Bioethics in Asia

The Proceedings of the UNESCO Asian Bioethics Conference (ABC97) and the WHO-assisted Satellite Symposium on Medical Genetics Services, 3-8 Nov, 1997 in Kobe/Fukui, Japan; 3rd MURS Japan International Symposium; 2nd Congress of the Asian Association of Bioethics; 6th International Bioethics Seminar in Fukui

Editors: Norio Fujiki, M.D. & Darryl R.J. Macer, Ph.D.
Eubios Ethics Institute 1998.

Copyright 1998, Eubios Ethics Institute All commercial rights reserved. This publication may be reproduced for limited educational or academic use, however please enquire with Eubios Ethics Institute.

These files are only text-files, and contain no photographs. The figures in this book are not on-line, only legends are given, but the tables are on-line.

To the Japanese language edition


x-xii Editorial Preface and Summary

1-9 O1. Opening Address Mizuo Kuroda (Chair)
O2. Opening RemarksMichio Okamoto
O3. Welcome AddressYukitoshi Sasayama
O4. Welcome AddressAndrzej M. Wojtczak
O5. Message from the Director-General of UNESCOFederico Mayor
O6. Science, Technology and BioethicsWataru Mori
10-12 O7. UNESCO's IBC and its Declaration on the Human Genome David Shapiro
13-16 O8. Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights

1. Law and Ethics in the World
(Chaired by David Shapiro, IBC)
17-19 1.1. Human Rights and Health: Some Global Perspectives Sev S. Fluss
20-251.2. Legislative Challenges of the Human Genome Michael Yesley
26-341.3. A Map to a New Treasure Island: The Human Genome and the Concept of Common Heritage Christian Byk
35-401.4. The Human Genome: Metaphysical Object and Political Icon Alex Mauron
41-501.5. Legal Limitations on Research and its Results? The Cloning Paradigm Carlos Romeo Casabona
51-551.6. Bioethics and New European Abortion Legislation Nenad Hlaca
56-581.7. Law of Life Units as a New Legal Order Zentaro Kitagawa
59-631.8. Human Genome as Common Heritage of Mankind - with a proposal - Ryuichi Ida

2. Foundations of Asian Bioethics
(Chaired by Sang-yong Song, ABA and Hyakudai Sakamoto, ABA)
66-69 2.1. The Relevance of Bioethics in Malaysian Society Chee Heng Leng
70-73 2.2. Asian/Indian Man: An Agonising Appraisal R.N. Sharma
74-76 2.3. The Implications and Obligations of Self-Financing Medical Education in a Southern Country V. Manickavel & P. Rajaram
77-802.4. Problems of Principlism in WASP Bioethics Carl B. Becker
81-85 2.5. The Bhagavad Gita on Genetics and Behaviour81 K.K. Dua
86-91 2.6. China and Eugenics - Preliminary remarks concerning the Structure and Impact of a Problem of International Bioethics Ole Doring
92 2.7. Biotechnology and Society92 Amit Krishna De
93-97 2.8. Advancing Biotechnology and the Crisis of Purpose R.R. Kishore
98-99 2.9. Bioethics in Thailand Pinit Ratanakul
100-102 Discussion

3. Health and Asian Bioethics
(Chaired by Renzong Qiu, IBC & ABA, Takashi Fujimoto, ABA)
103-106 3.1. Doing Bioethics in the Philippines: Challenges and Intersections of Culture(s) and Medicine(s) Peter Sy
107-109 3.2. Truth Telling to the Patient: Cultural Diversity & the East Asian Perspective Ruiping Fan
110-111 3.3. Are Physicians Reluctant to Withdraw Life-Sustaining Treatment? Arelene A. Ricalde, Lorene Siaw and S. Y. Tan
112-114 3.4. Ethical Issues in the Generation & Utilisation of Knowledge in Biotechnology S. Visalakshi
115-117 3.5. Ethical Problems and Clinical Trials. The Problems of AZT Trials for Vertical Transmission in Developing Countries Deborah Zion
118-119 3.6. HIV and Prostitution: Feminist Perspective118 Jin-Ling Wang
120-1253.7. AIDS Vaccine Test and Ethics Ann Boyd and Pinit Ratanakul
126-129 3.8. Breakaway from the Medical Misunderstanding of Approaching Life's End Li Lu and Shuan-Kuaan Zhu

