Abortion and Embryo Status News

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This file includes links to papers published by Eubios Ethics Institute, and some other organizations, in the first section. Next it includes topical extracts from EJAIB and EEIN between January 1994 - 2006 (older news items are in separate files). Last date of updating is referenced in the main News page. Latest news and papers is at the bottom of each of the two sections. Abbreviations for journals
Eubios Ethics Institute home page

Some related papers

Personhood: A Matter of Moral Decisions - Sahin Aksoy , EJAIB 7 (1997), 3-4.
Commentary on Aksoy - Frank J. Leavitt , EJAIB 7 (1997), 5.
Abortion: The destruction of life - Sahin Aksoy , EJAIB 7 (1997), 53-4.
A HREF=EJ74/ej74c.html To Value Life and Existence - Sahin Aksoy EJAIB 7 (1997), 102-104.
Commentary on Aksoy: The Meaning of Life - Frank J. Leavitt EJAIB 7 (1997), 104-105.
Can Islamic Texts Help to Resolve the Problem of the Moral Status of the Prenate? - Sahin Aksoy EJAIB 8 (1998), 76-9.

A Case Report from Turkey - Mebrure Deger and Hanzade Dogan EJAIB 11 (May 2001), 74-75.

Hindu Ethics on the Moral Question of Abortion - Edward Omar Moad , EJAIB 14 (2004), 101-103.
M. Cristina R. Pinto and Dina M. M. A. Silva Gomes, Considerations about Termination of Pregnancy in Portugal: Seven Answers to Seven Questions EJAIB 16 (March 2006), 52-5.

An important legal decision was made in December in the case of a woman in Illinois whose doctors sought to perform a cesarian on, out of concern for the fetal well being. The woman said that this was against her religious and personal beliefs, so a court order was sought. However, the lower court, and appeal court refused the request, saying it was a violation of the woman's rights; Reproductive Freedom News (3 Dec 1993), 4. On the 30 December the woman gave birth to what appears to be a healthy baby, which is the best ending to the who saga. There may still be a case considered in the Supreme Court however, and it would be a helpful ruling to avoid future attempts at court-ordered cesarians. A commentary on the trends in cesarian rate is in Lancet 342 (1993), 1005-6; BMJ 307 (1993), 1017-8. The effect of insurance upon cesarian rate is debated in JAMA 270 (1993), 2434-5.

One grant for US$4.5 million has been made for research into fetal tissue transplantation for treatment of Parkinson's disease in the USA, by the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke. It will support about 40 such operations, including control operations in which patients receive other tissue, to really test the effectiveness. This grant is actually the first since last year when the ban on federal funding of fetal tissue experiments was removed. The possible future of the fetal tissue bank, and ethical issues, are discussed in Science 262 (1993), 1663-5. Letters on fetal tissue transplants are in NEJM 329 (1993), 1498-500, 1579.

The US Senate has voted to ban anti-abortion violence, and impose tough penalties; BMJ 307 (1993), 1377. The violence against abortion clinics in the USA is reviewed in Lancet 342 (1993), 939-40. A new argument has been added to the anti-abortion campaign in the USA, that abortion increases the rate of breast cancer by 1.5 times, Lancet 342 (1993), 1290. Letters on the US trial of Casey are in JAMA 270 (1993), 2559-60.

A call for legalisation of abortions in Brazil by a Nun is in BMJ 307 (1993), 1443. It is because of the high number of maternal mortalities, also see Lancet 342 (1993), 1099-100; and book reviews in NEJM 329 (1993), 1586-90; SSM 37 (1993), 1579-84. On maternal mortality in the UK see BMJ 307 (1993), 1087-8.

A California hospital has gained approval from the FDA to begin trials on the use of RU-486 for breast cancer treatment; Reproductive Freedom News (3 Dec 1993), 7.

A recently published journal is Reproductive Health Matters (Editorial Office: 1 London Bridge Street, London SE1 9SG, U.K.), which aims to be available for everyone who wants to receive a copy and has not got access to international currency. In the second issue (Nov. 1993), there are a series of papers on the theme of "Making abortion safe and legal: the ethics and dynamics of change". The contributors are from a number of different countries. A paper looking at the ethics defending abortion is J. McMahan, "The right to choose an abortion", Phil. & Public Affairs 22(4), 331-50.

On 24 January the US Supreme Court unanimously voted that illegal anti-abortion violence and harassment may be prosecuted under federal racketeering law;Reproductive Freedom News (28 Jan 1994), 2. Also on US abortion laws see Lancet 343 (1994), 168.

A survey of the teaching of ethics in obstetrics and gynecology in North America is reported in O&G 83 (1994), 315-20. In the responding institutions, 78% covered general ethics principles. A NIH panel has been set up to look at the ethics of embryo research, with some response; Nature 367 (1994), 502.

