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Challenges for Bioethics in Asia

Editor: Darryl R.J. Macer

Copyright 2004, Eubios Ethics Institute All commercial rights reserved. This publication may be reproduced for limited educational or academic use, however please enquire with Eubios Ethics Institute.

The papers in this book can be downloaded in MSWord document files. Please also check the education and behaviorome sites for powerpoint files.


The Behaviourome Project

Download pages 1-169 as MS Word file

Moving Forward with Ideas - Darryl Macer 1
Description of Behaviourome Project Methods Groups 11
Discussion from TRT8 on the Mental Mapping Project 20
Application of Behaviourome Analysis to ideas about Biotechnology - M.Inaba & Macer 57
Behavioral Foundations for the Behaviourome / Mind Mapping Project - John E. LaMuth 60
Human Biodiversity: What we can Learn from the history of mental mapping
- Frank Leavitt 68
Integrative Mental Mapping - A Cosmist Approach - Konstantin S. Khroutski 72
The Evolution of Thinking and Ideas (Behaviourome Method 5) With Special
Reference to the Politics of Reproduction - Irina Pollard 88
Method to increase Students' Cognitive Potentialities using the Elementary Pragmatic Model - P.De Giacomo, L.Mich, M.Storelli, S.De Nigris, A.De Giacomo, C.Tarquinio, R.Masellis 95
A Method of Counseling on line using the Elementary Pragmatic Model - P. De Giacomo, L.Mich, M.Storelli, S.De Nigris, A.De Giacomo, C.Tarquinio, R.Masellis 102
ID-Cartography: How to build an Idea-Counter and Idea- Maps?- Francisco Iturra 109
Integrative Thinking Outside And Inside The Box - Graham Douglas 113
The Potential of the Behaviourome - Morgan Pollard 122
How to assess people's views of biotechnology: Lessons from Japan - M. Inaba & D. Macer 126
Empirical Dimensions of Human Idea for Plant Genetic Resources Conservation
and Management - Dipankar Saha, H.S.Sen and A.Saha 127
The Behaviourome and Proposal for an Integrative Human Idea Map (TRT8) - D. Macer 128
Choose Between Co-Operation And Annihilation: A Mental Mapping Project
Towards A More Generously Directed Altruism - Irina Pollard 128
Multiple Facets of the Fantasies of the Asian mind - Jayapaul Azariah 129
Arguments of the great philosophers that our thoughts are not in our brains - F. Leavitt 130
Idea diversity and cultural borrowing - Tim Boyle 131
The Influence of Taoism at the End of Life - Dena Hsin and Darryl Macer 132
Transforming ideas into policy making- thoughts, values and global governance
- Minakshi Bhardwaj 133
When did 'bioethics' begin in each country? A proposal of a comparative study
- Masahiro Morioka 133
Ideas of the Japanese Mind: An Outline of Japanese Ethics, Morals and Religions
- Shinryo N. Shinagawa 135
Ecological feedback drives the evolution of ideas and living things, which carry them
- Rick Weisburd, Wenjun Li and Ganlin Huang 140
Ideas of the Chinese Mind - Baoqi Su 141
The Human Idea Map: A follow-up of the Human Genome Map? - M. Sleeboom 146
The Modeling of Sustainable Development and its Relevance to a Human
Ideas Map for Bioethics - Morgan Pollard 151

Access to Drugs, Genomics and Bioethics in Developing Countries (United Nations University (UNU) Bioethics Roundtable)