4. International Education and Ethics
(Chaired by Darryl Macer, IBC)
136-139 4.1. Culture and Community in Bioethics: The Case for an International Education Programme Francis P. Crawley
140-143 4.2. Teaching Bioethics in Medical Genetics140 Mikio Hirayama, Shigeaki Nakazaki, Kazuo Mano and Norio Fujiki
144-147 4.3. Medical Education and Japanese Bioethics Michio Miyasaka, Haruo Yamanouchi, Koji Dewa and Koji Sakurai
148-151 4.4. The Clinical Ethics Education in Saga Medical School Masashi Shirahama
152-166 4.5. High School Bioethics Education Network in Japan Yukiko Asada and Darryl Macer
167-168 4.6. Internationalization in Japanese Bioethics Masahiro Morioka
169-171 4.7. Survey of Portuguese Physicians, Medical Students and Other Health Professionals on the Impact of Science and Biotechnology in Society M.C.Rosamond Pinto, M. Pires Bicho and Darryl Macer
172-176 Discussion

5. Population and Environment Issues
(Chaired by Genoveva Keyeux, IBC and Darryl Macer, IBC)
177-179 5.1. Women and Reproductive Health in Bangladesh Hasna Begum
180-182 5.2. Fertility Regulation: A Feminist Perspective Yi-Hong Jin
183-187 5.3. Assisted Human Reproduction in New Zealand: The Contribution of Ethics Ken R. Daniels
188-190 5.4. The Problem of the Sex Ratio in Korea Song-Yong Sang
191-195 5.5. Environmental Ethical Cost of T-shirts, Tiruppur, Tamil Nadu, India C. Thomson Jacob and Jayapaul Azariah
196-198 5.6. Need for Ground Water Laws and Water Abstraction Ethics for Industrial Use Jayapaul Azariah and C. Thomson Jacob
199-200 Discussion

6. Ethical Issues of the Human Genome Project
(Chaired by Yoshiuki Sakaki, President, HUGO Pacific and Norio Fujiki, IBC)
201-204 6.1. Human Genome Diversity Studies in South America Genoveva Keyeux
205-208 6.2. Genetic Research and Cultural Integrity Leonardo D. De Castro
209-214 6.3. Ethical Issues of the Human Genome Project: An Islamic Perspective Anwar Nasim
215-220 6.4. Ethics and Human Genome Studies in India I.C. Verma
221-224 6.5. UNESCO IBC & an Ethical Oversight Committee on Population Genetics Darryl Macer
225-232 6.6. The Visual Transcription of Family Disease: A Comparison of the Use of Medical Pedigrees in Canadian and Japanese Genetic Counseling Practices Yoshio Nukaga
233-236 6.7. Ethical Issues in Providing Genetic Services to the Asian Population in NYC Victor. P. Penchaszadeh
237-238 6.8. The Next Five Years of the Human Genome Project in Japan Yoshiyuki Sakaki

7. Ethics and Medical Genetics
(Chaired by Norio Fujiki, IBC and Ichiro Matsuda, JSHG)
244 7.1. Ethical Guidelines for Clinical Genetics in Japan Mariko Tamai
245-248 7.2. Ethical Issues in Genetics in the Next 100 years Glen McGee
249-252 7.3. Moral Controversies on Preimplantation Genetic Testing Sahin Aksoy
253 7.4. Bioethical Issues in Human Genetics in India253 K.C. Malhotra
254-262 7.5. Recent Trends in Bioethics in Medical Genetics and Cloning Norio Fujiki
263-265 Discussion

