Birth Control News

This file includes links to papers published by Eubios Ethics Institute, and some other organizations, in the first section. Next it includes topical extracts from EJAIB and EEIN between January 1994 - 2006 (older news items are in separate files). Last date of updating is referenced in the main News page. Latest news and papers is at the bottom of each of the two sections.

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Abbreviations for journals
Eubios Ethics Institute home page
Entitlements And Rights In Reproduction: Lessons From Chinese Women In A Peri-Urban Village in Peninsular Malaysia - Chee Heng Leng EJAIB 8 (1998), 41-4.

Women's Education and Fertility Rates in Developing Countries, With Special Reference to Bangladesh - Wardatul Akmam EJAIB 12 (July 2002), 138-143.

Maya Cohen and Shiran Efraty, China: Ethical Issues in the Family Planning ProgramEJAIB 15 (March 2005), 55-58
Peter, F. Omonzejele, Obligation of Non-maleficence and Female Circumcision in Africa: A Moral DiscourseEJAIB 15 (March 2005), 49-52.

The first world summit of scientific academies resulted in 56 institutions endorsing a 15 page statement which calls for zero population growth "within the lifetime of our children"; Nature 366 (1993), 3; BMJ 307 (1993), 1161-2; Lancet 342 (1993), 1125-6. Maybe that means the children of the senior scientists? However, the scientists from Africa, Ireland and Vatican said no, and those from Japan and Argentina said the matter was "outside of their competence" (so much for scientific responsibility). The African academy said that it does not see overpopulation as a problem for Africa. In mid-January a population summit is being held in Cairo, so we will await to see the outcome from that meeting. The good thing may be that India and China did agree, which are the two most populous countries now, and let us hope that they stay in the top two positions for a long time! A book review of the Concise History of World Population, Massimo Livi-Bacci (Blackwell 1992) is in Scientific American (Oct 1995), 92, 94.

On Nov 22 the US Agency for International Development (AID) gave a US$13.2 million grant to International Planned Parenthood Federation; Reproductive Freedom News (3 Dec 1993), 6. The US is also allocated US$40 million to the United Nation's international family planning programs. The 13th Annual Symposium of the Galton Institute, on Reproductive decisions: biological and social perspectives, was held in the 23-24 Sept., in London, and it is reported in their Newsletter No. 11. A call for better contraception in Eastern Europe has been made at a Hungarian meeting, called the Szeged Declaration.

Confidentiality and contraception for young people is the subject of an editorial in BMJ 307 (1993), 1157-8. Letters on the possible over-the-counter sale of oral contraceptives in the UK are in Lancet 342 (1993), 993. Hormonal contraception is also discussed in NEJM 329 (1993), 1501-2; and implanting Norplant in New Scientist (16 Oct, 1993), 42; (4 Dec 1993), 22-4. Letters on natural family planning are in BMJ 307 (1993), 1003-5, 1357-60; and on religion and family planning in Lancet 342 (1993), 1180-1. General comments are in Lancet 342 (1993),978, 1288; BMJ 307 (1993), 1218; Scientific American (Dec 1993), 30-7.

Letters on the subject of surgical castration for sex offenders are in BMJ 307 (1993), 1141. On legalisation of prostitution see BMJ 307 (1993), 1370-1. Female genital mutilation has been unanimously condemned by the World Medical Association, BMJ 307 (1993), 957. However, it continues in Africa, and recently a UK doctor was charged with having performed a case in the UK.

Emergency contraception (e.g. morning after pill) may soon be available over the counter in the UK. This is debated in BMJ 308 (1994), 135. A paper showing that black women in the USA are more than twice as likely to have complications from hysterectomy than white women; O&G 82 (1993), 757-64. A paper showing protective effects from oral contraceptives is S.S. Jick et al., "Oral contraceptives and endometrial cancer", O&G (1993), 931-5.

A study of the extent to which women use counseling for pregnancy is M.M. Adams et al., "Pregnancy planning and pre-conception counseling", O&G 82 (1993), 955-9. The survey of 12,452 mothers in the USA found that 60% planned their pregnancy.

President Clinton has announced plans to target reductions in teenage pregnancy. Book reviews on the problem are in NEJM 330 (1994), 513-4. The impact of former President's Reagan's policies on family planning is discussed in J. Health Politics, Policy & Law 18 (1993), 821-50. There are claims that in Canada there are delays in approving safe contraceptives, CMAJ 149 (1993), 467-8.

A review of the choices for birth control is J. Bongaarts, "Population policy options in the Developing World", Science 263 (1994), 771-6. The reasons are debated in C. Butler, "Overpopulation, overconsumption, and economics", Lancet 343 (1994), 582-4. India has began commercial family planning, with a company set up by a group of scientists; Nature 368 (1994), 384. They said they were frustrated by government delays. In India there are also moves in Maharashta state so that women with learning disabilities are forced to have hysterectomies, BMJ 308 (1994), 558; Lancet 343 (1994), 592. The reason is said to be so that the women who cannot keep themselves clean during menstruation would not become infected. It is said to be nationwide, and there is opposition, as expected. Calls in the UK to spend more overseas development aid on family planning are made in New Scientist (12 March 1994), 7; BMJ 308 (1994), 718.

A new spermicide has been reported for vaginal use, that could be placed in the vagina for use within a day, and is made from a polymer that would release the contraceptive when needed; New Scientist (26 Feb 1994), 22. Letters on deregulating emergency contraception in the UK are in BMJ 308 (1994), 135. Discussion of the chemical quinacrine, which as reported last year, was successful for sterilisation of women in Vietnam, but has now been discontinued for the suggestion that it is a carcinogen, is Lancet 343 (1994), 662. The use of the Chinese monthly contraceptive pill in Laos is reported in Lancet 343 (1994), 239.

Maternal mortality is discussed in BMJ 308 (1994), 353-5; Lancet 343 (1994), 170. About one woman a minute, or half a million a year, die due to pregnancy complications. The link between exercise and delayed menarche (age of first menstrual period) is debated in Lancet 343 (1994), 423-4.

Third world family planning is called for in Time (9 May), 39. A discussion of US efforts to look at why teenage men make women pregnant, and leave the mothers unmarried on welfare is Newsweek (20 June), 42-3. In Japan the annual birth rate of 1.46 children per woman was the lowest on record; Yomiuri Shimbun (24 June 1994), 1.

A special supplement to the AJOG (May) 170 (5): 1483-1590, is "Preventing unintended pregnancy: The role of hormonal contraceptives". Discussion of recent advances in contraceptives are New Scientist (30 April 1994), 36-40; BMJ 308 (1994), 991-2; JAMA 271 (1994), 1689-91. General book reviews are BMJ 308 (1994), 926, 1449; Lancet 343 (1994), 904.

The health benefits of hysterectomy on lower risk of ovarian cancer is discussed in JAMA 271 (1994), 1235-7. Diabetic women are not at any extra risk from using oral contraceptives according to a USA study, JAMA 271 (1994), 1099-1102. The ending of the WHO study on the safety of quinacrine for chemical sterilisation of woman is debated in Lancet 343 (1994), 987-8, 1040. Health hazards from prolonged implantation of an IUD are reported in NEJM 330 (1994), 1395.

The International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo was the focus of the first week of September. There was much written before it, especially over the Vatican and Islamic objections to including wording about abortion in the agreement. In Iran they regarded the cooperation as the sign of "future wars between the religious and the materialists". Some comments include: Nature 370 (1994), 583-4. One of the general calls is for more funding for contraceptive research, Nature 370 (1994), 498. Further comments on the Cairo Population conference are in Monash Bioethics Review 13(4) (1994),1-3; New Scientist (20 Aug 1994), 7, (27 Aug 1994), 7, (3 Sept 1994), 4-5, (10 Sept 1994), 4, (17 Sept 1994), 3, 6, 11, (1 Oct 1994), 12-3; Lancet 344 (1994), 1023-4.

A series of papers are in the special issue of Reproductive Health Matters 3: 6-94, on contraceptive safety and effectiveness. They include a number of additional papers on related issues of reproduction, with abstracts in French and Spanish, and papers from a global perspective. In New Zealand some cultural differences to contraception are discussed in a Health Research Council Women's Health Research Task Group report. Population density does not correlate to wealth is is commonly believed, Nature 370 (1994), 92.

In the USA, 400 woman have joined a law suit to claim for damages in the scarring they were left with when inexperienced physicians removed the Norplant capsules from their arms, Reproductive Freedom News (22 July 1994), 7; BMJ 309 (1994), 145; Lancet 344 (1994), 185. The costs of Norplant may be a barrier for use in the UK, BMJ 309 (1994), 270.

Continued use of Depo-Provera is called for in Australia in MJA 160 (1994), 553-6. Debate over the use of quinacrine is in Lancet 343 (1994), 1425-7. A review is C. Djerassi & S.P. Leibo, "A new look at male contraception", Nature 370 (1994), 11-2. They propose young men to put sperm into a bank, for later use, New Scientist (9 July 1994), 5. A study finding no link between testicular cancer and vasectomy is BMJ 309 (1994), 295-9.

The Cairo population conference is discussed in Nature 371 (1994), 185, 273; BMJ 309 (1994), 554-5; Lancet 344 (1994), 459-60, 557-8, 670, 697-8, 809, 1164-7; Times (14 Sept 1994), 9; Time (12 Sept 1994), 39, (26 Sept 1994), 42-3; Inst. for Global Ethics, Members' Update (Oct 1994), 1, 4-5. Despite the attention and time spent discussing the controversial abortion issues, there was little change to the final 100+ page document, which includes many topics in the framework of a 20 year plan. The revised paragraph 8.25 starts with "In no case should abortion be promoted as a method of family planning.", but goes on to call for safe abortions in the countries where they are legal. The document covers many other issues. There is even mention of child organ transplants. The general involvement of women in population policy planning is seen as positive in AJPH 84 (1994), 1379+. An Islamic perspective on family planning is al-Hibri, A.Y. "Family planning and Islamic jurisprudence", IN/FIRE Ethics 3(2), 1-5.

Attitudes to sex in the USA, from the survey reported last issue, are discussed in Time (17 Oct), 42-8. The survey involved visiting 4369 randomly selected households, and after many visits in some cases, a total of 79% responded. The use of contraception in Japan is reviewed in Jitsukawa, M. & Djerassi, C. "Birth control in Japan: Realities and prognosis", Science 265 (1994), 1048-51.

A contraceptive vaccine based on chorionic gonadotrophin is reported in Talwar, G.P. et al. "A vaccine that prevents pregnancy in women", PNAS 91 (1994),, 8532-6. In trials over 1224 cycles in fertile women exposed to conception, only 1 pregnancy was reported. Doubts on the suitability of such vaccines are in Dirnhofer, S. et al. "The suitability of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-based birth control vaccines", Immunology Today 15: 469-74.

A female condom, called "Reality", has been made widely available in the US since September. It is made of plourethane, reported 40 times stronger than the latex in male condoms. It is three times more expensive however, costing US$9 for a packet of three. A paper questioning whether low dose contraceptives are always safer is Goldzieher, J.W. "Are low dose oral contraceptives safer and better?", AJOG 171 (1994), 587-90. On methods of contraception: Norplant, SSM 39 (1994), 1120-1; sterilisation by quinacrine, Lancet 344 (1994), 689, 698-700;

The USA actually has a higher birth rate than some developing countries, and while it is around replacement rate the increased pollution mean that it will be a significant factor in environmental considerations, New Scientist (17 Sept 1994), 7. The falling birth rate and its causes are discussed in Feeney, G. "Fertility decline in East Asia", Science 266 (1994), 1518-23. The violence in Burundi and Rwanda revealed that the population estimates made by the UN were somewhat inaccurate, which is a point discussed in Uvin, P. "Violence and UN population data", Nature 372 (1995), 495-6. The general benefits of family planning are discussed in Eur.J. O&G 57 (1994), 63-4; Lancet 344 (1994), 1382.

In the US there are calls for the relabelling of 6 contraceptives as morning after pills, and claims that this information has been hidden, Reproductive Freedom News (2 Dec 1994), 4-5. The brands include Ovral, Lo/Ovral, Nordette, Triphasil, Levlen and Tri- Levlen. The resignation of the US Surgeon General, Jocelyn Elders over remarks on masturbation suggests that US sex education is still rather conservative, Reproductive Freedom News (16 Dec 1994), 5- 6. A letter on Catholic beliefs about contraception is BMJ 309 (1994), 1231; see also Lancet 344 (1994), 1023-4. A book review of Brodie, J.F., Contraception and Abortion in 19th Century America (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1994, 373pp., $34) is in NEJM 331 (1994), 1595. The meaning of motherhood and fatherhood for fertile and infertile couples is the subject of several papers in Reproductive Health Matters 4: 6-98.

