Eubios News in Bioethics & Biotechnology - March 2004


Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 14 (2004), 66-76.

Comments are written in text form together with recent references. This list continues from the last issue of EJAIBand will continue. The full list of news (OLD = 1991-1993; NEW = 1994+) is available on-line topic-by-topic, at: http://eubios.info/NBB.html

Abbreviations


Genetic Engineering of Plants

Resistance for potato late blight has been engineered that is race nonspecific, Trends in Plant Science 9 (2004), 5-6. A conditional marker allowing both positive and negative selection in plants has been made, NatBio 22 (2004), 455-8. Genetic variation in plants is discussed in Nature Reviews Genetics 5 (2004), 248. Sequencing of a rice centromere has uncovered active genes, NatGen 36 (2004), 138-45.

California is planning to plant drug-producing GM rice, Nature 428 (2004), 591. Indian scientists have made a salt-resistant rice by GM, Science 303 (2004), 308. A company in New Zealand, trees and Technology, is preparing about 3 million cloned Monterey pine trees for planting next year, NatBio 22 (2004), 261. A review of genetic enhancement of soybean oil for industrial uses is AgBioForum 6 (No.1, 2003), 11-3. The future of biotechnology in soybeaNS is reviewed in AgBioForum 6 (No.1, 2003), 8-10. The development of GM wheat is expected soon, Ram's Horn 218 (Feb 2004), 5.

Genetic Engineering of Animals

Mice have been cloned from olfactory sensory organs, Nature 428 (2004), 44-9. Fish sperm can be made to order, Nature Reviews Genetics 5 (2004), 167; PNAS 101 (2004), 1263-7.

The genome sequence of rat has been published making further studies of genetics and disease possible, Science 303 (2004), 455-9; Nature 428 (2004), 464-6, 475-6. On rodent models of hypertension, J. Physiology 554 (2004), 56-63. In general on genetics of complex traits in animals, Nature Reviews Genetics 5 (2004), 202-12. Artificial insemination in beef cattle and fertility is discussed in J. Animal Science 82 (2004), 987-93. Animal models of hypertension are discussed in TIG 20 (2004), 136-45.

Fluorescent enhancement of signaling in mantis shrimp is reported in Science 303 (2004), 51. A description of the Drosophila genome and a stock center for genetic variant flies is in NatGen 36 (2004), 205, 207, 209, 211-2, 283-7, 288-92. A cooperative mouse house is being made in New York, NatMed. 10 (2004), 214. Changes in lifespan of Drosophila are possible by inbreeding, Heredity 92 (2004), 275-81. Regulation of bone mass in mice is by lipoxygenase gene Alox15, Science 303 (2004), 229-32; cholesterol free mice have been made that are viable, Science 302 (2003), 2087. Mice models of arthritis are in Nature 426 (2003), 454-6; macular degeneration, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1390-7; Huntington disease may be treated by trehalose, NatMed. 10 (2004), 123-4, 148-54.

Designer Molecules

A backwards-moving myosin motor has been engineered, Nature 427 (2004), 558-61. A review of therapeutic peptides is TIBTECH 21 (2003), 556-62. An engineered pathway for formation of disulfide bonds has been made, Science 303 (2004), 1185+. Protein engineering is discussed in SA (Jan. 2004), 22-3. Protein surgery is discussed in Nature 427 (2004), 203-4. On RNAi, Nature Reviews Focus 5 (Dec. 2003), 4; Nature Reviews Genetics 5 (2004), 81. Use of a ribozyme to control gene expression is reviewed in Nature 428 (2004), 281-6. ProteiNS can be made without DNA, SA (April 2004), 20-1. Making ultra long DNA is discussed in NS (22 Nov. 2003), 8.

Making microbes by design is reviewed in Science 303 (2004), 158-61. Communication between bacteria is discussed in SA (Feb. 2004), 22-3. Xylose fermentation by GM yeast is reported in Bioresource Technology 92 (2004), 163-71. A review of industrial enzymes is GEN 24 (15 March 2004), 1, 15-6, 59.

Biotechnology & the Public

A study of terror risk communication is in Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 1 (2003), 255-8; and on risk communication in general, BMJ 327 (2003), 1162-5, 1368, 1403-4; Public Understanding of Science 12 (2003), 203-9; Science 303 (2004), 630-2. The ethics of crossing species boundaries is discussed in Amer. J. Bioethics 3 (Summer 2003), 1-13, 20-1. Monsanto is spending much money to promote the image of biotech in Brazil, Ram's Horn 217 (Jan. 2004), 3-4. There is a trend in Australia for increased risk perception but not an increase in concern about biotechnology according to a new survey (Media release 11 Feb. 2004, contact Craig Cormick, Biotechnology Australia, 0418-963914).

Medical research sometimes raises media circuses, HCR 34 (Jan. 2004), 3; Morreim, EH. "High-profile research and the media", HCR 34 (Jan. 2004), 11-24. Media ethics is also discussed in Scientist (1 Dec. 2003), 53-4; Sociology of Health & Illness 25 (Sept. 2003), 513-640; Public Understanding of Science 12 (2003), 123-45; Nature 426 (2003), 222-3; BMJ 327 (2003), 1174; 328 (2004), 294; Lancet 363 (2004), 491. The high profile of Japanese Nobel Prize winners is discussed in Nature 427 (2004), 282-3. The Japanese Science Council is being changed, Nature 428 (2004), 357.

The ethics of public consultation is discussed in Health Care Analysis 11 (2003), 15-25. An interesting series of public meetings is being held in New Zealand to seek public opinion over whether human genes should be placed in other organisms by the Bioethics Council, www.bioethics.org.nz. Participatory research ethics in public housing is discussed in Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (2003), 485-502. On biotechnology and bioethics, CQHE 13 (2004), 185-92; NatBio 21 (2003), 1282; 22 (2004), 269-70; Science 303 (2004), 1142; NS (28 Feb. 2004), 44-7. On the ethics of technology, a book review of Kass, LR., Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity is HCR 34 (Jan. 2004), 44-5. Technological mastery is discussed in Science 303 (2004), 629-30; Nature 426 (2003),385-6. Discussion of useful biotechnology for the global society is in NatBio 21 (2003), 1434-6. On the age of DNA, Nature 426 (2003), 229-30; NatMed. 10 (2004), 15; Genome 46 (2003), 925-973. Phobias of nature are discussed in Sociology of Health & Illness 25 (2003), 644-61.

Fears of nanotechnology are debated in Nature 426 (2003), 750; Economist (20 March 2004), 87-8. Methods to integrate ethics in the engineering curriculum are discussed in Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (2003), 543-68. Religion and science with the teaching of creationism are discussed in BioScience 54 (2004), 3, 6-7; Science 303 (2004), 1268; Nature 428 (2004), 595.

The abuse of genetics in sport is discussed in Guardian (17 Feb. 2004). New steroids are difficult to detect, SA (Feb. 2004), 12-3; NS (1 Nov. 2003), 3, 8-9; Lancet 362 (2003), 1466. There are also genetic tests for athletic performance, see www.gtg.com.au. Memory enhancing drugs are discussed in Science 304 (2004), 36-8. Cosmetic surgery is discussed in BMJ 328 (2004), 590; Lancet 362 (2003), 1560; 363 (2004), 958. On breast implants, Lancet 363 (2004), 218, 379, 664.

Regulation & Field Trials of GMOs

A summary of accidents in GM containment is in GeneWatch 17 (Jan. 2004), 8-9; see www.genewatch.org/bubiodefense. On GMO regulation internationally, GeneWatch 17 (Jan. 2004), 12-4. The UK government approved use of commercial GM crops on 9 March 2004, Science 303 (2004), 1590. They claimed that GM crops are beneficial for the environment, NS (6 Dec. 2003), 17. They have approved the commercial growth of Bayer LL-Chardon variety of fodder forage maize, NatBio 22 (2004), 371; Current Biology 14 (2004), R213-4. The UK debate on GMOs is discussed in GeneWatch 16 (Nov. 2003), 10-12; Current Biology 14 (2004), R889-90; Nature 428 (2004), 107; NS (13 March 2004), 3. Mendicino county in California, USA has banned growth of GMOs, Science 303 (2004), 1608; Nature 426 (2003), 488. Meanwhile, Europe has approved commercial GM crops, Science 303 (2004), 448; Nature 427 (2004), 474. The present state of use of GM crops in the EU is in Acta Agric. Scand. Section B Suppl.1 (Dec. 2003), 14-18. The EU has adopted regulation for the Cartegena Protocol, Agrafood Biotech. 118 (25 Nov. 2003), 10; and approval of GM crops, Science 303 (2004), 448. A review of the EU GM pipeline is Agrafood Biotech. 118 (25 Nov. 2003), 6-7. The agency responsible for GM trials in Germany is shifting from Ministry for the Environment to the Federal Agency for Natural Conservation, which is more negative towards GM trials, Nature 427 (2004), 279.

A discussion of sustainable agriculture for developing countries is Biology International 45 (2003), 34-8. Debates over intensification of rice are in Nature 428 (2004), 360-1. A paper on ethics in FAO is Macer, DRJ., et al. "Ethical opportunities in global agriculture, fisheries, and forestry: The role for FAO", J. Agric. & Env. Ethics 16, 479-504.

Brazil has approved provisional measure No. 131 authorizing the planting of transgenic soyabean in 2003/2003 and the sale and harvest of soybeaNS until 31 January 2005, Agrafood Biotech. 118 (25 Nov. 2003), 12. Criticism of Monsanto policy in selling GM soybean and corn seeds to Argentina and Brazil is in Ram's Horn 218 (Feb 2004), 1-4. Papers on the GMO debate in Africa are African J. Biotech 2 (2003), 394-516; Nature 426 (2003), 224-6; NS (20 Dec. 2003), 21. A list of GM crops in Africa is in NatBio 22 (2004), 260. Monsanto is planning to export GM wheat to South Africa, Nature 427 (2004), 386-7. Bt cotton may be useful for small-scale producers in South Africa, NatBio 22 (2004), 379-80. Australia and New Zealand would face serious economic consequences if they boycotted GM technology according to economic estimates, APBN 7 (No., 24, 2003), 75,77; Nature 428 (2004), 594. The number of chronically hungry people is increasing about 5 million a year, BMJ 327 (2003), 1303.