A debate among researchers over whether fetal tissue transplants are useful for treating Parkinson's disease is discussed in Science 263 (1994), 600-1. Although one grant has been awarded, it only uses one method to implant and if it fails and research money becomes more difficult to obtain, other researchers fear their methods will be untested.

In the USA, Michigan state's mandatory 24 hour waiting period for abortions has been halted by a restraining order until a court case can assess it. The federal government has instructed states again to cover abortions for rape and incest survivors; Reproductive Freedom News (1 April 1994), 2-3; Lancet 343 (1994), 168-9. The newsletter issued every two weeks reviews the legal changes and court cases across the USA. There have also been two recent court cases in the US sentencing "pro-life" protestors for murder for killing doctors who provide abortions. There are also proposals in the USA for nonphysicians to be trained how to perform abortions, Lancet 343 (1994), 535. On abortion debates, Lancet 343 (1994), 348. The number of abortions in the USA in 1991 fell 2.8% from 1990, making a ratio of 339 abortions per 1000 live births; JAMA 271 (1994), 496.

The Polish Medical Association has removed the ban on abortions in its medical code, by replacing it with a softer version which requests doctors to respect life; Lancet 343 (1994), 47. They have also amended the medical oath, removing the phrase respect life "from its conception", to leave it open.

A series of open public meetings by the NIH Human Embryo Research panel are underway to hear arguments regarding research on human embryos; New Scientist (12 Feb 1994), 8. A general discussion of the world situation is R. Rowland, "Human embryo research. A global social experiment", Search 25: 56-6. The abortion of anencephalic infants and Catholic morality is debated in KIEJ 3 (Dec 1993), 357-69.

Comments on the research debate over whether fetal tissue grafts can help Parkinson's disease are in Science 263 (1994), 600-1, 737; BMJ 308 (1994), 433-4. There is also hope that fetal grafts may mend heart tissue damage, Science 264 (1994), 31.

Book reviews of interest to abortion arguments are Bioethics 8 (1994), 183-7; SSM 38 (1994), 94-5. A paper of the relationship between father and fetus is J. Losco & M. Shublak, "Paternal-fetal conflict: An examination of paternal responsibilities to the fetus", Politics & Life Science 13 (Feb 1994),63-75. It includes discussion of the case of where a father may harm the fetus. Papers on abortion and philosophy include: J. Health Politics, Policy & Law 18 91993), 967-82; J.F. Crosby, "The personhood of the human embryo", J. Med. Phil. 18 (1993), 399-417, 419-21.

An Irish politician has claimed that a 15 year old victim of incest was being denied travel aboard for an abortion, Japan Times (3 July; 1994: UPI), 19. The case is under media restraint in a Dublin court, but is similar to the 1992 case of a rape victim, which led to a referendum on the issue.

Lech Walesa has said he will resign rather than sign the new changes in the Polish abortion law which have been approved by both houses of Parliament, Japan Times (3 July 1994), 5; Lancet 343 (1994), 1090. The changes relax the law, and would need a two thirds majority to avoid a Presidential veto.

A federal court in the USA recently blocked a Colorado state ban on the use of public funds for abortion, Reproductive Freedom News (13 May 1994), 3-4. Meanwhile the New York High Court of Appeals has upheld the exclusion of abortion from the state prenatal care program, Reproductive Freedom News (13 May 1994), 4. A letter on the reportedly biased use of questions to determine abortion attitudes is in JAMA 271 (1994), 1400. A study of the income, and other factors, of women claiming federal money for abortions in the USA finds two thirds at or below the federal poverty level, JAMA 271 (1994), 1234.

Everyday about 10000 African women undergo unsafe abortions, and a conference report on efforts to try to legalise abortions to reduce the number of complications and deaths is Lancet 343 (1994), 1031.

A philosophical paper on the status of the human embryo is D. Gareth Jones, "The human embryo: Between oblivion and meaningful life", Science & Christian Belief 6: 3-20. The BMA, in their response to the HFEA, has said that fetal tissue should not be used for treatment, BMJ 308 (1994), 1375.

A commentary on the low uptake of RU486, or "medical" abortion in the UK is Brit. J. Obs. & Gyn. 101: 367-8. The combination of RU486 and sulprostone is reportedly safe as an abortant from a French study in F&S 61 (1994), 627-31.

A debate over anencephalic fetuses, concluding that early delivery is morally justified is, O'Rourke K. & DeBlois, J. "Induced delivery of anencephalic fetuses: A response to J. L. Walsh and M. M. McQueen", KIEJ 4 (1994), 47-53. A US/UK difference in attitudes to anencephalic fetuses is found in recent court cases, Lancet 343 (1994), 1584-5.

