Eubios News in Bioethics & Biotechnology - Jan. 2001


Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 11 (2001), 18-31.

Comments are written in text form together with recent references. This list continues from the last issue of EJAIBand will continue. The full list of news (OLD = 1991-1993; NEW = 1994+) is available on-line topic-by-topic, at: http://eubios.info/NBB.html

Abbreviations


News in Bioethics & Biotechnology

Comments are written in text form together with recent references. This list continues from the last issue of EJAIB and will continue. This list is available on-line topic-by-topic, at:
http://eubios.info/NBB.html


Genetic Engineering of Plants

There has been progress in developing a potato-based vaccine for hepatitis B, and mice given 3 does of 5g of raw potato developed immunity, Lancet 356 (2000), 1661; NatBio 18 (2000), 1141-2. A rabies vaccine has been produced in musk melon in India, AgraFood Biotech 45 (13 Dec. 2000), 23. A review on use of plants to produce industrial raw materials is BBSRC Business (Jan. 2001), 22-3. GM sugar beet could reduce sugar output costs by 15-30% in Europe, AgraEurope (24 Nov. 2000), EP17. Prospects for biotechnology in sweet potato are discussed in Everyman’s Science <34 (Jan. 2000), 185-7. On herbicide tolerant soybean, Biotechnology & Development Monitor 43 (Sept. 2000), 11-5.

In the Middle East about 10,000 years ago the social transition of nomadic groups setting down roots to farm is seen in a new site found in Jordan, Science News 158 (2000), 280; Current Anthropology (August 2000). It is expected that Monsanto’s RoundupReady wheat will be on the market in 2003, Plant Biotech Week (6 Jan. 2001), 3. It is expected that RoundupReady canola will be sold in Australia at the end of 2002.; Merino sheep in Australia fed GM lupin seed have shown a 8% increase in wool growth and a 7% increase in weight gain, AgraFood Biotech 45 (29 Nov. 2000), 10. A joint Indian-US project to create a enhanced oil mustard plant has began, Plant Biotech Week (2 Dec. 2000), 15; and the Indian Review Committee on GM approved ProAgro-PGS India’s plan for GM mustard field trials, AgraFood Biotech 45 (15 Nov. 2000), 14. China has bred enhanced protein soybean using gene transfer from wild species, APBN 4 (2000), 405. The future of GM trees is discussed in Tomorrow (Sept. 2000), 32-3. A report on transgenic crops in China suggests there are 7 GM crops in field trials, to add to cotton, sweet pepper and tomato growing for commercial cultivation, Science 290 (2000), 1505-6.

As reported in the section on Genome Projects, the complete genome sequence of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been released, Science 290 (2000), 2055-7; Nature 408 (2000), 796+; NS (2 Dec. 2000), 36-9. There is a new ten year plan to create a virtual plant and understand the function of all plant genes by 2010, Science 290 (2000), 2077-8. A report on a Japanese plan to sequence the genome of the plant Lotus japonicus in order to understand nitrogen fixation is in Nature 409 (2001), 272. Repeated recent transfers of a mitochondrial gene into the nucleus of plants is reported in Nature 408 (2000), 354-7. A study has found that widely separated multiple transgene integration sites are brought together at interphase, The Plant J. 24 (2000), 713-23. Predicting the durability of a disease resistance gene is outlined in PNAS 97 (2000), 13500-5. On the use of neem constituents in pest management, <Everyman’s Science 35 (July. 2000), 78-84.

Safety data is called for biological control insects, Science 290 (2000), 1896-7, 2230-1. On organic disease control elicitors, Agro-Food Industry Hi-Tech (Sept 2000), 32-3. Agricultural research priorities are discussed in Biotechnology & Development Monitor 43 (Sept. 2000), 19-22.

Genetic Engineering of Animals

Gene transfer into oocytes of Rhesus monkeys is reported in Time (22 Jan. 2001), 56-8. X-chromosome inactivation has been studied in cloned mouse embryos, Science 290 (2000), 1518-9, 1578-81. A viable herd of genetically uniform cattle has been bred, Nature 409 (2001), 303. Illegitimate Cre-dependent chromosome rearrangements are reported in transgenic mouse spermatids, PNAS 97 (2000), 13702-7. A review of trends in transgenic animal technology is GEN 20 (1 Nov. 2000), 16, 19, 55; <Everyman’s Science 35 (July. 2000), 74-7. The death of a cloned Gaur by bacterial infection 2 days after birth is a setback, Nature 409 (2001), 277.

A mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease has been reported, Nature 408 (2000), 915-6, 975-9. Amyloid-beta peptide can reduce amyloid deposition in a transgenic mouse model, Nature 408 (2000), 982-5. Trials of a possible vaccine show some promise, Nature 408 (2000), 915-6. Mice that are resistant to diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and gallstones have been made, NatMed. 6 (2000), 1341-7. The mouse model of Bloom syndrome have a cancer predisposition caused by mitotic recombination, NatGen 26 (2000), 424-9. Studies of dystrophin and complex proteins associated with it are reviewed in PNAS 97 (2000), 13464-6. Absence of perilipin results in leanness and reversal of obesity in Leprdb/db mice, NatGen 26 (2000), 474-9. A mouse model for Dent’s disease is reported in Nature 408 (2000), 369-73. ACAT gene may be a good target for atherosclerosis, NatMed. 6 (2000), 1313-4.

Long life flies are reported by a gene that may mimic caloric restriction in Rogina, B. et al. “Extended life-span conferred by cotransporter gene mutations in Drosophila”, Science 290 (2000), 2137-40, 2048. Research on Drosophila may aid efforts to enhance human memory, JAMA 284 (2000), 2857-8. Aquaculture is expected to overtake cattle as the largest animal protein source, with an annual growth rate in the 1990s of 11%, Animal Pharm< 456 (3 Nov. 2000), 14. On average 2kg of grain give 1 kg of fish meat, compared to 7kg of grain for cattle. A critique of aquaculture in developing countries is Nature 408 (2000), 514.

< Designer Molecules

A series of papers on biocatalysis are in Nature 409 (2001), 226-262; and on catalytic DNA, Science 289 (2000), 2095. Synthesizing life is discussed in Nature 409 (2001), 387-90; NS (18 Nov. 2000), 52-3.; Proteomics is reviewed in Lancet 356 (2000), 1749-56. An example of protein engineering is in TIG 16 (2000), 561-4.

The sensitivity of biosensors is discussed in Science 290 (2000), 1315-6. China is encouraging biochip research, NatBio 19 (2001),12-3.

New Book: Comstock, Gary. Vexing Nature? On the ethical case against agricultural biotechnology. (Kluwer Academic, 2000, ISBN 0-7923-7987-X, 297pp.).;

; This book examines the arguments against biotechnology, and reviews a broad range of literature and writings who express a variety of emotions and arguments against biotechnology. He also wants to protect family farms, and the author is known for the Bioethics Institutes held in Iowa State University.; The 6 main chapters of the book deal with the topics in an orderly and systemic way, the case against bGH, against herbicide resistance, transgenic animals, Ag Biotech in general.; Then the Intrinsic objections and then the extrinsic objections are raised.;

The conclusions are that some Ag Biotech can be supported, and that it can accommodate the fears that people have raised.; Some cases, like bovine growth hormone to aid milk production are argued against, as are some genetic engineering of animals.; The book should be considered by all those who seek to persuade opponents of biotechnology of what are the real issues in the debate.; As he writes, there are few who can really argue that some plant applications will not help starving people in the world.

Biotechnology; & the Public

A book review of Risk Communication and Public Health is Lancet 356 (2000), 1615. Papers on the theme of communicating science beyond the scientific community are in Science & Engineering Ethics 6 (2000), 499-559. There are also papers on science communication inside the scientific community, Science & Engineering Ethics 6 (2000), 443-98. There is little doubt that the public has lost faith in scientists over recent issues like BSE, NatMed. 6 (2000), 1307-8; Nature 408 (2000), 402. A debate on communicating statistical data is Science 289 (2000), 2261-2.

A book review of Voodoo Science is Lancet 356 (2000), 2203. On the Sokal Hoax, Science 290 (2000), 1703-4. A book review on the impact of Jewish scientists exiled from Germany, Hitler’s Gift: Scientists who fled Nazi Germany, is Nature 408 (2000), 907-8. The future of S&T is discussed in articles in Nature 408 (2000), 385-435. Science and politics are discussed in NatMed. 6 (2000), 1295; Science 290 (2000), 1501. On human creativity, Nature 409 (2001), 284; and the birth of scientific reading in 1500, Nature 409 (2001), 287. Brain drain from civilizations is discussed in Nature 408 (2000), 409.

On 17 January 2001 the temporary committee on bioethics of the European Parliament met for the first time in Strasbourg, Bulletin Quotidien Europe 7883 (18 Jan. 2001), 18.; A book on GE is Babel’s Shadow, NS (2 Dec. 2000), 49. On the fears of GM products, NatBio 18 (2000), 1225. The EU has opened a debate on the impact of genetic engineering on society, Lancet 356 (2000), 1748.; On science in Europe, Science 289 (2000), 1099-101. A paper on compromise as a basic idea in contemporary thought is Nature 409 (2001), 137. Monsanto has made a series of principles for their policy in the use of agricultural biotechnology, Plant Biotech Week (25 Nov. 2000), 1-2. The UK prime mister criticizes antiscience protestors over GM battles, Nature 408 (2000), 397. A survey by the UK Human Genetics Commission suggests that 70% think the government cannot keep up with science, The Guardian (27 Nov. 2000); Nature 408 (2000), 508.

On biotechnology in the 21st century, TIBTECH 18 (2000), 6-7. A European Commission funded study in Europe (PABE) suggests that the public has been responding to the way it was treated by the governments, rather than misunderstanding biotechnology, NatBio< 19 (2001), 15; Ram’s Horn< 187 (Jan. 2001), 6.; This study also included focus groups.; The results suggest that the public is neither for nor against GMOs. Against genetic reductionism is Wyatt, J. "Unravelling life" EG (London Institute of Contemporary Christianity (Nov. 200), 6-8.

A book review of The Implications of Genetics for Health Professional Education< is JAMA 284 (2000), 3061-2. Asia has stayed on the top of science and maths teaching in middle school, Science 290 (2000), 1866. US biologists are campaigning to teach evolution, Nature 409 (2001), 125. An article on the astronomical orientation of the pyramids within 5 years is useful for calibrating old Egyptian history, Nature 408 (2000), 320-4.

< Regulation & Field Trials of GMOs

A review of insect resistant plants has been published in Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (Dec. 2000), Plant Biotech Week (25 Nov. 2000), 16. The Irish government committee has supported developing GM techniques, BMJ 321 (2000), 1368. A comment on the safety of using Neurospora species for research is AEM 66 (2000), 5107-9. On use of a GM rabies vaccine to control rabies in raccoons is PNAS 97 (2000), 14041-3. In the year 2000 about 45 million hectares are grown in GM crops worldwide, according to a new report, James, C. Global Status of Commercialized Transgenic Crops: 2000, ISAAA Briefs No. 21, 2000. A Wisconsin study has found that smaller farms often see smaller profits from GM crops, Plant Biotech Week (23 Dec. 2000), 6. An OECD report has also reached that conclusion, http://www.oecd.org/media/release/agriculture1200.htm.

