Bioethics in India: Proceedings of the International Bioethics Workshop in Madras: Biomanagement of Biogeoresources, 16-19 Jan. 1997, University of Madras; Editors: Jayapaul Azariah, Hilda Azariah, & Darryl R.J. Macer, Copyright Eubios Ethics Institute 1997.

55. Sustainable Mariculture For Development - Management Issues and Environment Interaction in India

P. Nammalwar
Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (ICAR), Madras Research Centre, Madras 600 006


The present paper deals with the sustainable mariculture of marine fin fishes for development in India. Information on seed resources and mariculture potential of cultivable marine fin fishes such as Milkfish, Grey mullets, Sandwhitting, Rabbit fishes, Pearlspot, Seabass, Groupers, Redsnappers and Seabreams may help for the evaluation of commercial scale production in various ecosystems. Production of marine fin fishes under controlled technologies rather than in the wild is stressed. An overview of marine fin fish culture development in India is given. The impact of mariculture of marine fin fishes on the environment, varies depending on the type of culture systems and its management and the characteristics of the location where farms are situated. There are a number of localized environmental issues to consider where intensive mariculture activities along the coasts have developed recently. Environmental considerations are important, because culture systems are mostly located in coastal waters where they are vulnerable to pollution problems and conflicts with other coastal resource-users. Environmental factors are closely linked to the causes of disease and the associated production losses, but far too little is known of the pathways and interactions involved. The situation poses the greatest risk for the aquaculture producer, through increased risk of economic loss from disease. Scientific planning based on concrete data on the availability of suitable lands, water bodies, formulation of standards for farm discharges and the implementation of the regulations through the government machinery in conformity with the plans are discussed to reduce or avert environmental problems.


Mariculture which has been identified as a prime industry to tap the enormous sources of self-renewable bio-energy for the benefit of mankind, has an infinite future in India, which is abound with rich fishery wealth. Multiplication effect of fish and fishery resources cannot be compared with the limited terrestrial animal resources and seafood is the answer for the future to meet 4/5th of the requirement of animal protein for the world population. Since, the land resources are getting depleted and more than 50% agricultural land is already suffering from soil degradation, seafood is the only alternative which can be produced in a mass scale to face the challenges of the 21st century. The Indian population is already suffering from malnutrition and the country cannot afford to carry this accumulated burden into the next century. Unless, India gears up for "Blue Revolution" on a war-footing, in order to increase the fish Production, it is impossible for the country to answer the nutritional need of the exploding population. In India, the total marine fish production through aquaculture is not even 25% of the total world fish production. According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the projected global aquaculture production in 1995 was 19.29 million tonnes and it is expected to increase to 26.90 million tonnes by 2000 AD. Aquaculture, today has thus come to mean controlled production, controls at different levels and various levels/types of manipulation of fin fish and other organisms. Aquaculture has emerged as a major frontier of fish production in the developing countries both for domestic consumption and export. Currently in India, there is a growing interest in aquaculture in order to meet the protein demand of the fast growing population. Marine fin fish culture has been an established practice is now undergoing rapid development. Information on the relative abundance of cultivable fin fish seed together with physico-chemical conditions of the environment is a essential prerequisite for aquaculture. At present, marine finfish culture practices are entirely supported by the supply of seed collected from the natural environment which is the only major source in the absence of any standard technology for the mass production of marine finfish seed by induced breeding.

Along the 8129 Km coastline of India, there are estuaries, creeks, coastal lagoons, mudflat and swamps extending from 28° North to 8° South latitude and experiencing different ecological conditions which have to be utilized to culture different species in different stocking densities according to the local conditions with special reference to seasonal changes in water quality, salinity and temperature. The crop pattern according to the natural environmental conditions to grow shrimps and fin fishes for a maximum period in a year is also found to be essential. The natural carrying capacity of the environment varies from place to place and therefore the productivity has to be carefully planned without overloading the environment. To develop ecofriendly coastal aquaculture in India, it is desirable to follow extensive method with low stocking density in the areas where the environmental conditions are not stable and semi-intensive method in the areas where conditions are conducive for shrimps and other marine fin fishes to grow. The stocking density should vary according to the local salinity conditions and other ecological conditions. For example, in the states of Andhra, Orissa, and Tamil Nadu, there are many areas located in seafront with facilities to draw sea water directly. A large area with varying environmental conditions are available along the creeks and estuaries in India. India is new to scientific shrimp farming and the experience obtained so far especially in adoption of sophisticated technology with required management practices is not adequate.