In the USA, a Wayne County Circuit Court judge in Michigan, struck down Michigan's 1993 law requiring a 24 hour waiting period on abortions, as unconstitutional; Reproductive Freedom News (22 July 1994), 2-3. A boycott against products of Roussel Ulcaf in the USA has been called for by antiabortion advocates because they donated the US rights to the drug to Population Council, a New York non-profit agency, Reproductive Freedom News (22 July 1994), 7; Lancet 344 (1994), 187. Another medical doctor was murdered by an abortion protester in the USA in July.

A US Bishop ordered a stop to the dispensing of the morning after pill for rape victims in St. Francis Medical Center, Peoria, Illinois, Hospital Ethics (Jul/Aug), 12-3. There is still debate over whether it prevents contraception or implantation, and opposition from the community as the hospital is the normal center for rape victims from the 17 surrounding counties to be taken. A criticism of nurses refusals to perform abortions is L. Cannold, "Consequences for patients of health care professionals' conscientious actions: the ban on abortions in South Australia", JME 20 (1994), 80-6. A short letter on the Vatican Bioethics Committee is Nature 370 (1994), 172.

The Polish lower Parliament has changed the wording of abortion law to allow abortion on the grounds of "adverse physical circumstances of life", or "difficult personal circumstances"; Lancet 343 (1994), 1563.

A review of a book on US abortion law, D.J. Garrow, The Rights to Privacy and the Making of Roe v. Wade, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1994, 981pp., US$28, is in Lancet 343 (1994), 1555-6. US abortion data is also discussed in NEJM 331 (1994), 324-5. A study of criteria used for abortions in Scotland is BMJ 309 (1994), 15-9.

The US NIH Human Embryo Panel has released rules on embryo research, that have been long awaited; Science 265 (1994), 1024-6, 1345; Nature 371 (1994), 370;BME 100 (Aug 1994), 3-4; Reproductive Freedom News (7 Oct 1994), 7-8. There are numerous grant applications for such research at the NIH, awaiting the panel, Science 266 (1994), 27.

Anti-abortion violence in the USA continues, despite laws against it, BMJ 309 (1994), 429, 687-8. On Oct. 5 a jury in Pensacola, Florida, convicted a man on firearm charges for use against an abortion clinic; Reproductive Freedom News (7 Oct 1994), 8. A list of violence in US anti-abortion protests is in Reproductive Freedom News (9 Sept 1994), 8; Lancet 344 (1994), 396. A study of abortion funding in the US found major differences on public health connected with the access to public funds, Meier, K.J. & McFarlane, D.R. "State family planning and abortion expenditures: Their effect on public health", AJPH 84 (1994), 1468-72. A book review of McCorvey, A & Meister, A. I am Roe: My Life, Roe v. Wade, and Freedom of Choice (Harper Collins 1994, 216pp., US$23) is in Nature 371 (1994), 485.

The trials of RU486 in Australia have involved about 300 women, but have caused some controversy, with a trial being stopped for failing to obtain sufficient ethical review, Bioethics Research Notes 6 (1994), 25-6. Trials in the USA are expected to begin and the FDA will consider its safety, FDA Consumer (Sept 1994), 3. Conscientious refusal to help in abortions is discussed in BMJ 309 (1994), 622. The lower house in Poland failed to overturn a presidential veto on the law changes to abortion restrictions, Lancet 344 (1994), 745.

A catholic critique of China's birth control policy is Aird, J.S. "China's "family planning" terror", Human Life Review XX (Summer 1994), 83-104. A case of selective reduction of a pregnancy with 12 live fetuses is Human Reproduction 9 (1994), 1190+. Fetal tissue research is discussed in Linacre Quarterly 61(1), (1994), 53-65; 61(2), 42-62.

The US NIH Embryo Research Panel guidelines have been publicly released (EEIN 4: 78), and there is quite broad coverage; New Scientist (8 Oct 1994), 5; JAMA 272 (1994), 1311-2; Science 266 (1994), 1634-5; Lancet 344 (1994), 1009; BMJ 309 (1994), 900;GEN (1 Nov 1994), 1, 26; Green, R.M. "At the vortex of controversy: Developing guidelines for human embryo research", KIEJ 4 (1994), 345-56. Research that can lead to infertility treatment is accepted, as is development of ES cell lines from donated material. Cloning is not-accepted, nor research after closure of the neural tube (what about spina bifida?), nor fetal oocyte fertilisation with transfer, nor sex selection uses of preimplantation diagnosis, chimeras, parthenogenetically- activated oocytes, cross-species embryoes, nonhuman surrogate mother research nor extrauterine pregnancies. Between the primitive streak and closure of neural tube, extra review is required.