Research and trials of contraceptive vaccines are summarised in Science 266 (1994), 1484-6, and other research on p. 1480-1, 1489. Use of Norplant is reviewed in Sivin, I. "Contraception with NORPLANT implants", Human Reproduction 9 (1994), 1818-26. The ease at which they can be implanted may lead to controversy as there could be greater spread of HIV, O&G 84 (1994), 1055-7; however data suggesting it does not is Polaneczky, M. et al. "The use of levonorestrel implants (Norplant) for contraception in adolescent mothers", NEJM 331 (1994), 1201-6, 1229-30. A 146pp. supplement (No. 2) to Human Reproduction 9 is Edwards, R.G., ed., New Concepts in Fertility Control. Also on contraceptive methods, Lancet 344 (1994), 1559-60.

A failure rate of about 1.3% for female sterilisations was found in a New Zealand study, NZMJ 107: 473-5; and an Australian review is in MJA 161 (1994), 612-4. Quinacrine sterilisation is attacked in Lancet 344 (1994), 1160-1, 1434-5; Reproductive Health Matters 4: 99-106.

The use of oral contraceptives was found to be linked to a higher incidence of cervical cancer, Ursin, G. et al. "Oral contraceptive use and adenocarcinoma of cervix", Lancet 344 (1994), 1390-4, 1364, 1378-9. Links with liver cancer are not clear, and discussed in Lancet 344 (1994), 1568. Vasectomy and the risk of prostrate cancer is dismissed in Bulletin WHO 72: 777-81.

A special supplement, Moskowitz, E.H., Jennings, B., & Callahan, D. "Long-acting contraception. Moral choices, policy dilemmas", is in HCR 25: S1-32. The include a set of guidelines that may be useful for policy makers to consider: access, public assistance, child abuse, research directions, health care providers, long-term contraceptives and STDs, directive counseling to use long-acting contraceptives, and financial barriers to access.

Further comment on the Cairo Population conference are in IN/FIRE Ethics 3 (No.3&4, 1994), 1-10; which includes Jewish, Christian and African-American perspectives. The acceptance of family planning by most Filipino Catholics is discussed in Lancet 345 (1995), 267-8. A critique of the embryology of the Pope's recent book, Crossing the Threshold of Hope, is in Nature 373 (1995), 100. An opposing critique of population control is Nature 372 (1994), 589.

China has reached 1200 million population, and a Stanford study predicts by the year 2020 there will be 1 million men with no women to marry, because of the sex selection used..

The US Surgeon-General, Dr Joycelyn Elders resigned following remarks that she made about masturbation, BMJ 309 (1994), 1604; Lancet 344 (1994), 1695, 1714-5. The nominated successor faces debate over his history in providing abortions, and in the Tuskeggee syphilis experiment, two other issues of bioethics.

More efforts to prevent adolescent sex are called for in Lancet 345 (1995), 240-1. A review of methods for sex education is Oakley, A. et al. "Sexual health education interventions for young people: a methodological review", BMJ 310 (1995), 158-62. A study of sex hormones and transsexualism is Science 267 (1995), 334. A general call for greater use of hormone replacement therapy in post-menopausal women is, Lancet 345 (1995), 76-7. Hysterectomy is discussed in Lancet 344 (1994), 1652-3.

The continued practice of female genital mutilation in Egypt is a sign of difficulties faced since the Cairo Population conference, BMJ 310 (1995), 12. There are even some reports of US uses, NEJM 332 (1995), 188-90. Even male circumcision has been shown to affect pain responses several months later, Lancet 345 (1995), 291-2.

Increased teenage pregnancy is associated with deprivation in Scotland, BMJ 310 (1995), 398-9. The contraceptive pill is going to be removed from the basic health insurance scheme for women in the Netherlands, BMJ 310 (1995), 487. The Netherlands has the lowest abortion rate in the world.

The Wellcome Trust has pledged US$80 million over the next five years for methods to help curb the population growth rate, Nature 374 (1995), 297. A legal case that urges physicians to inform men of the dangers of reversal of vasectomy is discussed in Lancet 345 (1995), 444. Related is NEJM 332 (1995), 544-5.

A survey from Australia suggesting differences depending on attitudes and sex of physician in giving information is Weisberg, E. et al. "Emergency contraception. General practitioner knowledge, attitudes and practices in New South Wales", MJA 162 (1995), 136-8. A conference review discussing ideal populations in Australasia is New Scientist (4 March, 1995), 56.

Chile has stopped using quinacrine for sterilisations because of health controversies, BMJ 310 (1995), 488.

A comparison of methods for birth control found all were more cost effective than no method, Trussell, J. et al. "The economic value of contraception: A comparison of 15 methods", AJPH 85 (1995), 494-503. On methods to implement the Cairo population accord, Lancet 345 (1995), 875-6. Sex education is discussed in J. Public Health Medicine 17 (1995), 1-2; NS (8 April 1995), 9; and a series of papers are in Reproductive Health Care Matters 5 (1995), 7-103.

The costs of unintended pregnancy are discussed in AJPH 85 (1995), 479-80; and the health dangers of pregnancy in young women in , NEJM 332 (1995), 1113-7, pp. 1161-2. Better information on emergency contraception is called for in Lancet 345 (1995), 1169, 1358. An estimate in the UK is that 20% of women born between 1960 and 1980 in the UK will not have children, NS (22 April 1995), 3.

A series of papers debating research into immunological contraceptives is in IN/FIRE Ethics 4 (1995), 1-10. It includes a petition from the World Global Network for reproductive Rights, "Call for a stop of research on antifertility "vaccines" (immunological contraceptives)". Their basic argument is that the side effects and immunological diversity make these contraceptives unpredictable and they are not better than the other approaches to contraception. There is debate over the use of it.

The risks of Norplant are largely linked to proper implantation, Dunson, T.R. et al. "Complications and risk factors associated with the removal of Norplant implants", O&G 85 (1995), 543-8. On the use of Norplant in adolescents, AJPH 85 (1995), 309-11; NEJM 332 (1995), 821-2. A review on health effects is Schlesselman, J.J. "Net effect of oral contraceptive use on the risk of cancer in women in the United States", O&G 85 (1995), 793-801. Trials of quinacrine sterilisation are delayed in India, Lancet 345 (1995), 976. New chemicals that may be effective in contraception are reported in EBN 199 (1995), 4. A male contraceptive using DMSO is in trials, Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 292-3. A call for legal reform to encourage research on contraceptives is Science 268 (1995), 791.

A survey which calls for more ethics in O&G training is O&G 85 (1995), 783-6. The contraceptive use of O&G resident doctors finds wide use of the pill, but doubts about IUD use, O&G 85 (1995), 787-92. Psychological changes after cessation of breast feeding are noted in O&G 85 (1995), 641-2.

A record sperm 5 times the body length is reported for Drosophila bifurca, Nature 375 (1995), 109. Oppossum sperm usually swim in pairs, and the tails coordinate, NS (15 April 1995), 18. A study of erect penis length in men found the average is 12.8 cm, smaller than most assume, NS (1 April 1995), 9.

A review of the earth's capacity to support population is Cohen, J.E. "Population growth and earth's human carrying capacity", Science 269 (1995), 341-6. The conclusions are vague.

The Netherlands, as announced in a previous issue, was considering removing subsidies for contraceptive pill payments, however, they have reversed their decisions, BMJ 310 (1995), 1485; Lancet 345 (1995), 1428. There were claims that it would result in an extra 5000 abortions a year. The World Bank report, India's Family Welfare Programme: Towards a Reproductive and Child Health Approach, calls for reforms to India's family planning program, Lancet 346 (1995), 301. Included is increased emphasis on male contraception, currently 6% of the use!

The knowledge that pregnant teenagers in the UK have of emergency contraception was surveyed in the UK, with a conclusion that they need to lower the threshold for use of such measures, BMJ 310 (1995), 1644. A call for family planning clinics to increase effectiveness is Allaby, M.A.K. "Contraceptive services for teenagers: do we need family planning clinics", BMJ 310 (1995), 1641-3. Also on the morning after pill, Lancet 345 (1995), 1381-2, 346 (1995), 251-2.

A survey of the attitudes of Russian immigrants to Israel found that free abortion ideology was not universally accepted, SSM 41 (1995), 569-77. In general on contraception, BMJ 310 (1995), 1614-5. Some legal action taken against contraceptive implants, BMJ 311 (1995), 469-70. Concerns about Norplant are in O&G 86 (1995), 154-5. A review of natural family planning is Lancet 346 (1995), 233-4. The involvement of adults in teenage child-bearing are reviewed in Lancet 346 (1995), 64-5.

Italy has been found to have the lowest reproductive risks in the world, followed by Denmark, Lancet 346 (1995), 370. Africa plans to prevent more unsafe abortions in a new 5 year strategic plan, Lancet 346 (1995), 173. The role of inequalities in reproductive deaths is discussed in BMJ 311 (1995), 147-8.

The complexities of contraception in biochemical terms are reviewed in Science 269 (1995), 39-40. The costs of conception in baboons are discussed in Nature 376 (1995), 219-20. The grey seal is apparently one of the animals that displays fidelity, Science 268 (1995), 1897-9.

A new book reviewing laws and policy in Brazil, China, Germany, India, Nigeria and the USA regarding issues of reproductive health is: Women of the World: Formal Laws and Policies Affecting Their Reproductive Lives, available free from: Center for Reproductive Law & Policy, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005, USA.

On 12 September, 1995, the Central Pharmaceutical Affairs Council of Japan recommended approval of low dose contraceptives as a method of family planning. The next standing council meeting is March, 1996, and it may see the approval of the contraceptive pill.

A call to loosen medical controls on emergency contraception is BMJ 311 (1995), 762-3. Adolescent pregnancy is discussed in SSM 41 (1995), 1203-5. The British government Committee on Safety of Medicine has issued a warning about the safety of low-dose pills and risks of thrombosis. There are claims that the NHS may save 25 million pounds by reducing use, in the Independent newspaper. Others also criticise the government, Nature 377 (1995), 663. A book review on the Pill is Nature 377 (1995), 112.

A review is Alexander, N.J. "Future contraceptives", SA (Sept 1995), 136-41. A report from an NIH meeting on the safety of long-acting contraceptives is Lancet 346 (1995), 693. Infection of a Norplant contraceptive implant site is reported in CMAJ 153 (1995), 1293+. On natural family planning, Lancet 346 (1995), 774-6.

A paper reporting the results of a study of female genital mutilation / circumcision / surgery among the Bedoiun in Israel, which found that the practice did not involve any removal of female tissue is Sali, A. et al. "Ritual female genital surgery among Bedouin in Israel", Archives of Sexual Behaviour 24 (1995), 573-7; Newsweek (31 Jan 1995), 5c. However in other cultures the practice is more than a ritual, and protests to attempt to ban it in the USA are reported in Probe IV (1 May, 1995), 6-8. A review of maternal death is Atrash, H.K. et al. "Maternal mortality in developed countries: Not just a concern of the past", O&G 86 (1995), 700-5. Also on the subject of women's health, Lancet 346 (1995), 630, 703-4, 759, 1056; Shanner L. "The right to procreate: when rights claims have gone wrong", McGill Law J 40 (1995), 823-874.

Despite efforts that have stressed female sterilisation India's birth rate is still high, with about 4 children per women, according to the National Family Health Survey (which put the population at 925 million). Only 40% of women use birth control, and most women had not heard of AIDS. There are calls to extend the birth control policies more equally. Voluntary sterilisation operations became legal in Brazil this year, and are to be free and under national health service, Lancet 346 (1995), 1090.

The Catholic church has condemned the moves in Peru to promote contraceptives, Lancet 346 (1995), 894. Ethnic differences between Bedouins and non-Bedouin Kuwaitis are discussed in SSM 41 (1995), 1023-31; but both still desire an average 6-7 children per family. Mathematical models of urban growth are given in Nature 377 (1995), 608-12; AJPH 85 (1995), 1345-6, 1356-60.

Social status and reproduction in Baboons is discussed in Nature 377 (1995), 688-90.

An editorial reporting results of the UK government decision and research on the safety of oral contraceptives is BMJ 311 (1995), 1111-2, 1117-8, 1162, 1228-9, 1232, 1637-40; 312 (1996), 68-9, 121; NS (25 Oct 1995), 4; Lancet 346 (1995), 1149-50, 1219. The papers on third generation oral contraception and venous thromboembolism are in BMJ 312 (1996), 83-7; 88-93. The new studies show that the modern birth control pill is safe with regard to idiopathic venous thromboembolism, however there are some caution for some women for pills containing desogestrel and gestodene, which have double the risk of non-fatal incidents as other components. A discussion of the advise when someone misses the pill is Br. J. O&G 102 (1995), 601-7.

An international round up of oral contraceptive use is BMJ 311 (1995), 1589-90. A report on birth control methods in Japan is Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 1115. The timing of intercourse and pregnancy are discussed in NEJM 333 (1995), 1517-21, 1563-5. The optimal time is the day and previous 2 days before ovulation, and timing did not alter sex ratio.

Antifertility vaccines are discussed in Biotechnology and Development Monitor 25 (Dec 1995), 2-5. Norplant side effects are debated in Lancet 346 (1995), 1165. A survey of US students knowledge of emergency contraception is in AJOG 173 (1995), 1438-45. About 60% of US pregnancies are unintended, JAMA 274 (1995), 1332. In the USA about 1 million women a year undergo sterilization operations to prevent pregnancy, JAMA 274 (1995), 1415. Peru has modified its population law to allow sterilization, Reproductive Freedom News (10 Nov 1995), 8. On population control, BMJ 311 (1995), 1651-2.