The scope for an organized system of marine fin fish culture in our country was realized by Hornell (1911) who suggested the development of coastal saline swamps, estuaries, backwaters, deltaic marshes and salt pans for marine fin fish culture by establishing a fish farm in Hare Island area of Tuticorin during 1915. Marine fin fish farming in Kerala was started in 1940 at Narakkal growing Milk fish and Grey mullets with encouraging production rate of 1000 kg/ha/yr. The Madras Fisheries Department renewed fish farming experiments in 1944 by constructing a farm in a tide fed marshy swamps at Krusadi Island for growing Milk fish and mullets. Such trials in farming efforts underlined the paramount need for accelerated involvement to evolve suitable farm management strategies for different ecological systems. Pioneering attempts and significant advances on marine fin fish culture involving Milkfish, Grey mullets, Sandwhitting, Rabbit fishes, Pearlspot, Seabass, Groupers, Redsnappers and Seabreams at Mandapam, Tuticorin, Madras, Calicut, Narakkal and Mangalore were made in Coastal ponds, net pens and cages by the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute for last three decades (Tampi 1960; Tampi et al., 1983; James 1985; Nammalwar & Mohanraj 1990; Nammalwar et al., 1994).

Although, traditional culture of marine fin fish has been practiced in estuaries, extensive backwaters, tidal creeks/inlets, mangrove swamps, lagoons and coastal regions of Kerala, Karnataka, West Bengal and Goa which is estimated to 2 million hectares, the production rates were low. Out of this, the `pokkali' fields of Kerala, `bheris' of West Bengal, `gazani' farms of Karnataka and `khazan' lands of Goa accounting for 50,000 hectares are known to be used for traditional culture of finfishes by raising the two major cultivable groups, namely Milk fish and Grey mullets, with an average annual yield of 800-2000 kg/ha depending on several factors. In other maritime states like Andhra, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra, hardly any cultivation in backwaters is known except for 100 ha area in Gujarat (Mahadeven, 1985; Nammalwar, 1993). In India, an awareness has also developed in recent years of the need to carry out aquaculture on scientific basis such as knowledge of the influence of water temperature and salinity in grow-out systems on the candidate species cultured, understanding the interaction of several environmental parameters in the culture system, basic productivity of the different habitats, availability of suitable sites based on soil types and micro fauna production, seed stock availability in space and time and devising techniques of transporting the seeds from areas of availability to culture sites in order to augment fin fish production. The past experience in finfish farming evolved suitable culture techniques for assessing the production capabilities of different methods and management strategies on priority areas. The present paper reviews the sustainable mariculture of marine fin fishes, management issues for development and environment interaction in India.

Marine Fin fish Seed Resources

Survey on the cultivable marine fin fish seed resources such as Milk fish, Chanos chanos grey mullets, Mugil cephalus, Liza parsia Liza tade Liza cunnesius, Liza waigiensis and Valamugil seheli, pearlspot Etroplus suratensis, Sandwhitting, Sillago sihama, Rabbitfish, Siganus javus, S.canaliculates, seabass, Lates calcarifer, Grouper, Epinephelus tauvina, E.hexagonatus, Redsnapper, Lutjanus spp. and Seabream, Lethrenus spp., from estuaries, brackish waters, backwaters and coastal waters of India for locating potential areas of their availability and the relative abundance in different seasons have been reported by many earlier workers (Tampi 1968). Though, the occurrence and collection of Milk fish seed may vary from several centres along the east and west coasts of India, the peak season in most places is from April to July and the secondary season from October to December. Among Grey mullet seed, Mugil cephalus is abundant from October-February, whereas other grey mullets L.macrolepis, L.parsia, L.tade, L.cunnesius, L.waigiensis and V.seheli, occur throughout the year. The fry and fingerlings of pearlspot, Etroplus surantensis occur throughout the year with a peak from April-July. The fry and fingerlings of sandwhitting Sillago sihama are available in good numbers throughout the year with a peak from January - May. The fry and fingerlings of seabass, Lates calcarifer occur from October-February and May-September. The seed of redsnapper Lutjanus spp., are available from January-June and September-October. The fry and fingerlings of grouper Epinephelus spp., and seabream, Lethrenus spp., are available from January-April (Silas et al., 1989; Nammalwar, 1986; Nammalwar et al., 1991; Rengaswamy et al., 1996).

