Eubios News in Bioethics & Biotechnology - March 2001


Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 11 (2001), 55-61.

Comments are written in text form together with recent references. This list continues from the last issue of EJAIBand will continue. The full list of news (OLD = 1991-1993; NEW = 1994+) is available on-line topic-by-topic, at: http://eubios.info/NBB.html

Abbreviations


News in Bioethics & Biotechnology

Comments are written in text form together with recent references. This list continues from the last issue of EJAIB and will continue. This list is available on-line topic-by-topic, at:
http://eubios.info/NBB.html


Genetic Engineering of Plants

Syngenta has released the first genome map of rice, which includes locations of the 50,000 genes that rice has, Financial Times (26 Jan. 2001); Science 291 (2001), 807; NS (3 Feb. 2001), 6. On Sygenta, Splice 7 (Nov. 2000), 8-9. This is ahead of Monsanto and the International Rice Genome Consortium, Nature 409 (2001), 551, 752. However the Syngenta sequence is released through contracts, however they have said they will release data to improve production for farming without royalties or technology fees. The Golden Rice project, to allow vitamin A _€enhanced rice to be given to world farmer's has started with the rice variety being given to the International Rice Institute in the Philippines, Nature 409 (2001), 551.

Discussion of the significance of the Arabidopsis genome sequence is in NatGen 27 (2001), 3-5. Mildew resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana is mediated by two genes, RPW8, Science 291 (2001), 118-20. Overexpression of the Bt cry2Aa2 operon in chloroplasts leads to formation of insecticidal crystals, NatBio 19 (2001), 71-4. Japanese researchers have identified the gene that makes natto sticky and hope that they can modify the stickiness by engineering its expression, Nature 409 (2001), 553.

The iron absorption from a GM low phytate maize (LPM) increased by 50%, Am. J. Clin. Nutrition (2001); AgraFood Biotech 48 (7 Feb. 2001), 18. Expression of wheat purpindoline genes in transgenic rice enhances grain softness, NatBio 19 (2001), 162-6. The question of whether plant biotechnology will help farmers in poor countries is discussed in NatBio 19 (2001), 93. The book Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems: AgroEcosystems (CIAGR) claims that farming is destroying ecosystems, Nature 409 (2001), 969. Wine makers are discussing GM yeasts as well as grapes, AgraFood Biotech 48 (7 Feb. 2001), 6-7. The European Commission is discussing how to cover vegetatively propagated crops like GM vines, NatBio 19 (Jan 2001)..

China is constructing its first transgenic botanical pharmaceutical plant producing hepatitis B vaccine and interferon, AgraFood Biotech 47 (24 Jan. 2001), 5. The xylem may direct water where it is needed, Science 291 (2001), 571-2. A summary of the Fourth International Fructan Symposium is Trends in Plant Science 6 (2001), 8-9.

Genetic Engineering of Animals

The paper reporting GM monkeys is Chan, AWS. Et al. "Transgenic monkeys produced by retroviral gene transfer into mature oocytes", Science 291 (2001), 226, 309-12; NatBio 19 (2001), 99; NS (20 Jan. 2001), 3, 6. Technology has developed a sorting procedure for embryos, Furlong, EEM. Et al. "Automated sorting of live transgenic embryos", NatBio 19 (2001), 153-6. A growth hormone transgene has been found that boosts the size of wild fish but not domesticated trout, Nature 409 (2001), 781-2.

PPL Therapeutics has formed a joint venture with a New Zealand backed company Celentis to develop drugs from the milk of cloned cattle, AgBiotech Reporter (Jan. 2001), 7. The Roslin Institute has announced production of chickens whose eggs contain anti-cancer pharmaceuticals, AgBiotech Reporter (Jan. 2001), 24. Genzyme is developing goats which produce Immunogen's patented humanized monoclonal antibody huN901 in their milk, AgBiotech Reporter (Jan. 2001), 7.

A report from the short-lived cloned gaur (lived two days) is Science 291 (2001), 409; SA (March 2001), 7. Researchers are trying again. The problems in the heath of clones may be due to loss of some methyl groups, NS (3 Feb. 2001), 7. Genetic studies have found widespread origins of domestic horse lineages, meaning horse has been domesticated multiple times, Science 291 (2001), 412, 474-7.

Lysostaphin expression in mouse mammary glands gave protection against staphylococcal infection, NatBio 19 (2001), 66-9. Smart mice that were genetically engineered appear to be more sensitive to pain, NS (3 Feb. 2001), 6; Lancet 357 (2001), 367. This is because the forebrain N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that are important in learning and memory also mediate responses to chronic pain.

There may be a successful vaccine against Alzheimer's disease, if mouse studies are correct, Nature 408 (2000), 979-84; BMJ 322 (2001), 9. A study on transgenic mice suggests TNF-alpha is not the cause of fatty liver disease in obese diabetic mice, NatMed. 7 (2001), 2-3. A summary of lessons in immunotherapy of human cancer from mice is Nature Immunology 1 (2000), 363-6. Impaired prostrate tumorigenesis is shown in Egr1-defienct mice, NatMed. 7 (2001), 101-5; and on the use of knockout mice in endometriosis studies, F&S 75 (2001), 203-6. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in neonatal rat CIA models has been shown by CDK inhibitors, Science 291 (2001), 134-7. In vivo studies of the ticking of a mouse clock gene are reported in Nature 409 (2001), 684. On progress in creating a mutant mouse archive, Nature 409 (2001), 967.

Biotechnology & the Public

A discussion of the precautionary principle is SA (Jan. 2001), 12-3. A study on risk and uncertainty in health issues among First Nation people in Ontario, Canada is SSM 52 (2001), 635-50. The risks of death from volcanoes are reviewed in Science 291 (2001), 255. One additional cause of death is from toxic gasses, Nature 409 (2001), 554-5.

A review is Polkinghorne, JC. "Ethical issues in biotechnology", TIBTECH 18 (2000), 8-10. A French public opinion study suggests two thirds of consumers would not be against buying GM food if they were clearly labeled, AgBiotech Reporter (Jan, 2001), 18. A UK study of farmers suggests alternatives to GM are being tried, NS (3 Feb. 2001), 3. The EC PABE study using focus groups in several countries suggests an informed public in Europe, NatBio 19 (2001), 16-7. On the future of human inventiveness, NS (20 Jan. 2001), 26-9; Nature 409 (2001), 563. On the future of biotech regulation in the USA, NatBio 19 (2001), 91.

Evolution is now being taught again in Kansas schools, Nature 409 (2001), 975. On US math education, Science 291 (2001), 808.

Regulation & Field Trials of GMOs

Site_€specific DNA excision of transgenes in plants is discussed in NatBio 19 (2001), 115-6, 157-61. On GM crop data, NatBio 19 (2001), 3.