The planting of GM crops containing drugs is expected soon, NatBio 22 (2004), 133. The transgenic GloFish is being sold in California, though there is debate over its safety, Nature 426 (2003), 372, 596; NatBio 22 (2004), 379; NS (20 Dec 2003), 24. The mixing of cultivated plants and wild relatives is discussed in Nature 427 (2004), 395-6. There are still debates over defining GM, Science 303 (2004), 1765-71; Nature 426 (2003), 495. On academic freedom and GM views, Nature 426 (2003), 591.

A report on the ways to confine GMOs is US National Research Council, Biological Confinement of Genetically Engineered Organisms, 2004 (http://books.nap.edu/openbook/0309090857/html/), BioScience 54 (2004), 179. A report on the regulation of GM insects has encouraged the development of systems to regulate GM insects, Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology, Bugs in the System, 2004. (http://pewagbiotech.org/research/bugs/) For a review see Science 303 (2004), 449; JAMA 291 (2004), 1055; NatBio 22 (2004), 141. A report from the Keystone meeting held on GM insect vectors is in NatMed 10 (2004), 216. A review of how mobile elements drive evolution is Science 303 (2004), 1626-32. On horizontal gene transfer, Nature 427 (2004), 72-5. Lethal effects of biological insecticide Bt types on nontarget lepidoteransis claimed in Community and Ecosystem Ecology (Dec 2003). On the genetics of insecticide resistance, Trends in Genetics 20 (2004), 163-70.

A commentary on the Kay report to US Congress on the survey for bioweapoNS in Iraq is in Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 1 (2003), 239-46. Biosecurity peer review in the USA has been set up, Science 303 (2004), 1595. The question of coding behaviour for bioweapoNS is discussed in Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (2003), 453-70. The possibility of reemergence of smallpox if released by terrorists is discussed in Bulletin WHO 81 (2003), 917-8. Much money is being spent in research in the USA on biodefense, Nature 426 (2003), 598-601; NatBio 22 (2004), 375-8; Nature Reviews Genetics 5 (2004), 23-33. The US crackdown on scientists that research infectious diseases is causing many to dispose of their collectioNS and stop research, NS (8 Nov. 2003), 3, 6-8; Science 303 (2004), 1743-4; Nature 426 (2003), 593; 428 (2004), 6. At the same time approved researchers are making superbugs in the lab., NS (1 Nov. 2003), 6-7; (28 Feb. 2004), 6-7. It is unsure how rapidly smallpox spreads, SA (Jan. 2004), 13-4. A book review on Japanese Germ Warfare is in Nature 427 (2004), 396. Also on bioweapoNS fears, Nature 427 (2004), 767; 428 (2004), 109, 454; NatBio 22 (2004), 369. On anthrax vaccination in soldiers, NatMed 10 (2004), 112.

Vaccines & Diseases

A paper looking at leprosy is Burns, SL. "Making illness into identity: Writing "leprosy literature" in modern Japan", Nichibunken Japan Review 16 (2004), 191-212. There are still stigmas in society in Japan for those with leprosy, Lancet 363 (2004), 544. On leprosy genetics, Nature Reviews Genetics 5 (2004), 161. A review of the prevention of smallpox in India in the 19th century is NISTAD News 5 (Oct 2003), 34-6. A 19th century French physician's dilemma in smallpox is discussed in JAMA 290 (2003), 2329-30. Also on smallpox, JAMA 290 (2003), 2610. Ebola vaccine has been tested in humans, JAMA 291 (2004), 549-50; Lancet 362 (2003), 1815. There may have been multiple sources of Ebola outbreaks since 1995, Science 303 (2004), 298-9. Ebola may be linked to decline of some wildlife also, Science 303 (2004), 387-90.

There has been renewed debate on dangers of MMR vaccine in the UK, BME 192 (2004), 1; 195 (2004), 1, 3-4; GreenhealthWatch 7 (2003), 1-2; NEJM 350 (2004), 1380-2; Nature 427 (2004), 765; 428 (2004), 1; BMJ 327 (2003), 1069; 328 (2004), 773; Lancet 363 (2004), 567-9. The authors of a paper suggesting a link have withdrawn their paper, Lancet 363 (2004), 750; Nature 428 (2004), 112; NS (13 March 2004), 4. There were concerNS about links of the researcher who claimed a link being also involved in a court case on the risks, BMJ 328 (2004), 483. Italy and UK have low MMR vaccine uptake rates, BMJ 327 (2003), 1124. The question of whether measles can be globally eradicated is discussed in Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 134-8. Japan is funding efforts to make a new recombinant vaccine to provide protection against 4 diseases, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1337. A study has found no link between HiB type 1 vaccination and type 1 diabetes, NEJM 350 (2004), 1398-404. A vaccine that used to used, has health affects, inactivated intranasal influenza vaccine increases risk of Bell's palsy, NEJM 350 (2004), 896-903.

The additives to vaccines do not appear to pose any risks to children, Lancet 362 (2003), 1987; SA (March 2004), 8-9. On the safety of whole virus for influenza vaccine, Lancet 362 (2003), 1959-66; and vaccination against flu, JAMA 290 (2003), 2656-7; Science 303 (2004), 1280-2. The 1918 killer flu virus has been identified, Science 303 (2004), 1787-8, 1866-70; NEJM 350 (2004), 522-4; BMJ 328 (2004), 353, 368; see also Science 302 (2003), 1519-22. Studies have found that flu infectioNS may actually enhance the development of asthma and allergic responses, contrary to the hygiene hypothesis, NatMed. 10 (2004), 232-4. Influenza vaccine coverage in Japan is reported in Lancet 362 (2003), 1767. Methods for delivering vaccines are discussed in TIBTECH 21 (2003), 465-7.

The prospects for eradication of polio are discussed in Science 303 (2004), 1960-8; Lancet 363 (2004), 93, 215; Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 1-70; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1454. There have been problems in polio vaccination in Nigeria, NEJM 350 (2004), 645-6; BMJ 328 (2004), 485; Lancet 363 (2004), 709. Atherosclerosis may have infection-induced involvement of mitochondrial chaperonins, Lancet 362 (2003), 1949. The use of meningococcal vaccine is discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 2353-6.

Asian bird flu epidemic has had ,major economic consequences and led to the sacrifice of many chickeNS across infected countries, Science 303 (2004), 447; BMJ 328 (2004), 243; Nature 427 (2004), 573; NS (31 Jan. 2004), 10-1; (27 March 2004), 6-7. There were also threats to humaNS in some cases, Hien, TT. Et al., "Avian influenza A (H5N1) in 10 patients in Vietnam", NEJM 350 (2004), 1179-88; BMJ 328 (2004), 238-9, 243, 308; JAMA 291 (2004), 1429-30. There is a large market for animal biotechnology products, NatBio 22 (2004), 251. However patent concerNS led to delays over Vietnam's use of the vaccine, NS (25 Jan. 2004), 8. In general on diseases like avian flu and SARS which cross species boundaries, NEJM 350 (2004), 1171-2; Science 303 (2004), 292, 447, 609; NS (7 Dec. 2003), 13; (28 Feb. 2004), 36-9; CMAJ 169 (2003), 698; Nature 427 (2004), 274, 472-3; Lancet 363 (2004), 134, 234-6, 373, 582, 587-93, 1006; BMJ 328 (2004), 308; NatMed. 10 (2004), 211. Livestock brucellosis has saved human lives also, Bulletin WHO 81 (2003), 867-75.

The first case of a BSE-infected cow in USA led to baNS on beef imports from USA for sometime in some countries, NEJM 350 (2004), 539-41; SA (April 2004), 12-3; NS (21 Feb. 2004), 11; Current Biology 14 (2004), R93-4; JAMA 291 (2004), 553-5; Nature 427 (2004), 5, 766; NatMed. 10 (2004), 113. There is little risk to the public, JAMA 291 (2004), 543-9. In general on disease risks from food and testing, Science 303 (2004), 156-7; Lancet 363 (2004), 1084-5; NS (6 Dec. 2003), 20; (10 Jan. 2004), 5; (27 March 2004), 4. There are also risks that vCJD is being transmitted by transfusion of blood, Lancet 363 (2004), 411-2, 417-21, 422; BMJ 328 (2004), 118-9; Science 303 (2004), 291, 1285. There is some association of CJD with use of Lyodera, MJA 180 (2004), 177-81. A possibility of a drug to fight CJD has been raised, Nature 426 (2003), 487; BMJ 328 (2004), 603. Korea has cloned cows resistant to BSE (hopefully), Nature 426 (2003), 743. PrioNS may have a role in long-term memory, Science 303 (2004), 28-9. Prion disease may spread in the body, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1463-4; Lancet 363 (2004), 411, 422-8. Wildgame feasts may also be linked to CJD, CMAJ 169 (2003), 443. Japan has now 11 cases of BSE-infected cows, and may have found a new strain, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1442.

