Bioethics in India: Proceedings of the International Bioethics Workshop in Madras: Biomanagement of Biogeoresources, 16-19 Jan. 1997, University of Madras; Editors: Jayapaul Azariah, Hilda Azariah, & Darryl R.J. Macer, Copyright Eubios Ethics Institute 1997.

56. Conservation and Management of Marine Biodiversity

S.L. Sasikala

ICAS, MS University, Scott Christian College Campus, Nagercoil - 629 003

The lack of broadly accepted marine biogeographic scheme is a serious gap in marine conservation and management. Another gap is our lack of understanding about endemism in the sea. Knowledge on the geographic patterns of endemism is as valuable to conservation of biological diversity in the sea as it is starting to be on land in fresh waters.

The concept of Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) and concept of "hotspots" are gaining importance in the protection of marine biodiversity Some of the important species such as noble tarpon, amusing penguins, graceful albatrosses, fierce sea-eagles, gentle baleen whales, intelligent dolphins etc. attract special attention apart from other marine mammals and sea turtles. However, the integrity of biosphere could depend for more on a phytoplankton species or benthic polychaete worms lacking a common name than on charismatic mammalian species that attract lion's share of conservationist's attention.

Even the most impartial biologist will admit that some areas merit special attention Because there might not be enough resources, only the critical areas can be protected. Understanding on important biological attributes which makes an area important for protection is essential for decision makers to decide. The most important areas for protection are areas of high diversity, Areas of high hndemism, areas of high productivity, spawning areas that serve as sources, nursery grounds, migration stopover points and bottle necks etc. which are dealt with in detail in this paper.

60. Bromination as an alternative control measure in Nuclear Power Plants

J. Gunasingh Masilamoni, A.G. Viji Roy, Arul Vasu, K.V.K. Nair and Jayapaul Azariah
Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai - 600 025
Water and Steam Chemistry Lab, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603 102

Madras Atomic Power Station, at Kalpakkam uses sea water as condenser coolant. Biofouling is one of the important problems adversely affecting power station operation. Some of the other major problems include corrosion and blockage of condenser tubes. In order to check the biofouling in the sea water tunnel and related sea water circulating systems, continuous low-dose chlorination is employed. This chlorine combines with ammonia (which is one of the major excretory products of fouling organisms inhabiting the sub-sea-bed tunnel) in the sea water to form chloramines, which are more stable than hypochlorous acid and continue to be harmful to other marine life including primary producers and fishes. Bromine has been considered to be an alternative antifouling compound because its ammonia derivatives are degraded at a faster rate. The present study focuses on a comparative study of toxicity of chlorine and bromine on the oyster Crassostrea madrasensis, one of the major fouling organisms in the MAPS intake. Mortality was taken as the index of toxicity measurements. The time taken for 100% mortality of oysters in various residual concentrations of chlorine and bromine such as 0.5, 1, 3, 5, & 10 ppm are 561, 298, 150, 112 & 88 hr. for chlorine respectively and 415, 234, 120, 96 & 75 hr. respectively for bromine. These results are discussed and compared in terms of the favourable features of bromination as against chlorination.
61. Bioethical interactions in relation with power plant design to avoid biofouling and biocorrosion

K. Samuel Jesudoss, J. Gunasingh Masilamoni, Nandakumar*, K.V.K. Nair* & Jayapaul Azariah
Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai - 600 025
Water and Steam Chemistry Lab, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603 102

Bioethics concerns itself with all living organisms and non living resources in the biosphere. It is the love of bios as well as the right and wrong in achieving the goals of life. Modern development demands electrical energy. In India, about 2.6% of the total power production by nuclear power plants. The major problem in intake coolant water of condenser cooling system is the problem of biofouling. From a human view point, it is fouling by marine organisms as they hinder our objective of power production. On the other hand, it is the right of these animals to colonize under water natural and man-made habitat. In order to minimize biofouling, chlorination is adopted. The ethical dilemma is the human need to produce more power and our love for other living organisms. In this context it is suggested that more new structural design are required to modify the intake tunnels which would allow human intervention to clean the tunnel during the non operational times. It is also suggested that hydraulic pressure and rotating intake travel gates may be experimented to replace the use of chlorine as antifoulants, since chlorine in combination with humic substances can generate carcinogenic substances such as trihalomethane.
62. Temperature tolerance and Impact of Power Plant heated effluents on Megabalanus tintinnabulum
K. Samuel Jesudoss, Nandakumar, A.G. Viji Roy, Jayapaul Azariah and K.V.K. Nair

Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy campus, Chennai - 600 025
Water and Steam Chemistry Lab, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603 102

Fouling and corrosion are two common phenomena which cause hindrance to the performance and life of marine structural materials. Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) situated at Kalpakkam, south of Madras, on the east coast of India uses sea water as a condenser coolant. Metal surfaces generally act as a good substratum for the settlement of sessile organisms. Marine growth on the heat exchangers leads to tube blockage and fouling induced corrosion. Marine growth occurred in the heat exchangers and condenser water boxes showed Modiolus spp. and barnacles as the dominant fouling organisms. Megabalanus tintinnabulum is one of the major dominant barnacle species observed in the sub-sea bed tunnel of MAPS. Continuous low dose chlorination has been practiced at MAPS as a fouling control measure. However, problems associated with the use of chlorine such as the high operational cost, problems in handling the chlorine cylinders and chlorinated environmental concerns due to the discharge of chlorinated effluents have been a matter of concern. Heat treatment is an attractive alternative to chlorination for fouling control in tropical power stations. The result of the study on lethal responses of the M. tintinnabulum when exposed to different temperatures are presented. M. tintinnabulum took 810, 450, 235, 190, 155, 126, 62, 24, 11 & 2 min. to reach 100% mortality when exposed to different temperatures such as 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44 & 45 degrees C respectively. The results are discussed with available literature on a philosophical basis.
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