Mariculture Systems Development

In India, construction of experimental coastal ponds was first established in Tuticorin in Tamil Nadu during 1915 and later during the forties in Krushadi Island (Pillay 1947; Chacko and Mahadevan 1956) and Narakkal, Cochin (Pillay, 1948). Construction of `bheries' in West Bengal (Pillay and Bose, 1957) `pokkali' in Kerala (Panikkar, 1937; Gopinath, 1956; Panikkar and Menon, 1956) `Khazan' in Goa (Gopinathan & Dani, 1973) and `gazani' in Karnataka are known to be used traditionally for the culture of marine fin fishes. A pilot farm was constructed in lower sundarbans by the Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute in sixties (Jhingran et al., 1972). The coastal fish farm construction and development for marine fin fish culture experiments at Mandapam, Tuticorin, Madras, Narakkal and Calicut centres of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute has been reviewed by Tampi et al., 1983. At Mandapam, a marine fish farm with seven culture ponds spread over a total area of 0.88 ha was established during 1950's which had to be abandoned after its destruction by the cyclone and tidal wave (Tampi, 1960). Later, the fish farm has been reconstructed and a total number of 28 ponds spread over a total area of about 15 ha have been developed for experimental work on fin fish and prawn farming (Bensam 1986, 1990). At Tuticorin, a total area of 2.5 ha has been developed at karapad into 12 ponds for the culture of fin fishes, prawns and crabs during 1972 (Bensam, and Marichamy) 1981. At Madras, a total extent of 36 ha saltwater area Muttukadu about 35km south of Madras was acquired from Government of Tamil Nadu during 1982. Out of this, an area of 13 ha has been developed into 24 ponds for experimental programs (Nammalwar and Mohanraj 1991). At Calicut, a total number of 13 polyethylene lined ponds covering a water spread area of 0.2 ha has been developed for fin fish culture, (Lazarus and Nandakumaran 1987). At Kakdwip, and Bokhali and lower sunderbans in West Bengal and Puri in Orissa, fish pond construction was made by the Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI, Reports 1962; Jingran et al., 1972). At Kakinada, one experimental fish farm was developed by the Central Institute Fisheries Education (CIFE, Reports, 1978). The Tamil Nadu State Fisheries Department has developed the brackish water fish farm at Santhome, Madras (Evangeline 1968).

Mariculture Methods and Potential for Marine Fin fishes

(i) Pond Culture

Monoculture of Milk fish in ponds at the stocking density of 6250/12500/ ha was conducted during 1958-59 at Mandapam, despite the poor water quality, low soil organic content, low nutrient level and hyper saline conditions for most part of the year. The monthly average growth rate and production was 18.3 mm and 212-455 kg/ha respectively. At Tuticorin, in two monoculture experiments conducted during 1973-74 at the stocking rate of 7820 and 75490/ha, the production ranged between 318 and 857 kg/ha. The monoculture experiments conducted at Kakinada during 1976-77 with the stocking density of 5000/ha indicated the average monthly growth rate between 20.6 and 23.6 mm. An estimated production of 710/kg/ha with a stocking density of 3000/ha was obtained in one monoculture experiments at brackish water fish farm, Kakdwip during 1978. The monoculture experiments conducted during 1980-82 at Mandapam at a stocking density of 4000/ha, registered the average monthly growth rate of 15.2 mm / 5.8 g with a production rate of 216 and 852 Kg / ha. At Calicut, monoculture experiments in polythene lined ponds conducted during 1983-84 at a stocking density of 5600/-ha, yielded the production rates ranging from 1765-4663 kg/ha/yr. The monoculture experiments conducted at Madras during 1983-87 with the stocking density of 2000-5000/ha registered the mean monthly growth rate ranged from 14.6 mm / 6.6 g to 61.0 mm / 16.6 g. The estimated production ranged from 546-770 kg/ha.