The submissions and papers relating to the New Zealand Royal Commission on Genetic Modification are on-line. The closing sessions of that Commission will be in March 2001. In NZ Agresearch as been given permission to genetically engineer 100 sheep for double muscling, for medical research. They have also approved GM cattle release in a trial, Perspective 11 (Dec. 2000), 4.; AustralianSA<(Jan 2001), 12-3; and the Cartegena Protocol, Biotechnology & Development Monitor<43 (Sept. 2000), 2-10. There has been debate over the Indian plan to develop vitamin A enriched rice, BMJ<322 (2001), 128.

In Europe the Greens are aiming to seek to keep a moratorium on GMOs, European Voice (14 Dec. 2000). On 18 December, 2000, an Agreement between the European Parliament and the Council was made on the revision of the directive on voluntary dissemination of GMOs to the environment becomes official. It will make more information open to the public, create a register of places where GMOs are grown, phase out antibiotic resistance markers. The initial period of consent will be for ten years from approval, with a subsequent review. There is still some delay in the approval of GM crops, however, it will allow GM crops in the coming year or so, AgraFood Biotech (10 Jan. 2001), 11. On the approval of GM grapevines in the EU, NatBio 19 (2001), 15. Italian scientists are disturbed at the restrictions in Italy on GM field trials, Science 290 (2000), 2046; NatBio 18 (2000), 1137-8. In Scotland 4 persons who destroyed a GM trial have been convicted of vandalism and fined, Plant Biotech Week (13 Jan. 2001), 1.

A general review is Borch, K. and Rasmussen, B. “An analytical approach to the implementation of GM crops”, TIBTECH< 18 (2000), 484-6. A review paper is Wolfenbarger, LL. & Phifer, PR. “The ecological risks and benefits of genetically engineered plants”, Science 290 (2000), 2088-93; also on gene transfer, EST 39 (2001), 20-2A. Better efforts to monitor US GM fields are called for in NatBio 19 (2001), 3. The USDA has reported that Monarch butterflies are safe from GM Bt maize, AgraFood Biotech 45 (13 Dec 2000), 21. On the management of resistance to Bt crops in developing countries, AgraFood Biotech 43 (2000), 8.; Aventis is not likely to have its request for Starlink corn to be temporarily approved for human consumption, as there are questions on whether the corn is allergenic, Nature 408 (2000), 395. Aventis is selling its agriculture unit. See the Food Safety section.

Australian researchers accidentally made a fatal animal virus, NS (13 Jan. 2001), 3-5. They spliced IL-4 gene into mousepox virus in a medical trial but all the mice died. A new bio-terrorism institute program has been established in the USA, NatMed. 6 (2000), 1304. On reducing the risks of biowarfare, Lancet 356 (2000), 2104. There have been revelations in a book Gassed<, NS (11 Nov. 2000), 11; that 40 deaths were from mistakes in chemical weapons tests on 20,000 soldiers in the UK. On non-lethal weapons, NS (16 Dec. 2000), 3-5.

< Vaccines & Diseases

The WHO has persuaded a UN Conference in South Africa to make an exception to the ban on persistent organic chemicals to allow continued use of DDT in 25 countries where it is most useful for malaria control, Lancet< 356 (2000), 2076; BMJ 321 (2000), 1403-5. On malaria prophylaxis methods, Lancet 356 (2000), 1582, 1864-5, 1888-94. Malaria can be eliminated on isolated islands, as shown in Aneityum Island in Vanuatu, Lancet 356 (2000), 1560-4. Challenges of malaria control are discussed in Bulletin of WHO 78 (2000), 1376-7; Science 290 (2000), 1508-9. A new vaccine has been working in chimpanzees, NatMed. 6 (2000), 1218-9; Science News 158 (2000), 310; Lancet 356 (2000), 1660. Others are being tested, BioCentury (18 Dec, 2000), A8-9.

An Irish report has questioned the ethics of vaccine trials 30 years go there, Lancet 356 (2000), 1747. They are still discussing the merits of MMR vaccine, Lancet 356 (2000), 1665; Independent (13 Jan. 2001).; In general on vaccination programs, Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s21-22. A issues of state mandated childhood immunization are discussed on JAMA 284 (2000), 3171-3; and on individual exceptions, JAMA 284 (2000), 3145-50.; Transcutaneous immunization using a patch has been reported, NatMed. 6 (2000), 1403-10. In general vaccine injections should be into muscle, BMJ 321 (2000), 1237-8.

On the eradication of polio, Lancet 356 (2000), 1682-3. Polio has been eradicated in the Western Pacific, Bulletin of WHO 78 (2000), 1375. Discussion of a Caribbean< outbreak of polio is in Nature< 409 (2001), 269, 278-80; NS (18 Nov. 2000), 7; Science 290 (2000), 1867-9. Mumps and rubella have been eliminated from Finland, JAMA 284 (2000), 2643-7. DNA vaccines are discussed in Nature 408 (2000), 659-60. On the use of Varicella vaccine, NatMed. 6 (2000), 1298-9. Congenital rubella is epidemic in Greece, BMJ 321 (2000), 1287. It has been found that hepatitis B vaccinations may last longer than was thought which will lower costs, NS (9 Dec. 2000), 21.; Also see the Plant Genetic Engineering section for production of edible vaccines. Fighting leprosy is discussed in Pathways 2 (Jan. 2001), 1-2, 14-9.

In the USA the control of TB is said to depend on reducing the impact of TB in foreign-born persons, JAMA 284 (2000), 2894-900. There are gender differences in seeking treatment for coughs and TB, Lancet 356 (2000), 1823-4. A book review of From Chaos to Coercion: Detention and the Control of Tuberculosis is BMJ 321 (2000), 1536. TB vaccine benefits and additional benefits of vaccines in Guinea-Bissau are discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 1423-4, 1435-9. TB DNA is left after TB is finished which may allow latent infection, Lancet 356 (2000), 2113, 2133-8; NatMed. 6 (2000), 1327-9. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is being examined for methods to fight TB, Science News 158 (2000), 270-1; NatMed. 6 (2000), 11-2. On TB research, NatMed. 6 (2000), 1330-3; Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s62.; Autoclaved Leishmania major vaccine may not be effective compared to BCG alone, Lancet 356 (2000), 1565-9. Leishmaniasis has been found in over 1000 hunting dogs in the USA, Science< 290 (8 Dec. 2000). A case of anthrax contamination of heroin is reported, Lancet 356 (2000), 1574-5.

DNA tests in doctor clinics may help identify which bacteria are causing an infection, NS (25 Nov. 2000), 26. On Japanese encephalitis, BMJ 321 (2000), 1484-5; and West Nile virus, Science 290 (2000), 1482-4. Tropical diseases are discussed in Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s63. Discussion of Ebola vaccine is in NatMed<. 6 (2000), 1322-3; Science 290 (2000), 923-5; Nature 408 (2000), 527-8; Newsweek (11 Dec. 2000), 61. A recent outbreak has claimed many lives in Uganda, BMJ 321 (2000), 1037.

Susceptibility to infection is discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 1061-5. Promiscuity and the primate immune system is discussed in Science 290 (2000), 1168-70. The SAFE program to eliminate Chlamydia is described in Economist (9 Dec. 2000). A model of bubonic plaque is in Science News 158 (2000), 262. In ICMR thieves selectively took hard drives of computers with disease data, Science 290 (2000), 1668-9.; On economics of immunity, Science 290 (2000), 1104-5.

Antibiotic resistance is reviewed in NS (Dec. 2000), 24-7. Babies are suffering from resistant bacteria, NS (23 Dec. 2000), 9. Hospital acquired infections kill 5000 patients a year in England, BMJ 321 (2000), 1370. Multidrug resistance Streptococcus pneumoniae is increasing in the USA, NEJM 343 (2000), 1917-24, 1961-3. Also on resistance, JAMA 284 (2000), 2998-9. The Union of Concerned Scientists has urged for monitoring the use of antibiotics in livestock, Nature 409 (2001), 273. Addition of GM bacteria to wounds could ward off dangerous infections, NS< (23 Dec. 2000), 12; Nature 408 (2000), 284-6; Australian Biotech.< 10 (Sept. 2000), 5-6. An antibiotic clioquinol is being tested for Alzheimer’s disease, Science 290 (17 Nov. 2000).

Bacterial DNA has unmethylated CpG nucleotides which stimulate mammalian immune systems, Nature 408 (2000), 740-2. The hygiene hypothesis is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 1699-700. Mould may be causing sneezing, Newsweek (11 Dec. 2000), 60. Ideas on personal hygiene and contamination in Guatemala are reported in SSM 52 (2000), 53-69.

Because animal bone meal has a risk of BSE, GM soya may replace it as a protein supplement, which Greenpeace is against, AgraFood Biotech 46 (10 Jan. 20001), 6. There is a UK study underway to test if there is any BSE risk from milk, using infected cows to feed cows, rather than rodents, as earlier trials had used, Agra Europe (19 Jan. 2001), 12. The question of where BSE came from, and the finding that it is not from scrapie are discussed in NS (16 Dec. 2000), 45-7. The development of tests for mutant prions is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 1826; NS (18 Nov. 2000), 3. In Ireland one donor involved in the polio vaccine pool in 1998 has been found to be CJD, however there is little risk according to authorities, Lancet 356 (2000), 2167. Switzerland has banned persons who lived more than 6 months in the UK between 1980 and 1996 from being blood donors, Lancet 356 (2000), 1746.; Genetic risks to be susceptible to CJD are discussed in NS< (18 Nov. 2000), 5.

France and Spain are expecting more cases of vCJD, Nature 408 (2000), 767, 787-8; BMJ 321 (18 Nov 2000); NS (2 Dec. 2000), 7; Science 290 (2000), 1671-2. Spain put an embargo on French and Irish beef imports because of BSE concerns, Lancet 356 (2000), 1746. On European precautions which include a ban on all meat-based animal feed, NatMed. 6 (2000), 1301. A UK Inquiry Report has been released in the errors made during the BSE scandal, BMJ 321 (2000), 1091-2, 1097; Lancet 356 (2000), 1535, 1579-80; Nature 408 (2000), 902-3; 409 (2001), 6; Science 290 (2000), 911-2; Current Biology 10 (2000), R847-8. Also on vCJD risk, Lancet< 357 (2001), 3; NS (18 Nov. 2000), 5; (25 Nov. 2000), 4 Time (11 Dec. 2000), 38-40. On the 26 January, 2001, the U.S. quarantined some Texas cattle because of rules on BSE prevention (Reuters). The FDA was investigating whether the cattle were accidentally fed meat and bone meal made from other U.S. cattle.

< AIDS & Sexually Transmitted Diseases

The Indian National Human Rights Commission has supported an anti-discrimination law for HIV patients, Lancet 356 (2000), 1992. However a court has allowed a dismissal of a sailor from the Indian Navy for being HIV positive to be upheld, Lancet 356 (2000), 2166. Consent for HIV testing is discussed in Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s43.; A report on stigma of AIDS in the USA is JAMA 284 (2000), 3118-9. QOL of persons with HIV is reported in SSM 52 (2001), 315-22. Antenatal testing can reduce vertical transmission, BMJ 321 (2000), 1430. Breast feeding policy is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 1620.

