Bioethics in India: Proceedings of the International Bioethics Workshop in Madras: Biomanagement of Biogeoresources, 16-19 Jan. 1997, University of Madras; Editors: Jayapaul Azariah, Hilda Azariah, & Darryl R.J. Macer, Copyright Eubios Ethics Institute 1997.

82. Bioethical management of ecological resources with special reference to Tirupur

N. Vasudevan
Centre for Environmental Studies, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025

Human action produces different kinds of stresses on the Environment. Four important kinds of these are eutropic, exploitative, disruptive and stress caused by the release of toxic substances and hazardous material like lead, mercury, chromium, arsenic etc. Pollution is caused by waste generated from different sources - urban, agricultural and industrial sectors. More than 800 cu. mt/h of industrial effluents flow into our rivers. Another important feature is that industrial waste in the country is essentially concentrated in a few manufacturing locations, thus accelerating environmental stress in those regions. e.g. The pollution of ground water of Tiruppur. Several decades of irrational practice of discharging the untreated effluents has now rendered the ground water unhygienic for consumption. The world over, emphasis is being placed on the disposal or recycling techniques for industrial wastes. Due to unfavourable practices, vast stretches of land have become non-arable and so the contamination of ground water.

The present development program in Tiruppur to build Common effluent treatment plant with proper implementation will no doubt minimize the pollution load. In this paper the importance of healthy practices like closer interaction with the regulating agencies in the efficient management of ecological resource with special reference to Tiruppur will be emphasized.

90. Environment and human health: Types of diseases and strategies

M.V. Subba Rao
Dept. Environmental Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam - 530 003

Environment means our surroundings for growth and development. Health means our surroundings for growth and development. Health means "A state of complete, physical mental and social well-being". Human activities have been drastically changing the ecological balance of practically every component of the environment, namely atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. There have been efforts on global level for environmental management identifying environmental concerns and planning strategies that suit to a particular nation. The environmental health is an indicator of the quality of life of the people. We need air to breath; Water to drink and land to live in.

The State of the Health of the people does not depend upon the number of doctors and hospitals only, but also on clean environment. The system has to be preventive because "PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE". But without the information or awareness on the subject one cannot achieve the goal of prevention. The International theme this year is to protect "our Earth, our Home and our People".

91. The neem plant, Azadirachta indica, an important medicinal plant

M.V. Subba Rao.
Environmental Research Academy Int., 58, Seetammadhara North Extension, Visakhapatnam - 530 013, Andhra Pradesh

A neem plant Azadirachta indica is an attractive evergreen (deciduous in drier areas) native to the Indian subcontinent and distributed in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Mynamar. The neem is cultivated throughout South-East Asia, Australia, Africa, many countries in Central and South America, the Caribbean, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Neem plant is described as an important culturally and medicinally because of an amoebocidal, antiallergic, anti-desmatic, anti-inflammatory, anti-periodentic, anti-pyrrhoeic, anti-scabic, intesticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal, piscidal, spermicidal and other biological activities of its derivatives. Hence it is an important medicinal plant.

In neem oil, Azadirachtin is present which is a potential ingredient in several pesticidal formulations. This neem oil has spurred renewed efforts in finding safe, alternative natural, bio-degradable, cheap and manageable at village level pesticidal formulations for a variety of crops.

92. Shifting cultivation - a cause for the loss of Bioresources in Srungavarapu kota and Pachipenta mandals of Vizianagaram District of Andhra Pradesh

M.V. Subba Rao, A.N.P.S. Madhavi, M. Aruna Kumari, G.S.S.H. Varaprasad, Y.AVASN. Maruthi & P. Sunitha
Dept. Environmental Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam - 530 003

The Eastern Ghats runs parallel to the East coast of Andhra Pradesh. These are rich in Biodiversity. The Eastern Ghats pass through 13 districts of Andhra Pradesh and Vizianagaram is one of the districts. Srungavarapu Kota and Pachipenta are the study Mandals of Vizianagaram district.

Shifting Podu cultivation is practiced in Srungavarapu Kota and Pachipenta Mandals. It is the common method of cultivation practiced by tribals in the forests, hill tops and hill slopes. Major types of tribal peoples present in these two areas are Kondadora, Mukadora, Jatapu and Savara. For the shifting cultivation, they cleared a patch of forest cover. This causes the loss of important forest tree species. Repeated cutting and burning of forests for shifting cultivation causes the hill tracts to become barren. A piece of land is used for three or four years and abandoned it for sometime for recuperation. After recuperation, this area is again used for shifting cultivation. This method causes the loss of soil fertility and more damage to the vegetation in the hills of these two Mandals. Annually one hectare of forest land is cleared by each family for shifting cultivation.

93. Immunization of Cattle against Ticks

D.P. Banerjee
Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary Sciences, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004

The epidemiological patterns of any disease is directly related to the environment, and control incidence of diseases and their spread are important prerequisites in ensuring a stable and healthy environment. Several fatal diseases are transmitted to cattle through ticks. Indiscriminate use of insecticides to kill ticks has led to environmental pollution and health hazards. Therefore an alternative and eco-friendly approach to control ticks and tick-borne diseases in cattle has been attempted through prophylactic immunization.

Firstly, the cross-bred calves were repeatedly infested 10 times with adult ticks at 15 days intervals, and all engorgement and reproductive parameters of the ticks differed significantly first to tenth infestation, Secondly, several cross-bred calves were immunized with different antigenic components prepared from the salivary glands of infected ticks (SG Ag) as well as whole tick extracts (WTE Ag) and the calves acquired significant resistance to tick infestation. Humoral immune response were demonstrated in such immunized calves by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, double diffusion test and capillary agglutination test. These calves also showed significant increase in gamma globulin levels. Cellular immune response were also demonstrated by lymphocyte stimulation, leukocyte migration, inhibition, intradermal test and per cent E - rosette test. Skin lesions showed cellular infiltration, formation of cavities and epidermal vesicles at the site of tick attachment, along with infiltration of basophils and eosinophils.

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