A paper on ethics and SARS is Singer, PA. Et al. "Ethics and SARS: lessoNS from Toronto", BMJ 327 (2003), 1342-4; and on public health control, Pang, X. et al. "Evaluation of control measures implemented in the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome outbreak in Beijing, 2003", JAMA 290 (2003), 3215-21; 3222, 3229, 3251. On the Singapore cases, BMJ 328 (2004), 195-8. Tracking of SARS virus using DNA arrays is reported in Genome Research 14 (2004), 398-405; NEJM 349 (2003), 2468-70; see also, JAMA 290 (2003), 2533-4. During the SARS epidemic the virus evolved, Science 303 (2004), 1666-9; NEJM 349 (2003), 1875-6; Lancet 362 (2003), 1807-8; 363 (2004), 99-104. The duty to treat and SARS is discussed in HCR 34 (Jan. 2004), 4; CMAJ 169 (2003), 141. A paper on SARS and comparisoNS to lepers is in Croatian Medical J. 44 (2003), 674-80. The role of WHO in responding to disease outbreaks is discussed in Science 303 (2004), 1605-6. Information on SARS in Japan is reported in Lancet 363 (2004), 571-2.

There were only a few 2004 cases of SARS, Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 152-3; Nature 427 (2004), 6-7; BMJ 328 (2004), 65; NS (10 Jan. 2004), 6. This was despite many measures to prepare for another outbreak, Lancet 362 (2003), 1632-3; 363 (2004), 409; Nature 426 (2003), 609-10, 752-3; 427 (2004), 87, 89; NEJM 349 (2003), 2381-2; Current Biology 14 (2004), R91-3; CMAJ 169 (2003), 285-92, 299-200; JAMA 290 (2003), 2934; 291 (2004), 1313; NS (20 Dec 2003), 15. There have been two reported lab accidents with SARSs, Science 303 (2004), 26. A genetic susceptibility to SARS has been suggested, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1335. SARS vaccines are discussed in Science 303 (2004), 944-6; Nature 427 (2004), 185; 428 (2004), 561-4; Lancet 362 (2003), 1895-6. The presence of antibodies in patients suggests repeated SARS infections, Nature 427 (2004), 185; NS (24 Jan. 2004), 15. Border screening for SARS is still in effect in several countries, MJA 180 (2004), 220-3; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1441. It is possible SARS transmission may occur on aircraft, NEJM 349 (2003), 2416-22.

On public health in China, AJPH 93 (2003), 1991-3. The ethics of evaluating a new treatment for melioidosis is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 1280-2. On ecology of infectious diseases, PLoS Biology 1 (Nov. 2003), 148-9. Emerging vectors in the Culex pipieNS complex are reviewed in Science 303 (2004), 1535-8. African labs are include din the tsetse-fly genome project, Nature 427 (2004), 384. On emerging diseases, Nature 428 (2004), 19; NS (10 Jan. 2004), 19. Monkeypox has been detected in the Western hemisphere, NEJM 350 (2004), 342-50.

Badgers are being killed to attempt to restrict TB in UK cattle, however it appears it may increase local incidence of TB, Nature 426 (2003), 834-7. Also on TB, Nature 427 (2004), 295; Lancet 363 (2004), 537, 814-9, 951.

Cities may have led to the recent outbreaks of dengue in Southeast Asia, NatMed. 10 (2004), 129-30, 344+. At least 450 persoNS died from dengue in Indonesia in 2004, a doubling since last year, Lancet 363 (2004), 956. Sustainable schistosomiasis control is discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1932-4. Viral encephalitis is discussed in NEJM 350 (2004), 1266; BMJ 327 (2003), 1366. A review of Lassa fever is BMJ 327 (2003), 1271-5. Pacific countries have been fighting lymphatic filariasis, as have other countries in the world where 120 million persoNS are infected, Lancet 362 (2003), 1906. There are efforts to try to make this the first disease eradicated through the use of drugs. The American Red Cross has decided to screen blood for Chagas disease, Lancet 362 (2003), 1988.

Stable SNPs have been reported in malaria genes in isolated populations, Science 303 (2004), 493. A review of the 14 grand challenge topics chosen by the Gates Foundation for global disease research is in Bulletin WHO 81 (2003), 915-6. The use of the Global Fund, WHO and medical malpractice in malaria are discussed in Lancet 363 (2004), 237-40; BMJ 327 (2003), 1188. In general on malaria, BMJ 328 (2004), 534-5. On genetic control of malaria, Science 303 (2004), 1984-5, 2030-32; PLoS Biology 1 (Nov. 2003), 142-4. The human genome also changes as we interact with parasites, NS (22 Nov. 2003), 44-7. APOE genotype also alters risk of malaria, JMG 41 (2004), 145-6. The drug sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine continues to fight against falciparum malaria in Malawi after 10 years use, BMJ 328 (2004), 545-8. Mosquito Anopheles has a receptor for human sweat odorant, Nature 427 (2004), 212-3. The implicatioNS of changing climate for malaria is discussed in Nature 427 (2004), 690-1. Ethiopia may face 15 million persoNS infected with malaria, Lancet 362 (2003), 2071. There are still hurdles to make a vaccine against malaria, Bulletin WHO 81 (2003), 902-7; Lancet 363 (2004), 150-6.

Giving insecticide-treated bednets to pregnant women is discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1515-6, 1549-50; 363 (2004), 132-3. DEET-based insect repellents appear to be safe for children, CMAJ 169 (2003), 209-12. A study of children over 6 years found that insecticide-treated curtaiNS reduced child mortality in Burkina Faso, Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 84, 85-91. A paper on fear of mosquitoes in USA is Herrington, JE., "Pre-West Nile Virus Outbreak: PerceptioNS and practices to prevent mosquito bites and viral encephalitis in the United States", Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Disease 3 (2003), 157-74. A record of US cases of West Nile infectioNS is Lancet 362 (2003), 1870. A book review of For Love of Insects is Nature 428 (2004), 368. Hybrid mosquitoes are suspected in West Nile virus spread, Science 303 (2004), 1451.

Delayed prescriptioNS can reduce antibiotic use in respiratory infections, BMJ 327 (2003), 1361-2, 1324-7. The problems of antibiotic resistance in bacteria are discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 1177-8; Lancet 362 (2003), 1554-5; Science 302 (2003), 1488; JAMA 290 (2003), 2976-84; NatMed. 10 (2004), 6. Antibiotic resistance in food is a problem also, BIOforum Europe 5 (Sept. 2003), 266-7. Links between antibiotics and breast cancer are debated in JAMA 291 (2004), 827, 880-1. There are few new antibiotics, Lancet 362 (2003), 1726-7. The possibility of using predatory bacteria for antimicrobial strategies is discussed in JAMA 291 (2004), 1188-9.

AIDS & Sexually Transmitted Diseases

The question of compulsory screening of immigrants for HIV and TB is raised in BMJ 328 (2004), 298-300. Attitudes towards premarital HIV testing in Malawi is reported in Croatian Medical J. 45 (2004), 84-7. A report from prenatal HIV testing in Georgia is in JAMA 291 (2004), 1061-2. In general on HIV testing, Economist (28 Feb. 2004), 84.

Papers on HIV, AIDS, sexual and reproductive health from different countries are in Reproductive Health Matters 11 (Nov 2003), 6-198. Papers on HIV and use of ARTs are in JME 29 (2003), 313-29. WHO has been accused of backing campaigNS with dirty needles, NS (6 Dec. 2003), 5, 8-9. WHO policy is discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1900-1. On Chinese policy, Lancet 362 (2003), 1983; NatMed. 10 (2004), 4. Japan is seeking safer blood tests after HIV mistakes, NatMed. 10 (2004), 217.

The involvement of caregivers in the informed consent process for AIDS clinical trials is described in Nursing Ethics 11 (2004), 42-52. Also debates over vaccine clinical trials is in Science 303 (2004), 316, 954-5, 961; Lancet 362 (2003), 1728.

A review on the use of attenuated live HIV vaccines is Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 17 (Feb. 2004), 17-26; Science 303 (2004), 294-7. In general on HIV and AIDS crisis, BMJ 327 (2004), 1101-3. Therapy for HIV is discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 2351-2, 2460-1; Lancet 362 (2003), 1597-8. The World Bank has concluded that potential resistance to antiretroviral therapy should not stop distribution to poor countries, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1343-4. HIV drug resistance is reviewed in NEJM 350 (2004), 1023-35. Access to therapy in Africa is discussed in BMJ 328 (2004), 280-2; Lancet 362 (2003), 1811. The question of risk of myocardial infarction from use of antiretroviral therapy is suggested in NEJM 349 (2003), 1993-2003; BMJ 327 (2003), 1186.

Screening of women with high risk types of papillomavirus and later notification for tests is discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 1866, 1871-6. Once a day valacyclovir reduces risk of transmission of genital herpes, NEJM 350 (2004), 11-20. Microbicides are safer for STD prevention, Lancet 363 (2004), 1002-3.

Microbes & Pollution Remedies

The engineering of plants for phytoremediation has been progressed through the concept of vacuolar compartmentalization, Trends in Plant Science 9 (2004), 7-9. Molecular markers for plant bioremediation are available in Germany, Industrial Processing 26 (Jan. 2004), 7. A review of the long-term ecosystem response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill is Science 302 (2003), 2082-6. Planning for removal of oil from a sunken tanker is discussed in SA (Jan. 2004), 18. Restoration of an open-cast coal mine by planting exotic tree species is reported in Ecological Engineering 21 (2003), 143-51. A report from remediation at US Dept. of Energy sites is Science 303 (2004), 1615-6.

Environmental Issues

On the ozone hole, Nature 427 (2004), 289-91. Genetic differences in glutathione S- transferase enzymes alter the sensitivity to sunburn, Amer. J. Pharmacogenomics 2 (2002), 147-54. Tanning is dangerous, FDA Consumer (Nov. 2003), 16-7. On air pollution and allergies, Lancet 363 (2004), 95-6. Also on health impact of air pollution, NEJM 350 (2004), 834-5. A summary of illnesses in USA from chemical agents is JAMA 290 (2003), 2247-8; American Scientist 92 (Jan. 2004), 38-45. Chemicals alter reproductive health also, BMJ 328 (2004), 447-51. Estrogen may disrupt nitrogen fixation, Science 303 (2004), 950; EST 37 (2003), 5471-8.