A new genetic risk factor for HIV-1 has been found that can increase susceptibility to HIV-1, Lancet 356 (2000), 1827; JAMA 284 (2000), 2987. In the US the Needle-stick Safety and Prevention Act has been passed to protect health care workers from needle stick injuries, JAMA 284 (2000), 2585. A book review of AIDS Doctors is NatMed. 6 (2000), 1309. The Irish tainted blood inquiry has been given more time, Lancet 357 (2001), 51. A chemical to destroy nucleic acid has been used in trials to remove viruses and bacteria from blood, NS (16 Dec. 2000), 12. A US company as filled suit to try to block publication of a paper which says its AIDS vaccine does not work, Lancet 356 (2000), 1659; BMJ 321 (2000), 1173. Another vaccine trial has good results, Science News 158 (2000), 260.

The question of AIDS drug treatment in South Africa is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 1912; Nature 408 (2000), 901-2. Generic fluconazole has been approved, Lancet 356 (2000), 1584, 1994. International donor support should be obtained, Lancet 356 (2000), 57-61. China could have more AIDS patients than India in several year times, Lancet 356 (2000), 1856; 357 (2001), 49; Newsweek (4 Dec. 2000), 36-41. China is considering to make HIV transmission a criminal offense, Lancet 356 (2000), 1666. Other STDs can be punished for up to 5 years. AIDS is also surging in Eastern Europe, JAMA 284 (2000), 3113-4. Children with HIV are discussed in Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s33-4. African women with HIV face particular problems, BMJ 321 (2000), 1543-4.

Prostitution and human rights are debated in Lancet< 356 (2000), 1764, 1991. On sexual transmission, BMJ 321 (2000), 1319-20, 1520-2. A female condom can work to lower transmission, SSM 52 (2001), 135-48. Male circumcision as a control method is suggested in BMJ 321 (2000), 1467-9. Treatment of AIDS must be worldwide, BMJ 321 (2000), 1357; JAMA 284 (2000), 2709-10. Treatment of hepatitis C and HIV at the same time is reported in Lancet< 356 (2000), 1800-5. On hepatitis< C, NEJM 343 (2000), 1723-4. On the origin of AIDS, Lancet 357 (2001), 73-4. Also on HIV mechanism, Science 290 (2000), 946-7.

< Microbes; & Pollution Remedies

In Singapore GM fluorescent fish are being tested for detection of water pollution, AgBiotech Reporter (Dec 2000), 25-6. Lux genes are also used to report pollution, <Everyman’s Science 34 (Jan. 2000), 179-82. A discussion of bioremediation is in TIBTECH 19 (2001), 7-8; BioFutur Special Issue (Feb. 2000), 74-5. On ecological restoration, Environmental Management 26 (2000), 469-78.

A bacterial culture that degrades methoxy-methyl urea herbicides has been reported, AEM 66 (2000), 5110-5. Biodegradation of PAHs by fungi is reported in Bioresource Technology 76 (2001), 113-7.

< Environmental Issues

A series of papers on mercury pollution are in Environmental Research 84 (2000), 197-218. Each year in the US alone about 60,000 babies are born with neurological damage caused by mercury pollution, Nature 409 (2001), 129. Sweden is tightening regulations on lead pollution from crystal, Science 290 (2000), 1663-5. An EPA report suggests low level dioxin may cause health damage, Science 290 (2000), 1071. Japan is trying to make polluters pay to victims, in a 11 year long Nagoya Court case, Nature 408 (2000), 631.

The pesticide rotenone has been linked to Parkinson’s disease, Nature Neuroscience (Dec 2000); Lancet 356 (2000), 1659; BMJ 321 (2000), 1175; Science 289 (2000), 1068; Nature 408 (2000), 125.; Pesticides are responsible for declining frog numbers, Nature 408 (2000), 760; EST 34 (2000), 500A. There have been problems in safe use of pesticides, NS (25 Nov. 2000), 16-7. Genes may alter susceptibility to hormone disrupters, Nature 409 (2001), 274. Monitoring estrogens is discussed in EST 34 (2000), 5059-67. As discussed above, a UN agreement to eliminate persistent organic pollutants has been reached in December, Nature 408 (2000), 762; Science 290 (2000), 2053. One third of the creosote applied to railroad track wood is lost to the environment, EST 34 (2000), 502A.

Indoor pollution and respiratory disease in Ancient Rome is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 1774. A survey of air pollution in 20 US cities has found many people die, NEJM< 343 (2000), 1742-9; 1798-9. The US EPA has issued tighter regulations on diesel emissions in the USA, Nature< 409 (2001), 3. Driving cycle alters emission, EST 35 (2001), 26-32. Air pollutants also enter the water, Science News 158 (2000), 332. On microcontaminants in recycled water, EST 34 (2000), 508-15A. Ethanol-blended gasoline may be less harmful than MTBE as a gasoline oxygenate, EST 35 (2001), 24-9A. Cleaning up MTBE is difficult, EST 34 (2000), 516-21A. US states are getting tougher on water pollution, EST 34 (2000), 503-4A. On toxic pollution in Taiwan, Nature 408 (2000), 905.

A study suggesting brain cancer is not linked to mobile telephone use is JAMA 284 (2000), 3001-7; Lancet 356 (2000), 2163; BMJ 321 (2000), 1155. A review on the physics and biology of mobile telephony is Lancet 356 (2000), 1782, 1833-6, 1837-40; and in the USA it is regulated by the FDA, FDA Consumer (Nov. 2000), 19-23. External earphones from mobile telephones may actually channel more radiation to the head, NS (11 Nov. 2000), 7.

The question of whether the UK should build more reactors to dispose of its plutonium is discussed in NS (11 Nov. 2000), 5. Japan is still pursuing its fast breeder nuclear program at Monju, Nature< 408 (2000), 759. There is scepticism that uranium shells cause leukemia, Nature 409 (2001), 121. On x-rays, Lancet 356 (2000), 1857-8. Extracts from the UK regulations on safe use of radiology in medicine are in BME 163 (2000), 10-1. The children born to survivors of the atomic bombs are part of a genetic study, Nature 409 (2001), 5. Radioactive waste, technetium-99 is still entering the Irish Sea, despite protests, NS (9 Dec. 2000), 3, 18.

In 1984 the Bhopal accident occurred, and still legal measures continue, Lancet 356 (2000), 1863. A study of a Down syndrome cluster in Dundalk, Ireland, has not yielded conclusive results, Occup. Environ. Med. 57 (2000), 793-804. On cancer, genes and the environment, NEJM 343 (2000), 1494-6. Flooding also affects human health, BMJ 321 (2000), 1167-8; NS (9 Dec. 2000), 5;; as does transport, BMJ< 321 (2000), 1168-9. A study is underway in the Antarctic to see whether helicopters adversely affect penguins, Science 290 (2000), 1495.

A study of elevated carbon dioxide< conditions found nitrogen limitation of microbial decomposition, Nature 409 (2001), 188-91. A study on trees growing in elevated carbon dioxide is Plant, Cell and Environment 23 (2000), 1353-62; also Ecological Applications< 10 (2000), 1551-1632; Nature 408 (2000), 656-7.; A review of external control of temperature in the 20th century is Science 290 (2000), 2081-3, 2133-7. Talks on climate change to implement the Kyoto Protocol failed in December, but further talks are hoped for in the future under what may be a tougher US position, BMJ 321 (2000), 1169-70, 1367; Science 290 (2000), 920-22, 1663; Nature 408 (2000), 501, 503, 888, 896-7; NS (2 Dec. 2000), 3-6; The Ecologist 30 (Nov. 2000), 58-9. In general on climate models, Nature 408 (2000), 651-2, 409 (2001), 153-8; NS< (11 Nov. 2000), 28; Science 290 (2000), 1097, 1109-10, 1313. Peatlands can maintain carbon because of a single enzyme block that prevents release, Nature 409 (2001), 149. A prediction of how much countries will warm is NS (11 Nov. 2000), 4; and on sea level rise, NS (25 Nov. 2000), 5. Energy supplies are becoming less reliable, Science 289 (2000), 931; NS (25 Nov. 2000), 3, 34-42; Nature 408 (2000), 289-90; but there are new options available, EST 35 (2001), 16A; www.aceee.org; NS (18 Nov. 2000), 16-7.

It is hoped that the ozone holes may be closed by the year 2050 because of the restrictions made, Nature 408 (2000), 627. A study of methyl emissions from rice fields has found that emissions are the same whether the flooded field is planted with rice or not, Science 290 (2000), 966-9. On nitrous oxide, Nature 408 (2000), 301-2.

Use of indigenous knowledge to innovate for sustainable development is discussed in Ambio 29 (2000), 455-8. Mountain ecology is discussed in articles in Ambio 29 (2000), 363-458. Single trees can alter the properties of soils, Ecology 81 (2000), 3283-90. Galapagos ecologists have been subject to violent protests, Nature 408 (2000), 761; Science 290 (2000), 2059-61; and in January, 2001, to a major oil spill. The environmental impact of service industries are reviewed in EST 34 (2000), 4669-77.

On environmental education, EST 34 (2000), 497A. Ecological theories are discussed in Nature 408 (2000), 293. Violent protests are discussed and defended in The Ecologist 30 (Nov. 2000), 20-3; Time (15 Jan. 2001), 41.

Biodiversity

On the use of sacred groves to preserve biodiversity, Honey Bee 11 (July 2000), 19-20. Ecological restoration of the Everglades is described in Nature 409 (2001), 128-9. A method to predict extinction is reviewed in Ecology 81 (2000), 3312-29; PNAS 97 (2000), 11688-9. Microorganisms should be high on the list of species to preserve, Science< 290 (2000), 1503. New databases< aid conservation, Science 290 (2000), 2073-4. Assessing ecosystem types is useful for reaching sustainability, Environmental Management< 26 (2000),479-89. On tropical forest conservation, Science 290 (2000), 2084-6. Prevention of ship pollution by ballast tanks is discussed in EST 34 (2000), 14-5A, 17A.

Bioprospecting is discussed in Nature 408 (2000), 278; NatBio 18 (2000), 1123. Environmental accountability is discussed in Environmental Management 26 (2000), 515-26.

Animal Rights

The LD50 test is no longer to be used in any of the 29 OECD countries, NS (9 Dec. 2000), 3, 6. The changes to include mice and birds as protected animals under the USDA Animal Welfare Act is applauded in Science 290 (2000), 1299-300; Science News 158 (2000), 334-5; NatMed. 6 (2000), 1197. A review of prescriptions for animals is FDA Consumer< (Nov. 2000), 24-30. The question of how to define distress is discussed in Science 290 (2000), 1474-5. Two papers on animal ethics are Morris, MC. “Ethical issues associated with sheep fly strike research, prevention, and control”, J. Ag. & Env. Ethics 13 (2000), 205-17; Morris, M. “Animal care ethics, ANZCCART, and public perceptions of animal use ethics”, J. Ag. & Env. Ethics 13 (2000), 249-57. Alternatives to animal tests are discussed in <Everyman’s Science <35 (April 2000), 30-2.