The UK has announced sites for transgenic crop trials, Nature 409 (2001), 753. A report that found releasing transgenic crops in natural habitats did not result in their survival is Nature 409 (2001), 682-3. On the use of GM crops in poor countries, NatBio 19 (2001), 93. On the alternatives for sustainable agriculture in Africa, NS (Jan. 2001), 16-7. India has supported use of the GM Golden Rice (see Plant Genetic Engineering Section), but it is controversial, BMJ 322 (2001), 126. GM poplars have been developed that grow well in saline soils, AgraFood Biotech 47 (24 Jan. 2001), 20.

The European Parliament voted through reforms in the approvals process for GMOs, AgraEurope (16 Feb. 2001), 4; Nature 409 (2001), 967-8. However, France, Italy, Austria, Denmark, Greece and Luxembourg have said that they want additional laws on tracking of food to be introduced before they remove their block on GMOs, Financial Times (16 Feb, 2001). The EU Greens want to have GM free zones, AgraFood Biotech. 47 (2001), 2.

A report on the Australian mousepox virus that was accidentally created is BioCentury (5 Feb. 2001), A12; NS (13 Jan. 2001), 3-5. There have been continued calls for monitoring bioterrorism, JAMA 285 (2001), 30-2; NatMed. 7 (2001), 9. China is still exposed to Japanese biological weapons at were released from Unit 731 in World War II, NS (Jan. 2001), 5. For discussion of the ethics of that biowarfare research on human subjects see EJAIB 10 (Nov. 2000), 11 (Jan. 2001).

Vaccines & Diseases

There is still controversy over the use of MMR vaccine, even though most studies have found it safe and it is widely used, BMJ 322 (2001), 82-5, 129, 183-4; Lancet 357 (2001), 290. The right to chose vaccination and risks, NS (13 Jan. 2001), 3; (3 Feb. 2001), 3, 8-11; ; NEJM 344 (2001), 372-3. On polio immunization, NEJM 344 (2001), 61-3; JAMA 285 (2001), 528-9; NatMed. 7 (2001), 131. A report from controversy in the 1901-3 smallpox epidemic in Boston over vaccination is NEJM 344 (2001), 375-9; and on a book review, NatMed. 7 (2001), 15-6. Research on rotavirus vaccine is discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 106-7.

A report from the US on the safety of bovine-derived vaccines is JAMA 285 (2001), 532; BMJ 322 (2001), 128. Despite the FDA requesting companies not to use bovine sources from unsafe countries 4 major companies did, Int. Herald Tribune (9 Feb. 2001). Lessons from routine vaccination and child survival in Guinea-Bissau are discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 360-1. A cholera outbreak in South Africa is reported in BMJ 322 (2001), 71; Lancet 357 (2001), 290. On the global alliance for vaccines, Nature Immunology 1 (2000), 5-8.

A review on Paul Ehrlich's experiments on maternal-fetal transfer of immunity is Nature Immunology 1 (2000), 93-4. Childhood infections do protect against later disease, BMJ 322 (2001), 376-7. In general a book review on Vaccines is JAMA 285 (2001), 95-6; and on childhood diseases, Lancet 357 (2001), 299-301. Vaccination in Australia is reviewed in MJA 174 (2001), 37-40. Electrodermal testing is not good for testing environmental allergens, BMJ 322 (2001), 131-4.

Use of insecticide treated bed nets to prevent malaria is plagued by implementation, BMJ 322 (2001), 249-50, 270-3. A molecular marker for chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria has been reported, NEJM 344 (2001), 257-63. Also on malaria, Science 291 (2001), 24-5, 435-6; NatMed. 7 (2001), 149-50; Nature 409 (2001), 550. A mouthwash component, triclosan, may help treat malaria, BMJ 322 (2001), 316. On Gulf War illness, Science 291 (2001), 812-7.

Amyloid beta vaccination in mice improved cognition in Alzheimer's disease model mice, NatMed. 7 (2001), 18-9; NatBio 19 (2001), 104-5; Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 22 (2001), 2-3. The question why great apes are resistant to dementia is discussed in NS (27 Jan. 2001), 18. Research on infectious links to MS are questioned, JAMA 285 (2001), 279-80. Vaccination does not increase short-term risk in MS, NEJM 344 (2001), 319-26, 327-32. Viruses and human cancers are reviewed in Lancet 357 (2001), 381-4.

Search for a cure for CJD is discussed in Nature 409 (2001), 660-1. UK hospitals are spending 200 million pounds to attempt to prevent spread of vCJD, BMJ 322 (2001), 68. Possibly BSE has been spread across the globe by feed exports, NS (10 Feb. 2001), 3, 10-11; AgraEurope (2 Feb. 2001), 1-2. In Europe at least two million cattle are being burnt to attempt to control BSE. The need for BSE tests is reviewed in Nature 409 (2001), 649, 658-9; NS (27 Jan. 2001), 5. It will be difficult to keep the USA free of BSE, if it really is, Nature 409 (2001), 441-2. On BSE, Lancet 357 (2001), 397-8; JAMA 285 (2001), 397-8; Nature 409 (2001), 549.

On antibiotic resistance caused by overuse in animals, Science 291 (2001), 397.

AIDS & Sexually Transmitted Diseases

The question of what can be achieved by an HIV vaccine is asked in Lancet 357 (2001), 223-4; Economist (3 Feb. 2001), 96; AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 16 (2000), 1453-61; Science 291 (2001), 229; SA (Feb. 2001), 74-5. Live bacteria may help fight off viruses, NS (3 Feb. 2001), 18. Thalidomide is being used to treat some AIDS wasting, AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 16 (2000), 1345-55.

The Gates Foundation is giving US$100 million to HIV vaccine research, Science 291 (2001), 811. A report on defects in HIV genes from pediatric long-term survivors is AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 16 (2000), 1855-68. On voluntary counseling for HIV-1, Lancet 357 (2001), 144-5. The psychosocial impact of Chlamydia trachomatis are discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 195-9. A paper looking at results of attitude surveys in Asia is Kato, M. & Macer, D. "Metaphors of AIDS from around Asia", IJB 11 (Sept. 2000), 201-18.

A book review of AIDS Doctors is NEJM 344 (2001), 313-4; and on L. Montagnier, Virus, is JAMA 285 (2001), 657-8. On HIV prevention, Science 291 (2001), 45-6; AIDS 14 (2000), Supplement 2; S1-97. It is important to get an accurate HIV estimate for control, and a study in sub-Saharan Africa suggests HIV is 35-65% prevalent in women without much contraceptive use, AIDS 14 (2000), 2741-50. On the AIDS disaster in Africa, Nature Immunology 1 (2000), 263, 267-70. High risk behaviour is still common in infected persons, AIDS 14 (2000), 297-301, 303-7; and HIV rates in San Francisco are increasing again, BMJ 322 (2001), 260. Overland heroin export routes are associated with HIV-1 spread in south Asia, AIDS 14 (2000), 75-83. On alcohol and HIV, AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 16 (2000), 1197-207. Social and political issues of AIDS are discussed in 4 papers in a Supplement to AIDS 14 (2000), S235-284. This includes a paper, Garcia-Moreno, C. & Watts, C. "Violence against women: its importance for HIV/AIDS", AIDS 14 (2000), S253-65. On the need for developing culturally sensitive AIDS prevention strategies in Africa, SSM 52 (2001), 509-18. On male homosexuality and HIV in India, SSM 52 (2001), 707-21.