A paper on ethics is Leopold, AC., "Living with the land ethic", BioScience 54 (2004), 149-54. The need for clean water is growing, BMJ 327 (2003), 1416-8; MJA 180 (2004), 260-1. The environmental effects of NAFTA are discussed in Environment 46 (March 2004), 26-41. Noise pollution is discussed in NS (22 Nov. 2003), 26-7; (21 Feb. 2004), 26-9; Pepper, CS. Et al. "A review of the effects of aircraft noise on wildlife and humans, current control mechanisms, and the need for further study", Environmental Management 32 (2003), 418-32.

The impact of climate change on ecosystems is discussed in Science 303 (2004), 176-7, 1600-2; SA (March 2004), 40-7. Russia is still to decide whether to ratify the Kyoto Protocol, Science 303 (2004), 1461-2. On the impacts of climate change, MJA 179 (2003), 571-2. Volcanic eruptioNS are linked to El Nino, Nature 426 (2003), 239-41. Wind power is discussed in NS (6 Dec. 2003), 30-33.

Global warming and nuclear power are discussed in Science 303 (2004), 433. On the development and politics of nuclear weapoNS in North Korea, Science 303 (2004), 452-4; and in general, Science 303 (2004), 161-4, 1772-3; Nature 426 (2003), 213; 428 (2004), 451; NS (7 Feb. 2004), 7.

Biodiversity

Genomic sequencing of sea water has found great diversity of organisms, NS (13 March 2004), 12. Discussion of microbial biodiversity is in Nature 428 (2004), 25-6; Current Biology 14 (2004), R65-6. There are many species not yet identified in the oceans, NS (20 Dec. 2003), 20. in the USA, declining numbers of species have been added in recent years to the list of endangered species, Nature 426 (2003), 592; BioScience 54 (2004), 180-1. The burden of overcrowding upon the environment is discussed in NS (22 Nov. 2003), 6-7. Decline in birds is discussed in NS (13 March 2004), 14-5; and butterflies in Science 303 (2004), 1747; 304 (2004), 27. On conservation genetics, NatGen 35 (2003), 297. Conservation policy in coffee growing areas is discussed in Science 303 (2004), 625-6. Tropical soils and food security is discussed in Science 302 (2003), 1356-9; and fisheries in Science 302 (2003), 1359-62; Nature 326 (2003), 378-9.

The dangers of ecotourists are discussed in NS (6 March 2004), 6-7. The conservation of dangerous animals like pumas and wolves is feared by some, but most avoid humans, Nature 427 (2004), 385; NS (15 Nov. 2003), 50. India and Bangladesh are carrying out a joint tiger survey, Science 303 (30 Jan. 2004). Hunters have led to decreased horn size in bighorn sheep because of selective shooting, Nature 426 (2003), 595. Trophy hunting in African male lioNS causes much damage as older males are shot, NS (28 Feb. 2004), 16. Ivory sales have increased fears of illegal trade in elephant tusks, NS (20 March 2004), 10. The exotic pet trade not only hurts biodiversity but also has human health concerns, Nature 427 (2004), 277. Overall however human health depends upon biodiversity, Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (2004), A12-3. Prospects for making money from bioprospecting are not clear, SA (Dec. 2003), 17-8; Nature 427 (2004), 576, 769.

The impact of global warming is also to blame to smaller numbers of North sea cod, NS (13 Dec. 2003), 8; Nature 428 (2004), 4. An overall calculation of extinction risk from climate change is in Nature 427 (2004), 145-8. Reducing risks to endangered ocean species is the goal of marine reserves that are expected to be made in the USA soon, NS (15 Nov. 2003), 49; (21 Feb. 2004), 8; BioScience 54 (2004), 27-39. Hatcheries may help for some endangered salmon, Science 303 (2004), 1980. In Norway salmon stocks are under threat from a parasite, NS (28 Feb. 2004), 14. Antarctic biodiversity is discussed in Current Biology 14 (2004), R169-70. Pollution from sewage is one factor leading to decline in corals, NS (10 Jan. 2004), 12-3; Science 303 (2004), 1293; 304 (2004), 31.

A call for tests of the presence of DNA on Mars are made in NS (27 March 2004), 19. A paper looking at inhabitable stars in our Galaxy is in Science 303 (2004), 59-64. The cal for more space exploration is made in Science 303 (2004), 589.

Animal Rights

In many cases the costs will outweigh the benefits of using animals in experiments, Research Europe (5 Feb. 2004), 7. Protestors in the UK have ended plaNS for a primate research center at University of Cambridge, Nature 427 (2004), 471. A UK legal decision may help stop harassment of employees of 7 Japanese companies who use animal testing at Huntingdon Life Sciences in the UK, Scrip Magazine (Dec 2003), 22-3. The monitoring of lab animals during experiments is described in NS (28 Feb. 2004), 12-3. The negative effects of sonar on cetaceaNS is discussed in NS (24 Jan. 2004), 45. A paper on minimizing harm from experiments is Morris, MC & Weaver, SA (2003), "Minimizing harm in agricultural animal experiments in New Zealand", J. Agric. & Env. Ethics 16, 421-37.

Chicken welfare is found to be influenced more by housing conditioNS that stocking density, Nature 427 (2004), 342-4.

A series of papers on what makes humaNS human with comparisoNS to chimpanzees is in NS (21 Feb. 2004), 36-43; Current Biology 14 (2004), R148-9; Nature 427 (2004), 208-9; 428 (2004), 606; Science 302 (2003), 1960-3. Genetic studies of chimp genome compared to human genome find about 1500 genes have some differences between the two species, Nature 426 (2003), 746, 750. Dating of languages is discussed in Nature 426 (2003), 391-2, 435-9; Science 303 (2004), 1315-39; SA (April 2004), 24-5. The ethics of intention and pain are discussed in Philosophical Quarterly 53 (2003), 502+. Imaging studies are being used to see how the brain thinks about pain, Science 303 (2003), 1121, 1162+. Cannibalism and energy for a species are reviewed in Ecological Monographs 74 (2004), 135-57.

Brain function

Drugs and ways to help people forget are discussed in Science 304 (2004), 34-6. Neural pathways that suppress unwanted memories are described in Science 303 (2004), 232-5. The evolution of cooperation is discussed in Nature 428 (2004), 611-2; Science 303 (2004), 1128-30. In general on neuroscience research, NS (1 Nov. 2003), 52-5. The difference between madness and badness is discussed in NS (13 Dec. 2003), 36-9; (20 March 2004), 38-41. A study of how people may see the world in different ways is Science 303 (2004), 1617-8, 1634-40. Intention is discussed in Science 303 (2004), 1144-6, 1208-11. Book reviews on consciousness include Nature 426 (2003), 604; 427 (2004), 783; 428 (2004), 603-4, 606; SA (March 2004), 74-5. Development of the human frontal cortex is related to mutatioNS in GPR56, a G protein-coupled receptor, Science 303 (2004), 2033-6. Object-specific responses in the cortex are described in Science 304 (2003), 115-7. Learning is discussed in Nature 428 (2004), 378. A 3-D atlas of the brain is expected later in 2004, NS (10 Jan. 2004), 32-3.

A small number of genes creates complex thoughts, Nature 427 (2004), 681. Human variation in gene expression and brain has been surveyed, Nature 428 (2004), 757; and as discussed in the Animal Rights News section, comparisoNS with chimpanzee genome are also being made. On artificial intelligence, Nature 427 (2004), 680.

Discussion of why people often socialize with people of the same sex is in NS (24 Jan. 2004), 35-7. Studies of why male gorillas have good relatioNS may be because they are often related to each other, Nature 428 (2004), 383. Also on animal socialization, NS (20 Dec. 2003), 56-9. Studies of marmosets has found they use their whole brain when thinking about sex including regioNS associated with decision-making, like humans, Science 303 (2004), 952. A book review of Why We Love is Nature 427 (2004), 396-7. Also on love, NS (22 Nov. 2003), 18.

Safety of Recombinant DNA Products

Alpha-Interferon has showed promise against SARS in monkeys, JAMA 290 (2003), 3222-8; Lancet 362 (2003), 293-4; Science 303 (2003), 1273. Post-exposure treatment with a recombinant inhibitor of factor VIIa/tissue factor may be useful in treatment of Ebola, if monkey experiments can be applied to humans, Lancet 362 (2003), 1953-8. Gamma-1b interferon may not aid patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, NEJM 350 (2004), 125-33. The use of pharmacogenomics for application of recombinant growth hormone is discussed in Amer. J. Pharmacogenomics 2 (2002), 93-111. A paper on the quality of life of persoNS living with achondroplasia is Prenatal Diagnosis 23 (2003), 1003-8. The safety of recombinant insulin is not clear for some persons, GeneWatch 16 (Nov. 2003), 3-5. Use of recombinant follicle stimulating hormone for ovulation induction is reported in BMJ 328 (2004), 192-5. G-CSF therapy with peripheral blood stem cells in myocardial infarction is reported in Lancet 363 (2004), 751-6, 746.

A DNA vaccine that may protect allergy sufferers against allergy has been developed in Japan, Biotechnology News 24 (4 March 2004), 3-4. Cancer vaccines may boost survival after kidney tumours are removed, Lancet 363 (2004), 583, 594-9; NS (28 Feb. 2004), 17. There is some success, GEN 24 (15 March 2004), 1, 10, 12-3; NatMed. 9 (2003), 1354-5; JAMA 291 (2004), 550-1. Another cancer vaccine trial was halted, NatMed. 10 (2004), 3. Use of an anti-interleukin-5 antibody in hypereosinophilic syndrome is reported in NEJM 349 (2003), 2334-9. Erythropoietin may impair, not improve, cancer survival, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1439.