Two studies of whether animals bite more under full moon have concluded that they do, but dogs may not, BMJ 321 (2000), 1559-63. A new look at the theory that humans evolved as a semiaquatic ape in the ocean is NS (Dec. 2000), 28-33.

Chimpanzees are discussed in Nature 409 (2001), 133. The Great Ape Project has started a census of apes living domestically in the USA, calling for volunteers to describe their lives, Science 290 (2000), 929. The US Congress has approved a retirement plan for chimpanzees that have helped medical science, that involves a series of sanctuaries, Science 290 (2000), 2233. A primate genome project is discussed in Science 290 (2000), 1504-5. There has been debate on the genetic engineering of Andi, a rhesus money (see Animal Genetic Engineering section). There is controversy in Japan over the fate of Japanese macaque monkeys that are captured, and some of which who are sent to research laboratories(between 1-2,000 a year), Nature 408 (2000), 280, 637. New guidelines have been drafted by the Environmental Agency.

The question of illegal whaling in Japan as a source of profit is debated in Science 290 (2000), 1695-6. Humpback whales in the Pacific off Australia have changed their theme song after introduction of a theme song from Indian ocean individuals, Nature 408 (2000), 537. On the future of bowhead whales, NS (18 Nov. 2000), 44-6. Also on whales and dolphins, Science News 158 (2000), 284-6. Consciousness is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 77; NS (18 Nov. 2000), 35-9.

A study of altruism in slime mould, Dictyostelium discoideum, is Nature 408 (2000), 965-7. Human language is discussed in Nature 408 (2000), 403-4; Science 290 (2000), 2051-2; PNAS 97 (2000), 13476-7. Penguin fathers preserve food for their chicks, Nature 408 (2000), 928-9. Brain cells detect danger before we feel fear, Lancet 356 (2000), 47. Neurons in monkey prefrontal cortex track past or predict future performance, Science 290 (2000), 1786-9. Lithium increases the amount of gray matter in the brain, Science News< 158 (2000), 309. On memory, Nature 408 (2000), 525. We may be able to boost memory, Science 290 (2000), 2275-6. Sleep deprivation impairs memory, Lancet 356 (2000), 1907. In general on neuroscience, Science 290 (2000), 1113-20. On artificial intelligence, Nature 408 (2000), 305-6; 409 (2001), 17-8, 409-11; Newsweek Special Issue (Dec. 2000), 54-6.

Safety of Recombinant DNA Products

Use of IL-12 and IL-5 in asthma are both reported in Lancet 356 (2000), 2115, 2144-8, 2149-53. Anti-IgE antibody may help some asthma patients, JAMA 284 (2000), 2859-60. IL-10 can stop atopy that is induced by Schistosoma haematobium in Africa, Lancet 356 (2000), 1699, 1723-7. Treatment of Menetrier’s disease with a monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor is reported in NEJM 343 (2000), 1697-70. Use of PEGinterferon alfa-2a in patients with chronic hepatitis C is better than interferon alfa-2a alone, NEJM 343 (2000), 1666-72, 1673-80.; On TNF and arthritis, NEJM 343 (2000), 1640-3.

There is controversy over whether there really is a shortage of recombinant Factor VIII, or whether it is a marketing ploy to encourage persons to buy it direct, NatBio 18 (2000), 1133. Noninvasive detection of hypoglycemia is reported in BMJ 321 (2000), 1565-6; Lancet 356 (2000), 1946-7. On pharmaceutical biotechnology, Current Biology 10 (2000), 581-3.

Food safety

The FDA has plans for better scrutiny of biotechnology, New York Times (18 Jan. 2001); but still no mandatory labels.he Canadian Parliament is also against mandatory GM labeling, AgraFood Biotech 43 (15 Nov. 2000), 12.; A review of the issue is Science 290 (2000), 457-9. A US/EU committee has agreed for tighter labeling of GM products, Int. Herald Tribune (19 Dec. 2000). India is likely to ban import of oil from GM oilseeds for economic reasons, Plant Biotech Week (9 Dec. 2000), 1. A proposed labeling level in Asia of 5% GM is different to the 1% in Europe, AgraFood Biotech 44 (29 Nov. 2000), 6. McDonald’s has said it will not use animals that were raised on GM food, Independent (20 Nov. 2000). The company Gardenburger has changed to use non-GM soybean, AgraFood Biotech< 46 (10 Jan. 2001), 18. There have been a number of studies showing that GM feeds to animals does not alter animals, AgraFood Biotech 44 (29 Nov. 2000), 4. In Europe the GA21 maize from Monsanto has been approved as substantially equivalent, however the de facto ban may have to wait before it is introduced to the market, AgraFood Biotech 43 (15 Nov. 2000), 9.

The EPA has re-evaluating the StarLink license to see whether it was safe for human consumption, especially regarding fears of allergy from Cry9C Bt protein, that some people have, NatBio 19 (2001), 11. The Starlink corn has been found widely, AgraFood Biotech. 42 (2000), 2-3. There have been two cases of Starlink contamination found in Japan from random tests of US corn, Plant Biotech Week (13 Jan. 2001), 7; however these are disputed, NatBio 18 (2000), 1136-7. The same gene has also been found in another corn variety, NS (2 Dec. 2000), 11. The EPA has urged further study of the corn, Science 290 (8 Dec. 2000). Farmers have been suing Aventis for damages. A paper on liability for GM contamination is Australian Biotech 10 (Sept. 2000), 37-9.

On dietary vitamin E and atopy, Lancet 356 (2000), 1573-4. Dietary supplements that contain ephedra alkaloids are associated with adverse cardiovascular and CNS events, NEJM 343 (2000), 1833-8. Measurement of peanut and nut allergies is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 87-8. Lifestyle medicines are discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 1341-4; Newsweek (11 Dec. 2000), 36-7. The benefits of fish are discussed in Time (15 Jan. 2001), 48-9.<

The definitions of obesity in different countries are discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 1158-9. The G-2548A polymorphism of the 5’ region of the LEP gene is associated with being overweight, Annals Human Genetics 64 (2000), 391-4. Treatment of obesity is very difficult, Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s42. Dietary cholesterol in Sitosterolemia is caused by mutations in ABC transporters, Science 290 (1 Dec. 2000). The hormone resistin links obesity to diabetes, Nature 409 (2001), 292-3, 307-12. Healthy genes could mean less weight, Time (22 Jan. 2001), 49-50.

Heart treatment is discussed in Time (22 Jan. 2001), 52-3. Social environment is important for physical activity, SSM 52 (2001), 1-10. The global pandemic of cardiovascular diseases is discussed in Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s9. Sudden death can be triggered by vigorous exertion, NEJM 343 (2000), 1355-61, 1409-11. Physical activity may protect against colon cancer, BMJ 321 (2000), 1424-5. On constipation, BMJ 321 (2000), 1586-9.

Baby food lobbies and WHO are discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 1411. In general on the marketing of food, Lancet 356 (2000), 1786-7.

Disease Risks & Drugs

India plans to use both traditional and mainstream medicine together, Lancet 356 (2000), 1665; Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s3-4; and on a study in China, SSM 52 (2001), 149-53. This debate is also seen in the UK and other countries, BMJ 321 (2000), 1133-5, 1365, 1523-6. Maggot therapy is discussed in www.homestead.com/biotherapy. There has been controversy over the introduction of apotheke.com, which will link all German pharmacies and sell drugs over the Internet, Lancet 356 (2000), 1912. Research that health behaviour is not conditional to income adequacy in Canada is SSM 51 (2000), 1741-54. Drug labeling is discussed in JAMA 284 (2000), 3047-8. In general on public health, Lancet 356 (2000), 1769-70, 1923-5.

Release of drugs and growth factors from extracellular matrices should be improved, Nature 408 (2000), 998-1000. On drugs in the genomics age, JAMA 284 (2000), 2786-7; Lancet 356 (2000), 1667-71. In general on the future of drug research, Time (22 Jan. 2001), 30-48.

The ethics of drug trials in less developed countries are discussed in Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000),; s37. The ethics of concealing medication in patients food is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 62-4. Economic and heath benefits are expected from increased use of beta-blockers following myocardial infarction, JAMA 284 (2000), 2748-54. Marital stress worsens prognosis in women with heart disease, JAMA 284 (2000), 3008-14. Marriage has a positive role in cancer survival, SSM< 52 (2001), 357-68. Stress is dangerous to health, Lancet 357 (2001), 126. Long-live is discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 1580-2. The ethics of treating aplastic anemia are discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 1536-7.

In the USA Vector Group Ltd. is planning to introduce a cigarette made from a GM tobacco that is virtually nicotine free and may be a tool to quit smoking<, Plant Biotech Week (13 Jan. 2001), 8. On Eclipse cigarettes, JAMA< 284 (2000), 2995-6. FDA regulation of tobacco products is discussed in NEJM 343 (2000), 1802-9. Studies in China find fewer rural people smoke than urban people, AJPH 90 (2000), 1785-7. A Florida jury has awarded a husband damages of US$200,000 from his wife’s death from smoking, BMJ 321 (2000), 977. US smoking statistics for smoke-free work environment are in JAMA 284 (2000), 2865-6. California’s antismoking campaign has already reduced heart disease, NEJM 343 (2000), 1772-7.; Persons with mental illness are twice as likely to smoke, JAMA 284 (2000), 2606-10. The genotype CYP2A6 and smoking habit is discussed in Annals Human Genetics 64 (2000), 383-90. Israel’s military has been condemned for issuing free cigarettes as it breaks a 1983 law, BMJ< 321 (2000), 1242. A class action in Israel has been settled out of court, BMJ 321 (2000), 1306. A call for antismoking education in Kuwait is made in Bulletin WHO 78 (2000), 1306-15. The appearance of cigarette brands in films contributes to global cigarette marketing, Lancet 357 (2001), 29-32. On the Australian Tobacco Institute, BMJ 321 (2000), 620. The question of publishing articles funded by tobacco money is raised in BMJ 321 (2000), 1074-6. Nicotine metabolism may create yet another carcinogen, Science News 158 (2000), 278. Colorectal cancer is also a risk of smoking, Lancet 356 (2000), 2072.; On passive smoking, BMJ< 321 (2000), 1221-3. Benefits to the brain from alcohol are discussed in NS (9 Dec. 2000), 10. The origin of cocaine is discussed in Nature 408 (2000), 311-2.

A discussion of handling hazardous chemicals is in Occupational Health & Safety (Dec 2000), 58-60. Workplace bullying is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 2118. Back-belt use may not lower risk of back damage, JAMA 284 (2000), 2727-32, 2780. On inflight medical emergencies, BMJ 321 (2000), 1336-41; Time (20 Nov. 2000), 94. On osteoporosis, Scrip Magazine (Dec. 2000), 19-21. Hip protectors help avoid injury, NEJM 343 (2000), 1562-3.

Persons who were prescribed statins have a decreased risk of Alzheimer’s disease, Lancet 356 (2000), 1627-31; BMJ 321 (2000), 971-2. Tamoxifen has been found not to increase risk of cardiovascular disease, Lancet 357 (2001), 45. The dangers of aspirin and links to asthma are discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 1170-1, 1178. On the risk of asthma and siblings, NEJM 343 (2000), 1967-8. The component of some appetite suppressants, phenylpropanolamine is a risk factor for stroke, NEJM 343 (2000), 1826-32, 1886-7. On silicone breast implants, AWHONN 4 (Oct. 2000), 29-32.