An Indian drug company, Cipla, has said it can supply AIDS drugs to the developing world at less than one-twentieth of the cost in Western countries, Nature 409 (2001), 751. A call by the WHO director, GH. Bruntland, for cheap AIDS drugs is Int. Herald Tribune (14 Feb. 2001). On the impact of HIV on children in Africa, AIDS 14 (2000), Supplement 3, S275-85. Description of the Thai Red Cross zidovudine program that reduced vertical transmission is AIDS 14 (2000), 2921-7. On shortened regimens of zidovudine, NEJM 344 (2001), 307. A survey in the USA found that new mothers did not know enough about vertical HIV transmission, O&G. 97 (2001), 70-6. Parental care is discussed in Nursing Research 50 (2001), 5-9. The drug lamivudine may cross the maternal-fetal barrier when given to women for HIV control, Am. J.O.&G. 184 (2001), 153-8.

On mother-child transmission of hepatitis C, Lancet 357 (2001), 141-3. A series of 7 papers on hepatitis C are in AJPH 91 (2001), 21-48. The US CDC has announced rates for Gonorrhea are increasing but syphilis is decreasing, JAMA 285 (2001), 155.

Microbes & Pollution Remedies

Recycling of agricultural wastes by white rot fungi for fodder production in ruminants is discussed in AgroFood Industry Hi-Tech (Nov. 2000), 11, 30-2. Intrinsic bioremediation of tetrachloroethane and trichloroethene is reported from Dover Air Base in EST 35 (2001), 261-9.

Environmental Issues

A general review on environmental challenges, EST 35 (2001), 75-9A. Denmark has banned use of lead in buildings, EST 35 (2001), 63A. On mercury in the Everglades, EST 35 (2001), 59-60A. The role of chemists in developing a sustainable future is discussed in Science 291 (2001), 48-9. Papers discussing the greening of engineers in different cultures are in Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (2001), 105-46. A brief review of Indian environmental laws is AIBA Newslink 4 (Feb. 2001), 1-3. A series of papers on whether humanity should self-destruct is in Politics and the Life Sciences 18 (1999), 201-284.

The potential global cost of global warming may be US$300 billion according to a UNEP report, Nature 409 (2001), 657; NS (27 Jan. 2001), 5; Science 291 (2001), 566. In general on climate change, Science 291 (2001), 58-9. Wave power has become commercial in Scotland, EST 35 (2001), 80-1A. Use of biomass to produce ethanol is discussed in NS (20 Jan. 2001). Particulate emission from biomass burning is reported in Nature 409 (2001), 998. Much of the hydrocarbon pollution from cars is released when the engine is cold, so a new method is being developed to prevent this, NS (Jan. 2001), 15. Australia is using a test for diesel pollution, EST 35 (2001), 61-2A. Smogs are predicted to get worse, with ozone, according to the IPCC report, NS (3 Feb. 2001), 19; Nature 409 (2001), 671-2. On aerosols, EST 35 (2001), 83A.

The US is about to ban the fuel additive MTBE, and ethanol could be a replacement, NS (20 Jan. 2001), 12-3. A series of papers on protecting water are in SA 284 (Feb. 2001), 26-41; also EST 35 (2001), 66-73A. The 3M corporation has stopped making a fluorinated chemical used in Scotchgard fabric protector found to be widely dispersed as pollution, SA (March 2001), 11-2. On ski field related pollution in the US, EST 35 (2001), 60-1A. Plastic pellets in the ocean absorb toxic pollutants, and when sea animals ingest them they are exposed to he concentrated levels, NS (Jan. 2001), 18.

The UK and US governments are claiming that depleted uranium is safe, NS (20 Jan. 2001), 3-5; BMJ 322 (2001), 123-4; Lancet 357 (2001), 244-5. However UK veterans from the Gulf war will be screened for uranium exposure, BMJ 322 (2001), 130. There is an investigation into a low level plutonium haul in Greece, Nature 409 (2001), 653.

Biodiversity

The use of dogs to help in conservation is reported in Science 291 (2001), 435. Studies in the Arctic suggest already some species are suffering from climate warming, Science 291 (2001), 424-5. On ethical issues in the Kankakee wetlands, Politics and the Life Sciences 18 (1999), 191-200.

A study that found small funding increases can enhance biodiversity conservation in parks is Bruner, AG. Et al. "Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity", Science 291 (2001), 125-8. On tropical forest biodiversity, Science 291 (2001), 606-7; and controversy over the Advance Brazil project which may destroy one quarter of the rain forest, NS (27 Jan. 2001), 10. Searching for aliens is reviewed in Nature 409 (2001), 1080-2. Studies on the scale dependence of plant biodiversity are reviewed in Science 291 (2001), 864-8. In general, Nature 409 (2001), 992-3.

Cod stocks in the North Sea may be beyond point of recovery, and a total ban has bee suggested, NS (Jan. 2001), 16-7. The US has been urged to built up marine reserves, Nature 409 (2001), 971. Intensive fish farming can destroy marine ecosystems, Nature 409 (2001), 972.

Animal Rights

The ethics of animal biotechnology are discussed in Salvi, M. "Transforming animal species: the case of Oncomouse", Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (2001), 15-28. He looks at why people make a difference between animals and human germ-line engineering. A letter from FASEB to say that their opposition to proposed changes in the USDA animal law is not a lack of concern about animals is Nature 409 (2001), 977. The need for a middle ground in animal experiments is discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 244, 248-9; Nature Immunology 1 (2000), 359; NS (27 Jan. 2001), 3. A report from the attacks on Huntingdon Life Sciences because of their animal tests is Nature 409 (2001), 429; NS (27 Jan. 2001), 3. A call to reduce ship speeds to 14 knots to lower the whale mortality rate caused by ship collisions is NS (27 Jan. 2001), 14. Also on the Right whale, Science 291 (2001), 429.

The ability to empathize with others may be in the right prefrontal cortex, Lancet 357 (2001), 366; Brain 124 (2001), 279-86. The process of assigning objects to categories is studied in primate research in Science 291 (2001), 260-2, 312-5. On the evolution of universal grammar, Science 291 (2001), 114-7. Autonomous mental development in robots and animals is discussed in Science 291 (2001), 599-600.