Food safety

Ways to combat against obesity are discussed in The Edge (ESRC, UK) 15 (March 2004), 16-21; MJA 179 (2003), 577-9; BMJ 327 (2003), 1125; 328 (2004), 363; Lancet 363 (2004), 182, 211-2, 339; NS (20 March 2004), 5; Nature 428 (2004), 239, 244; JAMA 291 (2004), 1186-8. Some persoNS have surgery for obesity, NEJM 350 (2004), 1075-9. Links between obesity and cancer are being tested, JAMA 290 (2003), 2790-1. APOE and TGF-beta1 genes are associated with obesity phenotypes, JMG 40 (2003), 918-24. Estimates of ideal body-mass index among AsiaNS are discussed in Lancet 363 (2004), 157-63. The US has banned the dietary supplement ephedra because of safety concerns, Nature 427 (2004), 90. The sugar industry has criticized a WHO report on healthy eating, Int. J. Health Science 33 (2003), 831-3; Lancet 363 (2004), 1068-70. The USA has also criticized the proposed new policy on diet, BMJ 328 (2004), 245. On the diet industry, Nature 428 (2004), 252-4. Diabetes may be linked to obesity through adipocytes and macrophages, NatMed. 10 (2004), 126-7. Preventing diabetes in south AsiaNS is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 1059-60.

Coffee consumption has an inverse relationship with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Finnish men, JAMA 291 (2004), 1213-9. Folic acid reduces the risk of ischemic stroke, BMJ 328 (2004), 211-4, 247. Omega-3 fatty acids have benefits for health, and may be in both fish and plants, BMJ 328 (2004), 30-5, 406. They are also suggested for animals, NS (7 Feb. 2004), 18. Junk food is causing many problems however, Lancet 362 (2003), 1593; NS (29 Nov. 2003), 16. However, chocolate can have benefits, Nature 426 (2003), 787. Food high in purines may increase risk of gout, NEJM 350 (2004), 1093-103. Diets high in meat also pose dangers, NS (13 March 2004), 19. There is doubt over a study that claimed multivitamiNS would help postpone Alzheimer disease, BMJ 328 (2004), 67. Functional foods are discussed in Nature 427 (2004), 284-6; BMJ 328 (2004), 190-1.

UNICEF has issued another report warning on the dangers of vitamin deficiencies, Lancet 363 (2004), 378; Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 230-1. Studies have shown that there was long term mortality after the severe starvation during the siege of Leningrad, BMJ 328 (2004), 11-4. Childhood stunting from inadequate water and sanitation is great today also, Lancet 363 (2004), 94-1, 112. Yeast life-span extension by calorie restriction is analyzed in Science 302 (2003), 2124-6. Preventing foodborne disease is important, NEJM 350 (2004), 437-40; JAMA 290 (2003), 2788-9.

The EU has defend the new traceability and labeling rules, Food Chemical News (22 March 2004), 5-7; though they are seen as barriers to trade by others, Food Chemical News (15 Dec. 2003), 8-9. In the USA, 77% of consumers said that they would pay more for beef certified free of BSE, and one third of persoNS were very concerned about the BSE finding, Food Chemical News (2 Feb. 2004), 11-2. ConcerNS over salmon are also being raised, Science 303 (2004), 154-5, 226-9; NS (17 Jan. 2004), 3, 8; JAMA 291 (2004), 929-30. Aquaculture should be more sustainable, Nature 426 (2003), 378-9.

The FDA is reconsidering its position on open commercialization of meat and milk from cloned animals, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1444; NatBio 21 (2003), 1415-6. A UK BMA report said more study should be done to prove GM food is really beneficial compared to other food, BMJ 328 (2004), 602. (www.bma.org.uk/GMFoods). The first commercially sold GM-labeled beer in the world is sold in Sweden, NS (7 Feb. 2004), 6; NatBio 22 (2004), 259. On EU GM food regulation, NatBio 22 (2004), 149, 383-4. DNA chips are testing for mixing of meat from different animal sources, NS (6 March 2004), 12-3. Angola has refused GM cereal, Int. Herald Tribune (31 March 2004). A general discussion of GM food is in FDA Consumer (Nov. 2003), 28-33. On the fate of transgenes in the human gut, NatBio 22 (2004), 170-2

Disease Risks & Drugs

The regulation of drugs and clinical trial abuses in India are discussed in Indian J. Medical Ethics 1 (2004), 2-5, 11-21. Some local governments in the USA have been buying cheaper drugs in Canada, BMJ 327 (2003), 1126; JAMA 290 (2003), 2921-5. European prices are also cheaper, Economist (31 Jan. 2004), 53-4. Counterfeit drugs are discussed in NEJM 350 (2004), 1384-6. On ethical issues, Miller, FG. Et al. "Ethical issues concerning research in complementary and alternative medicine", JAMA 291 (2004), 599-602. Trade in traditional medicines is discussed in NatBio 22 (2004), 263-5; SA (Dec 2003), 26. The trade is causing degradation of biodiversity, NS (10 Jan. 2004), 10-1. Ethics of public health surveillance is discussed in Science 303 (2004), 631-2.

The drug Lipitor has been linked to amnesia, NS (6 Dec. 2003), 14. A website that links the way genes influence drugs is www.pharmgkb.org, Science 303 (2004), 443. On monitoring drug treatment, BMJ 327 (2003), 1179-81, 1222-5. Doctors continue to use treatments that do not work, BMJ 328 (2004), 474-5. The health impact of the first Gulf War are discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 1357-8. Psychiatric drugs are discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 2369-71. On statins, JAMA 290 (2003), 2243-5; Lancet 362 (2003), 1498; BMJ 328 (2004), 400-2, 500-1. A review of aspirin is NS (7 Feb. 2004), 36-9.

Lifestyle change to alter risk of diabetes is useful, BMJ 327 (2003), 1120-1. Ethics of recommending lifestyle change is discussed in JAMA 290 (2003), 2660-1. Self-poisoning with pesticides is reviewed in BMJ 328 (2004), 42-4. Tests on pesticide safety on humaNS may be conducted in USA now, Science 303 (2004), 1272; Nature 427 (2004), 770-1. On occupational safety, Lancet 363 (2004), 673-4; JAMA 290 (2003), 3069-70. Pet ownership and health is discussed in MJA 179 (2003), 460-1. On the hygiene hypothesis, Nature 428 (2004), 354. Asthma rates are increasing, NS (27 March 2004), 36-9. On stress in cities, Science 303 (2004), 463.

A Netherlands Health Council report is addressing the impact of passive smoking, Network 19 (March 2004), 8-12.

On the dangers of ionizing radiation in medicine, BMJ 327 (2003), 1166-7; 328 (2004), 19-21; Lancet 363 (2004), 340; NS (6 March 2004), 10. A medical response to nuclear incidents is prepared in BMJ 328 (2004), 568-72. On risks of cancer from mobile phones, BMJ 328 (2004), 124, 292. A Swedish study of extremely low frequency magnetic fields suggests dangers from welding, Epidemiology 14 (2003), 420-6. There is little new evidence that EMF fields are harmful, Network 19 (March 2004), 27-8.

Traffic safety is discussed in Bulletin WHO 81 (2003), 916-7; NS (13 Dec. 2003), 23; BMJ 327 (2003), 1455-6. An international study on depiction of old persoNS on traffic sigNS is BMJ 327 (2003), 1456-7.

Patenting & Business

Benefit sharing from genomics is discussed in Health Law Review 12 (2003), 36-8. Patenting of genes is debated in Health Care Analysis 11 (2003), 119-30; Health Law J. 10 (2002), 123-46; Science 303 (2004), 1757-8; NatBio 22 (2004), 231-2. The question of expired patents on cell lines, SA (Dec. 2003), 25. Patent enforcement is discussed in SA (April 2004), 22. On IP and the US constitution, Colombia Law Review (2004), 272-362. On profits from native medicines, NS (28 Feb. 2004), 15.

The issue of ghost writers for pharmaceutical companies is discussed in BME 194 (2004), 4. The ethics of receiving gifts from industry is discussed in Amer. J. Bioethics 3 (Summer 2003), 39-46; JAMA 290 (2003), 2404-7. A report on academic-industry relationships in the life sciences is in NEJM 349 (2003), 2452-9; Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 5 (2004), 243-7. Industry sponsored studies of drugs are twice as likely to have positive conclusions, BMJ 327 (2003), 1006. The roles of civil society in Thailand in public health as a counter to commercial pressures is reviewed in Lancet 363 (2004), 560-63. Also on ethics of business, NEJM 349 (2003), 1980-1; Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 74-5. New Zealand is planning to ban direct drug advertising, BMJ 328 (2004), 68-9. On Canadian policy on drug adverts, CMAJ 169 (2003), 405-12, 425-7.

On biotechnology in Australia, NS (22 Nov. 2003), 56-9; China, GeneWatch 17 (Jan. 2004), 10-12; in Japan, NatBio 21 (2003), 1256-7; in Germany, NatBio 22 (2004), 257-8; in ScanBelt NatBio 22 (2004), 355; in UK, NS (13 March 2004), 52-3; in Russia, The Scientist (15 Dec. 2003), 50. A book review of Daniel Callahan, What Price Better Health? (Univ. California Press 2003, 341pp.) is Science 303 (2004), 1613-4. On biotechnology business centers, Nature 428 (2004), 121-2. A discussion of generic and similar "me-too" products is NEJM 350 (2004), 211-2. On science reforms in Japan, Science 303 (2004), 1746; 304 (2004), 41. Biodefense research is attracting some companies, NatBio 22 (2004), 387-91.

Birth Control

The problems of maternal mortality are discussed in JOGNN (March 2004), 153; Lancet 363 (2004), 989-93. The rising global population and limits for our planet are discussed in NS (8 Nov. 2003), 19; BioScience 54 (2004), 195-204. Some Catholic leaders have claimed that HIV passes through condoms, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1443.