A call for more bicycle helmet use is made in BMJ< 321 (2000), 1035-6. Use of injury data to prevent violence is discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 1481-2. The question of the difficult line between mental disease and criminal is discussed in Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s48. In Norway there is a seasonal pattern of violence, Am. J. Psychiatry 157 (2000), 1674-8.; The Sabbath affects Jewsih mortality in Israel, SSM 52 (2001), 83-97.

Patenting & Business

A Melbourne-based company has bought the Tongan human gene pool for studying diabetes, NatMed. 6 (2000), 8; Lancet 356 (2000), 1910; Nature 408 (2000), 508. In December, 2000, talks at creating an international agreement for sharing the world’s plant genetic resources had a setback, which may mean few countries will send further seeds to CGIAR seedbanks, NS (16 Dec. 2000), 3. A new book is Agricultural Biotechnology in Developing Countries: Towards Optimizing the Benefits for the Poor (Kluwer Academic 2000). On patenting medical research, BMJ 321 (2000), 2015-6. Publication rights for sequence data producers are discussed in Science 290 (2000), 1696-7. Celera has been criticised for the terms limiting publication, Nature< 408 (2000), 759.

As of November, 2000, only four EC countries had implemented the provisions of the biopatenting directive, although the deadline for implementation was 30 July, 2000. The USPTO has issued final utility guidelines for patent examiners to follow for patent applications of genetic material, SCRIPP (12 Jan. 2001), 16; NatBio 18 (2000), 1319-20. In general on patenting of biotech., NatGen< 26 (2000), 385-6; NS (9 Dec. 2000), 4; Nature 408 (2000), 632; Nature 408 (2000), 889; Beyleveld, D. “Regulating morality through patent law. Critique of the EC Directive.” Law and the Human Genome Review 12 (Jan. 2000), 141-71. A review of intellectual property is Law Quarterly Review 116 (2000), 621-37. Families have sued a hospital for control of the Canavan gene, Science 290 (2000), 1062.

The use of digital techniques to develop drugs from bioinformatics is discussed in GEN 21 (1 Jan. 2001), 14-5, 54. The UK company Cantab Pharmaceuticals shares have dropped 67% because their treatment for genital warts was not found to be better than placebo, BMJ 321 (2000), 1039. A review of how basic science may help malnutrition is Nature 409 (2001), 397-401. Against Monsanto and looking at how they may influence food regulators, The Ecologist 30 (Nov. 2000), 11. A discussion of the way major companies are spinning off their agricultural components is Ram’s Horn 186 (2000), 1-5.

A review of drug company gifts to doctors is BMJ 321 (2000), 1563-4. Merck Sharp and Dohme have been prosecuted for pampering Dutch physicians, Lancet 356 (2000), 1832. Accountability in the pharmaceutical industry is discussed in NEJM 343 (2000), 1415-6. On fraud in pharmaceutical trials Lancet 356 (2000), 1773. Increased demand while decreasing the costs of generic medicines are discussed I Lancet 356 (2000), 1784-5. The question of trading public health for private wealth is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 1941. University-industry relations are discussed in Nature 409 (2001), 119; Science 290 (2000), 1069-70, 1701-2. There is debate over US plans to track foreign students for terrorist activities, Science 290 (2000), 1276.

Japan has reshaped science Ministries with a new Council for Science and Technology Policy, replacing the old Council for Science and Technology, Nature 408 (2000), 757. The UK is increasing funding for genomics, Science 290 (2000), 1669-70. California has set up three new institutes to attract scientist there. On biotechnology in Holland, NatBio 18 (2000), 1240. Technology transfer is discussed in Biotechnology & Development Monitor 43 (Sept. 2000), 15-9.

Birth Control

Caution in oral contraceptive studies is needed, BMJ 321 (2000), 1171-2. The UK has improved access to the morning after pill, levonorgestrel by allowing it to be sold over-the-counter, Lancet 356 (2000), 2071. A survey of knowledge on emergency contraception in the US military found better awareness was needed, O&G 96 (2000), 921-5. In general education is important on how to use contraception, Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s51.

The scientific and social representations of conception differ, Brit. J. Social Psychology 39 (2000), 521-35. Changing perceptions of sex and sexuality are discussed in Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s58. In general on contraception, Lancet 356 (2000), 1913-9. Long term studies of quinacrine sterilisation in Vietnam are reported in F&S 74 (2000), 1084-91, 1092-101. Tubal sterilisation is safe and effective, NEJM 343 (2000), 1724-6. Ethical issues of voluntary sterilisation are discussed (in Italian) in Bioetica e Cultura 9 (2000), 79-90. Research on new methods for birth control against the Zona Pellucidia are discussed in Everyman’s Science 35 (April 2000), 26-9. A ten year copper IUD is being used in India, Reproductive Health Matters 8 (Nov. 2000), 125-33.<

Population control is discussed in AJPH 90 (2000), 1838-47. On the census in China, Science 290 (2000), 1288-9. The transition from quantity of children to quality is discussed in PNAS 97 (2000), 12926-31. Maternal mortality is discussed in Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s11. Early child bearing adversely affects health in some cases in Botswana, SSM52 (2001), 45-52. Prostitution and sexual partner reporting is studied in PNAS 97 (2000), 12385-8.

The abolishment of gender tests for the Olympics is discussed in JAMA 284 (2000), 2997-8. On rape laws, BMJ 321 (2000), 1034-5.

Embryo Status

Ireland is preparing for an abortion referendum, Lancet 356 (2000), 1832. On grieving for an abortion, AWOHONN 4 (Oct. 2000), 9. Fetal medicine is reviewed in JAMA 284 (2000), 2651; and a review of the book Schroedel, JR. Is the Fetus a Person? A Comparison of Policies Across Fifty States (Cornell Univ. Press 2000) is NEJM 343 (2000), 1737-8. A series of papers on reproductive rights in Mexico, India, Ireland, Egypt, Brazil, Ghana and South Africa are in Reproductive Health Matters< 8 (Nov. 2000), 6-124.

The USA has approved RU486 for abortion, FDA Consumer (Nov. 2000), 7; SA (Dec. 2000), 16-7. However in Germnay financial losses have led to its withdrawal, BMJ< 321 (2000), 1041. There has been controversy in Australia over a pro-choice doctor, Lancet 356 (2000), 1586. Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is reviewed in BMJ 321 (2000), 1235-6. Women who have an abortion in Finland are more likely to commit suicide according to Krohn, A. “Narratives of regret”, Bioethics Research Notes 12 (Dec. 2000), 37-8.

Positive results for several patients have been reported in Bachoud-Levi, AC et al. “Motor and cognitive improvements in patients with Huntington’s disease after neural transplantation”, Lancet 356 (2000), 1975-9; 1945-6. However in the USA the first day after President Bush took over control, he stopped use of federal funds for fetal cell transplants. On tropism of neural stem cells for pathological regions of adult brain, PNAS 97 (2000), 12393-5, 12846-51; Science 290 (2000), 1479-80. The cells may be able to hunt out damaged parts of the brain. On lubrication of brains in Parkinson’s disease, Time (22 Jan. 2001), 53-4.

Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

The UK Parliament has authorised the use of stem cells and embryos for medical research, Nature 409 (2001), 5; Lancet 356 (2000), 2162; BMJ 321 (2000), 1427-8; Lancet 356 (2000), 1825. France and Italy are authorizing the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer for human embryo research, Nature 408 (2000), 629. On the debate on the use of ES cells, NS (18 Nov. 2000), 10-2; (16 Dec. 2000), 20; NatMed. 6 (2000), 1303; Nature 408 (2000), 773, 897-8; PNAS 97 (2000), 13473-5; Science 290 (2000), 1672-4. Papers on the ethics include: Lanza, RP. Et al. “The ethical validity of using nuclear transfer in human transplantation”, JAMA 284 (2000), 3175-9; Juengst, E. & Fossel, M. “The ethics of embryonic stem cells – Now and forever, cells without end”, JAMA 284 (2000), 3180-3, 3175 Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, “Human somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning)”, F&S 74 (2000), 873-6; Nature 408 (2000), 275, 277. The US position has been changed to negative, Nature 408 (2000), 887-8. There are differences in the sources of ES cells for each application, Nature 408 (2000), 513; The Scientist (27 Nov. 2000), 20-4. The Greek origin of the word cloning is discussed in Nature 408 (2000), 905.

In Japan HIV positive men have been offered use of IVF to have children without HIV, Nature408 (2000), 633. Doctors at Tottori University Hospital in Yonago, Tottori Prefecture, have conducted in vitro fertilization with sperm taken from an HIV-positive man using, for the fifth time, a technique that reduces the risk of infecting the wife and unborn baby to almost zero (Japan Times 9 Jan., 2001). Brit. J. Health Psychology 5 (2000), 365-75. On the genetics of male infertility, TIG (2000), 565-73. The nuclear receptor co-repressor Nrip1 is essential for female fertility, NatMed<. 6 (2000), 1368-73. A region on chromosome 3 is linked to dizygotic twinning, NatGen 26 (2000), 398-9. Genetic chimerism is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 2156-7. On mosaicism, Science News 158 (2000), 276.

The future of IVF may have no limits, Lancet Perspectives356 (2000), s52; NS(11 Nov. 2000), 20; (2 Dec. 2000), 40-5. On IVF in Italian, Itinerarium 8 (Sept. 2000), 109-24. Access for gay and lesbian couples is discussed in GeneWatch 14 (Jan. 2001), 8-9. F&S 74 (2000), 1057-8. In the UK a couple who had triplets through IVF won damages< from a clinic that implanted 3 embryos instead of 2 embryos, BMJ 321 (2000), 1306. Double consecutive transfer does not offer advantages over transfer of two embryos a the same time, F&S 74 (2000), 936-40. Having sexual intercourse can increase the chance of becoming pregnant after IVF, NS (9 Dec. 2000), 6. On race and reproduction, GeneWatch 14 (Jan. 2001), 10-3.

Fetal Environment & Neonates

A survey of alcohol and tobacco use by pregnant women in the USA finds young women are increasing their use, O&G 96 (2000), 767-71. A survey of exposure of pregnant women to mercury in Brazil is Environmental Research 84 (2000), 204-10. In general on prenatal exposure and long term health effects, Epidemiologic Reviews 22 (2000), 76+. Caffeine intake has some risk for first trimester spontaneous abortion, NEJM 343 (2000), 1839-45. On drug prescriptions in pregnancy, Lancet 356 (2000), 1704, 1735-6. Anti-epileptic drugs are debated in Lancet 356 (2000), 1537. Maternal-fetal conflict and ethics is discussed in O&G 96 (2000), 786-91. Prenatal exposures affect later sperm, Science News 158 (2000), 303.

Folic acid pathway mutations are found in patients with neural tube defects, AJMG 95 (2000), 216-23. Folic acid fortification of flour has raised US serum levels of folate, BMJ< 321 (2000), 1176. On vitamin A deficiency, Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s41. Lower childhood intelligence scores are linked to late onset dementia, Lancet< 356 (2000), 1907. Also on health impact of low birth weight, Lancet 356 (2000), 2066-7. X-rays in the womb may be linked to mental illness in adulthood, NS (18 Nov. 2000), 14.