Female genital mutilation is discussed in JAMA 274 (1995), 1714-6.

Further papers on third generation oral contraception and venous thromboembolism are in BMJ 312 (1996), 68-9, 121+; Spitzer WO et al. "Third generation oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolic disorders: an international case-control study", BMJ 312 (1996), 83-87; Lewis MA et al. "Third generation oral contraceptives and risk of myocardial infarction: an international case-control study", BMJ 312 (1996), 88-93; Lancet 346 (1995), 1569-71, 1575-82, 1582-8, 1589-93, 1593-6; 347 (1996), 181, 257-60; Nature 379 (1996), 202. On oral contraceptive use and ischemic colitis in young women, Am J Surg Pathol 19 (1995), 454-462; CMAJ 154 (1996), 527-528. A call for Japan is Maruyama, H. et al. "Why Japan ought to legalize the Pill", Nature 379 (1996), 579-80.

A new male contraceptive approach has been developed in animals, Biology of Reproduction (March 1995); NS (2 March 1996), 5. The method deactivates the B form of N-acetyl-beta-d-hexoaminidase, or HEX, which is needed for the sperm to break the sugary barrier around eggs. When a particular sugar was added to rats' daily water it prevented 98% fertilization. A week after the drug was removed, the rats' fertility was restored and the animals seemed to suffer no ill effects. A patent has been applied for. On male hormonal contraceptives, Lancet 347 (1996), 316.

It has been predicted the world's population will probably not double again, given the reductions in birth rates in all regions of the world, NS (17 Feb 1996), 8; and related book reviews are in Nature 379 (1996), 308-9, 593-4. A review of Cairo Population and Beijing Woman's Conferences and feminist ethics is in IN/FIRE Ethics 4 (1995), 1-8. Also a series of papers on women's health are in Reproductive Health Matters 6 (Nov 1995), 7-178. Ethnic studies on fertility in rural Mexico are in SSM 42 (1996), 133-40. Contraception using breastfeeding has been endorsed for the first 6 months after birth, from international studies, Lancet 346 (1995), 1700. On emergency contraception in New Zealand, BMJ 312 (1996), 464.

The contribution of the US government to international family planning in 1996 is reduced to US$72 million, from the 1995 total to USAID of US$546 million, which is estimated to result in an increase of about 14 million unintended pregnancies a year, many tens of thousands of deaths among women, and an extra one million dead children a year, Lancet 347 (1996), 556. An historical analysis of past population crises in the Middle East is in Galton Institute Newsletter (March 1996), 2-4. There are less people living in Mexico City and many other cities than UN forecasts, which is questioned in NS (9 March 1996), 48. The birth rate in Brazil has dropped due to social factors, without a program to control it, NS (20 April 1996), 5.

In the USA an emergency contraception hotline in English and Spanish is available on 800-584-9911. It is needed, given that the rate of adolescent pregnancy in the USA is the highest of developed countries, JAMA 275 (1996), 989-94, 1030. On women's health and equality, AJPH 86 (1996), 305-6. Italy is continuing to debate why their fertility rate is falling, BMJ 312 (1996), 530.

More on the alleged dangers of oral contraceptives are Lancet 347 (1996), 396-7, 546-7; NS (23 March 1996), 10. Abortions in Britain could have risen by up to 10% after the government's warning last year that certain contraceptive pills could increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis, according to the British Pregnancy Advisory Service (BPAS), BMJ 312 (1996), 996. In the 3 months from December 1995 to February 1996 the number of abortions carried out by the BPAS has risen by 823 compared with the same time span in the previous year. This is the first reversal of the downward trend in abortion rates that started three years ago. The BPAS provides nearly 20% of the abortions carried out in Britain. The BPAS has carried out a survey of nearly 300 women attending its clinics for advice on unplanned pregnancies. Just over 40% of the women surveyed had stopped taking their contraceptive pill immediately after the government's warning, and 61% did not finish their current packet of pills. less than one in five women changed to another contraceptive pill. In another survey, of just over 90 women attending BPAS clinics for contraceptive advice, nearly half the women said that the government's warning had made them feel that the pill was not safe.

There is debate on whether a male contraceptive pill should be a priority, Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 398-9; Lancet 347 (1996), 830; though a sugar pill may enable contraception for men, NS (2 March 1996), 10. Japan is the only industrialized country where steroid oral contraceptives are illegal, Nature 380 (1996), 477.

A call for germ-line genetic engineering as the best means for contraception is raising some stirs, US Institute of Medicine, Contraceptive Research and Development: Looking to the Future, NS (8 June 1996), 8. They argue that knocking out specific genes required for contraception could have less side effects than most other methods. Also they generally call for more research; Lancet 347 (1996), 1611; Science 272 (1996), 1258. Commercial research on contraceptives is discussed in Science 272 (1996), 1258, 1858.

There is a 1 in 50 rate of becoming pregnant within 10 years of a female sterilization operation, NS (8 June 1996), 5. Another method is contraceptive implants, BMJ 312 (1996), 1555-6. Results of a survey are in Graham, A. et al. "Teenagers' knowledge of emergency contraception: questionnaire survey in south east Scotland", BMJ 312 (1996), 1567-9.

Environmental estrogens are discussed in Arnold, SF et al. "Synergistic Activation of Estrogen Receptor with Combinations of Environmental Chemicals", Science 272 (1996), 1489-1492, 1418, 1451. The estrogenic potencies of combinations of such chemicals were screened in a simple yeast estrogen system (YES) containing human estrogen receptor (hER). Combinations of two weak environmental estrogens, such as dieldrin, endosulfan, or toxaphene, were 1000 times as potent in hER-mediated transactivation as any chemical alone. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls shown previously to synergistically alter sexual development in turtles also synergized in the YES. The synergistic interaction of chemical mixtures with the estrogen receptor may have major environmental implications. Whether the human testis is still an organ at risk is discussed in BMJ 312 (1996), 1557-8. See also EST 30 (1996), 213-4A, 231A, 242-3A, for the US political incentives for research. A study on the effects on other species is underway in the Netherlands by the Health Council, Network (June 1996), 16-7.

In general on overpopulation also see the Environment section above, and NEJM 334 (1996), 1481; Science 272 (1996), 696-7; Lancet 347 (1996), 1265; Ambio 25 (1996), 67-147. An economic study of Chinese births is Liu, GG. et al. "An economic analysis of Chinese fertility behavior", SSM 42 (1996), 1027-37. There is increasing sexual permissiveness in China, Newsweek (15 April 1996), 8-14. There are concerns that in Vietnam not enough attention has been placed on encouraging women to seek employment and be educated, Lancet 347 (1996), 1529-32. Brazil has succeeded in reducing population growth, and some credit soap operas as the reason, NS (20 April 1996), 5.

A special issue of Reproductive Health Matters 7 (May 1996), 1-157; includes 20 papers on the theme of Men. These include studies from developing countries on the perceptions men have about sex and contraception. On development of a male contraceptive pill, Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 722. There are rumours from a Johannesburg newspaper, Sunday Independent (August 1996) that a male infertility vaccine was being produced by scientists paid by the South African military to keep down the population.

The adverse effects of health warnings about oral contraceptives are discussed in Lancet 347 (1996), 1707; 348 (1996), 486. A study finding an increase in risk of 1.2 times when taking the pill and no different risk when not, is Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in breast cancer, "breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: Collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 53297 women with breast cancer and 100239 women without breast cancer from 54 epidemiological studies", Lancet 348 (1996), 1713-27; BMJ 313 (1996), 63-4; JAMA 276 (1996), 31-2. There is no risk of stroke from a study of 1.1 million women, NEJM 335 (1996), 8-15, 53-4; see also NEJM 335 (1996), 453-61. On alternative contraceptives, JAMA 276 (1996), 440-1.

A study on directive counseling is Moskowitz, E. & Jennings, B. "Directive counseling on long-acting contraception", AJPH 86 (1996), 787-90. A study of cultural factors (including economics) that affect birth control is Joshi, NV et al. "Correlates of the desired family size among Indian communities", PNAS 93 (1996), 6387-92. Use of oral contraceptives for emergency contraception has been supported by the FDA, Lancet 348 (1996), 53; and on the Yuzpe regimen, O&G 88 (1996), 150-4.

Further comment on the problems of big cities is in Lancet 347 (1996), 1637; and overpopulation, MJA 165 (1996), 72-3; Nature Medicine 2 (1996), 730-1. A world map of current birth control method use is SA (Sept 1996), 34. In baboons high anxiety lowers birth rate, NS (24 August 1996), 11. A report in France on the contraception of mentally handicapped persons is in La Cahiers 8 (July 1996), 2-25.

A US Family Court decision was upheld by the Court of Appeals on 6 Sept., 1996, in the case De You Chen v. Immigration and naturalization Service, where Chen applied for asylum in an effort to escape a threatened sterilization in China after the third son, Reproductive Freedom News (20 Sept 1996), 7. On population problems in China, NS (5 Oct. 1996), 8.

Pregnant teenagers who have a positive attitude toward childbearing are more than twice as likely as other pregnant teenagers to become pregnant again within 12 months of giving birth, Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 150 (1996), 1037-1044. Of 200 poor, pregnant 13- to 18-year-old patients in an adolescent-oriented maternity program, 12 (11.5 percent) became pregnant again during the first postpartum year. The researchers found that those who conceived again were more likely to have had a prior miscarriage, dropped out of school, abused illicit substances, moved away from home, reported inadequate family support during their pregnancy and were less likely to plan on using a long-term contraceptive. The researchers write: "These data are a strong indication that knowledge about and access to contraceptives does not guarantee their use ... We conclude that new intervention strategies are needed to eliminate the unsafe sexual practices that persist among adolescent mothers enrolled in comprehensive adolescent-oriented maternity programs." . In the UK there is still high numbers of teenage mothers, Lancet 348 (1996), 951. An editorial looking at methods to improve the use of contraceptives is O&G 88 (1996), Supplement No.3, 1-3S.

A male contraceptive pill based on a cottonseed extract, gossypol, is starting trials in Brazil, Lancet 348 (1996), 608. Contraceptive implants and discussed in BMJ 313 (1996), 880. Comment on chemical castration for child sex molesters that is required for second offenders on parole in California is BMJ 313 (1996), 707.

The increasing numbers and proportion of older people in the population, as a result of declining fertility rates and more people surviving into old age, is a problem in all countries, including developing nations. The largest populations of people over the age of 65 years live in China, India, and the former Soviet Union. By the year 2025, 227 million elders, 68% of the world's population aged 65 years and older, will be living in developing nations. A vote by the editors of 80 major medical journals throughout the world on more than 200 proposals identified aging to be the most important topic to be addressed in the second global theme issue. The first global theme issue, addressing emerging and reemerging global microbial threats, was published in January 1996. The global theme issue on aging will be published in October 1997. Journals like JAMA invite all investigators to submit their best research addressing issues of aging for consideration for this global theme issue.

The world population growth in the period 1990-95 is estimated to be 80 million, a drop from 90 million in the previous 5 year period, which could see some stabilisation of the increase to about this kevel for the next few decades, NS (14 Dec 1996), 6. Several commentaries on the UN World Food Summit in Rome include, NS (23 Nov 1996), 6; Lancet 348 (1996), 1109. The question of China feeding itself is in SA (Nov 1996), 90-6. A study of cultural barriers to birth control in Haiti is in SSM 43 (1996), 1379-87. A book review on family dynamics is Nature 384 (1996), 125-6. Finnish research suggests unwanted children are at increased risk of schizophrenia, Brit. J. Psychiatry 169 (1996), 637-40; BMJ 313 (1996), 1167.

Research suggests that marijuana smoking blocks some pregnancy, due to a compound anandamide, NS (26 Oct 1996), 16. The spinal cord and the vagus nerve are linked to orgasm, SA (Nov 1996), 30-1. On methodology, Thompson, MS. "Contraceptive implants: long acting and provider dependent contraception raises concerns about freedom of choice", BMJ 313 (1996), 1393-6. A barrier device Lea's Shield sold over-the-counter in some countries is not likely to be approved in the USA, Lancet 348 (1996), 1234. A series of papers in French on the ethics of sterilisation are in Les Cahiers 9 (Oct 1996), 3-26.

In 1995 the UK Committee on Safety of Medicines issued a warning against using some birth control pills, which has been linked to increased abortions and births in the period after this, and it has been argued that the decision was wrong because the risk of a 45 year old women dying from the birth control pill is the same as her risk of dying from playing football, Independent (18 Oct 1996). Letters on stroke in users of low-dose oral contraceptives is NEJM 335 (1996), 1767-8; Lancet 348 (1996), 1095-7; BMJ 313 (1996), 1127-30. A series of papers on public policy for adolescent sexuality is Politics & Life Sciences 15 (1996), 281-328.