The killings of persons at two Boston abortion clinics is reported in Time (9 Jan 1995), 34-5. The murder of abortion providing doctors is discussed in Monash Bioethics Review 13(4) (1994), 3-4. The Florida murderer Paul Hill was sentenced to death for his double killing, Reproductive Freedom News (16 Dec 1994), 7-8; Lancet 344 (1994), 1076. On November 8, a Canadian doctor was shot in the leg with an AK-47 while eating his breakfast at home; Reproductive Freedom News (2 Dec 1994), 7-8; BMJ 309 (1994), 1322. In a Dec. 5 decision in a US District Court, damages of US$1 million were awarded to a clinic from the damage caused by Operation rescue and associates; Reproductive Freedom News (16 Dec 1994), 2. A review of the abortion standings of the new US government representatives is Reproductive Freedom News (18 Nov 1994), 2-8. For non-US readers it is a different side to politics!

Other papers debating abortion include: JAMA 272 (1994), 1378; Newsweek (12 Dec 1994), 32-3. Abortion is being called for in Northern Ireland, currently it is part of the UK but not performed, BMJ 309 (1994), 1323. A letter on the history of abortion in Italy is Lancet 344 (1994), 957.

The use of RU486 is called for in Australia, MJA 161 (1994), 403-4. US researchers face many delays in obtaining RU486 for any research, Nature 372 (1995), 209. A comparison of abortion with RU486 and vacuum techniques is Human Reproduction 9 (1994), 2167-72; and of vaginal application, JAMA 272 (1994), 1190-5. A debate on multifetal pregnancy reduction is in Human Reproduction 9 (1994), 1978-80. The rate of spontaneous abortions is reported in Lancet 344 (1994), 964. A possible link between abortions and breast cancer is discussed in Lancet 344 (1994), 1289.

A study of Canadian attitudes is Mullen, M.A. et al. "Transplantation of electively aborted human fetal tissue: physicians' attitudes", CMAJ 151 (1994), 325-30. 75% thought there should be no incentives. A discussion of the ethics is CMAJ 151 (1994), 279-82, and the status of grafts for Parkinson's disease in New Scientist (3 Dec 1994), 36-9. The AMA has recommended that anencephalic infants could be suitable for organ donors, Hospital Ethics (Sept 1994), 4. See the Euthanasia section for baby K case discussion.

The dilemmas of a physician in clinical practice are discussed in Blustein, J. & Fleischman, A.R. "The pro-life maternal-fetal medicine physician. A problem of integrity", HCR 25: 22-6. They conclude that it is impossible to practice properly without losing integrity, and recommend that any strong pro-life physicians do not enter this field. In their analysis they are using integrity in only one meaning, it would seem that to respect the patients (mother and her fetus)'s choices and hold your own view is possible for a sincere physician. In a following paper, the concept of integrity is addressed more, Thorp, J.M. et al. "Integrity, abortion, and the pro-life perinatalogist", HCR 25: 27-8. Dresser, R.S. "Freedom of conscience, professional responsibility, and access to abortion", JLME 22 (1994), 280-5; which argues that the number of physicians prepared to offer abortions is falling creating a pressure for others to increase coverage; and BMJ 309 (1994), 1582.

There must also be dilemmas posed by the increasingly violent protests against abortion in the USA. There have been a series of fires at clinics in California. A review of attacks is in Reproductive Freedom News (13 Jan 1995), 2-5. A Florida judge convicted a woman of manslaughter, after she shot herself in the stomach to kill her 6 month old fetus because she could not fund an abortion, Reproductive Freedom News (27 Jan 1995). There are still calls for a "morning-after" pill in the USA, Lancet 344 (1994), 1628; see also NEJM 331 (1994), 1715-7. A legal case of parent & court-ordered treatment of a premature baby in the USA and ethical debate is BMJ 310 (1995), 79.

A report from the abortion excesses of Romania is Lancet 345 (1995), 137-8. A Nigerian study found reproductive tract infections linked to induced abortions, Lancet 343 (1994), 300-4, 270-1.

A discussion of the ethics of fetal research is Klen, R. & Jebavy, J. "Fetal tissue banks need ethical code", BME 104 (Jan 1995), 18-20. The ethics of regulating such research is in Bell, N.M.C. "Regulating transfer and use of fetal tissue in transplantation procedures: The ethical dimensions", AJLM XX (1994), 277-294. Factors which limit the availability beside ethics are in Lancet 345 (1995), 54.