At Mangalore, in a polyculture experiment with Chanos chanos, Liza macrolepis, Sillago sihama, and Penaeus indicus, the growth rate for the above species were 57.4 mm, 28.2 mm and 10.6 mm respectively. At Madras, two polyculture experiments with Chanos chanos and Penaeus indicus with the stocking density of 3500 and 70000/ha were carried out during 1979. The average monthly growth rates were 52.2 mm / 52.1 g and 43.5 mm / 37.5 g for Milk fish and 15.8 mm / 1.8 g to 29.8 / 2.5 g for prawns. The estimated production rates were 705-1088 kg/ha for Milk fish and 135-312 kg/ha for prawns. At Tuticorin, in a polyculture experiment, Chanos chanos, Liza macrolepis and Scylla serrata with the stocking density of 1450, 3000 and 617/ha were conducted during 1980. The average monthly growth rates were found to be 14.9mm/8.6 g, 25.6 mm/21.6 g and 12.4 mm / 6.5 g. The estimated overall production was 1644 kg/ha/yr. At Tuticorin polyculture experiments conducted with Chanos chanos, Mugil cephalus and Penaeus indicus at the stocking density range of 3500-4982, 2428 - 7364 and 43200/ha during 1982 recorded the average monthly growth rates of 32.4 mm / 14.1 g for mullet and 9.1 mm / 1.5 g and 10.3 mm / 2,2 g for prawn. The estimated total production of 498 to 662 kg/ha of Milk fish, mullet and prawn was obtained. At Sunderbans, Milk fish, mullets, carps and prawn altogether yielded the production of 1390 kg/ha during 1985. The polyculture experiments with Chanos chanos and Penaeus monodon with stocking rate of 5000/ha during 1983 at Madras showed the monthly average growth rate of 22.5 mm / 3.0 g for prawns. The total production was 140-364 kg/ha/yr. In 1984, polyculture experiments with Chanos chanos, Mugil cephalus and Liza macrolepis at the overall stocking density of 1000/ha recorded the monthly mean growth of 27.2 mm/15.7 g, 27.8 mm/12.3 g and 14.0 mm/4.2 g respectively and the total production was 254 kg/ha/yr (Tampi, 1960, Evangeline, 1968. Ramamurthy et al., 1978, Marichamy & Rajapackiam 1982 b; Mohanraj et al., 1983; Gandhi and Mohanraj 1986; Lazarus & Nandakumaran 1987; Nammalwar & Kathirvel, 1988).

Monoculture experiments with Grey mullets, Liza waigiensis and Valamugil seheli at the density ranged between 22000 and 50000/ha conducted during 1985 at Mandapam, recorded the average monthly growth rate of 3.5 mm / 1.0 g, and 12.6 mm / 5.5 g and the production ranged between 135 and 782 kg/ha. In the monoculture experiments conducted during 1986 at Madras with Mugil cephalus and Liza macrolepis at the stocking density of 1500-7500/ha indicated the monthly average growth rate of 41.1 mm / 12.6 g and 22.3 mm / 8.5 g. The production was from 123-387 kg/ha. At Madras, during 1984-87 with Mugil cephalus, Liza macrolepis and Liza cunnesius at the stocking density of 2500-5000/ha registered the monthly average growth of 17.0-40.1 mm / 8.22-29.3 g, 16.1-23.4 mm / 4.9-12.2 g and 10.3-15.8 mm / 2.9-6.8 g respectively. The overall production ranged between 199-752 kg/ha. (James et al., 1984 a; James et al., 1985 a and b; Pillai et al., 1985; Nammalwar and Mohanraj 1991). Monoculture trials with seabass, Lates Calcarifer, gave a monthly average growth rate from 10-17 mm / 20-80 g and the reported production ranged from 2000-2500 kg/ha (Pillay, 1954; Jhingran, 1977; James and Marichamy 1987). In Mono and polyculture systems with pearlspot, Etroplus suratensis in Kerala and Goa regions, the average monthly increment in length and weight was 2.25mm/1.98 g and the production ranged from 1000-2000 kg/ha/hr (Sumitra Vijayaraghavan et al 1981).