A report from the Japanese chimpanzee genome project is Nature 409 (2001), 651-2. A book review on the chimpanzee world view is Science 291 (2001), 440-1. A review is Whiten, A. & Boesch, C. "The cultures of chimpanzees", SA (Jan. 2001), 48-55. On altruism in baboons, NS (27 Jan. 2001), 19.

Safety of Recombinant DNA Products

Inhaled insulin has been tested with some positive results, Lancet 357 (2001), 324-5, 331-5. A review on diabetes is JAMA 285 (2001), 628-32. Improved glycemic control saves health care costs, JAMA 285 (2001), 182-9. Combination of ribavirin and interferon may be useful for treating those patients with hepatitis C that do not respond to interferon alone, JAMA 285 (2001), 193-9. On anti-inflammatory drugs, Science 291 (2001), 581-2.

Biotechnology developments in obesity are reviewed in NatBio 19 (2001), 25-28.

Food safety

A paper in French on GM food and allergies is La Recherche 339 (Feb. 2001), 87-9. The EU has pledged that tracking GMs will be low cost, AgraEurope (16 Feb. 2001), 5. In Japan at the Scientific Feed Association scientists have said that there is no sign of modified DNA or proteins in chickens fed Starlink GM corn, Nature 409 (2001), 657. On the EPA and Starlink, AgBiotech Reporter (Jan. 2001), 1-2; NatBio 19 (2001), 11; Splice 7 (Nov. 2000), 4-5. The American Medical Association has released a report saying that there are no long-term health effects from GM foods to date, (Dec. 2000); Plant Biotech Week (3 Feb. 2001), 5-8. China may export the world's first Bt rice, AgBiotech Reporter (Jan. 2001), 19. A book review of McHughen. A. Pandora's Picnic Basket: The Potential and Hazards of Genetically Modified Foods (Oxford Univ. Press 2000, 277pp.) is Nature 409 (2001), 559-60. A review of the global imports of GM food and agrobusiness is Goldberg, RA. "The food wars: A potential peace", JLME 28 (Winter 2000), Special Supplement, 39-45. One Islamic view on GM food is Splice 7 (Nov. 2000), 6-7.

Greenpeace has said that it will not halt trials of GM Golden Rice, Independent (10 Feb. 2001); Nature 409 (2001), 551. Developing countries need more food, that GM promises, Tomorrow (Jan. 2001), 20-2. Many US food associations are concerned about proposed Mexican rules on labeling of GM food, Food Chemical News 42 (12 Feb. 2001), 29. Labeling has the potential to increase costs in Canada by 10%, AgraFood Biotech 47 (24 Jan. 2001), 5. In Canada there are calls for tighter controls on transgenic foods, Nature 409 (2001), 749. There may also be tougher rules after a joint UK/US expert group, NatBio 19 (2001), 106. Plans for GM bread are discussed in AgraFood Biotech 47 (24 Jan. 2001), 5. On GM baby food, Plant Biotech Week (20 Jan. 2001), 2.

Management of peanut and nut allergies is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 87-8, 111-5. Children in Tibet have widespread malnutrition, NEJM 344 (2001), 373-4; as are some old disabled women in the USA, AJPH 91 (2001), 68-75. In many places in the world however widespread television and computer game playing are resulting in an obesity epidemic, BMJ 322 (2001), 313-4. On future research to control obesity, NatBio 19 (2001), 25-8. A survey by the UK Food Standards Authority (5 Feb. 2001) found that 14% of the respondents have had at least one case of food poisoning over the past year. Cholesterol reduction may not reduce mortality except for diseases, BMJ 322 (2001), 11-5.

A call to tax foods based on the production costs is NS (27 Jan. 2001), 8. A book review on The Future of Food is BMJ 322 (2001), 115. Citrus foods may have some discussed in NatMed. 7 (2001), 29-30. Use of dietary supplements and reasons why women use them in the UK are reported in SSM 52 (2001), 621-33. Intake of fish reduces risk of stroke in women, JAMA 285 (2001), 304-12.

Disease Risks & Drugs

Low dose aspirin helps prevent heart attacks, Lancet 357 (2001), 89-95. The UK NICE has approved widespread use of 3 drugs for Alzheimer's disease, BMJ 322 (2001), 190. Research into complementary and mainstream medicine is discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 154-8, 161-4; and on regulation, BMJ 322 (2001), 158-60. The FDA has been acting against some web-based pharmacies, NatMed. 7 (2001), 6. Ginkgo biloba does not appear to be useful for treating tinnitus, BMJ 322 (2001), 73-5. Acupuncture is reviewed in Nature 409 (2001), 560-1. The system by which the liver copes with toxins is discussed in Science 291 (2001), 35-7. In general on public health, BMJ 322 (2001), 184-5; NatMed. 7 (2001), 15.

Socioeconomic status is associated with type 2 diabetes in women, AJPH 91 (2001), 76-83. A letter on near-work and myopia in young children is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 390. The drug methylphenidate used in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder works by increasing dopamine levels, BMJ 322 (2001), 259. A book on the health effects of alcohol has been criticized for not acknowledging that it was financed by the alcohol industry, BMJ 322 (2001), 319. A US study suggests less people progressed to hard drugs than predicted earlier from marijuana use, AJPH 91 (2001), 225-32.

A book review of Adonis Complex: The Secret of Male Body Obsession is NEJM 344 (2001), 146-7. A book review on Masculinity and Femininity is SSM 52 (2001), 653. A psychological benefit can be seen in women who use prophylactic mastectomy, BMJ 322 (2001), 76-9. Letters on breast conserving surgery are in Lancet 357 (2001), 305. A call to reduce speeds in urban areas to 20mph is in BMJ 322 (2001), 50-1. It is better to stay sober on flights to avoid blood clots, NS (13 Jan. 2001), 7; BMJ 322 (2001), 188. The question of what is a disease is discussed with the idea of post-traumatic stress disorder, BMJ 322 (2001), 95-8. On mental stress at work, SSM 52 (2001), 499-507; AJPH 91 (2001), 270-6. Use of 1,4-butanediol is associated with adverse health effects, NEJM 344 (2001), 87-94; as is coal mining, JAMA 285 (2001), 339-40.

Injuries kill over 20,000 children a year in developed countries alone, BMJ 322 (2001), 317. A Rhode Island study has found that car seat laws save lives, AJPH 91 (2001), 311-3. On the apparent lack of health effects of cellular telephones, NEJM 344 (2001), 79-86, 133-4. Radiation overdose is common in CT scans of children, Lancet 357 (2001), 285. On tobacco companies methods to lure smokers, BMJ 322 (2001), 237-7.