On childbirth, <Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s12. A relationship between private health insurance and higher rates of cesarean section is found in Chile, BMJ 321 (2000), 1501-5. Cesarean section rates are increasing still, Lancet 356 (2000), 1677-80, 1697; AWHONN 4 (Oct. 2000), 11-5.

The separation of Siamese twins in the UK on 7 November, is reported in Lancet< 356 (2000), 1661; BMJ 321 (2000), 1175. The success rate is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 1765; NS (11 Nov. 2000), 6. The ethical issues are discussed in BME 162 (2000), 13-8.

The planned trial of ritalin to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (APHD) raises ethical issues, Science 290 (2000), 1280-2. A letter on a clinical trial for Ritalin to treat preschool children with APHD is discussed in Science 290 (2000), 1280, 1897; BMJ 321 (2000), 975-6. Children today may be more stressed than in the past, Time (15 Jan. 2001), 58; NS (16 Dec. 2000), 34-9. Views on consent for neonatal clinical trials are discussed in Mason, S. et al. “Obtaining informed consent to neonatal randomised controlled trials: interviews with parents and clinicians in the Euricon study”, Lancet 356 (2000), 2045-51, 2026-7; BMJ 321 (2000), 1093-4. Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder is discussed in JAMA 284 (2000), 3104-6. On media portrayals of breast feeding, BMJ 321 (2000), 1196-8. Influence of potty training on dysfunctional bladder is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 1787. Child abuse and deaths are discussed in Lancet Perspectives< 356 (2000), s13-4; Lancet 356 (2000), 1571-2.

The UK is tightening the law on female circumcision, BMJ 321 (2000), 1365. In general, Lancet Perspectives< 356 (2000), s57. Baby trafficking in China is discussed in Time (8 Jan. 2001), 16-7.

< Genetic Disease Markers

Mutations in glial fibrillary acid protein may cause Alexander disease, which is a type of brain degeneration, NatGen 27 (2001), 10-1. Overexpression of the alpha1B adrenergic receptor causes apoptotic neurodegeneration, NatMed. 6 (2000), 1388-94. A letter against the press release that serotonin 2A receptor gene was linked to suicidal behavior, which has not been confirmed, is AJMG 96 (2000), 892. There is support for an association between HLA-DR1 and schizophrenia in Japanese, AJMG 96 (2000), 725-7. The amyloid hypothesis for Alzheimer's has been supported, Lancet 356 (2000), 2161. A susceptibility locus for AD has been located on chromosome 10q, Science< 290 (2000), 2302-5. Also on AD, Time (22 Jan. 2001), 50-2; SA (Dec. 2000), 76-83. A study of genetics and age of onset in Huntington disease is AJMG 95 (2000), 366-73. Familial aggregation of Parkinson’s disease in Iceland is reported from the deCode group in NEJM< 343 (2000), 1765-70. On Fragile X syndrome, AJMG 97 (2000), 112-8; and on how people cope, AJMG 98 (2000), 37-45..

Several genes regulate serum IgE levels, found in families with asthma, AJHG 67 (2000), 1163-73. A major susceptibility locus for atopic dermatitis maps to chromosome 3q21, NatGen 26 (2000), 470-3. Persons with PKU need to follow the special diet throughout their life, JAMA 284 (2000), 2445. A point mutation in PTPRC is associated with the development of multiple sclerosis, NatGen 26 (2000), 495-9. On genes for twinning, Science 290 (2000), 1065-6. HE1 is a second gene of Niemann-Pick C disease, Science 290 (2000), 2298-302.

A genetic marker for esophageal cancer is reported in GEN 20 (Dec. 2000), 101. Tamoxifen reduces chance of breast cancer in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, Lancet 356 (2000), 1876-81. On early treatment of breast cancer, JAMA 284 (2000), 2707-8. A novel zinc finger protein, ZBRK1 has been linked to the mechanism of BRCA1, NatMed. 6 (2000), 1318-9. Breast cancer is not just whether but also when, NatGen 26 (2000), 390-1, 411-4. On breast cancer, NEJM 343 (2000), 1566-8; Nature 408 (2000), 429-33. A review of the genetics of prostrate cancer is AJHG 67 (2000), 1367-75; PNAS 97 (2000), 12216-21. On lung cancer and p53, PNAS 97 (2000), 12244-9. p53 is discussed in Nature 408 (2000), 307-10.; Methylation of the MGMT is a predictor of the responsiveness of gliomas to alkylating agents, NEJM 343 (2000), 1350-4; Nature 409 (2001), 141-4. Leukemia treatment also depends on genetic markers, NEJM 343 (2000), 1910-6. Patients with less insurance in the USA die sooner from cancer, AJPH 90 (2000), 1746-54.

Genetic factors related to thrombosis in pregnancy are discussed in Am.J.O&G.< 183 (2000), 1271-7; AJHG 67 (2000), 1452-9. Genes related to diabetes are identified in AJHG 67 (2000), 1174-85, 1186-200. Hereditary catalase deficiencies have increased risk of diabetes, Lancet 356 (2000), 1820-1. Worldwide genetic analysis of CFTR is reported in AJHG 67 (2000), 103-17. Genetics of preeclampsia is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 53-6. Mutations in sarcomere protein genes cause dilated cardiomyopathy, NEJM< 343 (2000), 1688-96. The question of how SOD1 mutants cause ALS is discussed in NatMed. 6 (2000), 1320-1.

Analysis of the polycystic kidney disease is reported in AJHG 67 (2000), 46-63. On mitochondrial genetics, TIBS 25 (2000), 555+. Analysis of complex genetics is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 1662; BMJ 321 (2000), 1117-20; Epidemiologic Reviews 22 (2000), 120-5; NatGen 26 (2000), 395; NS (9 Dec. 2000), 16-7. A review on DNA damage response is Nature 408 (2000), 433-9. Predisposition for a long life may be shared by family members, J. Amer. Geriatrics Society 48 (2000), 1483-5; BMJ 321 (2000), 1245. On aging, PNAS 97 (2000), 12407-8. In general on genetics in medicine, NEJM 343 (2000), 1496-9.

< Genetic Screening Methodology

Trends in live birth prevalence of Down syndrome< in Netherlands from 1987 to 1996 has resulted in a 19% decrease in live births from Down syndrome, but more women could be using the tests, Prenatal Diagnosis 20 (2000), 709-13. In South Australia over the 190s the use of maternal serum screening has led to a reduction in births of Down syndrome by 60%, Prenatal Diagnosis 20 (2000), 1453-9. The efficacy of fetal Down syndrome screening in the USA from 1974 to 1997 is surveyed in O&G 96 (2000), 979-85. Letters on first trimester screening for aneuploidy by nuchal transparency are in Am. J.O&G 183 (2000), 1590-2; Prenatal Diagnosis< 20 (2000), 781-4. Pedigree analysis may be useful for serum screening, Prenatal Diagnosis 20 (2000), 865-9; and on free beta hCG versus intact hCG, Prenatal Diagnosis 20 (2000), 785-9. There are also ethnic differences in the impact of advanced age, AJPH 90 (2000), 1778-81.

Screening for Fragile X in women of reproductive age is discussed in Prenatal Diagnosis 20 (2000), 611-4. A Hong Kong team has said that fetal DNA and FISH can detect Down syndrome reliably, Poon, LLM. Et al. “Prenatal detection of fetal Down’s Syndrome from maternal plasma”, Lancet 356 (2000), 1819-20; BMJ 321 (2000), 1366. Clonal culture from fetal cells from maternal blood is reported in Lancet 356 (2000), 1736-7. Maternal and fetal DNA in maternal plasma have variations that mean care should be taken in use of fetal DNA in screening, O&G 96 (2000), 991-6. A technique to analyze all human chromosomes at once is reported in Molecular Human Reproduction 6 (2000), 1055-62; BMJ 321 (2000), 1040.

The use of CVS before multifetal pregnancy reduction is discussed in O&G 96 (2000), 1078-81; and amniocentesis, F&S 74 (2000), 1051-2. Screening chromosome ends for learning disability is reported in BMJ< 321 (2000), 1240. The accuracy of 25 years of screening for hemoglobin disorders in the UK is reported in Prenatal Diagnosis 20 (2000), 986-91. DNA testing for familial hypercholesterolemia is discussed in BMJ <321 (2000), 1483-4. False positives in universal neonatal screening for permanent childhood hearing impairment, Lancet 356 (2000), 1903-4. In general on gene chips, American Scientist 88 (2000), 508-15. The possibility of delivery of drugs by bacteria-driven robots is discussed in NS (25 Nov. 2000), 12.

DNA Fingerprinting & Privacy

UK insurers are allowed to use Huntington disease gene tests, BMJ 321 (2000), 977; NatGen 26 (2000), 251-2. On patient confidentiality and the surrogates’ right to know, JLME 28 (2000), 137-43. A review of genetic discrimination in the USA and laws on genetics, GMO labeling, is GeneWatch 13 (Winter 2000), 7-10; SA (Jan. 2001), 13-4. A book review of Genetics and Public Health in the 21st Century is NEJM 343 (2000), 1580. The question of when confidentiality clashes with the duty to warn relatives is discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 1464-6.

The question of who has a right to access medical information is discussed in J. Law & Med. 8 (2000), 81-8. Canadians have been given more access to their own medical records, Lancet 356 (2000), 2168. The future of medical records are discussed in JAMA 284 (2000), 2652; BMJ 321 (2000), 1199-203. The question of health-based surveillance is discussed in Science 290 (2000), 1898-9. Informed consent is neded for tissue retention in Australia, Lancet 356 (2000), 1663. On patient identiable data, BMJ 321 (2000), 1031-2.; A method has been developed to spray envelopes so that the contents are visible to examination, NS< (16 Dec. 2000), 23. The use of genetics to identify missing persons is discussed in Science 290 (2000), 2257-8.

Ethics & Genetic Screening

Attitude studies include: Weinans, MJN. Et al. “How women deal with the results of serum screening for Down syndrome in the second trimester of pregnancy”, Prenatal Diagnosis 20 (2000), 705-8; McConkie-Rosell, A. et al. “Longitudinal study of the carrier testing process in Fragile X syndrome: Perceptions and coping”, AJMG 98 (2000), 37-45; Liede, A. et al. “Evaluation of the needs of male carriers of mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 who have undergone genetic counseling”, AJHG 67 (2000), 1494-504; Lodder, L. et al. “Psychological impact of receiving a BRCA1/BRCA2 test result”, AJMG 98 (2001), 15-24. Fanos, JH. Et al. “Sib understanding of genetic and attitudes toward carrier testing for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency”, AJMG 98 (2000), 46-56; JMG 37 (2000), 883-4; Baillie, C. et al. “Ultrasound screening for chromosomal abnormality: Women’s reactions to false positive results”, Brit. J. Health Psychology 5 (2000), 377-94. Presenting numbers rather than words is clearer for negative results in pregnant women, Prenatal Diagnosis 20 (2000), 714-8. In the UK only a quarter of persons elgible for Huntington's disease testing have taken it, Lancet 356 (2000), 1944-5; JMG 37 (20000), 567-71.