(ii) Pen Culture

Pen culture method would be a more reliable and profitable one for the culture of Milkfish and Grey mullets. But for the fencing to prevent escape of the stocks and limiting predation by predatory organisms from outside, they are reared in their own natural habitat itself. Hence, there is every possibility to expect fast growth and high production, when supplemental feeding is also done. In view of the operational and experimental success of pen culture for raising Milk fishes in countries like Philippines, Indonesia, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, experiments were undertaken in India also to identify suitable areas and show the production capabilities. Further, experiments in this line would bring out the profitability of the method of culture for nation wide adoption. Squarish pens of bamboos design to withstand wave action for a longer period were constructed at Mandapam and Tuticorin during 1977 & 1978. Each pen of 81 m2 area consists of a double layered screen made of bamboo splits. At Mandapam, monoculture experiments with Milkfish in net pens conducted during 1983 indicated the average monthly growth rate from 33.8-60.9 mm/33.6-57.1 g at the stocking rate of 4000/ha. In another experiment with Milkfish conducted during 1985 registered the monthly average growth increment of 42.3mm/24.7 g. At Tuticorin, in the polyculture experiments with Milkfish and mullet conducted during 1982 at the stocking density of 10,000 and 15,000/ha recorded the average monthly growth rate between 27 and 51 mm/7.5g and 23 and 29 mm/18.3 g respectively. Further, Chanos chanos, Valamugil seheli and Sillago sihama were stocked at a stocking density of 50000/ha. The average monthly growth increments recorded for the above species were 22.7mm/10.3 g, 26.9 mm/10.5 g and 16.8 mm/8.1 g respectively. In another polyculture experiment with Chanos chanos and Mugil spp. indicated the monthly average growth rate of 50.0 mm/63.4 g and 18.3mm / 4.7 g. (Marichamy et al., 1979; Shanmugam & Bensam 1980; Ameer Hamsa 1983; Venkataraman et al., 1985).

(iii) Cage culture

Cage culture of fish was originated in the Far East and later adopted in several countries. It has numerous advantages over other culture techniques but there are some serious limitations which must be taken into consideration before it is applied on a large scale. Cage culture is being practiced in several countries with equal success in fresh brackish and salt water environments (Natarajan et al 1983; James et al 1985a; Prasadam and Kadir 1988) In India, groupers are found along the east and west coast where they are cultured in fixed net cages in the sea. The mean growth rate varied from 15.5-17.1mm/34.8-61.9 g and the estimated production per net cages 720 kg/8 months (James et al 1985a; Ameer Hamsa 1983; Ameer Hamsa & Mohamed Kasim 1992; Bensam 1993). Red snapper is one of the commercial important species in India but culture of this species has not been established yet. Redsnappers are usually cultured in floating net cages and pens in South east Asian countries. At Mandapam, experiments were designed to investigate the possibilities of culturing some economically important marine fishes in low cost cages, erected in coastal waters. Rabbit fishes, Siganus canaliculatus, S.Javas, Groupers, Epinephelus tauvina and E.hexagonatus and sandwhiting, Sillago sihama were cultured in the cages (James et al., 1985b James et al., 1993). The average monthly growth increments for S.canaliculatus and S.javus were 8.5mm/ 3.1 g and 6.6-6.2 mm/2.1.1 g respectively. The mean monthly growth for E.tauvina and S. Sihama were 19mm/87.3 g and 10 mm/1.6 g respectively.

Management Issues and Environment Interaction

The coastal areas of the world form a very important interface between land and sea ecosystems and occupy a critical niche in the protection of natural resources. The severe problems faced by the local communities as consequences of aquaculture in India can be listed under three broad headings: the impact of the conversion of land use from agriculture to aquaculture: the denial or curtailment of the rights to common property resources; and the disturbance of the eco-balance of the area. In addition, there are general problems affecting all the people of the area. (Rajagopalan and Lawrence, 1996: Baban, 1996). Environmental factors are closely linked to the cause or causes of disease and the associated production losses, but far too little is known of the pathways and interactions involved. A greater understanding of the relations between shrimp stress, disease and pond production would certainly help provide the basis for improvement management of ponds. As the intensification of aquaculture will certainly proceed, and as competition for natural resources increases, the environmental management of aquaculture will continue to be an important consideration in sustainable aquaculture development both in maintaining a suitable environment for cultured stock and in living in harmony with other resource users (maintaining the balance). It is important to recognize the importance of maintaining the balance in sustainable aquaculture.

An important issue in environmental management of aquaculture is a lack of understanding of the interactions between aquaculture and the environment. Research is necessary to properly qualify environmental impacts as a basis for determining the extent of problems and to design technically relevant and economically feasible control strategies for management of important impacts. It is highly likely that aquaculture development in India will come under increasing public scrutiny (particularly considering some lesson from other regions), especially where culture systems are utilizing common or public resources, e.g. coastal wasters, and particularly where aquaculture products are sold on competitive international markets, which are increasingly sensitive to environmental issues. In these circumstances, it will be vital to have scientifically reliable information upon which to base environmentally sound and equitable management strategies and to counter irrational arguments from other resource users or competing sectors (Mohan et al., 1995).