A discussion of the term pre-embryo with a suggested alternative, embryo-placenta and embryo-fetus is Jones, D.G. & Telfer, B. "Before I was an embryo, I was a pre-embryo: or was I?", Bioethics 9 (1995), 32-49. The suggested terms may have less moral inferences than the term pre-embryo. A discussion of Aquinas's views and female ensoulment is Nature 373 (1995), 379, 652.

"Baby K," a girl born at Fairfax Hospital two and a half years ago was anencephalic; Washington Post (7 April 1995), B3 . She stayed in a pediatric nursing facility, with her mother sitting at her bedside. The Supreme Court forced Fairfax Hospital to keep the child alive whenever she had trouble breathing and was rushed to its emergency room. She died of cardiac arrest in early April. The child made medical as well as legal history by living as long as she did, had medical bills approaching $500,000, which were covered by the mother's insurance and Medicaid. The babies condition was diagnosed by ultrasound when her mother was 16 weeks pregnant, and she declined to have an abortion. The father supported the hospital's position that extraordinary measures should not be taken to keep her alive, and he visited her several times.

In the U.S. dependency of Northern Mariana Islands the ban on abortion has been revoked, which was the last remaining abortion ban in U.S. Jurisdiction; Reproductive Freedom News (24 March 1995), 4. The U.S. House of Representatives Appropriations Committee has voted to repeal mandatory Medicaid coverage for rape and incest survivors, Reproductive Freedom News (10 March 1995), 2. Following the Republican victory in many states there are a number of legal moves to change abortion regulations. On abortion debates and the US violence: CMAJ 152 (1995), 90; Ethics (Jan 95), 426-30; NEJM 332 (1995), 532-3; BMJ 310 (1995), 267, 422; 547-8. The AMA finally made a statement on abortion, saying that it is a legal medical procedure.

The results of a survey on abortion attitudes in New Zealand (N=1000) finds 83% when the mother's life is in danger, 69% when the child is likely to be born handicapped, and 45% when the mother did not want the child, NZ Listener (4 Feb), 13. A paper on selective abortion is Bouchard, L. et al. "Selective abortion: A new moral order? Consensus and debate in the medical community", Int. J. Health Services 25 (1995), 65-84.

A review of the German Constitutional Court decision of 28 May, 1993 on abortion is IJB 5 (1994), 327-30. In their decision they laid down a set of guiding principles, including "14. A legal qualification of a child's existence as a damage, is, because of the constitution's basic principles (Art. 1, sub. 1 of the German federal Constitution) out of the question. Therefore, the obligation to pay child support, must not be seen as damage.". The issue touches on the wrongful birth concept, and whether minimum support is required. Also on German abortion law, Eur. J. Health Law 1 (1994), 15-34; Medical Law Review 2: 302-20. A paper on Irish abortion cases and European law is Eur. J. Health Law 1 (1994), 167-86.

A prediction of 1 million extra males per year for marriages in China in the year 2010 is Tuljapurkar, S. et al. "High sex ratios in China's future", Science 267 (1995), 874-6. Another country with high abortion rates is Romania, Lancet 345 (1995), 587.

A review is Fine, A. "Transplantation of fetal cells and tissue: an overview", CMAJ 151 (1994), 1261-8.

The European Commission has set up a working group on Human Embryo and Fetus Protection, which will produce a report later in 1995; BME 105 (1995), 7. A report on termination of pregnancy using RU486 is in El-Refaey, H. et al. "Induction of abortion with mifepristone (RU486) and oral or vaginal misoprostol", NEJM 332 (1995), 983-7.

Letters on the Vatican view of the embyro are in Lancet 345 (1995), 728-9; Nature 375 (1995), 352. In the USA the nominee for Surgeon General, Henry Foster, faced much opposition over the abortion count that he has performed, Reproductive Freedom News (5 May 1995), 4-5; and on 22 June the senate blocked his nomination. A method being used in the US by anti-abortion groups is to bring malpractice law suits against doctors who perform abortions, BMJ 310 (1995), 1025-6. The US House Judiciary constitution subcommittee voted to impose jail terms of up to two years for doctors who perform certain rare late-term abortions, by a party line vote of 7-5. This is the first time Congress has moved to ban a specific abortion procedure, Reuters World Service (21 June, 1995).

The Polish Act on Family Planning, Protection of the Human Fetus and the Conditions of Permissibility of Abortion, of 1993, permits abortion only in three cases: when pregnancy threatens the mother's life or health, when medical tests show severe and irreversible deformation of the fetus, or when the pregnancy results from an illegal act such as rape or incest. A doctor illegally performing an abortion faces up to two years in prison. In 1992, approximately 11,000 abortions were performed in Poland. In the first year in which the anti-abortion law was in effect (between mid-March 1993 and April 1994), 777 legal abortions were performed, including 736 due to threats posed by the pregnancies to the mothers' lives and health, 32 due to prenatal tests showing fetal deformation, and 9 after certification was obtained from prosecutors that the pregnancies resulted from crimes. In 1993, authorities opened 53 investigations into illegal abortions. Thirty cases were dismissed as based on false accusations. (The Warsaw Voice, 4 June, 1995).