A call for an International Agreement on tobacco control is made in AJPH 91 (2001), 191-3. The WHO draft international treaty has no ban on sponsorship or advertising, Lancet 357 (2001), 370; and on model societies to predict the rise of tobacco use, AJPH 91 (2001), 206-12. There has been renewed debate on tobacco control in Europe, NatMed. 7 (2001), 5, 13-4; BMJ 322 (2001), 7. There is often inadvertent tobacco advertising in Physician's offices, JAMA 285 (2001), 43-44. Genomic studies on addiction are discussed in Nature 409 (2001), 834-7. Despite better knowledge, smoking in pregnancy has not decreased in Finland in the past decade, AJPH 91 (2001), 284-6. About 20% of 8th grade students in Buenos Aires are smoking, AJPH 91 (2001), 219-24. Behavioral counseling for fat intake, smoking and activity can be useful, AJPH 91 (2001), 265-9. Passive smoking increases risk of periodontal disease, AJPH 91 (2001), 253-7.

Patenting & Business

The appeals board of the European patent office has confirmed the validity of two plant patents, on the Flavr Savr tomato (Monsanto), and on a herbicide resistant plant (AgrEvo), Nature 409 (2001), 752. In the year 2000 the EPO announced that its 4 year moratorium on granting plant patents is over, Nature 403 (2000), 3. There have moves to stop any gene patents in Ethiopia and Africa, NS (Jan. 2001), 39-41. A survey on UK researchers patenting of genes is Times Higher Education Supplement (16 Feb. 2001). In general on gene patents, Nature 409 (2001), 763-4; NatBio 19 (2001), 175-7. Patenting of genes is discussed in Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (2001), 3-6; Resnik, DB. "DNA patents and scientific discovery and innovation: Assessing benefits and risks", Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (2001), 29-62. On the market for human body parts, a book review of Body Bazaar is SA (March. 2001), 74-5.

On the future of medical research, JAMA 285 (2001), 533-4. Because the period of patent protection on many biotech proteins is ending, biogenerics is expected to be a large market and reduce the costs, NatBio 19 (2001), 117-20. On the biotech industry in China, GEN 21 (1 Feb. 2001), 10, 16; NatBio 19 (Jan 2001); and on patenting biotech. inventions in China, NatBio 19 (2001), 83-5. Science is one way out of poverty, Nature 409 (2001), 662. The Indian Biotechnology Association has blamed regulations for stiffling growth of the industry there, NatBio 19 (2001), 105-6. Bioinformatics in Japan are reviewed in NatBio 19 (2001), 107-8. A new superagency regulates science in Japan, Science 291 (2001), 29. GeneMedix sets sights on Southeast Asia, NatBio 19 (2001), 12. On Australian medical research over the past 50 years, MJA 174 (2001), 29-32.

The question of gifts and free meals from the pharmaceutical industry is discussed in JAMA 285 (2001), 164-6. A list of doctors who have pledged to be free of free lunches or gifts is being publicised, www.nofreelunch.org, BMJ 322 (2001), 69. World trade rules may be linked to cheaper drugs, Lancet 357 (2001), 243. The Framingham study data deal has collapsed, showing how difficult arrangements between private and public research is, NatBio 19 (2001), 103. In general on collaborative conflicts, Nature Immunology 1 (2000), 449. On university-industry partnership, Science 291 (2001), 553. Release of data is being debated with the Science journal acceptance of publishing Celera's genome results with restrictions on the use of the data, Science 291 (2001), 789.

Birth Control

A study in China is Doherty, JP. Et al. "China's one child policy: the economic choices and consequences faced by pregnant women", SSM 52 (2001), 745-61. Overpopulation is a health challenge, JAMA 285 (2001), 411; as well as an environmental one, Science 291 (2001), 671. The difficulties of obtaining a proper US census result are discussed in Science 291 (2001), 209.

Improving access to emergency contraception has been accomplished by pharmacy sales, BMJ 322 (2001), 186-7. Internet contraceptives are often expensive, O&G. 97 (2001), 121-6. On the health risks of oral contraceptives, JAMA 285 (2001), 39-40; and estrogen and breast cancer, NEJM 344 (2001), 276-85. A general review on reproductive health is JAMA 285 (2001), 633-9.

A UK doctor has been struck off the medical register for agreeing to perform female circumcision, BMJ 322 (2001), 9. The Kenyan situation is up to judges discretion rather than being illegal, Lancet 357 (2001), 371. The female condom is a sign of female empowerment, SSM 52 (2001), 783-96. On the illusion of female control of sexuality, SSM 52 (2001), 585-98.

Embryo Status

There have been tougher positions on abortion from the new US president, Bush, and the Republicans. A story of an alleged abortion supported by Bush is in Probe VII (1 Feb. 2001), 1, 4-5. On the use of RU486 in the USA, Probe VII (1 Feb. 2001), 6-7. The use of mifepristone abortion in rural India is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 120-1. On early medical abortion with methotrexate and misoprostol, O&G 97 (2001), 11-6.

A legal review is Annas, GJ., "Partial-birth abortion and the Supreme Court", NEJM 344 (2001), 152-6. On abortion and assent, CQHE 10 (2001), 79-87. Further on separation of conjoined twins is Lancet 357 (2001), 149.

Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

Further on the UK positive support for stem cell research, Lancet 356 (2000), 329-30; BMJ 322 (2001), 7, 189; Science 291 (2001), 23. An international group of scientists has announced a cloning clinic in the USA, BMJ 322 (2001), 315; Science 291 (2 Feb. 2001). As reported in EJAIB 11 (2001), 2; the Japanese law on cloning bans implantation for pregnancy but allows research, Science 291 (2001), 1872-3. The situation in the USA is unclear, NS (20 Jan. 2001), 17. In general on cloning, NatGen 27 (2001), 15

Presentation of IVF results is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 397. The future of reproductive technology is discussed in NS (3 Feb. 2001), 48; JAMA 285 (2001), 656-7. Discussion of the problem of multiple pregnancies is in F&S 75 (2001), 11-7. The birth of infants from HIV-1 seropositive men after ICSI is reported in F&S 75 (2001), 210-2. On ICSI in general, F&S 75 (2001), 342-7. Natural cycle IVF should be used more frequently, BMJ 322 (2001), 318.

The structure of the Y chromosome may be related to why male infertility occurs, SA (Feb. 2001), 42-7. There is a need for further research, MJA 174 (2001), 116-7. There is a possible link between blastocyst transfer and monozygotic twinning, F&S 75 (2001), 217-9. A review on the maturation of human oocytes in vitro is Reproduction 121 (2001), 51-75. Male age may not affect sperm concentration but volume and sperm motility, F&S 75 (2001), 237-48. On sex ratio and donor insemination, F&S 75 (2001), 219-21. Health of children born after controlled ovarian stimulation is reviewed in F&S 75 (2001), 18-22. Methods to treat menorrhagia are discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 273-7.