Download pages 170-429 as MS Word file

The UNU as a Forum for Bioethics - Hamed Zakri 170
Identifying Priority Areas in Global Bioethics - Mihaela Serbulea 171
Poverty: With Special Attention To Bioethics - Shinryo N. Shinagawa 174
Public Health and the WTO Free Trade Rules-Access to Patented Medicines
in Developing Countries - Yang Yi-Ching 178
Access to Drugs and Medical Services in Turkey: Asian and European - Sahin Aksoy 189
Dalits in India are a Nation within a Nation- N. Manova Santhosham 192
The Bioethics of Rational Pharmacotherapy in Russia: Objective and Subjective
Problems and their Solution - Konstantin S. Khroutski and Olga A. Khroutski 194
Access to Medical Therapy and Genomics in China: Ethical Issues in the
International HapMap Project - Yanguang Wang 199
Risks, Risk Management and Remedy in ELSI - What Can We Learn from the
"Drug Relief Fund" of Taiwan - Niu Huei-Chih 203
Cultural Diversity-Biodiversity-Traditional Medicine Linkages in India:
An Ecoethical Impact Analysis - Abhik Gupta 204
Biobanks, genomics and databases: a question of attribution - Minakshi Bhardwaj 211
The Ethical Justification of Placebo Trials: The Continuing Challenge - Alireza Bagheri 217
Similarity and Difference Between Japan and Korea in the Debate on Bioethics
- Lee Sung Kyu 221
Euthanasia is Under Discussion in Korea - Park SY, Jee YH. & Choi HS. 222
Reflections on the Rights of Nature in Humankind in Public Health Decisions in
Developing Countries - Jayapaul Azariah 226
Discussion 232
Medical Ethics
Regulating Assisted Reproductive Technology and Genetically Modified Organisms:
a Comparative Perspective on Japan - Uwe Serdčlt 239
The Classifications of Bioethics From My Lecture-Notes of Introduction to Bioethics and
Medical Ethics in Hirosaki University School Of Medicine - Shinryo N. Shinagawa 240
"Medicine is the Art of Perfect Virtue": Its Bright Side and Dark Side in Japan
- Noritoshi Tanida 244
Analysis of Informed Consent in Chinese Medical Practice - Li Zhongli et al. 246
Informed Consent Documents for Medical Interventions in 15th to 19th Century
Ottoman State - M. Alpertunga Kara, Ali Haydar Bayat, Sahin Aksoy 247
The issue of trust in the doctor-patient relationship in Japan - Atsushi Asai,
Motoki Ohnishi, Etsuyo Nishigaki, and Tsuguya Fukui 250
Problems Over Organ Transplantation in Korea - Heo Yang Hee and Lee Hea Jin 263
A Community Without A Kidney: A Tragedy? Analysis of the Moral and Ethical Aspects
of Organ Donation- Francis Aguilar and Lalaine Siruno 265
Current Status of Organ Transplants in Japan- Kenji Yuzawa 273
Six Patterns of Grieving in Organ-Donating Decision Makers: Narratives from
5 Donor Families- Keiko Yasuoka 274
Extreme Prematurity: Facts, Fiction and U.S. Law - Geoffrey Miller 281
The Status of Ethics Committees in Japan - Yasuko Shirai 282
National Bioethics Committees in Muslim Countries- Nageen Ainuddin 287
Whistle-blowing as a Professional Responsibility: Japanese Nurses' Reflections
- Emiko Konishi and Anne J Davis 288
Information Ethics As Related To Monitored Therapy - Iwona Andrys, Jaros_aw Ast,
Barbara Brokl-Stolarczyk 290
The Korean "Bioethics and Biosafety Bill"- Young-Mo Koo 293
On Involving a Christian College in AIDS Education and Mission - Joshua Kalapati 293
An Opinion on the Japanese View of Life and Death-In Comparison with Studies of
Foreign Scholars on Death and Funerals - Gosen T. Ikeguchi, H.Y. Li and H. Ishizu 294
Neglected Bioethical Issues in the Management of Human Mycoses - Chandra Jeet Singh 300
Discussion 303
Ethics of Genomics and Biotechnology
Designing Life and New Eugenics - Motomu Shimoda 312
Eugenics, War & History: Demystifying "East Asian" Bioethics - Jennifer Robertson 318
Embryonic Stem Cell Research: Ethical vs. Scientific Issues - Maria Fidelis C. Manalo 323
Beyond Therapy and Liberal New Eugenics - Osamu Kanamori 324
Unblocking Gene Patents: An Antitrust Approach? - Shamnad Basheer 327
Human Cloning: Thai Buddhist Perspectives - Pinit Ratanakul 328
An Attempt to Mediate the Conflicts Between the Ethic of Inevitability and the
Ethic of Inseparability - Mi Jung Koo and Jae Sub Yang 334
Japanese Views on Biotechnology and Modern Science and Technology
- Yuko Mizugaki and Darryl Macer 336
Confidentiality and Duty to Warn: Challenges of Genetics Information on the Physician-Patient Relationship in Taiwan - Shinrou Lin 340
Human Cloning in Islamic Jurisprudence - Abbas Ali Soltani 349
Human Cloning: Reflections on the Meaning of Life and Morality - Xu Zongliang 352
Moral Disputes Over the Emergency Morning After Pill
- Park Young-Hee & Lee Suk-Hee 355
Cloning Controversies in Korea - Park Hee-Joo 356
Religions in Conundrum : Conflict or Co-existence - R.N. Sharma 358
Beyond Informed Consent: A Complex Model For Genetic Information Regulation
- Wen-Chen Chang and Jiunn-Rong Yeh 359
How Japanese Companies Face Bioethics - Makina Kato and Darryl Macer 367
Bioethics, Industry and Genome-related Business - Yoshihiro Okada and Darryl Macer 382
Ethical Aspects of Counselling in Family Planning Services
- Fatma Ersin, Fatma Gozukara, Nurten Aksoy and Sahin Aksoy 384
Haeckelian Legacy of Popularization - Vertebrate Embryos and the Survival of the Fakest
- Pauli Ojala 388
Gene Therapy- A Scientific and Bioethical Challenge - Oana Iftime 410
Discussion 425