Irish women have now been given the right to have information about abortions (e.g. in the UK or Europe), BMJ 310 (1995), 691-2, 822-3; Lancet 345 (1995), 718, 1296. On reproductive rights and embryo status, BMJ 310 (1995), 678-9, 946; Newsweek (5 June 1995), 20-1; SSM 40 (1995), 1015, 1313; Ethics 105 (1995), 536-56. A call for better data on abortions in South Africa is in SAMJ 85 (1995), 31, 135-41, 183-4.

A positive result of a fetal transplant is in Kordower, J.H. et al. "Neuropathological evidence of graft survival and striatal reinervation after transplantation of fetal mesencephalic tissue in a patient with Parkinson"s disease", NEJM 332 (1995), 1118-24, pp. 1163-4. However, a shortage of supply of suitable fetal tissue for transplants is shown in a survey in O&G 85 (1995), 619-24. A report on anencephalic donors is Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs of AMA, "The use of anencephalic neonates as organ donors", JAMA 273 (1995), 1614-8. A study finding that overexpression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase enhances the survival of transplanted neurons is Nature Medicine 1 (1995), 226-31.

In Hong Kong there has been uproar over stories that aborted human fetuses were being sold as human food from a hospital in Shenzhen, China. They are regarded as a dietary supplement or tonic, and are made into soup. A Hong Kong magazine reporter entered the Shenzhen Health Centre north of Kowloon, pretending to be ill. He asked a doctor for a fetus and was given a fist-sized glass bottle stuffed with ten thumb-sized fetuses!

Discussion of whether the German embryo protection law is always going to be strictly interpreted is in BME 109 (1995), 16-8. Embryo research in the USA is debated in HCR 25 (May 1995), 2-6; Nature 376 (1995), 288; and misuse of US embryos, BMJ 311 (1995), 585. Part of the political change is the Republican congress.

There have been two appeals panel decisions striking down abortion funding bans in Arkansas and Nebraska, supporting federal court decisions to invalidate government decisions, Reproductive Freedom News (28 July, 1995), 2-3. However, there are many federal government efforts to ban abortion including a ban on abortion funding for federal employees, and on abortions at military installations, Reproductive Freedom News (14 July, 1995), 4; Lancet 346 (1995), 43, 429-30. A discussion of the religious conversion of the Roe case mother is Newsweek (21 August, 1995), 18-20. The debate was overshadowed by the announcement in the NEJM at the end of August that two over-the-counter drugs can be used to similar effect as RU486. The offices of NEJM have been threatened. The 1995 Victorian, Australia, Infertility Treatment Act bans embryo research, Monash Bioethics Review 14 (July 1995), 6; The Bulletin (Newsweek Australia, 11 July, 1995), 30-1.

On the 5 July, a French judge acquitted nine anti-abortion protestors on the grounds that a fetus is a "future human being, already alive" (which is true!). However, the acquittal decision was not supported by the French Minister of Justice. There continues to be discussion and conflicting opinions, and abortion protestors will be denied the amnesty that can be given to protestors, BMJ 311 (1995), 81, 149-50, 280-1; Lancet 346 (1995), 111. On Spanish abortion reform opposition, BMJ 310 (1995), 1626-7. The Spanish law proposal is to broaden the availability to a general 12 week availability, not only the ethical, therapeutic or genetic categories which are allowed now. In Poland a doctor has been put in trial for contravening the strict abortion law, BMJ 310 (1995), 1556-7; Lancet 345 (1995), 1563. There was also concern over the protection of surplus embryos by a fertility clinic in Warsaw. On sex scandals in the Catholic church, Time (21 August, 1995), 43.

Germany has a new abortion law, which exempts women and doctor from prosecution if they have counseling 3 days before an abortion, by a professional organisation not the gynecologist, Lancet 346 (1995), 111; BMJ 311 (1995), 149.

An Australian study finding public opinion supports gradual development of embryo status is Evans, M.D.R., & Kelley, J., "Public perceptions of when a fetus becomes a human being", Worldwide Attitudes (on-line, 4 September 1995). A commentary on whether third trimester abortion is ever justified, is Br.J.O&G 102 (1995), 434-5. The psychological effects of multifetal reduction are major, but if there is a successful pregnancy the mothers are not psychologically disturbed, as described in F&S 64 (1995), 51-61. Letters on the philosophical status of the embryo include, Nature 376 (1995), 10.