Contraceptive research is reviewed in NatMed. 10 (2004), 213; NEJM 350 (2004), 307-8. On emergency contraception, NEJM 349 (2003), 1830-5. Research to make a male contraceptive is discussed in NS (10 Jan. 2004), 38-41.

A discussion of Chinese family planning is in Conscience 24 (Winter 2003-4), 25-32. Delayed marriage age in women is shown in SA (Jan.? 2004), 17. The use of IUDs is discussed in CMAJ 169 (2003), 585. A review of sexuality in medieval Croatian sources is Croatian Medical J. 45 (2004), 25-30. Sexual orientation is discussed in BMJ 328 (2004), 469; NEJM 350 (2004), 333-41. A US inquiry has found NIH funded sexuality studies can continue, Science 303 (2004), 741. A book review of The Oxytoxin factor is NatMed. 10 (2004), 122. A book review of Adam's Curse: a Future without Men is Lancet 363 (2004), 578.

Discussion of HRT is in JAMA 291 (2004), 1434; NatMed. 10 (2004), 121; BMJ 328 (2004), 357-8, 371-5; NEJM 350 (2004), 991-1004.

Embryo Status

The ethics of embryo research and natural reproductive lotteries are discussed in CQHE 13 (2004), 68-95, 110-2. The US Congress Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act 2003 is reproduced in BME 194 (2004), 8-11. There has been much discussion, Lancet 362 (2003), 1464, 1509; BMJ 327 (2003), 1009; NEJM 350 (2004), 184-6. Several US judges have issued subpoenas for abortion records, Lancet 363 (2004), 626. A historical review of US abortion policy 1951-1973 is in AJPH 93 (2003), 1810-9. A European Court of Human Rights is considering an abortion case, BMJ 327 (2003), 1367. A UK case of late abortion for a fetus with cleft palate is being debated legally, BMJ 327 (2003), 1307. In the UK it is necessary to give consent before embryos are used in research (see ART for cloning discussion), BME 191 (2004), 5-6. A book review of A Child is Born is Lancet 363 (2004), 497.

The early induced abortion of severely handicapped infants is debated in Linacre Quarterly 70 (2003), 218-22. In the UK mothers suspected of killing their babies might be dealt with outside of the criminal system, BMJ 328 (2004), 425. Trends in elective termination of pregnancy between 1989 and 2000 in the French county of Isere is reported in Prenatal Diagnosis 23 (2003), 877-83. Pregnancies that end in spontaneous or induced abortioNS do not increase breast cancer rate, Lancet 363 (2004), 1007-16.

Cloning and stem cells

The UN has left the debate on human cloning on hold, ready to resume later in the year, HCR 34 (Jan. 2004), 5-6; Current Biology 13 (2003), R937-9. Those who have comments on this should send to the editor who is working on a report for United NatioNS University on the issues for consideration when the UN General Assembly revisits the issue. On ethics and cloning stem cells, Monash Bioethics Review 22 (Jan. 2003), 8-24; New Zealand Bioethics J. 5 (2004), 22-8, 29-30; JME 29 (2003), 207; Sociology of Health & Illness 25 (2003), 793-814; Nature 426 (2003), 603; 428 (2004), 587; NS (21 Feb. 2004), 3. A paper in Italian on cloning ethics is in Bioetica e Cultura 12 (No. 2, 2003), 283-8. Against reproductive cloning, NS (22 Nov. 2003), 23; (24 Jan. 2004), 4; BMJ 328 (2004), 185; Lancet 363 (2004), 827-8. The use of pluripotent adult germ cells in treatment is discussed in Ford, NM. "Using pluripotent germ cells in regenerative medicine. An ethical alternative", National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2003), 697-706.

There was controversy over the departure of two members of the US President's Bioethics Council who were positive towards stem cell research, Science 303 (2004), 1447. Harvard University is setting up a privately funded US$100 million institute for stem cell research, Science 303 (2004), 1453; Nature 428 (2004), 8. Stem cell research might be a ballot issue in California, Science 303 (2004), 293; NS (20 March 2004), 7. New Jersey also has backed use of stem cells, NatBio 22 (2004), 142.

European Parliament members approved the funding of stem cell research using human embryos, in countries that do not outlaw it, BMJ 327 (2003), 1248. On EU regulation of stem cell research, JME 29 (2003), 203-8; NatBio 22 (2004), 157-8. Spain will support stem cell research, Nature 428 (2004), 247. On policy in China, Nature 427 (2004), 278.

Researchers in Korea have published results of making human ES cells from a cloned human embryo, Woo Suk Hwang et al., "Evidence of a pluripotent human embryonic stem cell line derived from a cloned blastocyst", Science 303 (2004), 1669-74, 937-9, 1581; Nature 427 (2004), 664; NatBio 22 (2004), 361; JAMA 291 (2004), 1185-6. This type of experiment could be legally performed in some countries but not in others. More ES cell lines are needed, NEJM 350 (2004), 1275-6, 1351-2; NatBio 22 (2004), 159-63, 399-400. On the potential for stem cell therapy, NatBio 22 (2004), 283-5; NS (21 Feb. 2004), 6-7, 16-7; BMJ 328 (2004), 484; Lancet 363 (2004), 581. Making stem cells is discussed in Nature 426 (2003), 490-1. Embryonic germ cells and male gametes can be made from ES cell lines in mice, Nature 427 (2004), 106-7, 148-54.

Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

A discussion of the concept of civil disobedience in the context of ARTs is Turkish J. Medical Ethics 4 (2003), 215-20. The suggested UK HFEA code of practice is in BME 192 (2004), 8-11. A debate on ethics of ART and genetics is Conscience 24 (Winter 2003-4), 10-8; GeneWatch 17 (March 2004), 11, 14. A booklet called Bloodlines has been made by Backbone media (www.pbs.org/bloodlines, 2003). Community attitudes to ART in Australia are reviewed in MJA 179 (2003), 536-8. On ART mistakes, JME 29 (2003), 205-6. The UK will give couples three times access to IVF under NHS, BMJ 328 (2004), 482. Calls for open access to IVF are in BMJ 327 (2003), 1226. On health impacts of IVF, Nature 428 (2004), 590; and the success of IVF, NS (17 Jan. 2004), 7. An online egg service now exists, NS (28 Feb. 2004), 4; www.ManNotIncluded.com. Italy is expected to pass a new law on ART, BMJ 328 (2004), 9. The desire of infertile patients for multiple births is discussed in F&S 81 (2004), 500-4, 526. A study of why couples discontinue IVF is F&S 81 (2004),258-61.

The definition of infertility is discussed in Bioethics Research Notes 15 (Dec 2003), 45-7. Research using mice suggests adult females may produce eggs, Science 303 (2004), 1593. Mouse eggs have been fertilized by artificial sperm, NS (13 Dec. 2003), 19.

Sex selection is discussed in Indian J. Medical Ethics 1 (2004), 53; GeneWatch 17 (Jan. 2004), 3-5; BMJ 327 (2003), 1007. The UK HFEA has recommended a ban on it, BMJ 327 (2003), 1123. Gamete donor anonymity is discussed in Health Law Review 12 (2003), 39-45; F&S 81 (2004),527-30. On family members as gamete donors or surrogates, F&S 81 (2004), 1124-9. The UK is expected to remove anonymity for sperm donors, BMJ 328 (2004), 244. Israel is allowing the removal of sperm from dead men at the request of their wives, BMJ 327 (2003), 1187. Genetic paternity testing is discussed in CQHE 13 (2004), 49-60. On use of ARTs for HIV infection, JME 29 (2003), 313-29. Scandinavian recommendatioNS on sperm donation and women as research subjects are in BME 191 (2004), 8-11. On suggested legal changes to the regulation of ART in New Zealand, New Zealand Bioethics J. 4 (2003), 4-7. On human chimeras, NS (15 Nov. 2003), 34-6.

Fetal Environment & Neonates

Genetic susceptibility to neural tube defects vary with offspring phenotype, Clin. Gen. 64 (2003), 424-8. Use of folic acid is supported in NEJM 350 (2004), 101-3. A call for systematic identification of drugs that cause birth defects is NEJM 349 (2003), 2556-9.

The increasing use of cesareaNS in Europe are discussed in Time (5 April 2004), 42-9. Shaken baby syndrome is discussed in BMJ 328 (2004), 719-21; BME 193 (2004), 13-7. Low breast feeding rates in the USA is reviewed in AJPH 93 (2003), 2000-10.

Papers on the topic of birth order and rebelliousness in children are in Politics & the Life Sciences 19 (2000), 135-246. On mentoring to reduce risk of antisocial behaviour in children, BMJ 328 (2004), 512-4. The ethics of male circumcision are discussed in Amer. J. Bioethics 3 (Spring 2003), 35-48. On perinatal mortality in rural China, BMJ 327 (2003), 1318-22. The FDA has issued an alert on possible suicidal risk from use of antidepressants in children, JAMA 290 (2003), 2334-5; Science 303 (2004), 745. Autism is discussed in Lancet 363 (2004), 742-3; BMJ 328 (2004), 226-7, 364; Nature 426 (2003), 373; 428 (2004), 470-1. The importance of grandparents in human education is discussed in Nature 428 (2004), 116-8, 650-2, 128-9.

Genetic Disease Markers

MutatioNS in dynein motor complex cause motor neuron disease, Clin. Gen. 64 (2003), 377-81. A study of the genetic epidemiology of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is Clin. Gen. 64 (2003), 382-97. A series of papers on genetics and physiology are in J. Physiology 554 (1 Jan. 2004), 1-244. Genetics and migraine are discussed in Amer. J. Pharmacogenomics 2 (2002), 329-43. There has been extensive gene traffic on the mammalian X chromosome, Science 303 (2004), 537-40.