8. Gene Therapy
(Chaired by Vladimir Ivanov, WHO Expert Advisor)
266-267 8.1. Gene therapy of Mitochondrial Diseases266 Yasuo Kagawa
268-270 8.2. Bioethical Aspects of Medical Applications of Human Genome andGene Therapy Projects in Russia Vladimir Ivanov
271-277 8.3. Gene Therapy: Professionals Go Further Away From Public Opinion Yasuko Shirai
278-283 8.4. Human Genetics & the Integrity of Self: Germline Gene Therapy & Cloning Maurizio Salvi
284-286 8.5. Will Nature Protect Itself Against Irresponsible Genetic Manipulation? Frank J. Leavitt and Ron Alexenberg
287-289 Discussion

Closing Session
(Chaired by David Shapiro, IBC)
290-292 C1. Ethics in the Age of Science and Technology Michio Okamoto
293-295 C2. Ethical Concerns Facing Biomedical Journals Adrian Ivinson
296-313 C3. Closing Addresses 296 Hyakudai Sakamoto, President ABA
C4. Closing Addresses 297-298 Renzong Qiu
, UNESCO IBC;Vice-President ABA
C5. Closing Addresses 299-300 Darryl R.J. Macer
C6. Closing Addresses
301David Shapiro, UNESCO IBC
C7. Closing Addresses
302-312 C7. Closing Message Hector Gros Espiell
(not on-line)
C6. Closing Addresses C8. Norio Fujiki,
General Secretary ABC'97; MURS Japan

Poster Session

P1. Bioethics Surveys and the Universal Approaches to Biotechnology Darryl R.J.Macer
P2. Human Relationships with Animals in Asia Pacific Countries and Bioethics Darryl Macer and Kyoko Yokoyama
P3. Biodiversity Conservation and Ethics: Sacred Groves and Pools K.C.Malhotra, Shashi Stanley, N.S. Hemam and Ketaki Das
P4. Interface Between Faunal Biodiversity and Cultural Heritage in Southwest Bengal, India Kailash C. Malhotra and Ketaki Das
352P5. Women and the Environment K.K.Dua 352 P6. Key Issues in Bioethics in Japan Jiro Nudeshima
353-354P7. Attitudes Toward Molecular Genetics Predictive Testing: Case Study of Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy in Kyushu Island Kaori Muto, Setsu Akutsu, Jiro Nudeshima and Shohei Yonemoto

355-360 P8. Mulitple Authorship in Japan and the West Michael D. Fetters and Todd S. Elwyn
361P9 Bioethics Education in Thailand Pitak Chaichareon and Pinit Ratanakul

WHO Assisted Satellite Symposium on Medical Genetic Services and Bioethics in Fukui
6th International Bioethics Seminar in Fukui, 8 November, 1997

Opening Ceremony
(Chaired by Masaki Sudo)
F1. M. Sudo, President, Fukui Medical University
F2. W. Iwamoto,
Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports
F3. Y. Kurita,
Governor, Fukui Prefecture
F4. T. Sakai,
Mayor, Fukui City
F5. M. Kuriyama,
Secretary-General of WHO Satellite Symposium

Plenary Lectures on Medical Genetic Services
(Chaired by Norio Fujiki)
367-369 F6. Medical Genetic Services Victor Boulyjenkov
370-374 F7. Proposed WHO Guidelines on Ethical Issues in Medical Genetics and the Provision of Genetics Services Dorothy C. Wertz
Panel Discussion on Trends in Different Countries
(Chaired by Victor Boulyjenkov and Ishiwar C. Verma)
375-380 F8. Some Current Questions in Medical Genetics in the UK Derek F. Roberts
381-383 F9. Medical Genetics Services in Russia Vladimir I. Ivanov
384-389 F10. Genetic Services in Latin America: Issues and Challenges Victor. P. Penchaszadeh
390-393F11. Primary Prevention is Better than Secondary Prevention Istvan Dudas and Andrew E Czeizel
394-395F12. Background of proposed guidelines for genetic counselling & testing in Japan Ichiro Matsuda
396 F13. The Ethical Guidelines of the Position Papers of the Society of Human Genetics in Germany Hiedemarie Neizel 397 F14. Chairman's Remarks on Medical Genetic Services and Bioethic Trends in Different Countries Ishiwar C. Verma