A Canadian survey is, Martin, D.K. et al. "Fetal tissue transplantation and abortion decisions: a survey of urban women", CMAJ 153 (1995), 545+. A letter on the suitability of fetal tissue for transplants is in JAMA 273 (1995), 24.

There have been numerous attempts by the US Republican party to restrict funding and access to abortion, in line with their convictions. A House of Representatives panel has reinstated a ban on the use of District of Columbia funding for abortions, Reproductive Freedom News (19 Oct, 1995), 3. As of October 25, 28 states in the USA require the consent of one parent or older person for a young women seeking an abortion, Reproductive Freedom News (19 Oct, 1995), 5. There has also been a move outlaw methods for late abortions in the USA, which is strongly opposed by the Medical Community, Reproductive Freedom News (19 Oct, 1995), 6. Letters on abortion are in HCR 25 (5, 1995), 2-3; NEJM 333 (1995), 875-7; Lancet 346 (1995), 495, 1026; New York Times (8 Nov 1995), 22. The US Supreme Court judge who wrote the majority opinion in Roe versus Wade retired in 1994, and is discussed in AJPH 85 (1995), 1204-6.

A discussion of the issues including law and ethics in embryo research is Burn, J. & Strachan, T. "Human embryo use in developmental research", Nature Genetics 11 (1995), 3-6. A profile of the US National Advisory Board on Ethics in Reproduction is in Politics & Life Sciences 14 (1995), 93-6. A paper calling for protection of the embryo is Goube la Forest, P., "Impact of individual opinions on the respect of human personhood", Budapest Conference on Bioethics, 1995, to be published in Ethics in Medicine. Various papers are in CERPH Newsletter 5 (Sept/Oct 1995).

An Australian survey of 2000 NSW women looked at the reasons why they sought abortions; MJA (15 Oct. 1995); The Australian (16 Oct. 1995), 3. The responses were: 60% cannot afford a baby, 29% did not want to be a single mother; 38% a baby would change my life in ways I don't want; 25% too young to have a baby, 20% already have as many children as I want, 19% problems in relationship with husband, 12% my husband does not want me to have a baby, 6% my parents do not want me to have a baby, 7% problems affecting health of fetus, 5% health, 15% don't want my parents to know I got pregnant, 27% I should establish my career before having a child, 22% I should be married before having a child, 3% I don't want any more children, 5% other.

A brief survey of recent abortion law changes in Germany, Spain, Poland and France is in BME 111 (Sept 1995), 5-6. As have been mentioned in EJAIB. The use of electives to help train students to experience abortion at earlier stages in their training is promoted in JAMA 274 (1995), 1107-8. A survey of Idaho physicians' attitudes found while most support the idea, only 4% perform abortions. 26% would be prepared to use RU-486 if it became available; AJPH 85 (1995), 1423-5. The use of the cheap drug, methotrexate to induce abortions is assessed in Lancet 346 (1995), 655-6; BMJ 311 (1995), 705. Positive results suggesting brains can receive fetal neural cells are confirmed in NEJM 333 (1995), 730-1. Attitudes are reported in Martin, D.K. et al. "Fetal tissue transplantation and abortion decisions: a survey of urban women", CMAJ 153 (1995), 545+.

A statement of 18 Nov. 1995 on "Widening choice: Abortion in the 1990s", by the National Abortion Campaign (London) is in BME 113 (1995), 24. The World Medical Association statement on the ethical aspects of embryonic reduction is in BME 112 (1995), 11. A survey of the reasons that women sought abortions in NSW, Australia (see last issue) is MJA 163 (1995), 419-22. An ethical argument calling for a fetus to be considered a person from conception is Larmer, R. "Abortion, personhood, and the potential for consciousness", J. Applied Philosophy 12 (1995), 241-51.

The first trial under Poland's strict abortion law has been inconclusive with the judge concluding no abortion was performed!, Lancet 346 (1995), 1356. The debate over US moves to outlaw intrauterine cranial decompression as an abortion method is in BMJ 311 (1995), 1319-20; Lancet 346 (1995), 1287, 1353; Reproductive Freedom News (10 Nov 1995), 6-7; (8 Dec 1995), 5-6. A US Defense spending bill (HR 2126) has been passed that includes restrictive language on abortions, including privately funded ones, Reproductive Freedom News (8 Dec 1995), 6. The next generation of drugs are expected to alter the debate, Hospital Ethics (Sept/Oct 1995), 13-4.