Fetal Environment & Neonates

A study showing that prenatal care is appreciated among African-American women, despite their current lower use of the services, in the USA, AJPH 91 (2001), 105-11. Use of misoprostol in pregnancy is discussed in NEJM 344 (2001), 59-60. A book review of Fetology is in NEJM 344 (2001), 236-7; and on habituation technique in fetal behaviour, Lancet 357 (2001), 328-9. Maternal smoking alters fetal biochemistry, O&G 97 (2001), 57-61. Fetal origins of adult disease are discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 405. A study of substance abuse in pregnancy in California is SSM 52 (2001), 571-83. Use of non-steriodal antiinflammatory drugs in pregnancy has some higher risk of miscarriage, but not a risk of adverse birth outcome, BMJ 322 (2001), 266-70.

Reflections on neonatal care from the French National Ethics Committee are in Les Cahiers 26 (Jan. 2001), 3-9. Very early use of dexamathasone treatment is not recommended, NEJM 344 (2001), 95-101. Heart monitoring in newborns may detect infections in newborns, BMJ 322 (2001), 70. Pediatric care in developing countries is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 86-7. On US mental health agenda, JAMA 285 (2001), 398-9. The American Academy of Pediatrics has called for entertainment to have a minimal impact on children, JAMA 285 (2001), 27-8. A call for reeducation of children who murder is BMJ 322 (2001), 61-2. On treatment for child hyperactivity (ADHD), JAMA 285 (2001), 60-6; Science 291 (2001), 595.

A breast feeding study in Belarus is reported in JAMA 285 (2001), 413-20, 463-4. On global breast feeding policy, BMJ 322 (2001), 191. Prevalence of obesity in British children from 1974 to 1998 is reviewed in BMJ 322 (2001), 24-6, 326-8. A study of the 1946 birth cohort found birth weight was associated with cognitive function, BMJ 322 (2001), 199-203.

Genetic Disease Markers

The gene FOXL2 may be linked to premature ovarian failure, Nature 409 (2001), 159-66; Lancet 357 (2001), 367. Mutations in a circadian rhythm clock gene in humans may cause familial advanced sleep syndrome, Science 291 (2001), 226-7. Polymorphisms in Factor VII gene and the risk of myocardial infarction are discussed in NEJM 344 (2001), 458-9; and polymorphisms in growth factor-beta1 gene and bone mineral density, JAMA 285 (2001), 167-8. On the genetics of hemostasis, Lancet 357 (2001), 83-4, 101-5. A sodium channel mutation causes isolated cardiac conduction disease, Nature 409 (2001), 1043-7. Diabetes is discussed in Nature 409 (2001), 672-3. Resistin is a hormone linking obesity with type 2 diabetes, BMJ 322 (2001), 193.

On cancer and genomics, Nature 409 (2001), 850-2; and human disease genes, Nature 409 (2001), 853-5. There is variation in cancer risks by mutation position in BRCA2 carriers, AJHG 68 (2001), 410-9. There are racial trends in age-specific breast cancer in US women, AJPH 91 (2001), 118-21. A review on the genetics of schizophrenia is AJHG 68 (2001), 299-312. Wild-type Huntingtin reduces the cellular toxicity of mutant Huntingtin, AJHG 68 (2001), 313-24.

Some proteins are encoded by both strains, Nature 409 (2001), 1000. On the splicing of exons, NatGen 27 (2001), 1-2. Point mutations are reviewed in NatGen. 27 (2001), 5-6. A genomics approach to study silent mutations is reviewed in NatBio 19 (2001), 45-50. Loss of genomic methylation causes p53-dependent apoptosis, NatGen. 27 (2001), 31-9. Regulatory elements on the eukaryotic genome are reviewed in Science 291 (2001), 447-50. Dominant effector genetics in mammalian cells are reviewed in NatGen. 27 (2001), 23-9. The Hardy Weinberg law is still working, Nature 409 (2001), 771. On selfish DNA and the origin of genes, Science 291 (12 Jan. 2001). On consanguinity and congenital heart disease in Saudi Arabia, AJMG 99 (2001), 8-13.

Genetic Screening Methodology

A DNA mutation scanning tool is announced in NatBio 19 (2001), 18-9. Microarrays are discussed in The Scientist 15 (5 Feb. 2001), 16+; SA (Feb. 2001), 23-4. On genomics based diagnosis, Lancet 357 (2001), 249-50. It will require greater informational power, Nature 409 (2001), 758-60. In general on advances in biomedical engineering, JAMA 285 (2001), 556-61.

Diabetes screening is discussed in MJA 174 (2001), 113-4, 118-21. A study of Tay Sachs screening in Ashkenazi Jews found DNA testing was preferred, AJMG 99 (2001), 70-5. Scientists have discovered a possible test for schizophrenia, BMJ 322 (2001), 192.

FISH can be used to assess the chromosomal status of embryos, F&S 75 (2001), 354-60. A series of papers on preimplantation diagnosis are in Prenatal Diagnosis 20 (2000), 1029-1071. They include use for ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, translocation carriers, and other mutations.

DNA Fingerprinting & Privacy

Preemployment
medical tests are discussed in Behm, AR. "The Americans with (or without) Disabilities Act: Pre-employment medical inquiries and the non-disabled", AJLM 26 (2000), 439-52; SA (Jan. 2001), 13-4. The UK case is discussed in The Independent (6 Feb. 2001). On genetic privacy laws, JLME 28 (2001), 245-57. A discussion of the ethics of DNA databanking from criminals in the USA is JLME 28 (2001), 209-23.

Also on medical privacy, Botkin, JR. "Protecting the privacy of family members in survey and pedigree research", JAMA 285 (2001), 207-11; also BMJ 322 (2001), 8; AJLM 26 (2000), 453-74. The question of how to keep patient privacy with electronic records is discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 283-7. The UK Health and Social Care Bill will allow some breaches of patient privacy, BMJ 322 (2001), 256. In general, a book review of Crypto is NS (13 Jan. 2001), 51. A US company is planning to bank human DNA profiles for patients, Science 291 (2001), 575.

Ethics & Genetic Screening

Selected papers from a meeting, Genes and Society: Impact of new technologies on law, medicine, and policy, held 10-12 May, 2000 at the Whitehead Institute for Genomic Research is JLME 28 (Winter 2000), Special Supplement, 64pp. A paper on prenatal tests finding a variety of views is Lewando-Hundt, G. et al. "Knowledge, action and resistance: the selective use of prenatal screening among Bedouin women of the Negev, Israel", SSM 52 (2001), 561-9. A survey of written antenatal screening policies in the UK is BMJ 322 (2001), 22-3. In general on prenatal diagnosis, Lancet 357 (2001), 310-1.