Environmental Ethics

Download pages 430-530 as MS Word file

Environmental Ethics in Japanese Companies - Fumika Niwa and Darryl Macer 430
Ethics in Agriculture and Agricultural Biotechnology - Kazuo N. Watanabe 436
Production of Recombinant Proteins in Transgenic Plants: Biosafety Considerations
- Hamideh Ofoghi 438
Ecotourism Under Construction - Mary Ann Chen Ng 441
Ecosystem processes & conservation in Nanji Island Biosphere Reserve - Rick Weisburd 441
Agricultural Marketing Beyond Liberalisation in Pakistan - Farzana Panhwar 442
GM Foods-related Consumer Protection Framework in Taiwan - Peilun Teng 445
In Depth Bioethical Analysis of GM Crops in India - Chandra Jeet Singh and AK.Yadav 446
Integral and Differential Analysis of Bioethics in Understanding Agroenvironmental Altruism
- Dipankar Saha, H.S. Sen and A. Saha 450
Sexuality in the Context of Human Values- D.S.Sheriff 457
Environmental Challenges and Perspectives: Nepal- SP. Sharma and HP. Pokharel 457
Discussion 458
Ethics of Nanotechnology and Information Technology
Ethics in a High Energy Physics Project - Nicolas Delerue 463
Nanotechnology: A Boon to Humanity if Bioethics is Practiced - M.A. Jothi Rajan,
Arockiam Thaddeus, T.Nirmala, T.S.Vivekanandam, S. Umapathy, Yesu Thangam 468
Status of Information Ethics and Developing Countries- V.R.Manoj & Jayapaul Azariah 476
Discussion 483
Asian Bioethics and Future Issues
Future of Asian Bioethics - Renzong Qiu 485
Globalisation of Bioethics - from the Asian perspective - Hyakudai Sakamoto 487
Some Thoughts About Bioethics In Asia - Sang-yong Song 493
Policy Proposal to Increase Female Scientists in Japan: Proposal of Gender
Mainstreaming Approach - Asao Shimizu 493
Women's Ethical Status in Iran - Zahra Govahi 494
Trafficking in Girls: The Role of Media in Healing the Bleeding Wound of Nepal
- Shubha Shankar Kandel 497
The 10th Year of the Turkish Bioethics Association and its Significance for
Bioethics In Turkey -Funda G. Kadioglu, Selim Kadioglu and Sahin Aksoy 505
Ethical Approach to Public Health in China - Xiao Wei 507
Hypothetical political framework for bioethical governance in Japan- Yasushi Makiyama 512
Future of Bioethics Commission: A Peace Making Organisation
- M.A. Jothi Rajan, Arockiam Thaddeus, T.S.Vivekanandam, S. Umapathy 520
Discussion 525