Papers on serotonin transporter genetics and behaviour are in Genes, Brain and Behaviour 2 (2003), 332-80. Techniques to map quantitative traits using multiple phenotypes are reported in Human Heredity 55 (2003), 1-26.

Obesity and genetics are discussed in Clin. Gen. 64 (2003), 380-1.

Genetic Screening Methodology

Use of a one primer array for testing over 10,000 SNPs is reported in Genome Research 14 (2004), 414-25; also see Nature 427 (2004), 91; 428 (2004), 377-8. They can also be used for bacteria testing, Nature 428 (2004), 359. Microarrays are discussed for cancer profiling in Lancet 362 (2003), 1428, 1439-44; Nature 428 (2004), 379-80; Science 303 (2004), 1754-5. The question will be how many conditioNS to screen for, BMJ 327 (2003), 1117.

On first trimester screening for Down syndrome, NEJM 350 (2004), 619-21; Prenatal Diagnosis 23 (2003), 1086-91. Detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood is progressing, JAMA 291 (2004), 1114-9, 1127, 1135-7; Prenatal Diagnosis 23 (2003), 1077-82. Genetic testing of sperm may become possible, NS (1 Nov. 2003), 19. On preimplantation diagnosis for chromosomal translocatioNS in miscarriage, F&S 81 (2004), 30-4.

Newborn screening may be expanded, JAMA 290 (2003), 2564-72, 2606-8; MJA 179 (2003), 400-1, 412-5; AJMG 125C (2004), 35-41.

DNA Fingerprinting & Privacy

The text of the UNESCO International Declaration on Human genetic Data can be viewed on the UNESCO IBC homepage. It is also reproduced in BME 192 (2004), 13-20. The text of the European Group of Experts in Science and New Technologies on Genetic testing in the workplace is in BME 192 (2004), 21-4. The general use of medical examinatioNS for employment is discussed in J. Law & Med. 11 (Aug. 2003), 93-102. On genetic privacy, NEJM 350 (2004), 1452-3; NS (20 March 2004), 20-1. A study of patient information privacy in public lifts in hospitals is in BMJ 327 (2003), 1024-5; and in hospitals, Nursing Times 99 (2 Dec. 2003), 18-21; JME 29 (2003), 220-4, 348-52. China's freedom of information bill is reviewed in NS (13 Dec. 2003), 21.

A paper on the implicatioNS of genetic testing for the UK insurance industry is Community Genetics 5 (2002), 102-9. A comparison of insurance and testing in different countries is Simon, J. "Genetic testing and insurance: An international comparison", IJB 14 (Sept. 2003), 59-78; and on the general topic, Monash Bioethics Review 22 (Jan. 2003), 25-41; Lancet 363 (2004), 395-6; Eur. J. HG 11 (2003), 909-10. On law and biological and family identity, IJB 14 (Sept. 2003), 81-92.

A review of the proposed expansion of US federal DNA databases is GeneWatch 17 (March 2004), 3-6. DNA evidence in crime is discussed in NEJM 350 (2004), 313-4; NS (1 Nov. 2003), 18. National DNA databases need to be made safer, Lancet 362 (2003), 1761-2. The ethics of stored tissue archives is discussed in JME 29 (2003), 343-7; BMJ 327 (2003), 1304; Lancet 363 (2004), 377. On the Icelandic DNA database coding, Bioethics 18 (2004), 27-49. The German National Ethics Council has a new opnion on Biobanks for research (Contact Email: kontakt@ethikrat.org). A proposal for a new way to distribute and store genetic resources is in Nature Reviews Genetics 5 (2004), 223-37.

There is criticism of the use of ethnic profiling by Japanese police, Nature 427 (2004), 383. A criticism of the short 4 week period given in the UK for public comments on biobank is in BME 191 (2004), 1.

Ethics & Genetic Screening

A paper on Pakistani attitudes towards carrier testing for thalassemia in adults is Community Genetics 5 (2002), 120-7. Attitudes towards screening for late onset genetic diseases in Flanders are reported in Community Genetics 5 (2002), 128-37. A Netherlands Health Council report on screening for Down syndrome in early pregnancy is Network 19 (March 2004), 24-5. Maternal education in France modified the age-related increase in prevalence of Down syndrome, Prenatal Diagnosis 24 (2004), 79-82. Discussion of screening for cancer susceptibility is in NEJM 349 (2003), 2080-1; Annual Report of GenomeCanada 2002/2003; BMJ 328 (2004), 148-51; JMG 40 (2003), 807-14. The dilemmas for a Jewish rabbi discussing prenatal diagnosis are discussed in NS (14 Feb. 2004), 44-7. Genetic counseling is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 1038-40; AJHG 74 (2004), 393-4; NZFP 30 (2003), 420-4. An obituary to Dorothy Wertz is in NatGen 4 (2003), 295. Providing audiotapes and extra material minimizes anxiety in more persoNS about the testing, Prenatal Diagnosis 23 (2003),1060-7.

A new supplement report is Parens, E., "Genetic differences and human identities. On why talking about behavioral genetics is important and difficult", Special Supplement, HCR 34 (Jan. 2004), S1-36. The ethics of funding and controlling genetic research on behaviour is discussed in light of the Nuffield Council report in Genes, Brain and Behaviour 2 (2003), 321-31. On ethics of pharmacogenetics, BIOForum Europe 6 (Nov. 2003), 319-21; a review of the Nuffield Council report is BME 193 (2004), 18-21. Population genetic screening is debated in Eur. J. HG 11 (2003), 903-5; MJA 179 (2003), 517-8. A series of papers in English and French on genetics and ethics are in IJB 14 (Sept. 2003), 11-226; also papers in English in Developing World Bioethics 3 (2003), 103-85; J. Clinical Ethics 13 (2002), 316-23; NEJM 349 (2003), 1870-3.

Ethics of preimplantation diagnosis is discussed in JME 29 (2003), 213-6, 217-9; JAMA 291 (2004), 927+. Discussion of the ethics of selecting children is in Bioethics 18 (2004), 72-83; JME 29 (2003), 369-70.

On eugenics, IJB 14 (Sept. 2003), 17-32; Monash Bioethics Review 20 (April 2001), 11-43; BMJ 328 (2004), 411. Gene culture coevolution is seen between cattle milk protein genes and human lactase genes, NatGen 35 (2003), 311-7. IQ and economics is discussed in Heredity 92 (2004), 359-62. On nature versus nurture, NatGen 35 (2003), 199-200. Past treatments for homosexuality are discussed in BMJ 328 (2004), 427-32; also see NS (17 Jan. 2004), 36-9. Disability is discussed in CQHE 13 (2004), 34-40. Stutterers have sued over a research study, BME 191 (2004), 3-4. Racism in USA is discussed in Amer. J. Bioethics 3 (Spring 2003), 1-11. LessoNS from the Holocaust for teaching nursing ethics are given in Nursing Ethics 11 (2004), 138-49.

Gene Therapy

China is the first country to approve commercial use of gene therapy, NatBio 22 (2004), 3-4; NatMed. 10 (2004), 9. It is for a type of cancer therapy. US FDA regulation of adverse gene therapy events is discussed in Politics & the Life Sciences 19 (2000), 261-8. Arguments against modification of the germline are in Salvi, M. "What is wrong in modifying the human germline?", IJB 14 (Sept. 2003), 33-44. Arguing for freedom is Robertson, JA., "Procreative liberty in the era of genomics", Amer. J. Law & Medicine 29 (2003), 439-87. Enhancement is discussed in NEJM 350 (2004), 1368; Bioethics 18 (2004), 1-26; BMJ 327 (2003), 1293328 (2004), 715; NatMed. 10 (2004), 227; NatBio 11 (2003), 1280-1. Regulation of gene therapy in Japan is discussed in NatBio 22 (2004), 343-5. In general on gene therapy, Science & Medicine (June 2003), 122-4; Nature 427 (2004), 779-81.

A website for gene therapy trials in USA is www.gemcris.od.nig.gov. On gene therapy for diabetics, Amer. J. Pharmacogenomics 2 (2002), 129-34. Gene therapy prospects for ParkinsonIs disease are reviewed in Amer. J. Pharmacogenomics 2 (2002), 135-46. The clinical protocol for a phase 1 vaccine safety and chemotherapy dose-finding trial of an allogenic GM-CSF secreting breast cancer vaccine is in Human Gene Therapy 15 (2004), 313-37. Possible links of certain gene therapy to leukemia are discussed in JAMA 290 (2003), 2535.

Human Genome Project (HGP)

A paper explaining HapMap is International HapMap Consoritum, "The International HapMap project", Nature 426 (2003), 789-96. Discussion of HapMap is also in Nature 426 (2003), 739. A paper on the way genomics is being applied is Bittles, AH. "Genomics and the changing profile of human disease", Biology International 45 (2003), 3-8. A letter by LL Cavalli-Sforza on the HGDP is in Nature 428 (2004), 467. Discussion of the concept of race is in SA (Dec. 2003), 50-7; Nature 427 (2004), 123-4, 275-8, 487-8; EJAIB 14 (March 2004).

The charitable trust as a model for genomic databanks is discussed in NEJM 350 (2004), 85-6. On genomic medicine, NEJM 349 (2003), 2170-1; Nature Reviews Genetics 5 (2004), 311-7. On comparisoNS to chimpanzees, Nature 427 (2004), 208-9; Genomics and Proteomics 3 (Nov. 2003), 18-23. On the rat genome sequence, Nature 428 (2004), 493-521; Science 303 (2004), 455-8; and the dog genome, Heredity 92 (2004), 273-4. Genomics of cacao is discussed in Trends in Plant Sciences 8 (2003), 561-3. On the environmental genome shotgun sequencing of the Sargasso sea, Science 304 (2004), 58-60, 66-74. On human chromosome 13 sequence, Nature 428 (2004), 522-35.