A series of papers on life in cities is in Nature & Resources 32 (No.2, 1996), 1-48. In India a plan to ban people with more than 2 children from politics is being discussed, NS (1 Feb, 1997), 6. The US Congress voted by 220-209 to release funding for US overseas family planning programs on 13 Feb., ending the delay in funding, Reproductive Freedom News (14 Feb 1997), 3-4. Poor education is linked with teen pregnancy BMJ 314 (1997), 537; and in Nicaragua, SSM 44 (1997), 1-12. Claims that contraceptives increase HIV transmission are difficult to determine, NatMed 3 (1997), 124.

Letters on the subject of whether users of natural family planning have higher incidence of Downs syndrome are in AJMG 68 (1997), 363, 365-6. Hysterectomy costs are discussed in BMJ 314 (1997), 160-1. Chemical castration of sex offenders is debated in BMJ 314 (1997), 397.

New compounds may be labeled as emergency contraceptives in the USA following a notice in the Federal Register (25 Feb 1997) from the FDA, Reproductive Freedom News (28 Feb 1997), 7. The drugs are commonly used but are not labeled as such. A world map of global fertility and population is in SA (March 1997), 26. A paper on the importance of educated healthy women in Africa is Lancet 349 (1997), 644-7.

There is still debate over when Japan will accept the birth control pill, NS (22 March 1997), 5. The risks of oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism are debated in Lancet 349 (1997), 731-3; BMJ 314 (1997), 796-800. The pill is not an abortive agent, Eur. J. Obs & Gyn & Reprod. Biology 72 (1997), 1-2. A call for better funding of contraceptive implants is BMJ 314 (1997), 750. There is controversy in India over the use of quinacrine for chemical sterilization. There is still a risk of ectopic pregnancy after tubal sterilization, NEJM 336 (1997), 762-7, 796-7.

A book review of evolution and Female Control is Science 275 (1997), 1075.

New compounds may be labeled as emergency contraceptives in the USA following a notice in the Federal Register (25 Feb 1997) from the FDA, Reproductive Freedom News (28 Feb 1997), 7. The drugs are commonly used but are not labeled as such. A world map of global fertility and population is in SA (March 1997), 26. A paper on the importance of educated healthy women in Africa is Lancet 349 (1997), 644-7.

There is still debate over when Japan will accept the birth control pill, NS (22 March 1997), 5. The risks of oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism are debated in Lancet 349 (1997), 731-3; BMJ 314 (1997), 796-800. The pill is not an abortive agent, Eur. J. Obs & Gyn & Reprod. Biology 72 (1997), 1-2. A call for better funding of contraceptive implants is BMJ 314 (1997), 750. There is controversy in India over the use of quinacrine for chemical sterilization. There is still a risk of ectopic pregnancy after tubal sterilization, NEJM 336 (1997), 762-7, 796-7.

A book review of evolution and Female Control is Science 275 (1997), 1075.

As discussed in the last issue of EJAIB, the FDA has called for use of some oral contraceptives for postcoital emergency contraception, JAMA 277 (1997), 1029. The risks of myocardial infarction and combined oral contraceptives from a WHO study are only significant in older smokers, Lancet 349 (1997), 1202-9. On sexual health in the UK, BMJ 314 (1997), 1703-4, 1743-7. Early puberty is getting more common in the USA, Science 276 (1997), 537. The average age for onset of menstruation was 12.9 years for whites and 12.2 for blacks.

A book review of Moskowitz, EH. & Jennings, B., eds, Coerced Contraception? Moral and Policy Challenges of Long-Acting Birth Control (Georgetown Univ. Press 1996, 225pp., US$45, ISBN 0-87840-624-7) is NEJM 336 (1997), 1765. A paper on China is Hesketh, T. & Zhu WX. "The one child family policy: the good, the bad and the ugly", BMJ 314 (1997), 1685-7. The question of coercion using Norplant is discussed in AJPH 87 (1997), 550-1. An ethics discussion calling for consent to use of an IUD between partners in case one objects to postfertilisation contraception is Spinnato, JA. "Mechanism of action of intrauterine contraceptive devices and its relation to informed consent", AJOG 176 (1997), 503-6. A historical review is on the last English birth control court trial is Galton Institute Newsletter 25 (June 1997), 1-3.

Letters on the risks of thromoembolism with the use of oral contraceptives are in Lancet 349 (1997), 1113-4, 1621-3; Br. J. Haematology 97 (1997), 233-8; Br.J. O&G 104 (1997), 516-20. Norplant implants provide better protection against unintended pregnancy, AJOG 176 (1997), 586-92. Women who use natural family planning who got pregnant did not experience a greater frequency of adverse pregnancy outcome, AJPH 87 (1997), 338-43. On US politics and debate over funding of population control overseas, Reproductive Freedom News (20 June, 1997), 4-5. In Japan, 840/3300 local councils give some reward for births, and 16 give more than 1 million Yen, the biggest being 3 million Yen in Hachijojima Island, Yomiuri Shimbun (3 May 1997), 23.

There is criticism of the unauthorized trials of quinacrine for sterilization in India, Lancet 349 (1997), 1460. Australian scientists have used a live genetically engineered ectromelia virus (with ZP3) as a vaccine to stop mice becoming pregnant, NS (26 April 1997), 4. A group of researchers in Australia has lost a grant for research supporting population limits, NS (7 June 1997), 51; and a group in India working on a vaccine has also lost its funding, NatMed 3 (1997), 478. Papers from the global burden of disease study are in the Disease Risks section, also see NatMed 3 (1997), 599. On the aging population in Japan, Newsweek (19 May 1997), 18. A population prediction is calculated in Lutz, W. et al. "Doubling of world population unlikely", Nature 387 (1997), 803-5, 760-1. It is expected that the policy may be relaxed to 2 children in the future. By the end of 1997 the world population is estimated to be 5.8 billion. A magazine on the right to food is FIAN-Magazine 10 (May 1997),20pp., available from FIAN International Secretariat, P.O. Box 102243, D-69012, Heidelberg, Germany (Email:, annual subscription US$18.

A report suggests that 60,000 Swedish women have been sterilized against their will over 40 years through World War II, especially against non-Aryan race women and handicapped persons (Reuters 25-27 August, 1997). Norway is also reported to have had this eugenic policy.

Awareness of emergency contraception is important to decrease unplanned pregnancies, AJPH 87 (1997), 909-10, 932-7; JAMA 278 (1997), 101-2; O&G 89 (1997),1006-11. Hong Kong will not introduce the strict birth-control policies in the rest of mainland China, CMAJ 157 (1997), 183. The WMA statement on family planning and the right of a woman to contraception is in IDHL 48 (1997), 92-3. A letter on disclosure of condom breakage to partners, JAMA 278 (1997), 291-2.

A study in Family Planning Perspectives (May/June 1997) has found that school education against sexual abstinence does not significantly affect student sexual behaviour; Science 277 (1997), 321. On reducing teen pregnancy, JOGNN Lifelines (April 1997), 13-4; (June 1997), 32-40. The UK government has asked people to talk about sex once a day to increase awareness of STDs which are growing at 6% a year. The dangers of missing people in censuses is discussed in NS (21 June 1997), 12.

A review of the health dangers of third generation oral contraceptives, O&G 89 (1997), 1028-30; BMJ 315 (1997), 60; Lancet 350 (1997), 290. For different reasons, fears of increasing HIV, Japan has continued its restrictions on birth control pills.

The revelations on the Swedish eugenic sterilization programs continue to cause much debate, BME 130 (1997), 5. Austria continues, and some estimate 70% of all mentally handicapped women have been sterilized, whereas Switzerland used such measures 1928-1970s. Austria is reconsidering, Lancet 350 (1997), 723. See also Genetics and Ethics section below. A letter reporting forced abortions in China is in Focus on the Family (Sept. 1997), 2-10.

A report calling for recognition of reproductive rights of women in Africa is reviewed in Lancet 350 (1997), 722; and in general, BMJ 315 (1997), 702. A report on the history of population crisis in central Mexico to the Andes is Galton Institute Newsletter (Sept. 1997), 2-4; and on family planning in 19th century America, Lancet 350 (1997), 598. The population in the UK is not getting as old so quickly as some other countries, BMJ 315 (1997), 442-3. A parental age gap skewed the sex ratio in the UK, Nature 389 (1997), 344. A new journal is Culture, Health and Sexuality (Taylor & Francis Ltd., Email

On safety of hormonal contraception, BMJ 315 (1997), 493; Lancet 350 (1997), 497. On family planning from a doctor's view, BMJ 315 (1997), 377.

The case for reduced population is made in Smail, JK. "Beyond population stabilization: The case for dramatically reducing global human numbers", Politics and the Life Sciences 16 (1997), 183-92; with 16 commentaries pp. 193-236. The WMA has made a statement in October 1996 on family planning and the right of a woman to contraception, in BME 133 (1997), 9-10. The US has renewed support for international family planning programs, while giving some concessions to republicans, Lancet 350 (1997), 1608. On US teenage birth rates, JAMA 278 (1997), 1143-4. Emergency contraception is still prescribed infrequently, NEJM 337 (1997), 1058-64, 1078-9.

Neem oil may be used as a contraceptive, and research in India will extract ingredients used for a long time as a spermicide, Science 278 (1997), 1233. A book review of Riddle, JM., Eve's Herbs: A History of Contraception and Abortion in the West (Harvard Univ. Press 1997, US$40, ISBN 0-674-27024-X) is in NEJM 337 (1997), 1398. Japan is set to allow wide use of the birth control pill, Economist (8 Nov 1997), 19-20; Lancet 350 (1997), 1377; NatMed 3 (1997), 1309. A study of cultural factors that constrain the introduction of family planning among the Kassena-Nankana of Ghana is SSM 45 (1997), 1789-804. A discussion of the risks of oral contraceptives is Lancet 350 (1997), 1566-7; BMJ 315 (1997), 1502-4.

A book review of Riddle, Eve's Herbs: A History of Contraception and Abortion in the West (Harvard Univ. Press 1997) is JAMA 279 (1998), 86-7. The question of whether doctors should reconstruct the vaginal introitus of adolescent girls to mimic the virginal state is discussed in BMJ 316 (1998), 459-62.

A review of unmarried mothers is Lewis, J. & Welshman, J., "The issue of never-married motherhood in Britain, 1920-70", Social History of Medicine 10 (1997), 401-18. Teen pregnancies are rising in the UK, BMJ 316 (1998), 882. There is still secrecy associated with contraception in Ireland. China has agreed to change its one child per family in some parts of the country, Lancet 351 (1998), 890.

Caffeine may not be associated directly with fertility, AJPH 88 (1998), 270-4. Tubal sterilization does not appear to be associated with some signs that had been called a syndrome, at least in those women over 30 years, F&S 69 (1998), 179-86.

A series of papers on reproductive health care services from around the world (South Africa, Indonesia, Latin America, Vietnam, India, Kenya, Nigeria, Brazil and Germany) are in Reproductive Health Matters 6 (1998), 6-128; Lancet 351 (1998), 1593. A paper asking whether family planning in China is out of control is AJPH 88 (1998), 649-51; but the UN is working with China on changing the policy in some areas, BMJ 316 (1998), 959. On knowledge of contraception, BMJ 316 (1998), 1948-52. India is to ban female sterilization with quinacrine, BMJ 316 (1998), 958, 968. On the birth control pill, JAMA 279 (1998), 1443.

On trends for longevity, Science 280 (1998), 395-7; 855-60; and a discussion of TR. Malthus, Lancet 351 (1998), 1676. The use of percentage of births to teenagers as a measure of teen birth rate is suggested in AJPH 88 (1998), 908-12. On the cost of being a women in health, NEJM 337 (1998), 1694-5. There are major trends in different provinces in India on achievement of fertility rate of 2.1 (replacement), Lancet 351 (1998), 1274. Birds can control the sex of their offspring, Economist (2 May 1998), 75-6; but the human male birth rate is falling as noted above, Science News 153 (1998), 212. On development of a male contraceptive pill. NS (7 March 1998), 18.

Oral contraceptives may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer in women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene, NEJM 339 (1998), 424-8; BMJ 317 (1998), 489. Venous thrombosis is discussed in NEJM 338 (1998), 1840-1; AJOG 179 (1998), S25-36; BMJ 317 (1998), 483-4. The evidence for a link between vasectomy and prostrate cancer is reviewed in F&S 70 (1998), 191-200, 201-3. A case study of a 40 year old woman seeking contraception is JAMA 280 (1998), 1651-8. Norplant is providing a satisfactory contraceptive for many low income women, AJPH 88 (1998), 1175-81. A study finding a levonorgestrel regimen was better than the currently used emergency contraception method is Lancet 352 (1998), 416, 428-33; see also NEJM 339 (1998), 1-4, 41-2. It is supported by the WHO, BMJ 317 (1998), 432.