International Bioethics Education Project and Network

Download pages 530-656 as MS Word file

Introduction to the Project on Bioethics for Informed Choices - Darryl Macer 531
Teaching about bioethics: A facilitation approach - Lindsey N. Conner 533
Clinical Anthropology, a PBL Method for Education of Humanity and Ethics
- Shin'ichi Shoji 545
Bioethics Education in a Catholic University - Joong Ho Kim 546
Philosophy For Children: A Model for A Bioethics Community of Inquiry
- Leonardo de Castro 547
Teaching medical ethics in different cultures- Ole Doering 551
Bioethics and high school students' views of life: What happened to pupils'
consciousnesses through bioethics lessons - Shunji Miura 558
Syllabus of Classes on Neonaturalistic Bioethics - A Polish Example - Jan Wawrzyniak 560
The Application of Bioethics in a Technical High School as a Behavioral Educational
Model to Strengthen Moral Values and Modify Risky Behavior among Teenage Students
- Martha Marcela Rodriguez Alanis 568
Download pages 572-7 as separate MS Word file
Teaching About Brain Death - Li Kuang 578
Lessons on Thinking About Bioethics with High School Students - Naoki Shiraishi 580
Bioethics Education in the University of Madras & MGR Medical University
- Aruna Sivakami 582
Teaching about Animal Rights - Lei Li 583
Teaching about Truth Telling - Dena Hsin-Chen Hsin 586
What Medical Students Expect from Medical Ethics Classes - Kenji Hattori 589
Teaching about Genetic Privacy - Fu Jinhua 590
Video Conferencing for Bioethics Education: A trial in bioethics education to combine
different subjects, different grade students, different regions and different schools
- Yuzuru Shatari 592
Video Conferencing for Bioethics Education - Mika Asato 594
Trials at Ateneo de Manila High School - Ester Estrella M. Abito 597
Bringing ethics to life: teaching bioethics at both the high school and college levels
in China - Baoqi Su 602
Trials in the Middle School Attached to Beijing Normal University - Jing Zhuo 606
The Gazing of Life-to Discuss, to Construct and to Form a Common Life Ethic Via
Images - Wang Bing 607
Taiwanese Trials of Bioethics in Freshman English Classes - Jin Hwa Lee 610
Australian Feedback On The Bioethics Education Project With Special Reference To
Lifestyle Factors Affecting Fertility And The Assisted Reproductive Technologies
- Irina Pollard 612
Japanese Trials of the Bioethics Education Project - Fumi Maekawa and Darryl Macer 614
Teaching about Surrogacy - Shigeko Tsuboi 618
Teaching about GM Food in the Context of the Japanese Economy - Toru Yamashita 621
Courses Re-thinking Health and Illness - Hiroaki Koizumi 623
Discussing "choice" as "one's own issue"- Takejiro Ishizuka and Kazuya Eguchi 625
Innovative Technique of Introducing Bioethics - Programmed Instructions
- M.A. Jothi Rajan, Arockiam Thaddeus, T.S.Vivekanandam, S. Umapathy, S.Jeyakumar 627
Bioethics Education and Information Ethics Education - Kaneo Inoue 633
Health Education for Dalit ("Untouchable") Mothers in Tamil-Nadu:
Report and Evaluation - Frank (Yeruham) Leavitt 634
Continuing Medical Education and Bioethics: Another Option to Advance Bioethics
in Taiwan- Shiu-I Yang & Mu-Li Wu 635
Bioethics as Technology Education - Peter A. Sy 637
Nepalese Children Are Not a Peace Zone - Prem Kaidi 638
Teaching bioethics: a pedagogical model using children's complementation of moral
conflict stories - Eliane S. Azevedo, Synara M. Leal and Erico M. Goncalves 642