A Dutch survey found 72% of parents use CF screening, Henneman, L. et al. "Attitudes towards reproductive issues and carrier testing among adult patients and parents of children with cystic fibrosis", Prenatal Diagnosis 21 (2001), 1-9. Failure to refer for testing for cystic fibrosis in the UK is considered unethical, BMJ 322 (2001), 310-1. On genetic testing in children, JAMA 285 (2001), 91. Genetic testing in adoption is discussed in University of Illinois at Chicago Dept. Medical Education Bulletin 7 (Winter 2001), 4. A study of how women with a family history of breast cancer and their doctors act regarding genetic advice is BMJ 322 (2001), 26-8.

Tongan genes are being used by an Australian company for genetic research raising questions of population genetics, NatMed. 7 (2001), 8. A series of 21 papers on the HGDP is in Politics and the Life Sciences 18 (1999), 285-40. A book review of Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative Traits is AJHG 68 (2001), 548-9. On genes and music, Science 291 (2001), 52-6; AJMG 98 (2000), 290-2. The future of genetics is discussed in Nature 409 (2001), 981-2; JAMA 285 (2001), 658-9.

Gene Therapy

The FDA has said that the public have a right to see the data on gene therapy and xenotransplantation, Nature 409 (2001), 442; Science 291 (2001), 572-3; Lancet 357 (2001), 292. Some have said that current FDA rules are not practical, NatBio 19 (2001), 5. A report on the problems that led to Jesse Gelsinger's death is NS (Jan. 2001), 8. On the future of human evolution, NS (13 Jan. 2001), 24-8; SA (March 2001), 42-7.

A review of gene and stem cell therapies is JAMA 285 (2001), 545-50; and a book review of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy is NEJM 344 (2001), 463. A review of viral vectors for gene therapy is NatMed. 7 (2001), 33-40. Continuous release of endostatin from microencapsulated engineered cells for tumour therapy is reported in NatBio 19 (2001), 35-9. Local endostatin treatment of gliomas administered by microencapsulated producer cells is reported in NatBio 19 (2001), 29-34.

Human Genome Project (HGP)

The publication of the human genome sequence in 8 February issue of Nature and 16 February issue of Science has seen the debate continue between the public project (in Nature) and the Celera project (in Science), Nature 409 (2001), 745, 747-8, 769; Science 291 (2001), 223-4; NatBio 19 (2001), 1; Lancet 357 (2001), 81. On the publications, Nature 409 (2001), 756-7, 813-955;NatGen. 27 (2001), 127-8; Science 291 (2001), 1153+, 1304-51. They are also on-line.

A general review is Collins, FS. & McKusick, VA. "Implications of human genome project for medical science", JAMA 285 (2001), 540-4. Some ethical issues are discussed in Mauron, A. "Is the genome the secular equivalent of the soul?", Science 291 (2001), 831-2. Also see book reviews of Cracking the Genome in NS (27 Jan. 2001), 46; Nature 409 (2001), 765-6. Postgenomics is called for in NatMed. 7 (2001), 11-3. Genetic information will pose many questions for diagnosis, Lancet 357 (2001), 249-50; JAMA 285 (2001), 551-5. On functional genomics Nature 409 (2001), 571-2.

TIGR has sequenced Theileria parva, that causes East Coast Fever, The Scientist (8 Jan. 2001), 16. A discussion of fish genome projects is NatGen. 27 (2001), 8-9. On the Japanese chimpanzee genome project, Nature 409 (2001), 651-2. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of two extinct Moas are in Nature 409 (2001), 704-7. There is massive gene decay in the leprosy bacillus, Nature 409 (2001), 1007-11. There are some differences between posted and published sequence data, Science 291 (2001), 837. On a full length mouse cDNA collection, Nature 409 (2001), 685-90. On the E.coli 0157 sequence, Lancet 357 (2001), 286.

Indian genomics is being given a further billion rupees, Nature 409 (2001), 973. The Howard Hughes Medical Institute is building a bioinformatics centre, Science 291 (2001), 803. On pharmacotherapeutics, MJA 174 (2001), 48.

In general on genomics, Nature 409 (2001), 545. Ancient DNA studies from a 60,000 year old human remain in Australia have a few questions for the out of Africa theory of human origins, Science 291 (2001), 230-1; NS (13 Jan. 2001), 6.

General Medical Ethics

Four papers (in Japanese) on the roles of contract research organizations in conducting clinical research in Japan are in Clinical Evaluation 28 (2001), 229-54. Catholic ethics methodology is discussed in KIEJ 10 (2001), 353-64. A series of papers on culture and bioethics are in CQHE 10 (2001), 1-78. Caring for Muslim patients is discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 242. A review of the growth of medical ethics in the past 50 years is MJA 174 (2001), 41-4.

A call for integrated modern and traditional medicine is BMJ 322 (2001), 119-20, 121-2. There may need to be more tolerance for ambiguity, JAMA 285 (2001), 88. Many physicians regret that they cannot spend so much time with their patients now, NEJM 344 (2001), 223-5. Promoting well being among doctors is important, BMJ 322 (2001), 252-3. On nurse-doctor triage, Lancet 357 (2001), 323. Predicting patient satisfaction is discussed in SSM 52 (2001), 609-20. A survey of patient perceptions of the capabilities of internists is Am. J. Med. 110 (2001), 111-7. On political correctness, NEJM 344 (2001), 462.

On Aristotle and practical ethics, KIEJ 10 (2001), 287-306, 323-36. On casuistry, KIEJ 10 (2001), 307-22. Balancing autonomy and communitarianism is discussed in KIEJ 10 (2001), 337-52. Discussion of diagnosis of disease is in JAMA 285 (2001), 89-90. On mental distress and health, AJLM 26 (2000), 401-38; BMJ 322 (2001), 2-3; and human healing, BMJ 322 (2001), 120-1; JAMA 285 (2001), 96-7; BMJ 322 (2001), 179. Views of health in history are discussed in JAMA 285 (2001), 94-5.

A questioning of informed consent is Lancet 357 (2001), 149-50. A letter on consent in Bangladesh is NEJM 344 (2001), 460-1. Consent is discussed in NCEHR Communique 10 (Summer 2000), 5-18.Management of patients who deliberately harm themselves is reviewed in BMJ 322 (2001), 213-5. The ethics of a change in policy on Jehovah witnesses refusal of blood in the USA is BMJ 322 (2001), 37-9. Discussion of eth ethics of anthropological research is SA (March 2001), 20-2; Science 291 (2001), 416-21. The development of empathy is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 153.

A series of papers, mainly in French, on whether bioethics is a language for better understanding is IJB 11 (Sept. 2000), 13-264. Medical education in Australia is reviewed in MJA 174 (2001), 25-8.

