Attitudes to Genetic Engineering

Japanese and International Comparisons

Darryl R. J. Macer, Ph.D. Eubios Ethics Institute 1992


Copyright 1992, Darryl R. J. Macer. All commercial rights reserved. This publication may be reproduced for limited educational or academic use, however please enquire with the author.


Tables on-line, but the figures are not included.


To the Japanese language version


Contents

Preface vii-viii

1. Bioethics and Biotechnology 1

1.1. Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in Japan 1
1.2. Bioethics 3

Autonomy 4
Rights 4
Beneficence 5
Do no harm 5
Justice 6
Confidentiality 7
Animal Rights 7
Environmental Ethics 8

1.3. Decision-making 8

2. Samples and Method 10

2.1. Sample Selection 10
2.2. Questionnaire Design 11
2.3. Sample Response 12
2.4. Sample Characteristics 15

3. Perceptions of Science and Technology 19

3.1. Interest in Science and Technology 19
3.2. Awareness of Specific Scientific Developments 23
3.3. Perceived Benefits of Science and Technology 27
3.4. Concerns about Science and Technology 29
3.5. Benefits and Harms from Science and Technology 34

4. Genetic Manipulation 39

4.1. Knowledge of Genetic Manipulation 39
4.2. Acceptability of Genetic Manipulation 41
4.3. Perceived Benefits of Genetic Manipulation 51
4.4. Perceived Hazards of Genetic Manipulation 62
4.5.Attitudes to Genetic Engineering Facilities in Japan 75
4.6. Environmental Applications of Genetic Engineering 77

5. Economic Issues 82

5.1. Biobusiness 82

Economics versus Human and Environmental Benefit 83
Economics and the Environment 84
International Economical Implications 85

5.2. Patenting Life 87
5.3. Public Attitudes to Patenting 90
5.4. Patent law should be reexamined 92

6. Consumption of Products made from GMOs 94

6.1. GMOs and Food 94
6.2. Concerns about Foodstuffs made from GMOs 97

Do we need special regulations? 108

7. Genetic Screening and Gene Therapy 110

7.1. Medical Ethics and Medical Genetics 110

The Medical Profession 110
Recognition of Autonomy 111
Informed Consent 112
Genetics and Justice 113

7.2. Genetic Screening 114

Prenatal Genetic Screening 116
Genetic Testing 120

7.3. Gene Therapy 122

8. Public, Scientists, and Education 125

8.1. Public and Scientists 125
8.2. Credibility of Statements 128
8.3. Regulation of Scientists 131
8.4. Biotechnology Regulation 134

Environmental Release of GMOs 136
Food and Drug Safety 141

8.5. Public Understanding 142

Public Understanding 142
Genetic Engineering and the Curriculum 142
The Media 147

9. Conclusions and Recommendations 150

9.1. Warning! 150
9.2. Conclusions 150
9.3. Recommendations 152

10. Questionnaire 155

11. Bibliography 159

12. Index 163

Tables and Figures


National Library of New Zealand
Cataloguing-in-Publication data

Macer, Darryl R. J. (Darryl Raymund Johnson), 1962-
Attitudes to genetic engineering : Japanese and
international comparisons / Darryl R.J. Macer. Christchurch,
N.Z. : Eubios Ethics Institute, 1992.
1 v.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-908897-02-2
1. Genetic engineering--Japan--Public opinion.
2. Biotechnology--Japan--Public opinion. 3. Genetic
engineering--Japan--Moral and ethical aspects.
4. Biotechnology--Japan--Moral and ethical aspects.
5. Bioethics--Japan--Public opinion. 6. Public opinion--
Japan. I. Eubios Ethics Institute. II. Title.
303.4830952 (660.650952)

Key Words: Animal Rights, Bioethics, Biotechnology, Eugenics, Field Release of GMOs, Genetic Counseling, Genetic Engineering, Genetic Screening, Genetic Therapy, Genetically Modified Organisms, Human Genome Project, Medical Ethics, Patenting of Life, Public Perceptions of Bioethics, Public Perceptions of Biotechnology, Public Perceptions of Genetic Engineering, Public Perceptions of Science and Technology, Reproductive Technology, Risk Evaluation, Sustainable Agriculture.

Further copies can be obtained by ordering from the Eubios Ethics Institute,
Email asianbioethics@yahoo.co.nz

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