A US survey found 75% of people thought health insurance should cover contraceptive costs, as national health services do in many countries, Lancet 351 (1998), 1941. This idea was supported by the US senate also, Lancet 352 (1998), 299, 553. On French contraceptive services, Family Planning Perspectives 30 (1998), 114-20. A study of the systems in 8 low income countries is SSM 47 (1998), 949-59. In general on population problems, NS (11 July 1998), S1-4; Lancet 352 (1998), 210. Fertility is normally reduced with life expectancy increases, NS (15 August 1998), 51. Teenage pregnancy is one sign of sexual abuse that is often ignored, JAMA 280 (1998), 648-9.

Information on global reproductive health is on-line at <> and other sites is Lancet 352 (1998), 586-7. An alternative way to stop female genital mutilation is replacing the ritual surgery with dialogue and alternative ceremonies, Lancet 352 (1998), 126.

A discussion of the universal crisis of population growth and the Malthusian solution is Galton Institute Newsletter 30 (1998), 2-4; also on forecasting population, Science 281 (1998), 1291-2, 1611-5; 282 (1998), 419-3. A book review on the social history of contraceptives is Nature 396 (1998), 38. The issue of compliance with contraceptive regimens is discussed in Health Care Analysis 6 (1998), 123-30. The increased number of births in Ireland has crowded hospitals, Lancet 352 (1998), 795. The US Congress was considering whether to make contraceptives more available for women, and then dropped their proposed inclusion from employee health schemes, which was reinstated by the Clinton administration, Lancet 352 (1998), 831, 1293, 1366. Emergency contraception is discussed in Lancet 352 (1998), 1222-3, 1477; BMJ 317 (1998), 697.

A new journal is The Journal of Reproductive Health, Rights and Ethics, published by the Reproductive Health, Rights and Ethics Center for Studies and Training (ReproCon), at the University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. In Vol. 3 (1997) there are a variety of papers, 94pp. on reproductive ethics. ReproCen also publishes a newsletter Choices from 1998.

A discussion of the International Criminal Court and crimes against humanity and forced rapes in former Yugoslavia is Reproductive Freedom News 7 (Oct. 1998), 1, 4-5. The Indian government banned the use of quinacrine for sterilizations, Lancet 352 (1998), 717. While social monogamy is found in mammals there are few cases of true sexual fidelity, Science 281 (1998), 1982-3. On the evolution of sex, Science 281 (1998), 1979-2006; and the paradox of gender, SA (Oct. 1998), 126-8.

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) on 20 October 1998 said it deeply regrets that the United States will not include funding for UNFPA in appropriations for the coming financial year. They said "It will deny many people in developing countries the right that Americans take for granted-the right to individual freedom in regard to the size and spacing of the family. It will weaken not only population programmes but programmes aimed at better health, equal access to health and education for women, and economic security."

US funding for UNFPA is $20 million in FY 1998. The total approved by the US for UNFPA in FY 1998. was $25 million, which was reduced by $5 million the amount expected to be spent in China. Since 1984, no US funds have been available for UNFPA expenditure in China. US funding for UNFPA was suspended in 1986 when its total pledge was $46 million, and was restored by President Clinton in 1993. UNFPA's total resources in 1997 were $290 million.

The UNFPA says that in one year alone, the impact of the United States' decision to withdraw funding from UNFPA will be to deprive 870,000 women of effective modern contraception. Over 520,000 will end up not using any method. Non-use and use of ineffective methods will result in: 1,200 maternal and 22,500 infant deaths; 15,000 life-threatening illnesses and injuries to mothers during pregnancy and childbirth; 500,000 unwanted pregnancies, resulting in: 234,000 unwanted births; 200,000 abortions. For more details see <>

A series of papers on the theme of sexuality are in Reproductive Health Matters 6 (No. 12, Nov 1998), 7-126. It includes papers from Tanzania, Brazil, Pakistan, Bolivia, Zimbabwe, Turkey, India and Mexico. Pakistan has poor reproductive health and lack of contraception, BMJ 317 (1998), 1546. A book review of The Right to Reproductive Choice: A Study in International Law, 1996, is in IDHL 49 (1998), 578-9. The one child policy in China is creating problems socially, Japan Times (3 Jan. 1999), 10. A discussion of spider mate choice is Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B. 265 (1998), 2297-301. On safe motherhood, World Health Forum 19 (1998), 253-60; and women's health in general, JAMA 280 (1998), 1540-1. Paternal age affects progeny in rats, F&S 70 (1998), 625-31; and female age affects behaviour in butterfly, Naturwissenschaften 85 (1998), 551-2. A paper describing distribution of the human population found 34% of the world live within 100m of sea level, PNAS 95 (1998), 14009-14.

Those who have fewer progeny generally live longer, Nature 396 (1998), 115-6, 719-20, 743-6. On declining fertility, Science 282 (1998), 1419. A discussion of Prozac is NS (2 Jan. 1999), 24-5. A discussion of monogamy and infidelity is NS (28 Nov. 1998), 29-32.

There have been protests against anti-fertility vaccines in India, but it continues, Lancet 352 (1998), 1528; BMJ 317 (1998), 1340. The FDA has approved the Preven Emergency Contraceptive Kit and one from Gynetics Inc., FDA Consumer (Nov. 1998), 3. On the efficiency of mifepristone for contraception, F&S 70 (1998), 813-6. Family planning clinics need to make it clear they will remove Norplant implants free of charge upon demand, AJPH 88 (1998), 1846-9. A family planning clinic opened in a Boot's pharmacy store in Glasgow as part of efforts to reduce teen pregnancy, BMJ 317 (1998), 1612. Health and oral contraceptives are discussed in Lancet 352 (1998), 1679-80; ssiv3; NEJM 339 (1998), 1553-4.

China has attempted to soften its one child per family policy, Lancet 353 (1999), 567. For health, the spacing of a second child may be best to conceive 18-23 months after a live birth, BMJ 318 (1999), 624. On hunger and population control, Nature 397 (1999), 644. Calls for Cairo declarations on family planning to be implemented are made in Lancet 353 (1999), 315-8. Reduction in fertility is being seen in more countries recently, SA (Dec. 1998), 32-3. The approval of the low dose contraceptive pill in Japan came after the Viagra impotence pill was approved for men, Lancet 353 (1999), 819.

A discussion of how the press reports the pill is O&G 93 (1999), 453-6; and on society and the pill, NEJM 340 (1999), 485-6. On the risks of the birth control pill, JAMA 281 (1999), 1255; Lancet 353 (1999), 389. Emergency contraception is discussed in Lancet 353 (1999), 697-702, 721; BMJ 318 (1999), 342-3. On postcoital testing for pregnancy, BMJ 318 (1999), 1007-9. A UK legal suit against Norplant has collapsed after the Legal Aid Board dropped its support, BMJ 318 (1999), 485. A new generation of contraceptives may be based on making an egg consider it is already fertilized so that it repels other sperm, NS (23 Jan. 1999), 17. On male contraceptive research, Lancet 353 (1999), 302. Peptide antibiotics may also be contraceptive, and are discussed in Lancet 353 (1999), 464-5.

The paper that caused the sacking of the JAMA editor is on student views of sex in the USA and is JAMA 281 (1999), 275-7; NS (23 Jan. 1999), 3.

The Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare has approved the female contraceptive pill, and 16 types of pill produced by 9 companies, will be available from September, Nature 399 (1999), 514. The health risks of the contraceptive pill are discussed in BMJ 318 (1999), 1095; Lancet 353 (1999), 1481-4. Viagra is being used by women as well as men, despite that the trials are not yet finished, SA (May 1999), 36-7.

A paper on reproduction in general is Figueroa, JG. & Esser, MY. "Reproduction and health services in Brazil and Mexico: Some ethical considerations", IJB 9 (No. 4, 1998), 61-76. A discussion of Catholic theology and reproductive control is The Thomist 63 (1999), 269-81. On women's health, Lancet 353 (1999), 1535; and reproduction in general, NEJM 340 (1999), 1519.

A general book is Russell, Claire & Russell, WMS, Population Crises and Population Cycles (Galton Institute, 1999, 124pp.). It looks at the crises in different parts of the world over history. The contraceptive pill began to be sold in Japan after many years of debate, Lancet 353 (1999), 2048. The risks of oral contraceptives are discussed in Brit.J.O&G 106 (1999), 695-9; BMJ 318 (199), 1579-84; 319 (1999), 386-7; SSM 49 (1999), 1139-55. Oral contraceptives and smoking are discussed in Am.J.O&G 181 (1999), S341-390. A book review of A Consumer's Guide to the pill and other drugs, is MJA 171 (1999), 209. Nearly half the forensic physicians in Turkey perform virginity examinations, despite beliefs that such examinations are inappropriate, JAMA 282 (1999), 485-90.

The results of focus groups in the USA found that while people believed a condom should be used, in practice it differed, SSM 49 (1999), 567-80. On the IUD, Am.J.O&G 181 (1999), 1-5. In the Philippines a colour clothing system is being used in a trial to prevent pregnancy, Lancet 354 (1999), 579. The women wear different coloured clothes depending on the day to show which times they are fertile or not, so husbands will know. Birth control is undertaken more underground, NS (27 Feb. 1999), 52-3. A study shows that menstrual cycle affects the face preference that women prefer in males, Nature 399 (1999), 741-2.

Informed consent for family planning is needed, and some abuses have been suggested among poor women in Mexico, Lancet 354 (1999), 419-20. A study on the affect of price an access to contraceptive use in Bangladesh is SSM 49 (1999), 1-15. The US Congress approved a US$25 million contribution to the UNFPA, Lancet 354 (1999), 406. On reproductive health in conflict, SSM 49 (1999), 155-71. Sexuality in Russia is discussed in SSM 49 (1999), 801-14. A US survey found 71% of people said doctors would dismiss any concerns they mentioned about sexual problems, JAMA 281 (1999), 2173-4.

England has launched another campaign to lower teenage pregnancy rates, BMJ 318 (1999), 1646, 1713-4; Lancet 353 (1999), 2178. PCBs may decrease female sex drive, NS (7 August 1999), 16. When temperatures increase the ratio of boys to girls increases, NS (24 July 1999), 21. A Finnish study on the use of emergency contraception is BMJ 319 (1999), 91. A series of 6 papers on cutting woman's genitals is in Reproductive Health Matters 7 (1999), 112-44.

October, 1999, was the month that the world population probably exceeded 6 billion; BMJ 319 (1999), 931-4, 977-91, 995-7; Nature Medicine 5 (1999), 1215; NS (2 Oct. 1999), 20-1; (9 Oct. 1999), 52; Nature 401 (1999), 429, 528-9. The Chinese one child policy is discussed in BMJ 319 (1999), 992-4. A study of how social networks alter reproductive health behaviors is SSM 49 (1999), 1599-614; BMJ 319 (1999), 743-8. A letter from Catholics for Free Choice challenges the Vaticans right for a seat at the UN, BME 151 (1999), 5. Natural family planning is discussed in O&G 94 (1999), 672-8. The impact of welfare reform on US reproductive health is discussed in AJPH 89 (1999), 1514-21. In general on contraception, BMJ 319 (1999), 969-72. The US funding of UN programs is discussed in BMJ 319 (1999), 998-1001.

The pill is now available in Japan, and has been welcomed by the media. On medical risks of oral contraceptives, Lancet 354 (1999), 1469-70; BMJ 319 (1999), 795-6. Female physicians use different contraception to most US women, O&G 94 (1999), 666-71. In Canada because of increasing teen pregnancies, obstetricians and gynecologsts have supported nonprescription "morning-after pill" CMAJ 161 (1999), 855. Emergency contraception is discussed in SSM 49 (1999), 1409-17; BMJ 319 (1999), 661. Unintended pregnancy in women exposed to abuse is discussed in JAMA 282 (1999), 1359-64. The effectiveness of contraception needs to be included in counseling, JAMA 282 (1999), 1405-7. Direct sale of viagra on the Internet is discussed in NEJM 341 (1999), 1389-92. Long term estrogen implants in beef heifers may impair reproductive function, J. Animal Science 77 (1999), 2886-92.

There have been demands for treatment for sex offenders in Israel, Lancet 354 (1999), 1190. On survivial sex homeless youth, AJPH 89 (1999), 1406-9. Familiarity breeds contempt in guppy fish, and males seek new females to mate with, Nature 401 (1999), 661-2.

Papers on access to reproductive health and distributive justice are in Reproductive Health Matters 7 (1999), 19-117. The future of population growth is discussed in Time (8 Nov. 1999), 72-3; Naturwissenshaften 86 (1999), 411-21. The evolution of human sexuality is discussed in Lancet 354 (1999), 2175. Letters on the definition of sex are in JAMA 282 (1999), 1916-9. An Indian study found abusive men are more likely to have extramarital sex, JAMA 282 (1999), 1967-72.

A report from Japan after approval of the pill is Goto, A. et al. "Oral contraceptives and women's health in Japan", JAMA 282 (1999), 2173-7. A UK and Sri Lanka study has suggested that there may be gum problems in pill users, NS (27 Nov. 1999), 7. Pill users developed acquired resistance to activated protein C, which may explain the risk of venous thromboembolism, Lancet 354 (1999), 2036-40. The mechanism of contraceptives is reviewed in AJOG 181 (1999), 1263-9. Norplant implants are discussed in AJOG 181 (1999), 1270. There are legal battles by several women in the UK who had hysterectomies because of misread cervical smears, Lancet 354 (1999), 1833. Hysterectomies may improve sexual functioning, JAMA 282 (1999), 1934-41. The morning-after pill has been offered on-line in New Zealand and hopes to sell the drug RU-486, currently not allowed in New Zealand.