In general on prenatal diagnosis, AWHONN 4 (Oct. 2000), 33-6; BMJ 321 (2000), 1086, AJMG 97 (2000), 109-11. General ethics in genetics is discussed following the WHO expert consultation statement in BME 163 (2000), 8-9; JME 26 (2000), 261-5. Genethics is discussed in Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s38. Nondirective counseling is assessed in BMJ< 321 (2000), 1383-8, 1389-92. Needs of BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers are discussed in JMG 37 (2000), 866-74. Prenatal care in Puerto Ricans< is discussed in SSM 51 (2000), 1723-39; 52 (2001), 169. Commercial predictive testing is discussed in JME 26 (2000), 282-6; 444-6. US companies are offering many different genetic tests, BioFutur Special Issue (Feb. 2000), 66-7; BioCentury (13 Nov. 2000), A10.

Eugenics and reproductive choice is discussed in GeneWatch 14 (Jan. 2001), 1-7. The Graz Medical Faculty in Styria, Austria is reexamining its history and involvement in killing of Jews in the Nazi era, Lancet 356 (2000), 1994. A book review of Nurses in Nazi Germany: Moral choice in history, is Lancet 356 (2000), 1859. Useful statements on ethics are available from the German Society of Human genetics, http://gfhev.de/kommission/eng/e_stellung.htm. The name of Eugenics is discussed in Galton Institute Newsletter <39 (Dec. 2000), 1, 3. On talking about race in a scientific context, Science & Engineering Ethics 6 (2000), 485-99; AJPH 90 (2000), 1699-702. On race and public health in South Africa, AJPH 90 (2000), 1690-3. Use of race in censuses is discussed in AJPH 90 (2000), 1687-9, 1704-13, 1735-7, 1738-45. Persons with Down syndrome may express pain less clearly and slowly than the general population, but they still need pain control, Lancet 356 (2000), 1867, 1882-7.

A book review of What's Normal is JAMA 284 (2000), 3185-6. On violent behaviour and mental illness, Science News 158 (2000), 279; Science 290 (2000), 1093-7. The Nuffield Council is looking at the ethics of human behaviour research, Nature 409 (2001), 276. The needs for education by oncology nurses is discussed in AJMG 98 (2001), 3-12. A survey of knowledge of ethical standards in genetics is JAMA 284 (2000), 2595-7. The question of care for people with learning difficulties is discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 1297.

< Gene Therapy

Book reviews of Engineering the Human Germline are in Nature 408 (2000), 769-70; NEJM 343 (2000), 1425. Papers on improved memory are in the Animal Genetic Engineering Section. APOE polymorphism is a marker for age-related memory decline, AJMG 96 (2000), 707-11. On plastic surgery, Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s45. A web review of www.extended-eternallife.org is Lancet 356 (2000), 1617.; See also the paper on hedonistic engineering in EJAIB 11 (Jan. 2001). Also on use of human genetic engineering, AJMG 95 (2000), 518; Nature 408 (2000), 295. A call for use of in utero gene therapy is NS (2 Dec. 2000), 16-7. Book reviews on Ehlrich, PR. Human Natures: Genes, Cultures, and the Human Prospect, are Nature 408 (2000), 643-4; Science 290 (2000), 1102-3.

Lessons from the Gelsinger case are discussed in NS (20 Jan. 2000), 8; Science 290 (2000), 2049-50 On clinical use of gene therapy, JAMA 284 (2000), 2788; NS (23 Dec. 2000), 23. Focal modification of electrical conduction in the heart by gene transfer is reported in NatMed. 6 (2000), 1395-8. Prospects for diabetes treatment are also emerging as gut cells were engineered to produce insulin, Lancet 356 (2000), 1987; BMJ 321 (2000), 1488; Nature 408 (2000), 420-1, 483-8. Also on gene therapy, Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s8. BCL2 antisense therapy allowed chemosensitisation of malignant melanoma, Lancet 356 (2000), 1728. On gene thersapy for cancer, GEN (15 Nov. 2000), 1, 15, 58.

Techniques are improving, Hatada, S. et al. “Gene correction in hematopoietic progenitor cells by homologous recombination”, PNAS 97 (2000), 13807-11. Maternal germ-line transmission of mutant cDNAs from ES stem cell derived chimeric mice is reported in PNAS 97 (2000), 14461-6. Gene therapy might keep arteries open, Science News 158 (2000), 325; or as pacemakers, NS (9 Dec. 2000), 23. On Parkinbson's disease, NatMed<. 6 (2000), 1207-8. Receptors can be used to target gene vectors, Biotechnology & Bioengineering 70 (2000), 593-605. Artificial chromosomes are now being used in gene therapy, Science 290 (2000), 1308-9. On recombination, NatGen 26 (2000), 388-9.

Human Genome Project (HGP)

Ethical principles of the HGP in Russia are discussed in Law and Human Genome Review 12 (2000), 237-41. There is more competition between Celera and the government genome projects for sequencing of other genomes, Nature 408 (2000), 758. There is controversy over the terms of DNA sequence data release Celera has negotiated with Science, which means it will retain some restrictions on the use of the data, and only provide the data on its own www site not on GenBank, Science 290 (2000), 2042-3. An overview of the year 2000 genomics is Nature 408 (2000), 894-6; Science 290 (2000), 2220-1.

The genome sequence of Arabidopsis thaliana has been finished, The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative, “Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana”, Nature 408 (2000), 796-815, 791-5; Science 290 (2000), 2054-8, 2071; 2105-10; NS (2 Dec. 2000), 36-9; (16 Dec. 2000), 14-5. The genome of E. coli 0157 has an extra 1387 genes compared to the laboratory version, Nature (26 Jan. 2001). The genome sequence of Halobacterium species NRC is in PNAS 97 (2000), 12176-81. A first report of chicken genes and chromosomes is Cytogent. Cell Genet. 90 (2000), 169-218.; Rapid sequencing of mouse genome means it is difficult to deposit the data every 24 hours onto the Internet, Nature 408 (2000), 758-9. Further analysis of the functions of genes in C. elegans is Nature 408 (2000), 325-30, 331-6.

Plans for sequencing of a second Drosophila species genome, of D.pseudoobscura have been announced, Nature 408 (2000), 396. The Wellcome Trust is sequencing zebrafish, Nature 408 (2000), 503; Science 291 (2001), 1671. China and Denmark are teaming up to sequence pig, Science 290 (2000), 913-4. Germany is targeting bacterial genomes, Nature 408 (2000), 632-3; 393. Genomic medicine is discussed in JAMA 284 (2000), 2581-2, 2642; NEJM 343 (2000), 1408-9.

A general paper on community is Davis, DS. “Groups, communities, and contested identites in genetic research”, HCR< 30 (Nov. 2000), 38-44. On use of DNA collections, BMJ 321 (2000), 1146-9. A case of US harvesting of blood samples for genetic research in China is reported in Int. Herald Tribune (21 Dec. 2000). DeCode genetics in Iceland is discussed in GeneWatch 13 (Winter 2000), 4-6; NEJM 343 (2000), 1734-5. They have been reporting some genes, SCRIP 2595 (24 Nov. 2000), 24. The Estonian Parliament is considering a genome law to support the use of genetic data.

The theory of humans developing in Africa has been supported by the most thorough genetic studies of 53 person’s mitochondrial DNA, Ingman, M. et al. “Mitochondrial genome variation and the origin of modern humans”, Nature 408 (2000), 708-13, 652-3; NS (18 Nov. 2000), 48-9. Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is primarily influenced by geography rather than by language, AJHG 67 (2001), 1526-43; Science 290 (2000), 1080-1. The history of Y-chromosome in Melanasia and Australia is independent, AJHG 67 (2001), 173-90. Columbian maternal and paternal genetic histories may differ, AJHG 67 (2000), 1062-6; as may Europeans, AJHG 67 (2000), 1376-81. Gene mapping is discussed in PNAS 97 (2000), 12389-90. Mitochondrial genes in plants often move to the nucleus, Nature 408 (2000), 302-4. The fate of duplicate genes in evolution is reviewed in Science 290 (2000), 1151-5. The Y chromosome perspective is discussed, Science 290 (2000), 1155-9; Science News 158 (2000), 295.

On use of ancient DNA, AJHG 67 (2000), 287-90; Science 290 (2000), 2065. Japanese researchers are considering to probe Tutankamon’s DNA, Nature 408 (2000), 283.

General Medical Ethics

A new book, Tierney, P. Darkness in El Dorado: How scientists and journalists devastated the Amazon, charges that filmmakers and anthropologists in the Amazon are causing the genocide of the Yanomami< people, Newsweek (27 Nov. 2000), 54-6; NS (11 Nov. 2000), 18-9.; On anthropology, Science 290 (2000), 1511-2; Nature 408 (2000), 391, 755.

On bioethics in Croatia, Gosic, N. “Bioethics in Croatia”, Synthesis Philosophica 14 (2000), 183-200. Research bioethics in Uganda is reported in JLME 28 (2000), 165-73. On bioethics in Brazil, IAB News 12 (Winter 2000), 2-9. A Pakistani perspective is Moazam, F. “Families, patients, and physicians in medical decision making: A Pakistani Perspective”, HCR 30 (Nov. 2000), 28-36. A report from the Global Forum for bioethics in research is JLME 28 (2000), 174-5. Paternalism in Norway is surveyd, SSM 52 (2001), 239-48. A book review of Kalupahana, DJ., Ethics in Early Buddhism, is Philosophy East & West 50 (2000), 628-30. A new book is Holmes, R. III. Genes, Genesis, and God: Values and Their Origin in Natural and Human History (Cambridge University Press, 1999), Ethics< (Oct. 2000), 186-9. Religious freedom is discussed in California Law Review 88 (2000), 1709-42. Ivan Segota has written on two persons in bioethics: On Van R. Potter, Synthesis Philosophica 14 (2000), 169-82; and on Darryl Macer, Filozofska Istraazivanja< 20 (2000), 401-10.

The question of diversity of Jehovah witness acceptance of blood donation is discussed in JME 26 (2000), 375-80, 381-6. On informed consent J. Clinical Ethics 11 (2000), 3-13. Views of parents and neonatalogists on consent for clinical trials are discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 2026-7. Results of trials are often not clear, Lancet 356 (2000), 1757-9; BMJ 321 (2000), 1362-3. A book review of Wear, S. Informed Consent, is Ethics (Oct. 2000), 215-6. A book review of Tuskegee’s Truths is NEJM 343 (2000), 1581. A criticism of hospital ethics committees is BMJ 321 (2000), 1414.

Nursing codes are reviewed in Nursing Ethics 8 (2001), 5-18. The question of inter-gender work relations between nurse and doctors are discussed in SSM 52 (2001), 189-202.; On clinical ethics consultations, J. Clinical Ethics 11 (2000), 31-38, 49-55. In general on medical ethics, BMJ 321 (2000), 1295, 1529-31, 1572-6; JAMA 284 (2000), 2526-8; SSM 52 (2001), 171-3, 175-7; Science 290 (2000), 2225. Strikes in South Korea continue over proposed reforms, Lancet 356 (2000), 1583. Doctor-patient relationship is discussed in JAMA 284 (2000), 2793-4. The question of the name, patient or client, is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 2111.