A study of the way language and distance isolate persoNS genetically in Belgium is Annals Hum. Gen. 68 (2003), 1-16. The number of SNPs loci for detecting population structure is between 65-100 independent loci, Human Heredity 55 (2003), 37-45.

General Medical Ethics

Papers on gender in India and religion are in Dharma Deepaka 7 (2003), 45-68. A study of books and journals on medical ethics in the Turkish republic period is Turkish J. Medical Ethics 4 (2003), 240-5. Empirical bioethics is discussed in Health Care Analysis 11 (2003), 3-13. Papers on ethics in indigenous health research are discussed in Monash Bioethics Review 22 (Oct. 2003), 8-44.

ObligatioNS of researchers to subjects for clinical care is discussed in HCR 34 (Jan. 2004), 25-33. Divergent standards for consent in research are reviewed in BME 194 (2004), 13-21. The information materials are also often difficult to read for participants, BME 192 (2004), 13-6. The guidelines of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences on research on prisoners are in BME 192 (2004), 7-11. A series of papers from a conference on Placebos: Ethics and Health Care Research are in Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (2004), 1-197. Papers on ethics committees include New Zealand Bioethics J. 4 (2003), 8-15.

The role of Japanese NGOs and the Hermit Crabs Home mental health project is Nursing Ethics 11 (2004), 203-4.

A discussion of human dignity is in CQHE 13 (2004), 7-14.

Law & Medical Ethics

European researchers have signed an Internet petition calling for changes in the proposed EU rules on patient trials, mainly against the extra paperwork, Nature 427 (2004), 276. On Canadian Medical Law a book review is CMAJ 169 (2003), 447. The principle of disclosure in regulatory science is discussed in Science 302 (2003), 2073. Data safety monitoring boards are discussed in NEJM 350 (2004), 1143-7. The use of scientific evidence in court is discussed in SA (Dec. 2003), 12-3; NS (31 Jan. 2004), 3. The EU has criticized the execution in Arkansas on 6 January 2004 of a mentally ill prisoner forcefully medicated, Lancet 363 (2004), 220. AccusatioNS of bias have prompted a review of ethical guidelines, Nature 426 (2003), 741.

Wrong diagnoses are killing patients, NS (21 Feb. 2004), 12-3. Medical mistakes are reported in BMJ 328 (2004), 55, 199-202; BME 194 (2004), 17-24. A study of persoNS who were operated on immediately after an intraoperative death found no increase in mortality however a longer stay in hospital, BMJ 328 (2004), 379-82. The new UK Council for the Regulation of healthcare professionals has expressed concern over some GMC rulings, BMJ 328 (2004), 541. The GMC has admitted some mistakes in the past, BMJ 327 (2003), 1248. On self-regulation of medical professionals in the UK, BMJ 328 (2004), 248. A UK national system for reporting medical errors has been launched, BMJ 328 (2004), 481. There is allegation of unauthorized human experiments in the UK being made against the person who is involved in claiming links between MMR vaccine and autism (see Diseases and Vaccine News section), BMJ 328 (2004), 726.

A discussion of the German National Ethics Council is BIOforum Europe 5 (Sept. 2003), 240-1. They have recently released a report on ethics of biobanks, and an English summary is available (www.ethikrat.org). Papers on bioethics committees and democracy are in Bioethics 17 (2003), 301-68. An introduction to the New Zealand Bioethics Council is in New Zealand Bioethics J. 5 (2004), 13-5. More information is on their web site, www.bioethics.go.nz. A new newsletter is being produced by the European Group of Ethics in Science and New Technologies to the European Commission, called "Ethically Speaking", since Feb 2003 (http://europa.eu.int/comm./European_group_ethics).

The UK may make an ethical code for scientists working with potentially dangerous research that could be misused by terrorists, Lancet 362 (2003), 1634. There has been widespread criticism of the US broadcast of the videotape of the medical exam of Saddam Hussein, BMJ 328 (10 Jan. 2004).

Scientific Ethics

The conflicts of interests of research ethics committees are discussed in BME 191 (2004), 13-7. On conflicts of interest, NEJM 350 (2004), 327-32; BMJ 328 (2004), 742-3; Science 303 (2004), 603-4, 1447, 1749; JME 30 (2004), 1-52; Nature 428 (2004), 589; JAMA 290 (2003), 2521; Lancet 363 (2004), 380; NatMed. 10 (2004), 16.

Medical journals have conflicts of interest in the publication of book reviews, Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (2003), 471-82. Peer review is discussed in BMJ 328 (2004), 657-8, 673-5, 658; NEJM 350 (2004), 103-4; Nature 427 (2004), 196; Science 303 (2004), 1945. A call for medical editors to accept an ethical code is made in Nature 428 (2004), 5; NS (6 March 2004), 11. The US policy on editing papers from certain countries is being relaxed after much criticism, Science 303 (2004), 1742; Nature 427 (2004), 663; BMJ 328 (2004), 543; NatMed. 10 (2004), 107. Plagiarism is discussed in Nature 427 (2004), 1, 3, 666, 777; and fraud in Nature 427 (2004), 393. Authorship is discussed in Nature 426 (2003), 602.

In general on improving scientific ethics, BMJ 327 (2003), 1436-9, 328 (2004), 66, 187; MJA 180 (2004), 149-51; Nature 427 (2004), 1, 381; Science 303 (2004), 298, 606. Open access to research is important for improving quality of research, Lancet 362 (2003), 1510, 1575-7; Science 303 (2004), 1467, 1777-8.

Euthanasia & Terminal Care

A paper in Italian on palliative care is in Bioetica e Cultura 12 (No. 2, 2003), 225-32. A paper on the regulatory frameworks for long term restraints among the elderly, Health Law Review 12 (2003), 22-8. On palliative care, BMJ 328 (2004), 725; MJA 180 (2004), 207-8; Lancet 362 (2003), 1812-3; JAMA 290 (2003), 2485. A study on the effects of bereavement on family caregivers of persoNS with dementia is in NEJM 349 (2003), 1936-42; 350 (2004), 733-4.

Artificial hydration for PVS patients is discussed in National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2003), 719-30; Lancet 362 (2003), 1465. On withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment, Bioethics Outlook 14 (June 2003), 1-7; NEJM 349 (2003), 2565-7. Canadian law and advance directives is discussed in J. Law & Med. 11 (Aug. 2003), 59-73. A study of the impact of living wills in Japan is JME 29 (2003), 248-52. On advance care planning, NEJM 350 (2004), 7-8. Finnish nurses and physiciaNS views on end of life are in Nursing Ethics 11 (2004), 165-78. On ageism in science, Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (2003), 445-52. Cultural issues in suicide are discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 2276-8. On refusal by patients of foods and fluids, NEJM 349 (2003), 1777-8.

A Council of Europe ruling on euthanasia and assisted dying is in BME 192 (2004), 3-4. End of life practices in Europe are discussed in JAMA 290 (2003), 2938-9. A survey of ethical issues experienced by nursing in caring for elderly persoNS is Nursing Ethics 11 (2004), 150-64. Choices by older persoNS in the UK is discussed in BMJ 328 (2004), 4-5; Nature 428 (2004), 116-8.

Organ Transplants & Brain Death

Pharmacogenomic analysis can optimize the dose for drugs taken for immunosuppression among organ recipients, Amer. J. Pharmacogenomics 2 (2002), 291-301. On the kidney trade in India, Indian J. Medical Ethics 1 (April 2004), 36-7. In general on the organ trade, BMJ 327 (2003), 1009. The use of children as organ donors is discussed in papers in CQHE 13 (Spring 2004), 117-69. Matching kidneys by HLA type is reviewed in NEJM 350 (2004), 545-51. An estimate of the number of potential organ donors in USA is made in NEJM 349 (2003), 2073-5. Ethics of surrogate consent for living organ donation are discussed in JAMA 291 (2004), 728, 732-5. Living liver donation is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 1287.

A discussion of the UK Human Tissue Bill is BME 194 (2004), 22-4; BMJ 328 (2004), 533-4. Teaching autopsies are fading in the UK, BMJ 328 (2004), 165-7. Respect for the dead is discussed in Ethics 114 (2003), 38-59. The text of the UK Medical Research Council Interim guidance on ethics of research involving human material derived from the nervous system is in BME 193 (2004), 7-11. Tissue typing for bone marrow transplants to children are discussed in Monash Bioethics Review 22 (Oct. 2003), 45-55. Research to regenerate spinal cord is reported in NatBio 22 (2004), 297-305. On development of an adaptive immune system in cord blood cell transplanted mice, Science 304 (2004), 104-7.

On xenotransplantation, Politics & the Life Sciences 19 (2000), 247-60; Health Law J. 10 (2002), 31-75.

The artificial heart is discussed in NEJM 350 (2004), 542-3. Cochlear implants are discussed in BMJ 328 (2004), 420; FDA Consumer (Nov 2003), 35.

Health Costs

The ethics of health care for illegal immigrants is an issue facing many countries, HCR 34 (Jan. 2004), 34-41; Lancet 362 (2003), 2019-20. Human rights and the poor are discussed in NEJM 350 (2004), 737; BMJ 327 (2003), 1232; Lancet 362 (2003), 1591. Human rights and Australian international policy is discussed in MJA 180 (2004), 163-5. On the constitutional obligatioNS in South Africa to treat using antiretroviral medicines, Health Law Review 12 (2003), 9-15.

A report on US health disparities is Science 303 (2004), 451. Futility is discussed in Nursing Ethics 11 (2004), 77-83.

Internet

The Hellenic Republic (Greece) National Bioethics Commission has a book summarizing their English decisions, and also a web site: www.bioethics.gr


Prepared by Darryl Macer
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