On 25 November 1999 the House of Lords in the UK closed the idea that a person can claim the right to claim the costs of bringing up an "unwanted" healthy child whose birth resulted from negligence in medical treatment intended to prevent conception or to terminate pregnancy, Lancet 354 (1999), 1924.

Colorado has had another legislative hearing on the banning of female genital mutilation, Reproductive Freedom News VIII (Nov. 1999), 1, 3, Sex may make sports persons more aggressive for the competition, NS (27 Nov. 1999), 18. Males are less likely to seek medical help for STDs than women, BMJ 319 (1999), 1315-6.

A general discussion is Potts, M. "The unmet need for family planning", SA (Jan 2000), 88-93. A study of family planning in Romanian high schools is Public Health 113 (1999), 219-26. Abortion is still considered the main method by many. There are concerns on adolescent pregnancy in Cape Verde, Lancet 355 (2000), 128. A study of sexual behaviour of immigrant men in the USA, SSM 50 (2000), 723-5. A historical study of the medical use of a vibrator in a book review is JAMA 283 (2000), 261. A study of family planning in Gaza is SSM 50 (2000), 841-9. A general review of the 20th century rise in family planning is JAMA 283 (2000), 327-31. Spain now has the lowest birth rate in the world at 1.07, Lancet 355 (2000), 126. The future of O&G in Australia is discussed in MJA 172 (2000), 88-9; and in the USA, O&G 95 (2000), 1-5. On the risk of STDs in poor neighbourhoods, AJPH 90 (2000), 230-6.

On smoking and choice of contraceptives, O&G 95 (2000), 78-83. On the risk of venous thromboembolism, BMJ 320 (2000), 57-8. Access to emergency contraception is discussed in O&G 95 (2000), 267-70. On IUDs, MJA 172 (2000), 31.

A general discussion is Potts, M. "The unmet need for family planning", SA (Jan 2000), 88-93. A study of family planning in Romanian high schools is Public Health 113 (1999), 219-26. Abortion is still considered the main method by many. There are concerns on adolescent pregnancy in Cape Verde, Lancet 355 (2000), 128. A study of sexual behaviour of immigrant men in the USA, SSM 50 (2000), 723-5. A historical study of the medical use of a vibrator in a book review is JAMA 283 (2000), 261. A study of family planning in Gaza is SSM 50 (2000), 841-9. A general review of the 20th century rise in family planning is JAMA 283 (2000), 327-31. Spain now has the lowest birth rate in the world at 1.07, Lancet 355 (2000), 126. The future of O&G in Australia is discussed in MJA 172 (2000), 88-9; and in the USA, O&G 95 (2000), 1-5. On the risk of STDs in poor neighbourhoods, AJPH 90 (2000), 230-6.

On smoking and choice of contraceptives, O&G 95 (2000), 78-83. On the risk of venous thromboembolism, BMJ 320 (2000), 57-8. Access to emergency contraception is discussed in O&G 95 (2000), 267-70. On IUDs, MJA 172 (2000), 31.

The reproductive rights of women with disabilities is discussed in Reproductive Freedom News IX (Feb. 2000), 1, 3. A review of US state laws on contraceptive equity is Reproductive Freedom News IX (Feb. 2000), 8-9. In the first 6 months of legalized open access to the low dose contraceptive pill in Japan there may have been 20-30,000 new users and 60-70,000 who switched from medium dose pills, PharmaJapan 1694 (24 April 2000), 7. Exposure to oral contraceptives may be associated with a higher lumbar spine bone mineral density, Am.J.O&G 182 (2000), 265-9. In the Netherlands, third generation contraceptives are half of prescriptions, despite warnings since 1995 that they may have some risk of venous thrombosis, Lancet 355 (2000), 635. Racial differences in Norplant use in the USA are discussed in SSM 50 (2000), 1297-308. A book review of Houppert, K. The Curse: Confronting the Last Unmentioned Taboo: Menstruation (NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1999, US$24) is JAMA 283 (2000), 1623-3; see also, Lancet 355 (2000), 763, 922-4.

Safe male hormonal contraception is available, MJA 172 (2000), 254-5. Letters on the sexual health of boys and men are in BMJ 320 (2000), 643. The question of a male menopause is in BMJ 320 (2000), 858-61. A UK women who sued a condom manufacturer for a pregnancy that resulted from a split condom had her case turned down, Lancet 355 (2000), 560. A UK study finds general practices with younger doctors or more females end up with lower regional teenage pregnancy rates, BMJ 320 (2000), 842-5.

The number of new births in Japan in 1999 was 1,175,000, a record low making the net population increase 190,000 persons for the year. The Spanish population is expected to decrease by 9.4 million persons over the next 50 years according to a UN prediction, BMJ 320 (2000), 891. India aims to stabilize its population by the year 2045, and to reach one billion by 11 May, 2000, Lancet 355 (2000), 734. A study of Indian tribes finds a stronger anti-female bias present, SSM 50 (2000), 1333-51. On population growth, BMJ 320 (2000), 443.

The need for a scientific method for taking a census is reinforced in Science 288 (2000), 53. A discussion of the freedom of the new generation of young women in Japan is Newsweek (3 April 2000), 40-45. A book review of The Natural History of Rape, is Nature 404 (2000), 121-2.

In New Zealand carrots baited with contraceptives are being used to stop possums breeding, NS (4 March 2000), 18.

A letter on family planning and national prosperity is Science 288 (2000), 1747. A review of coping with crowding is SA (June 2000), 76-81. The question whether profitability should alter availability of contraception is discussed in Lancet 355 (2000), 1914-5. In general, BMJ 320 (2000), 1207-8. Social discrimination for families without children in Pakistan is discussed in SSM 51 (2000), 73-81. Variation in the time to fecundity affects birth rate, Lancet 355 (2000), 1928-9, 1961-5. A study of the media and Norplant is Lancet 355 (2000), 1633-6. A book review of the Sexual Century is JAMA 283 (2000), 2453-4. The risks of oral contraceptives are discussed in Lancet 355 (2000), 2088. Home pregnancy test use is surveyed in AJPH 90 (2000), 974-6. In the UK the morning after pill will be sold in pharmacies, Times (20 May 2000), 7. Religious involvement delays onset of sexual intercourse in New Zealand, SSM 51 (2000), 1-10.

A book review on Caring for Women with Circumcision is BMJ 320 (2000), 1481. A book review of machines to enable orgasm sold the last two centuries is NEJM 342 (2000), 1925-6. A survey of reasons for regretted intercourse in teenagers in Scotland is BMJ 320 (2000), 1243-4. A UK Appeal Court has refused a mother's request for a hysterectomy in a 29 year old woman with learning disabilities, BMJ 320 (2000), 1424.

India has announced a fund for population policy, Lancet 356 (2000), 409. The US population demographics are changing, SA (Aug. 2000), 26.

There development of a male hormonal contraceptive is showing progress, Lancet 356 (2000), 316. The safety of oral contraceptives is discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 190-1; FDA Consumer (July 2000), 36; JAMA 284 (2000), 72-8. Questions over quinacrine sterilization are raised in Issues in Medical Ethics 8 (2000), 87-8. About 42 million men worldwide have had vasectomy as a birth control method, and on the reliability, Lancet 356 (2000), 43. Emergency contraception may be best provided before the event, O&G 95 (2000), 1-7. Teenage pregnancy rates in the UK may be linked to the age of the GPs, and ease of approaching them, BMJ 321 (2000), 381-2. On contraceptive requirements in clinical research, O&G 95 (2000), 861-6.

Female genital mutilation is discussed in BMJ 321 (2000), 262; Lancet 356 (2000), 137. On the prostitution trade into Japan, Far Eastern Economic Review (3 August 2000), 50-54. Papers on women and sex are in Newsweek (5 June 2000), 46-53; and on men and sex, SA (August 2000), 70-5. On risks of children in later life, BMJ 321 (2000), 1681-2.

The role of the Cairo Conference is discussed in SSM 51 (2000), 941-53. Overpopulation is discussed in SA (Oct. 2000), 30-2; BMJ 321 (2000), 950-3. The Indian state of Maharasthra is imposing measures after a having a third child that includes withdrawing certain benefits, in efforts to control population, Lancet 356 (2000), 1178. There is an increase in the number of babies nborn in Holland, Lancet 356 (2000), 837.

On association of sexual behaviour with family in the USA, AJPH 90 (2000), 1582-8. Trends in sexual behaviour from 1985 to 1995 in the USA show that teenage pregnancy is becoming less common, AJPH 90 (2000), 1421-5. Pregnancy tests are discussed in SA (Nov. 2000), 110-1. The IUD is a safe device with low infection rate, Lancet 356 (2000), 1013-9. Informed consent for emergency contraception in rape victims means it may not be discussed in some Catholic hospitals, AJPH 90 (2000), 1372-6. On consultation for contraception, BMJ 321 (2000), 461-2, 486-9. A study of contraceptive policy in Denmark, Germany, Poland, Italy and Spain finds differences, AJPH 90 (2000), 1403-8. Adolescent perceptions of maternal approval of birth control and sexual risk behaviour may favour higher activity, AJPH 90 (2000), 1426-30.

The early oral contraceptives may have put women at risk of breast cancer, JAMA 284 (2000), 1791-8, 1837-8. The 1995 pill scare did not seem to alter venous thromoboembolism rates, BMJ 321 (2000), 477-9. The dangers of hysterectomies to hormone balance is discussed in NEJM 343 (2000), 730-1. Race influences repsonse at menopause in the USA, Lancet 356 (2000), 916. Hormone replacement therapy is discussed in AJPH 90 (2000), 1397-402. French men can come to the UK to undergo a vasectomy, BMJ 321 (2000), 470. A book review of Womenfs Bodies, Womenfs Worries: Health and Family Planning in a Vietnamese Rural Community is SSM 51 (2000), 1708. On womenfs health, BMJ 321 (2000), 1042.

Caution in oral contraceptive studies is needed, BMJ 321 (2000), 1171-2. The UK has improved access to the morning after pill, levonorgestrel by allowing it to be sold over-the-counter, Lancet 356 (2000), 2071. A survey of knowledge on emergency contraception in the US military found better awareness was needed, O&G 96 (2000), 921-5. In general education is important on how to use contraception, Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s51.

The scientific and social representations of conception differ, Brit. J. Social Psychology 39 (2000), 521-35. Changing perceptions of sex and sexuality are discussed in Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s58. In general on contraception, Lancet 356 (2000), 1913-9. Long term studies of quinacrine sterilisation in Vietnam are reported in F&S 74 (2000), 1084-91, 1092-101. Tubal sterilisation is safe and effective, NEJM 343 (2000), 1724-6. Ethical issues of voluntary sterilisation are discussed (in Italian) in Bioetica e Cultura 9 (2000), 79-90. Research on new methods for birth control against the Zona Pellucidia are discussed in Everyman’s Science 35 (April 2000), 26-9. A ten year copper IUD is being used in India, Reproductive Health Matters 8 (Nov. 2000), 125-33.<

Population control is discussed in AJPH 90 (2000), 1838-47. On the census in China, Science 290 (2000), 1288-9. The transition from quantity of children to quality is discussed in PNAS 97 (2000), 12926-31. Maternal mortality is discussed in Lancet Perspectives 356 (2000), s11. Early child bearing adversely affects health in some cases in Botswana, SSM52 (2001), 45-52. Prostitution and sexual partner reporting is studied in PNAS 97 (2000), 12385-8.

The abolishment of gender tests for the Olympics is discussed in JAMA 284 (2000), 2997-8. On rape laws, BMJ 321 (2000), 1034-5.

A study in China is Doherty, JP. Et al. "China's one child policy: the economic choices and consequences faced by pregnant women", SSM 52 (2001), 745-61. Overpopulation is a health challenge, JAMA 285 (2001), 411; as well as an environmental one, Science 291 (2001), 671. The difficulties of obtaining a proper US census result are discussed in Science 291 (2001), 209.

Improving access to emergency contraception has been accomplished by pharmacy sales, BMJ 322 (2001), 186-7. Internet contraceptives are often expensive, O&G. 97 (2001), 121-6. On the health risks of oral contraceptives, JAMA 285 (2001), 39-40; and estrogen and breast cancer, NEJM 344 (2001), 276-85. A general review on reproductive health is JAMA 285 (2001), 633-9.

A UK doctor has been struck off the medical register for agreeing to perform female circumcision, BMJ 322 (2001), 9. The Kenyan situation is up to judges discretion rather than being illegal, Lancet 357 (2001), 371. The female condom is a sign of female empowerment, SSM 52 (2001), 783-96. On the illusion of female control of sexuality, SSM 52 (2001), 585-98.

