals. Medical yearbooks, such as Chinese Internal Medicine Almanac, are one king of reference-books to review medical articles. As we know, literature, therefore, we should devote major efforts to proposing medical document review, introducing and translating foreign medical document review, which can promote the development of medical science and technology.
Consciousness, Subconsciousness and Brain, 519-21, Kang Fuxin
There are close relationships and obvious differences between consciousness and subconsciousness. Consciousness is the mental activities and psychological phenomenon that people can realize the existence of surroundings and themselves, and can differentiate the surroundings from themselves. Subconsciousness is a subjective phenomenon which is a more complex psychological activities and, in general, can not be known by other people even himself. Both consciousness and subconsiousness are the functions of high-class nerve system -brain, which is related with the limbic system.
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