Law & Medical Ethics

A series of 6 papers from a Symposium held on Human Subjects Research and the Role of Institutional Review Boards _€ Conflicts and Challenges, is JLME 28 (Winter 2000), 329-404. Three papers (in Japanese) on IRBs in conducting clinical research in Japan are in Clinical Evaluation 28 (2001), 298-310. Questions on what happens in failed clinical trials are discussed in MJA 174 (2001), 144-6; JAMA 285 (2001), 437-43. Bogus enrolment in clinical trials is also occurring, JAMA 285 (2001), 293. A call to strengthen the Declaration of Helsinki is BMJ 322 (2001), 299-300. The FDA is uneasy about the placebo provision in the Helsinki Declaration, NatMed. 7 (2001), 7. The US Dept. Health and Human Services has announced tighter controls for drug trials in developing countries, Nature 409 (2001), 547. The Nigerian government is investigating allegations of unethical drug trials by Pfizer, Lancet 357 (2001), 129; BMJ 322 (2001), 194. A study of African-American views on the Tuskegee syphilis study is SSM 52 (2001), 797-808.

Lessons from the Harold Shipman murder case are discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 82-3, 123-4; BMJ 322 (2001), 67. A Japanese nurse has also been involved in murders, Lancet 357 (2001), 127. The UK has announced a National Clinical Assessment Authority to monitor performance of doctors, BMJ 322 (2001), 66; also p. 127. Monitoring physicians performance is also important in regular cases too, as seen in the Alder Hey Hospital case in Liverpool, UK, where children's dead bodies had organs removed without consent, BMJ 322 (2001), 255, 309-10, 320. On the UK GMC, BMJ 322 (2001), 258, 358-60.

Preventing medical errors and malpractice are discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 247-8, 257; NEJM 344 (2001), 389-90; Lancet 357 (2001), 128. The US company HCA has agreed to pay US$840 million in fines in a health fraud case in the USA, BMJ 322 (2001), 10. A report from North Korea suggests many unethical practices, and also poverty, Lancet 357 (2001), 289.

Scientific Ethics

Suppression of scientific research is discussed in Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (2001), 77-104. On research ethics in general, Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (2001), 147-52. Gender discrimination in Japanese academia is discussed in Science 291 (2001), 817-8; and in the USA, Science 291 (2001), 806; NatMed. 7 (2001), 7. A Japanese case of archaeological fraud is discussed in Science 291 (2001), 34-5. A penalty for misconduct is discussed in NatMed. 7 (2001), 8. Nature has called for a policy to be developed to give credit for unpublished data, Nature 409 (2001), 649. A discussion of scientific oaths is Nature 409 (2001), 971.

Cheating at medical school is discussed in Rennie, SC. & Crosby, JR. "Are tomorrow doctors honest? Questionnaire study exploring medical students attitudes and reported behaviour on academic misconduct", BMJ 322 (2001), 274-5; 250-1; 296-9. The Croatian Medical Journal 42 (2001), 7-13; has declared their interest in study of research integrity.

Euthanasia & Terminal Care

There is a call for euthanasia to be legal in Belgium, Lancet 357 (2001), 372. On euthanasia, Long, SO. "Ancestors, computers, and other mixed messages: Ambiguity and euthanasia in Japan", CQHE 10 (2001), 62-71.

Pain management is discussed in CQHE 10 (2001), 88-96; BMJ 322 (2001), 234-5. On DNR orders, BMJ 322 (2001), 102-6. Bioethics at the end of life is discussed in JLME 28 (2001), 267-286; CQHE 10 (2001), 103-9; and in Italian in Bioetica e Cultura X (2000), 153-98..

Organ Transplants & Brain Death

On the re-definition of death and Western bioethics, Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (2001), 63-76. On the diagnosis and manaegment of persons in PVS, BMJ 322 (2001), 352-4.

There is some problems of trust in the UK after the Alder Hey hospital retention of children's organs, Lancet 357 (2001), 328; Nature 409 (2001), 655. The UK law is changing on organ retention, BMJ 322 (2001), 125. Overall there seem to be 105,000 body parts retained in the UK, Lancet 357 (2001), 365. On consent process, JAMA 285 (2001), 329-33. A patient's view on waiting for an organ is in BMJ 322 (2001), 293-5. A general review on the future of organ replacement is JAMA 285 (2001), 573-6. The ethics and law of the US system are discussed in Capron, AM. "Re-examining organ transplantation", JAMA 285 (2001), 334-6. Osteoporosis in organ transplant recipients is often neglected, Lancet 357 (2001), 325. A hand transplant case is discussed after one year in NEJM 344 (2001), 65. Publicity for organ donation has been raised by the success of athletes who have received transplants, Lancet 357 (2001), 289.

Use of stem cells for skin and bone is reviewed in SA (Feb. 2001), 11-12; NS (27 Jan. 2001), 7. Prospects for stem cell transplants for treating diabetes are discussed in BMJ 322 (2001), 29-32. Bone marrow transplants may not always be the best way for curing hematologic cancers, NEJM 344 (2001), 175-81. The FDA has said that xenotransplantation studies will have public data, NS (27 Jan. 2001), 6. A book review of Xeno is JAMA 285 (2001), 658.

Health Costs

A call for more honest healthcare rationing in the UK is BMJ 322 (2001), 316. A review of the health care system in Pakistan is AJPH 91 (2001), 13-4, 93-8. The quality of hospital care for seriously ill children in developing countries is reviewed in Lancet 357 (2001), 86, 106-10. On inequity in Brazil, Lancet 357 (2001), 370. Tibetan children face many problems, NEJM 344 (2001), 341-7. WHO has some successes, JAMA 285 (2001), 283. There may always be a shortage of ICU beds so policy is needed, MJA 174 (2001), 114-5. On US medical markets, SSM 52 (2001), 651-2; JAMA 285 (2001), 421-9. Use of data on race is discussed in JAMA 285 (2001), 297-303, 337-8; AJPH 91 (2001), 49-54, 118-21. On Australian health care, MJA 174 (2001), 21-4; and Slovenia, Croatian Medical Journal 42 (2001), 18-23.

On poverty, SA (March 2001), 62-7; and on health and poverty, JAMA 285 (2001), 200-6; SSM 52 (2001), 763-81; BMJ 322 (2001), 254, 334-5; AJPH 91 (2001), 277-83; also on US wealth, SA (Feb. 2001), 18. US doctors can no longer refer patients to organizations in which they have a financial interest, BMJ 322 (2001), 72. A study has found patient visits are not getting shorter in the USA, NEJM 344 (2001), 198-204. In general on health care, BMJ 322 (2001), 222-5, 243.

Internet

On PubMed Central, BMJ 322 (2001), 1-2. Health Internet companies may be difficult to continue, Lancet 357 (2001), 368; but many are using Internet, J. Commercial Biotechnology 7 (2001), 101-3. The quality of information on the Internet is discussed in NatMed. 7 (2001), 1.


Prepared by Darryl Macer
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