The UNDP has predicted the global population will be 9 billion by 2050, Lancet 357 (2001), 864; Nature 410 (2001), 631-2. The Indian population policy is discussed in Int. J. Health Services 30 (2000), 675-80. In Delhi there are 60 vasectomies per 1000 tubectomies (See Eubios Daily News on-line). A book review on Male Bodies is Health & Place 7 (2001), 63-5. The masculinity of birth registrations in Australia may reveal some biased registration in 1880-1915, Health & History 2 (2000), 144-59.

The question of whether long term estrogen rely does increase ovarian cancer rate is discussed in JAMA 285 (2001), 1460-5; Time (16 April, 2001), 62. A study on the health risks of third generation oral contraceptives may have been keep secret by the drug company Wyeth, Lancet 357 (2001), 779; BMJ 322 (2001), 571. A 20 microgram oral contraceptive is available in the USA, F&S 78 (2001), 457-65. Longer reproductive period does not reduce dementia risks, JAMA 285 (2001), 1475-81. A letter on emergency contraception in Chile is in Lancet 357 (2001), 809-10. A study of factors associated with hysterectomy in Australia is Health & Place 6 (2000), 301-8.

Medicalization of female circumcision is discussed in SSM 52 (2001), 1013-28. Also on circumcision, BMJ 322 (2001), 680. On rape as a war crime, Lancet 357 (2001), 737. A book review of The natural history of Rape is Lancet 357 (2001), 727-8 A study of violence towards female prostitutes in the UK is BMJ 322 (2001), 524-5. On prostitution in the literature, Women & Criminal Justice 11 (2000), 29+. A book review on The Technology of Orgasm is J. Health Politics, Policy and Law 25 (2000), 598-601. Laws in sex in different countries range widely, for example, 8 countries still have a death penalty for homosexuality, and 4 countries for adultery, BMJ 322 (2001), 623.

A series of 22 papers on reproduction as young persons in developing countries are in Reproductive Health Matters 9 (May 2001), 6-207. A survey of Chinese parents' attitudes to providing contraceptives to their children found them ambivalent, Reproductive Health Matters 9 (May 2001), 137-45. Five papers looking at gender discrimination in India are in Dharma Deepika, South Asian J. Missiological Research 5 (Jan. 2001), 3-48. Papers on gender are in NS (12 May 2001), 26-45; (16 June 2001), 48. Papers on homosexuality and health are in AJPH 91 (June 2001), 855-939. A paper on the role of ethics in Lesbian and Gay health research in South Africa is AJPH 91 (2001), 865-8. Transgender rights are discussed in Columbia Law Review 101 (2001), 392-420. Risk factors for on-line sexual solicitation of youth are reported in JAMA 285 (2001), 3011-4. A book review on Celibacy, Culture and Society is JAMA 2785 (2001), 3028-9.

A review of the China population census is Science 292 (2001), 1823. Developing countries face extra issues in reproductive health, Lancet 357 (2001), 2029.

The birth control pill may protect against bowel cancer, Independent (16 April 2001); but not against pelvic inflammatory disease, Lancet 357 (2001), 1270. Venous thrombosis is discussed in terms of genetic and oral contraceptive risk factors in NEJM 344 (2001), 1222-31, 1527-35; BMJ 322 (2001), 1024-5. The question of whether breast and pelvic exams are needed for hormonal contraception is discussed in JAMA 285 (2001), 2232-9. A comparison of oral contraceptives versus transdermal contraceptive is JAMA 285 (2001), 2347-54. Post-marketing surveillance of Norplant in developing countries is reported in Lancet 357 (2001), 1815. Education affects the views of providers of emergency contraception, O&G 97 (2001), 942-6. Cost savings come from providing emergency contraception, O&G 97 (2001), 789-93; JAMA 285 (2001), 3080. On the future of quinacrine sterilization, F&S 75 (2001), 1244-5.

Spain is considering improving its law banning female circumcision, Lancet 357 (2001), 1510.

The uncertainty of human population forecasts is discussed in Nature 412 (2001), 490-1, 543-5. However it appears that the peak population growth period is passing. A study of marital fertility in Lebanon is SSM 53 (2001), 759-71. The UK has announced a safe sex campaign, mainly to reduce HIV and STDs, BMJ 323 (2001), 250. A study of teenage pregnancy in Scotland is BMJ 323 (2001), 199-203. A study of trafficking of girls from Shan States of Burma to the sex industry in Asia is in SSM 53 (2001), 543-50. Childhood sexual abuse is a risk factor for revictimisation in adulthood, Lancet 358 (2001), 434, 450-4. On dating violence in the USA, JAMA 286 (2001), 572-9.

On the decreased risks of ovarian cancer by various contraceptives, Epidemiology 12 (2001), 307-12. However a study of carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations finds it is premature to suggest they use oral contraceptivesas a ay to prevent ovarian cancer, NEJM 345 (2001), 235-40. The FDA has approved drospirenome and ethinyl estradiol as an oral contraceptive, JAMA 286 (2001), 527. A study of third generation oral contraceptives and risks of venous thrombosis finds some real risk as compared to second generation ones, BMJ 323 (2001), 119-20, 131-4. On the risks of IUD and infertility, Lancet 358 (2001), 6-7. Depression and contraception is discussed in JAMA 286 (2001), 671.

A discussion of the world population is NS (8 Sept. 2001), 42-4. The social trend to reduced family size can lead to an increase in abortion if birth control is insufficient, as seen in the case of Bangladesh, Lancet 358 (2001), 1051-6. Second teenage pregnancies have increased risks, BMJ 323 (2001), 476-9. A book review on The Myth of Monogamy is Nature 413 (2001), 19-20. A call for decriminalization of prostitution in Asia is in Lancet 358 (2001), 643.

A discussion in support of the use of the IUD is NEJM 345 (2001), 608-610. A book review of Marks, LV. Sexual Chemistry: A History of the Contraceptive Pill (Yale University Press 2001, 372pp.) is BMJ 323 (2001), 171. Another book review is BMJ 323 (2001), 699. A population-based data from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study on oral contraceptive use and bone mineral density in premenopausal women, is in CMAJ 165 (2001), 1023-30. Compounds that may end monthly periods have been tested in monkeys, Science News 160 (2001), 102; Human Reproduction (August 2001).

A paper on voluntary sterilization in Italian is Bioetica e Cultura X (2001), 265-78. A unisex pill for birth control is being developed, NS (13 Oct. 2001), 6. The risk of venous thromboembolism from contraceptives may be indicated from family history, BMJ 323 (2001), 752. A risk of myocardial infarction is associated with second phase oral contraceptives, NEJM 345 (2001), 1787-93, 1841-2. Ovarian cancer risks are discussed in NEJM 345 (2001), 1706-7. The history of the birth control pill is reviewed in JAMA 286 (2001), 2738; NEJM 345 (2001), 1136-7. The general population crisis is discussed in SA (Jan. 2002), 65-7; BMJ 323 (2001), 1193. Community supply of emergency contraception is discussed in BMJ 323 (2001), 751.

The rise in unwed motherhood in industrialized countries is discussed in SA (Jan. 2002), 22; NatBio 19 (2001), 1428. 7 papers on gender and sexuality are in Kasarinlan, Philippine J. Third World Studies 16 (2001), 3-198. See also BMJ 323 (2001), 1061-3; Lancet 358 (2001), 1828-9. Intersex persons are discussed in Lancet 358 (2001), 2085-6. There are natural limits of pregnancy testing, JAMA 286 (2001), 1759-61.

Medicalization of menopause is discussed in Int. J. Health Services 31 (2001), 769-92; NS (16 March 2002), 38-41. On the future of sex, Nature 415 (2002), 963. Reproductive health education in China is discussed in Health & Place 7 (2001), 261-71.

Paternally inherited HLA alleles are associated with a women's choice of male odour, NatGen 30 (2002), 175-9. The question of whether we are attracted to mates that look like our parents is discussed in NS (9 Feb. 2002), 26-9. The question of chemistry of clothes and pheromones and sex is discussed in Time (4 March 2002), 57. Sexual stereotypes on promiscuity are discussed in Nature 415 (2002), 254-6. Homosexuality in Egypt is discussed in Newsweek (11 Feb. 2002), 16-7.

The risks of the contraceptive pill discussed in a WHO meeting, that led to headlines in the UK that the pill doubles the risk of cervical cancer is discussed in Lancet 359 (2002), 1079, 1080-1, 1085-92; BMJ 324 (2002), 808. There is a claim for compensation from the makers of third generation contraceptive pills of the side effects, BMJ 324 (2002), 561. Venous thromboembolism is discussed in Lancet 359 (2002), 456-7, 1348. Misoprostol for women"s health is discussed in O&G 99 (2002), 316-32. Dutch GPs have been warned about a new contraceptive pill, BMJ 324 (2002), 869.

Experience of polycystic ovarian syndrome and loss of womenhood is discussed in SSM 54 (2002), 349-61. Introduction of a transdermal hormonal contraceptive Ortho Evra is reported in F&S 77 (2002), Supplement 2. In general on birth control, BMJ 324 (2002), 796; F&S 77 (2002), 1-14. A legal challenge by SPUC to UK pharmacy dispensing of the emergency pill is discussed in BMJ 324 (2002), 381. Maternal mortality is discussed in Lancet 359 (2002), 701-4.

A philosophical paper on considering future children"s interests is Jackson, E. "Conception and the irrelevance of the welfare principle", Modern Law Review 65 (2002), 176-203. A series of papers under the symposium theme "Human mate choice and prehistoric marital networks", ed. K. Aoki & T. Akazawa (Int. Research Center for Japanese Studies, International Symposium 16. 2000) includes 16 papers (211pp., 2002). Papers on the evolution of sex are in Nature Reviews 3 (2002), 241-317. Medicalisation of sexual behaviour is discussed in BMJ 324 (2002), 896-900. Attitudes to sex are discussed in Lancet 359 (2002), 1084. In general on reproduction, JAMA 287 (2002), 1188-9. The future of human population is in Lancet 359 (2002), 1145-8. Overpopulation is threatening biodiversity, Nature 417 (2002), 21-2. The selling of children still is found in the world, Lancet 358 (2001), 2095.

A contraceptive injection for men has been introduced in trials in India, NS (8 June 2002), 5. Semen may make women feel happier, NS (29 June 2002), 5. Positive reports on oral contraceptives are in NEJM 346 (2002), 2078-9.

A paper that discusses gynecological examinations for pregnancy and virginity in Turkey for legal and social reasons is Croatian Medical J. 43 (2002), 338-41. In the UK a transsexual born as a man won legal rights to be recognized as a woman and to be married, The Independent (12 July 2002), 5; The Times (12 July 2002), 10. A review of environmental estrogens and sex change is NS (29 June 2002), 42-5. Discussion of whether women prefer smarter men is in NS (25 May 2002), 26-30.

Political solutions to birth control are called for in Science 297 (2002), 1120. The UK is revising their sexual health services, Lancet 360 (2002), 236. A participatory evaluation of reproductive health quality in developing countries is reported in SSM 55 (2002), 269-82. Reproductive health indicators among refugee's are reported in JAMA 288 (2002), 595-603. Paper against female genital mutilation include; JAMA 288 (2002), 1130-6. A study of polgyny and HIV in Uganda is SSM 55 (2002), 585-92. The risks of menopausal hormone replacement therapy are reported in JAMA 288 (2002), 321-33, 334-41, 368+.

A UK judge rejected a court claim that third generation pills were more dangerous than second generation pills, BMJ 325 (2002), 237; Lancet 360 (2002), 391, 421. Also on the risks of oral contraceptives, NEJM 345 (2002), 1826-9, 2025-32. A survey from the UK on what a planned pregnancy means is SSM 55 (2002), 545-57. A UK study of HIV and unprotected sex is in SSM 55 (2002), 211-26.

The dangers of population growth are discussed in Science 297 (2002), 341-2. Computer modeling of population is discussed in Nature 419 (2002), 567-9. A book review of Wilson, EO, The Future of Life, which discusses China's population policy is in NatMed. 8 (2002), 923. Discussion of making emergency contraception over-the-counter in the USA is in NEJM 346 (2002), 846-9. On sex in NYC, BMJ 325 (2002), 1042. A call for US trials of quinacrine sterilization is in F&S 77 (2002), 1106-9.

The risks of oral contraceptives and breast cancer are discussed in NEJM 346 (2002), 1448-51, 2078-9; BMJ 325 (2002), 504-5. There is a suspicion of Depo-Provera contraceptive and risks of cardiovascular disease, BMJ 325 (2002), 513; Circulation (17 Sept. 2002). Hysterectomy is discussed in NEJM 346 (2002), 1360-2. The dangers of estrogen and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are discussed in Lancet 360 (2002), 942-4; Science 297 (2002), 325-6; 298 (2002), 723-4; USA Today (29 Oct. 2002), 10D; BMJ 325 (2002), 987, 1036; JAMA 288 (2002), 321, 334, 366-9. However a study has found that prior HRT is associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease, JAMA 288 (2002), 2123-9.