Panel Discussion on Trends in International Opinion Surveys
(Chaired by Norio Fujiki & Ishiwar C. Verma)
398-402 F15. Bioethics of Sex Preference Jai Rap. Singh
403-404 F16. Korean Consciousness on the Handicapped Person and Herditary Defect Yung Sun Kang and Chung Choo Lee
405-407 F17. Buddhism, Prenatal Diagnosis and Human Cloning Pinit Ratanakul
408 F18. Human Genetics and Bioethics in China Hiraku Takebe
409-412 F19. Results of a 37-Nation Survey of Geneticists' Ethical Views Dorothy C. Wertz
413-421 F20. Summary of Panel Discussion and Opinion Surveys on Medical Genetics in Asian Countries N. Fujiki, M. Hirayama, S. Nazaki, K. Mano, IC. Verma, P. Ratanakul, WHY. Lo, YS. Kang and V. Boulyjenkov

Comments on Ethics and Medical Genetics in Japan

(Chaired by Ichiro Matsuda and Hiraku Takebe)
422-423 F21. The Japan Society of Human Genetics: Past, Present and Future Yasuo Nakagome
424-425 F22. Mass Media and Bioethics in Medical Genetics Kiyotaro Kondo
426-427 F.23 Shinshu University Hospital Established the Division of Clinical Genetics as One of its Central Service Departments Yoshimitsu Fukushima
428 F24. Current Status & Ethical Concerns of Assisted Reproductive Technology Kazuo Satoh
429-431 F25. The Present State of and Issues Concerning Preimplantation Diagnosis Kaoru Suzumori
432-433 F26. Muscular Dystrophies and Gene Analysis Makiko Osawa
434 F27. Ethical, Legal and Social Issues in Presymptomatic Testing for Cancer Yukiko Tsunematsu
435-436 F28. Maternal Serum Marker Screening and Japan Down Syndrome Association Workgroup for Bioethical Issues Kunio Tamai
437-438 F29. The Draft Proposed WHO Guidelines and the Gaps in Information and Understanding of Medical Genetics and Genetics Services between Specialists and the General Population Eiko Fukumoto
439-444 F30. On the Draft of the Proposed WHO Guidelines on Ethical Issues in Medical Genetics and the Provision of Genetics Services Akiko Nobe

Additional Reflections from International Perspective
(Chaired by Darryl R.J. Macer)

445-446 F31. Informed Consent in Pediatric Genetic Screening Frank J. Leavitt and Dina Pilpel
447-448 F32. The New Genetics and its Regulation in the UK David Shapiro
449-454 F33. Genetics & Biomedical Technology: Emerging Milieu & the Indian Context R.R. Kishore
455-459 F34. An Indian Perspective on Some Bioethical Issues In Human Genetics Indera P. Singh
460 F35. Selected International Responses to the Human Rights and Ethical Issues Raised by Human Genetics Sev S. Fluss
465-467 Closing Ceremony
(Chaired by Keiichi Ueda)
465 F36. Closing RemarksVictor Boulyjenkov
466 F37. Closing RemarksNorio Fujiki
467 F38. Closing Remarks467Keiichi Ueda
468-473 Addresslist

474 Acknowledgments for Conference and Publication

Further copies can be obtained by ordering from the Eubios Ethics Institute,
31 Colwyn Street, Christchurch 5, New Zealand
Dr Darryl Macer,
Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Tsukuba
Tsukuba Science City 305, Japan

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