Editorial Preface
This volume of 140 papers with discussion is a compilation of papers presented at the Fifth Asian Bioethics Conference (ABC5) and Ninth International Tsukuba Bioethics Roundtable (TRT9), held in February 2004. The first major section is on the Behaviourome Project, and includes the initial discussion and some additional papers that were presented at the Eighth International Tsukuba Bioethics Roundtable (TRT8), held in February 2003, also in Tsukuba Science City, Japan. There are also powerpoint files from the behaviourome project and the bioethics education project on the Eubios website, and the EubiosCD includes them.
The title "Challenges for Bioethics from Asia" does not imply that the papers here represent "Asian Bioethics", however, the majority of papers are from members of the Asian Bioethics Association and represent a broad range of bioethics research in Asia. The subject of bioethics is alive and active in Asia, and there are many lines of similarity with other regions of the world. Some persons did not send their papers so only abstracts are included, but those who are interested in the topics can still network with each other. There are papers on topics from medical ethics, environmental ethics, a United Nations University (UNU) Bioethics Roundtable that explored bioethics priorities for developing countries, information technology, genomics and biotechnology, and Asian bioethics. The Asian Bioethics Association seems stable but needs nurturing and support of members to strengthen each other.
There is also an extensive collection of papers on bioethics education, representing the efforts to develop and assess teaching materials in bioethics, in a project to develop teaching materials for bioethics. For this the support of the Sasagawa Peace Foundation is essential, and the international bioethics education network that first met in 2004 at ABC5/TRT9 continues to develop methods to study the impact of bioethics education on young persons lives. More effective methods are needed, while also exploring a diversity of approaches and goals that will develop the bioethical maturity of society. The website already includes the textbook, and materials in different languages.
There are many persons to thank for their help in conducting the meeting, including my students at the University of Tsukuba, my family who actively arranged the receptions and cultural events, the Weisburd's and the Bagheri's, colleagues from around the world who gave their time, thought and even money to the occasion. In the preparation of this book I thank especially Dr. Richard Clark for devoted English translations of Japanese papers on education, and Mary Ann Chen Ng for transcribing the discussion from ABC5/TRT9. I also thank the staff of United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies for supporting the development of a further venue for bioethics debates in Japan, and we hope that the foundations of TRT meetings will be useful for future bioethics in Japan and Asia.
This book is written in a time of personal transition after 15 years of the University of Tsukuba, I am leaving. While informally I will continue to support students and those colleagues who wish a bioethics laboratory continues there, it is now time to apply lessons learnt to many more cultures and places. From TRT1-9 there was so much fruitful discussion and most is as yet untranscribed, but on video, and in memories. Ideally these will be available in the future also for scholars to learn. The lessons learnt are many for all who participated.
I expect to host more TRT style meetings, but they are likely to be in other parts of the world than Tsukuba. Eubios Ethics Institute will continue to have a website and one of its bases in Japan, but there are many areas of the world to expand reflection of bioethics and the ethics of science and technology in. I hope we can continue to meet in new fora retaining the informality and frankness of the debate in an open atmosphere for all to join. Only in this open way can we try to understand each other and explore ideas in theory and in practice.
Thanks again to all who were there in body and in spirit.

Darryl Macer.
15 October, 2004

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