In India high school teachers will soon have a code of ethics, Hindustan Times (7 Feb. 2001). Teaching health care ethics to nursing students in the UK is discussed in Nursing Ethics 8 (2001), 45-56. Teaching literature in medicine is recommended, Lancet 356 (2000), 1920-2, 2001-3. Discussion of bullying in schools and delusion is Brit. J. Social Psychology 39 (2000), 605-28. In general on education, SSM 52 (2001), 203-13. Current psychological de-briefing can do more harm than good, BMJ 321 (2000), 1032-3.

New Book: Becker, GK., ed., The Moral Status of Persons. Perspectives on Bioethics (Amsterdam: Rodopi 2000; ISBN 90-420-1201-3, 250pp.).

Includes 13 chapters on the theme of personhood with views from European and Asian philosophy, especially Confucianism.; After an initial 3 chapters on the Foundations of Personhood (R. Fan, JHC. Sun, M. Quante) , there are 4 chapters on Eastern perspectives (C.Hansen, E. Hui, S. Ohara, R. Qiu), 2 chapters on Christian perspectives (D. McCann, F. Graf), then 4 papers on personal identity in issues including gene therapy (R. Chadwick), human cloning (JKL. Chan), brain injury (DKS. Au), and animals (E. Telfer). The volume is a useful contribution to the debate on what is a person, and benefits from having a cross-cultural approach to these issues.; It is part of the Value Inquiry Book Series.

< Law & Medical Ethics

The Indian Council of Medical Research has released voluntary guidelines on conducting clinical trials, Science 290 (2000), 919. The US NBAC has advised the government to spend more to allow broader oversight to protect research subjects, Nature 409 (2001), 6; NatBio 18 (Dec. 2000), 1237. Comments on the revised Helsinki Declaration are in BME 162 (2000), 8-11; JAMA 284 (2000), 2983-5, 3043-6; Science 290 (2000), 418-9. On research ethics, Lancet 357 (2001), 52; Nature 408 (2000), 630. Commercial access to clinical trial data is discussed in Science 290 (2000), 1063.

There has been concern expressed over the delay in the French bill of rights< for patients, Lancet 356 (2000), 1584. The Hippocratic Oath is discussed in JAMA 284 (2000), 2841-2.

A review of medication errors that have led to manslaughter charges is BMJ 321 (2000), 1212-6. On the role of courts, BMJ 321 (2000), 1282-4. The UK GMC has reviewed the burden of proof in misconduct cases, BMJ 321 (2000), 1176, 1220. On the GMC, BMJ 321 (2000), 1490-1. A case of a Japanese nurse who murdered patients is discussed in Time< (22 Jan. 2001), 17; and on Shipman who may have murdered 300 patients, BMJ 321 (2000), 1594-7.

Scientific Ethics

The US White House has issued requirements for dealing with scientific misconduct www.ostp.gov. There is still a question on the prevalence of fraud, Science<290 (2000), 1662; BMJ<321 (2000), 1345-9. Britain has been accused of being slow to act, BMJ 321 (2000), 1485-7; Lancet<356 (2000), 2030. A medical consultant has been suspended for publishing fraudulent results, BMJ<321 (2000), 1429. On secrecy of government information, Bulletin Atomic Scientists<(Nov. 2000), 25-9. Encryption technology is reviewed in Newsweek<(15 Jan. 2001). Polygraph testing by the US DOE laboratories is discussed in Science<290 (2000), 939-40.

An exposure of a medical quack offering cancer “cures” is in ProbeJAMA<284 (2000), 2997. Prescription fraud is estimated to cost 15 million pounds a year, BMJ<321 (2000), 1431. Ethics of advertisingIssues in Medical Ethics 9 (2001), 15-9. Ethical guidelines of publication of chemical research are in EST<35 (2001), 7-9C. On peer review, NEJM<343 (2000), 1485-6. A Japanese scientist has won a harassment case, NatMed 6 (2000), 1305.

< Euthanasia & Terminal Care

The Netherlands has passed legislation to permit euthanasia, not just to waive prosecution as has been the practice in the 1990s, Lancet 356 (2000), 1666, 1911; BMJ 321 (2000), 1174, 1433; Time (11 Dec. 2000), 37. In general on euthanasia ethics, JLME 28 (2000), 176-86; Tannsjo, T. “Terminal sedation – a possible compromise in the euthanasia debate?”, BME 163 (2000), 13-22; J. Clinical Ethics 11 (2000), 56-65, 73-7. A US survey of 988 terminally ill patients found 60% supported euthanasia, JAMA 284 (2000), 2460-8. A survey in New Zealand found 61% of the public support euthanasia, New Zealand Herald (28 Dec. 2000). The details of the 69 persons that Jack Kervokian assisted to died are in NEJM 343 (2000), 1735-6. Psychiatric consultation is needed for euthanasia, Lancet 356 (2000), 2067-8.

Discussion of end of life decisions is encouraged in JAMA 284 (2000), 2483-8, 2502-13, 2907-11; Lancet 356 (2000), 1672-6. A review of legal barriers in the USA to end of life care, JAMA 284 (2000), 2495-501. End of life care in the African-American community is discussed in JAMA 284 (2000), 2518-21; and in Belgium, Lancet 356 (2000), 1806-11; and France, Lancet< 357 (2001), 9-14. Also on end of life, JAMA 284 (2000), 2427-9, 2437-8, 2442-4, 2449-10, 2476-94, 2514-7, 3051-7; Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s23-24, s44; BMJ 321 (2000), 1577-9; Lancet 356 (2000), 1866-7. The question whether mature minors have a right to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment is reviewed in JLME 28 (2000), 109-24. The question in the case of children with genetic disease is discussed in JME 26 (2000), 400-3; also, Rebagliato, M. et al. “Neonatal end of life decision making. Physician’s attitudes and relationship with self reported practices in 10 European countries”,Lancet 356 (2000), 2451-59; 2190-1. A study found many parents could not accept a prognosis of early death in their children, JAMA 284 (2000), 2469-75.

Advance directives have been made legal in Catalonia, Spain, Lancet 357 (2001), 51. The ethics of restricting physician-assisted death to the terminally ill is discussed in HCR 30 (Nov. 2000), 17-23. Cancer in China< is discussed in Mok, E. “Empowerment of cancer patients: From a Chinese perspective”, Nursing Ethics< 8 (2001), 69-76. An argument against futility is JME 26 (2000), 396-9; NEJM 343 (2000), 1575-7. Regional variations in end-stage renal failure in Japan are in JAMA 284 (2000), 2622-4.

A UK study of including relatives in the room when testing for brain stem death< is reported in BMJ 321 (2000), 1505-6.

Gene-environment interaction and lifespan is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 2103.

Organ Transplants & Brain Death

In the UK there are now legal suits over the removal of children’s organs, BMJ 321 (2000), 1098, 1242.

WHO guidelines are discussed in Transplantation Proceedings 32 (2000), 1549-50. On organ donation, J. Clinical Ethics 11 (2000), 73-89. Corneal donation is discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 1263-4. German doctors have condemned the offer of live kidneys from Czech, BMJ 321 (2000), 1243. A consensus statement on the live organ donor is JAMA 284 (2000), 2919-26. Live donation in Asia< is discussed in Transplantation Proceedings 32 (2000), 1482-6, 1600-1, 2529-30. Seeking organs is discussed in NEJM 343 (2000), 1730-2. On compensation for live donation, Transplantation Proceedings 32 (2000), 1477-9.; In NZ someone write a story asking for a kidney in a Newspaper front page and donors were found, Christchurch Press (29 Dec. 2000), 1.

Reasons for refusal of donation in Hong Kong are reported in Transplantation Proceedings 32 (2000), 1563. A book review of Speaking for the Dead is Modern Law Review 63 (2000), 947-8. General issues across culture are discussed in Transplantation Proceedings 32 (2000), 1480-1. Umbilical cord transplants are discussed in Am. J. O&G. 1587-8. Small transplant centres have lower survival rates for liver transplants, Lancet 356 (2000), 72.

A merger between Imutran and BioTransplant signals changes in xenotransplantation research, NatMed<. 6 (2000), 1195. Against xenotransplants is GeneWatch 13 (Winter 2000), 1, 13-7; Nature 408 (2000), 630; NatMed. 6 (2000), 1195. The ethics is discussed in Welin, S. “Starting clinical trials of xenotransplantation – Reflections on the ethics of the early phase”, JME< 26 (2000), 231-6. Transplantation business is discussed; in Transplantation Proceedings 32 (2000), 1492. On tissue engineering, JAMA 284 (2000), 2582-3.

Health Costs

On justice, Nilstun, T. “Priority setting, justice, and health care: Conceptual analysis”, Croatian Medical J. 41 (2000), 375-7; BMJ 321 (2000), 1361-2. The effects of ethnic group on health are discussed in AJPiH 90 (2000), 1694-8; 1771-4, 1827-33; BMJ 321 (2000), 1400-2. On the World Health Report, Lancet 356 (2000), 1598-601, 2077, 2195; and global equity, BMJ 321 (2000), 1124; JAMA 284 (2000), 2864; Lancet 357 (2001), 1. Access to drugs and medical equipment is discussed in Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s5-6, s32, s35-36, s50. On child mortality, Bulletin WHO 78 (2000), 1173-91. Gender differences are discussed in JAMA 284 (2000), 3022-7; BMJ 321 (2000), 1087; Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s65-6; SSM 52 (2001), 179-87. Racial differences in access to renal transplantation are discussed in NEJM343 (2000), 1537-44; also in Australia, Lancet 356 (2000), 1830.; Social class and income are discussed in SSM 52 (2001), 157-9, 481-91; BMJ 321 (2000), 1311-5, 1532-3, 1547-51; Lancet 356 (2000), 1828. Prison has serious impact on health, BMJ 321 (2000), 1406-7.

Health care in Germany is discussed in BMJ321 (2000), 1094-5; and Russia, NEJM 343 (2000), 1424. Managed care is discussed in AJPH 90 (2000), 1823-6. Rationing is discussed in JAMA284 (2000), 2776-9; BMJ 321 (2000), 1356. On US care, Lancet 356 (2000), 1744-5; NEJM 343 (2000), 1934-41; AJPH 90 (2000), 1848-55. Japan has asked older persons to contribute more to their health care costs, Lancet 356 (2000), 2075. Setting priorities for new technology, BMJ 321 (2000), 1316-8. The WTO may accelerate privatisation of health systems, Lancet 356 (2000), 1995-2000. On China’s health, Bulletin WHO 78 (2000), 1296-305; SSM 52 (2001), 279-92.

Internet Journals

Open collaboration on the Internet is changing medical software development, BMJ 321 (2000), 976. On the quality of web-based information on depression treatment, BMJ 321 (2000), 1511-5. The impact of the www on the physician-patient relationship is discussed in Lancet 356 (2000), 1777. Use of the Internet by medical volunteers is discussed in SSM 52 (2001), 155-6. A survey of www use by older adults is Human Factors 42 (2000), 175-82.


Prepared by Darryl Macer
Go back to EJAIB 11 (Jan. 2001)
Go back to EJAIB
The Eubios Ethics Institute is on the world wide web of Internet:
http://eubios.info/index.html