Environmental management and coastal zone aquaculture development and its promotion are challenging tasks in India (Rajyalakshmi, 1995). Coastal zone aquaculture development is very diverse in relation to geography, agroclimatic situations, people involved, bioethics, the resources used, the methods and tactics applied. It would again related to various economic / conservation activities which need to be integrated such as forestry, agriculture, estuarine and lagoon fisheries, industry, habitation reserved parks and those associated with the shore line and sea resources such as tourism, harbours and fish landing centres as well as mariculture. Farming techniques adopted in India will be different from those used in other countries and will also differ from region to region. Sometimes, the human greed to grab the benefits instantly, many a place, farmers are destroying the environment. Aquaculture systems are an integral part of the environment and due consideration must be given to their environmental issues be dealt with since in many instances, ecological changes have become risk factors to the industry itself. In India, at present the environmental problems which exist are amenable to correction and would yield to improved practices, notably through better site selection and advances in husbandry (Sakthivel, 1995).

The complex nature of the potential environmental impacts require integrated planning, combining considerations of ecological, social, bioethical and economic aspects to resolve the major conflicts. It is suggested that proactive coastal zone planning with careful selection of appropriate location may assist in sustainable development of fin fish, shrimp, crab, mussel and culture of other organisms in coastal aquaculture and can avoid many of the problems. The society should be made aware about the capacity concept of the environment and the modern scientific management strategies to be implemented for an eco-friendly and sustainable mariculture for development.

Future Mariculture Prospects

Interest in commercial culture of Milkfish has grown space in recent years following many successful experiments conducted in coastal ponds and pens. With known techniques well at hand and with many suitable species of Grey mullets, Sandwhitting, Rabbit fishes, Pearlspot, Seabass, Groupers, Redsnappers and Seabreams and vast cultivable areas available, the scope for marine finfish farming in India on sound scientific lines are promising. Further, the employment potential in sea farming is enormous and the protected bays, lagoons, vast estuaries, brackish waters and backwater areas could be converted to fish farms. Developmental supports should be made available for converting these areas into fish farms. Continued investigations are needed for the development of low cost technology for intensive culture of more suitable species in different ecological systems as well as survey of seed resources in new sites.

Formulation of suitable feed mixtures using low cost ingredients with high conversion ratios will be another priority areas of research for expansion of the industry. The methods of fertilization by using organic and inorganic fertilizers for enriching the ponds should be tailored to soil and water chemistry. The practice of continuous stocking and harvesting with a year round growing season as done in other countries will result in good yield. More emphasis should be laid on the culture of rabbit fish, perches, groupers, red snappers, Sea breams and Sand whitting. The venture of marine fin fish culture should be organized on cooperative basis to uplift the socio economic conditions of the rural fisherman. Besides exploring the unexploited seed stocks, the ultimate solution must be the production of seed of cultivable marine fin fishes in captivity to cope up the regular demand of the private entrepreneurs and fish farmers on long term lease basis besides the development of credit and marketing schemes. Provision of model farms and extension services by the Government Departments on modern scientific lines as technical guidance and training will promote this growing industry. The maritime states should undertake a detailed survey of marine fin fish culture sites for the establishment of pilot scale commercial fish farms. The future works should be centred around this scheme for further extension and development.


1. Area-wise master plan for coastal aquaculture development should be prepared including the rationalization and allocation of natural resources for the benefits of coastal rural community zoning of fin fish and shrimp farming without adverse impact on the coastal community is to be demarcated.

2. By adopting suitable package of practices for treatment of effluents, environmentally competitive and sustainable farming may be permitted in the recommended areas.

3. Government lands may be preserved for common use of all people, present and future and may be leased only for giving access to sea and brackish water source.

4. Central pollution control Board through Ministry of Environment and Forests may evolve approximate standards for treated effluents and enforcement may be done by the State Pollution Control Board.

5. Ministry of Environment and Forest (Govt. of India) may approve the coastal zone management plan prepared by the Govt. of Tamil Nadu early for assisting in zoning for fin fish and shrimp farming.

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