The Japanese government has proposed a dating agency to encourage more births, Lancet 360 (2002), 1755. China tries to restrict births under their 2002 Family Planning Law, Japan Times (2 Sept. 2002), 10. A UK gynecologist has been struck off the medical register for sterilizing a woman without her consent, BMJ 325 (2002), 1260. The risks of oral contraceptives are discussed in Lancet 360 (2002), 409-10. On HRT therapy risks, JAMA 288 (2002), 2432-40, 2395-6, 2538-9; NEJM 347 (2002), 1898-9; BMJ 325 (2002), 673; Science 297 (2002), 755-6. The UN call for improved maternal health in developing countries continues, Lancet 360 (2002), 1843. A letter defending contraception services in Bangladesh is Lancet 359 (2002), 2041; and in general, SSM 54 (2002), 1898-9. There is a need for new methods of birth control, Science 296 (2002), 2172-3; 297 (2002), 1121.

A book review of Evolution, Gender and Rape is NS (1 Feb., 2003), 46. Viagra is discussed in NS (25 Jan., 2003), 25. The threat to the environment may be more from the increasing number of households than persons, Nature 421 (2003), 489-90. Emergency contraception as over-the-counter medicine is discussed in NEJM 348 (2003), 82-3. A male pill is being developed, JAMA 289 (2003), 164. Debates over oral contraceptives are in BMJ 326 (2003), 254. A study of unplanned child bearing in Kenya is in SSM 56 (2003), 167-78.

The long-term effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are discussed in Lancet 361 (2003), 253-5; JAMA 289 (2003), 44-5, 537-8; BMJ 326 (2003), 322-6; NEJM 348 (2003), 645-50.

           The dangers of overpopulation are discussed in NS (12 April 2003), 50. Europe's population is at a turning point downwards, Science 299 (2003), 1991-2. The effects of HRT and caffeine on Parkinson's disease are discussed in Neurology 60 (2003), 790-5. On HRT, NS (8 March 2003), 8; CMAJ 167 (2002), 319-20, 357+. Questions of studies on gay men and prostitutes are discussed in Science 300 (2003), 403. Clitoral surgery in intersex conditions is discussed in Lancet 361 (2003), 1236. Brazil is attempting to eliminate sexual exploitation of children, Lancet 361 (2003), 1196.

           Emergency contraception is discussed in BMJ 326 (2003), 775-6. Cervical cancer and hormonal contraceptives are reviewed in Lancet 361 (2003), 1159-67. Gender and risk in contraception is discussed in Sociology of Health and Illness 24 (2002), 436-61.

A series of papers from different countries on integration of reproductive and sexual health services is in Reproductive Health Care Matters 11 (2003), 6-191. Several papers on contraception and natural family planning are in National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2003), 23-44; Bulletin of WHO 81 (2003), 146. A book review of Sex Ratios is Science 300 (2003), 123-4. On persistent myths of human foreskin, MJA 178 (2003), 155, 178-9. On African Food security, Science 300 (2003), 2033. In Japan the government has been attempting to promote more births and dating between young persons, Asahi Shimbun (9 June 2003).

Sex trafficking and prostitution are discussed in Lancet 361 (2003), 1981, 1983. A review of sexual behaviour in human males is AJPH 93 (2003), 894-8.

A link between estrogen and leukemia has been found, Lancet 361 (2003), 1627. On risks of dementia, JAMA 289 (2003), 2651-62, 2717-9. QOL effects may not be significant overall, NEJM 348 (2003), 1839-54. Also on HRT, MJA 178 (2003), 412-3; BMJ 326 (2003), 1161.

A book review of Longevity is in Science 301 (2003), 1185. A book review of The Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger is in JAMA 290 (2003), 408-9. Hormone therapy and health risks are discussed in JAMA 289 (2003), 3241-2; 290 (2003), 3243-53, 3254-63, 3304-6; Lancet 362 (2003), 260-2, 414, 419-27, 428-32; NEJM 349 (2003), 523-34; BMJ 327 (2003), 9. A comparison of menopause in Japanese American and European American women is Med. Anthropology Quarterly 16 (2002), 64-91. Cadmium mimics the effects of estrogen, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1081-4. An Australian study suggests that the more men ejaculate between 20-50 years the less likely they are to develop prostrate cancer, NS (19 July 2003), 15; BJU International 92 (2003), 211+.

A new book is Aldrich, RF. Colonialism and Homosexuality, Routledge 2003. A book review of Evolution, Gender and Rape is Science 301 (2003), 313. Sexual abuse in patients visiting gynecology clinics in Nordic countries is reviewed in Lancet 361 (2003), 2107-13. Gynecology in Turkey is discussed in SSM 57 (2003), 205-15. Slavery is discussed in Lancet 361 (2003), 2093.

A paper looking at rural China is Wang, CC. Et al. "Reproductive health indicators for China's rural areas", SSM 57 (2003), 217-25. A report on trafficking in baby girls in China for sale is in NY Times (August 2003). On reproductive health of older women in developing countries, BMJ 327 (2003), 64-5. Pregnancy and concepts of disease are discussed in Sociology of Health & Illness 25 (2003), 383-407. Safe motherhood in Mozambique can be endangered by many rumours, SSM 57 (2003), 355-74. Fertility has declined in Tanzania with increase in empowerment of women, SSM 57 (2003), 1099-1115.

A discussion of methods for male contraception is F&S 80 (2003), 1-15. In the UK a doctor who failed a sterilization operation may have to pay for the costs of raising the child until they are 18 years old, BMJ 327 (2003), 183. On female genital cutting, Med. Anthroplogy Quarterly 17 (2003), 135-58. Attitudes to polygamy in English Law are discussed in Modern Law Review (2003), 370+. On selection of mates in salmon, NS (2 Aug. 2003), 16.

In Australia the Therapeutic Goods Authority has proposed that a post-coital intervention Postinor-2 for preventing implantation will be available over the counter, Bioethics Research Notes 15 (2003), 29-31. Improving sexual health of adolescents is discussed in Lancet 362 (2003), 830-1. On education of birth control in Hong Kong, J. Biological Education 36 (2002), 189-94. Fertility and perinatal health among Finnish immigrants in Sweden is discussed in SSM 57 (2003), 1443-54. Evolution and maternal age at menarche is discussed in SSM 57 (2003), 17771-81. Fewer boys are born in economic hard times, NS (30 Aug. 2003), 20. Children born in June may have more grandchildren, NS (20 Sept. 2003), 21. Combination estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives are discussed in NEJM 349 (2003), 1443-50. On male pregnancy in fish, Current Biology 13 (2003), R791.

Doctors in India have been accused of prescribing an unapproved drug letrozole for fertility, BMJ 327 (2003), 768. The American Society for Reproductive Medicine Prevention of Infertility Campaign is discussed in F&S 79 (2003), 295+. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 820-1; Lancet 362 (2003), 1328-32; SA (Oct. 2003), 17-8. The head of the German Commission on Safety of medicines has likened HRT to thalidomide, BMJ 327 (2003), 767. HRT for men for aging is not to be advised,  NS (23 Aug. 2003), 18.

Sudan is tightening its laws against female genital mutilation, BMJ 327 (2003), 580. A book review of Travis, CB., Evolution, Gender and Rape (MIT press, 2003) is TREE 18 (2003), 324-5. UK interview research on 33 women to examine what is "normal" about heterosexual desire and orgasm is in SSM 57 (2003), 1735-45. Fears of political interference about studies of sexual behaviour in USA are raised in Nature 425 (2003), 885; SA (Oct. 2003), 13-4. A study has claimed that homosexual orientation can be changed, NS (11 Oct. 2003), 19. Papers on concepts of sexual perversity are in The Monist 86 (2003), 3-140. The rate of mixed marriages in USA is rising, SA (Oct. 2003), 19.

The problems of maternal mortality are discussed in JOGNN (March 2004), 153; Lancet 363 (2004), 989-93. The rising global population and limits for our planet are discussed in NS (8 Nov. 2003), 19; BioScience 54 (2004), 195-204. Some Catholic leaders have claimed that HIV passes through condoms, NatMed. 9 (2003), 1443.

Contraceptive research is reviewed in NatMed. 10 (2004), 213; NEJM 350 (2004), 307-8. On emergency contraception, NEJM 349 (2003), 1830-5. Research to make a male contraceptive is discussed in NS (10 Jan. 2004), 38-41.

A discussion of Chinese family planning is in Conscience 24 (Winter 2003-4), 25-32. Delayed marriage age in women is shown in SA (Jan.? 2004), 17. The use of IUDs is discussed in CMAJ 169 (2003), 585. A review of sexuality in medieval Croatian sources is Croatian Medical J. 45 (2004), 25-30. Sexual orientation is discussed in BMJ 328 (2004), 469; NEJM 350 (2004), 333-41. A US inquiry has found NIH funded sexuality studies can continue, Science 303 (2004), 741. A book review of The Oxytoxin factor is NatMed. 10 (2004), 122. A book review of Adam's Curse: a Future without Men is Lancet 363 (2004), 578.

Discussion of HRT is in JAMA 291 (2004), 1434; NatMed. 10 (2004), 121; BMJ 328 (2004), 357-8, 371-5; NEJM 350 (2004), 991-1004.

The moral issues for Catholics is compliance with contraceptive insurance mandates are discussed in National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 4 (2004), 103-32. The ethics of offering subsidies and incentives for Norplant are discussed in J. Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (Fall 2003), 351-64. Emergency contraceptive policy in USA is discussed in NEJM 350 (2004), 1561-2; and in the UK, SSM 57 (2003), 2367-78; 58 (2004), 1285-97.
Shanghai has decided to allow divorcees a second child, Lancet 363 (2004), 1374. In China sex education is later than sexual activity, Lancet 363 (2004), 1208. Multigenerational family structure in Japan is discussed in SSM 59 (2004), 69-81. Sexuality is discussed in Nature 429 (2004), 19-21. A surplus of women in USA is reported in SA (May 2004), 17. A chemical condom is close to being made, NS (10 April 2004), 12. On X-activation, Current Biology 14 (2004), R323-5.

A review of trends in the human population for the next 50 years is Science 302 (2003), 1172-7; 304 (2004), 207-8. Aspirin may reduce the risk of breast cancer through action related to the estrogen hormone receptor, JAMA 291 (2004), 2433, 2488-9. Hormone treatment increases breast cancer risk, BMJ 327 (2003), 359. Estrogen and HRT results between species is discussed in  Science 302 (2003), 1136-8, 1269-73; BMJ 327 (2003), 400. The results of studies of sexual behaviour in Tanzania show very different rates whether males or females are interviewed, SSM 59 (2004), 299-310. Disclosure of sexual preferences by GPs in the UK is discussed in BMJ 328 (2004), 1211-2.

Catholic reasons against same sex marriage are summarized in National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 4 (2004), 303-16. Transexualism is discussed in BMJ 329 (2004), 356; and on intersex conditions, AJLM 30 (2004), 41-68. Brain gender is discussed in Nature Neuroscience 6 (2004), 570-2. On reproductive rights in Canada, Health Law Review 12 (No.2, 2004), 44-52. Sexuality, sex education, rights and social justice from a range of different countries are discussed in Reproductive Health Matters 12 (May 2004), 6-135. The relationship between women's employment and contraceptive use in Oman is reported in Reproductive Health Matters 12 (May 2004), 144-54. Contraception in Kuwait was assessed to be generally accessible in SSM 59 (2004), 1573-80. On reproductive health, Bulletin WHO 82 (2004), 549; Lancet 364 (2004), 742-3; AJPH 94 (2004), 1297-9; SSM 59 (2004), 1379-95; BMJ 328 (2004), 1504. Funding of birth control has positive impacts, AJPH 94 (2004), 1330-2, 1341-6. Law, coercion and population control was discussed in Harvard Law Review 84 (1971), 1856+.

Race and pregnancy related care in Brazil and South Africa is compared in SSM 59 (2004), 1127-46. Gender inequality and family planning in rural China is reported in SSM 59 (2004), 695-708. Girls in Sudan are more likely to die in childbirth than to complete primary school, BMJ 329 (2004), 1514; The US FDA has denied plans for over-the-counter sales of emergency contraceptive, JAMA 291 (2004), 2805-6; Science 305 (2004), 17. A survey of the awareness of Californian women of their use is AJOG 191 (2004), 150-6. An industry perspective on the evolution of hormonal contraceptive development is in Sexuality, Reproduction & Menopause 2 (June 2004), 119+. Teen mothers are discussed in JAMA 292 (2004), 108.

A book review of Why We Do It is in Nature 430 (2004), 613-4. Pupil-led sex education in England is described in Lancet 364 (2004), 338-46, 407. The safety and effects of estrogen and hormones on women are discussed in JAMA 291 (2004), 2947, 2959-68, 3005-7. Longterm use of HRT may double breast cancer risk, BMJ 329 (2004), 9.  Sexuality and breast cancer are discussed in Sexuality, Reproduction & Menopause 2 (June 2004), 89+. Midwifery in Maya tradition from a study in Guatemala is discussed in SSM 59 (2004), 637-51. Sex trafficking in Benin City is discussed in SSM 59 (2004), 1315-27.

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