There has been debate in South Africa over the sale of human placentas to a French company, BMJ 311 (1995), 1119-20. The issue of what to do with aborted fetuses and disposal is also under debate in new Zealand, with some calling the practice of offering the fetus to the mothers "cruel", Sunday Star Times (Christchurch, NZ), A2. It is intended as an aid to the mourning process, but some mothers who chose to take the fetus home had severe emotional difficulties disposing of it.

A Canadian study recommending abortion induced with methotrexate and misoprostol appears to be a feasible alternative to surgical abortion and deserves further study is CMAJ 154 (1996), 21-7; NEJM 334 (1996), 399-400. A study in JAMA 274 (1996), 283-7, 321-2, has found the link between abortion and breast cancer weak, and there was no significant difference in risk.

One of the items included in the US Telecommunications Act of 1996 (S 652), which has angered so many on Internet, is a ban on transmitting information over Internet. A court case against this item has been filed in New York, Reproductive Freedom News (9 Feb, 1996), 2-3. A District Court in Ohio blocked an Ohio rule banning the use of dilation and extraction abortions, and a 22 week abortion ban, Reproductive Freedom News (12 Jan, 1996), 2-3. The Minnesota Supreme Court has found that the state must fund abortions for low income women, Reproductive Freedom News (12 Jan, 1996), 4. Both these issues are expected to come into federal abortion guidelines, and the method ban passed in the Senate vote, Lancet 346 (1995), 1618. The opportunity after a negative pregnancy test result for education about birth control could be used to reduce pregnancy rates among adolescents, JAMA 275 (1996), 113-7.

On abortion law reform in Guyana, which led to the introduction of a law Reproductive Health Matters 6 (Nov 1995), 12-23; and the law is in IDHL 46 (1995), 479-81. The Irish abortion law which allowed information about abortions overseas to be spread is in IDHL 46 (1995), 481-3. A paper on the Chinese abortion law is SSM 42 (1996), 543-60. A survey of women's attitudes to abortion in Romania is in SSM 42 (1996), 521-30; and by Ekiti Yoruba women in Nigeria, SSM 42 (1996), 483-94; in rural Jamaica, SSM 42 (1996), 495-508; and on the practice in Greece, SSM 42 (1996), 509-19.

Several papers on the issue of anencephalic organ donors are in JLME 23 (4, 1995), 398-402. Russia is investigating claims that abortions were conducted to provide medicines for Down's syndrome treatment, Nature 379 (1996), 201. A philosophical paper on the beginning of consciousness is Burgess, JA & Tawia, SA "When did you first begin to feel it? - Locating the beginning of human consciousness", Bioethics 10 (1996), 1-26. They argue that the fetus becomes conscious at 30-35 weeks of pregnancy,

France has limited embryo implantations in a case of a deceased husband, Nature 379 (1996), 200-1. The US NIH (or federal agencies) can not fund any embryo research, following a republican insertion of a ban into a budget bill, Nature 379 (1996), 386. A series of papers on twinning are in AJMG 61 (1996), 202-268.

In the USA, assurance has been given by the Dept. of Justice that a gag on abortion information on the Internet will not be enforced, that was included in the Telecommunications Act 1996, Reproductive Freedom News (23 Feb 1996), 2; Lancet 347 (1996), 533. The US Supreme Court has rejected for a fifth time an attempt by a state to restrict Medicaid funding for abortions available under federal funding (For rape and incest and mother's health), in a decision against Louisiana, following similar ones against Colorado, Nebraska, Pennsylvania and Arkansas, Reproductive Freedom News (2 April 1996), 2. In nine states there are laws that require women to know that there may be an increased risk of breast cancer, Reproductive Freedom News (2 April 1996), 4; though it is not a major factor, Economist (2 March 1996), 83-4. Abortion without the woman's consent is unlikely to improve her depression, BMJ 312 (1996), 908. On abortion information for resident doctors, O&G 87 (1996), 626-9; Lancet 347 (1996), 894. The abortion question will also be involved in the US Presidential campaign, Lancet 347 (1996), 388.

In a vote in the lower house of the Polish Parliament, by 221-126, a motion to kill the law banning abortions in Poland, Reproductive Freedom News (2 April 1996), 7-8. A French doctor has been jailed for joining an antiabortion demonstration, BMJ 312 (1996), 726. The Netherlands is holding an inquiry to confirm that abortions are provided for "emergency situations", since the abortion rate is 5.6 per 1000 fertile women, twice that of England, BMJ 312 (1996), 727-8. A historical study is Reagan, LJ. "Linking midwives and abortion in the progressive era", Bull. Hist. Med. 69 (1995), 569-98.

A letter calling for reconsideration of the AMA policy on use of anencephalic infants as organ donors is JAMA 275 (1996), 443-4. A book review on fetal research is NEJM 334 (1996), 610-1.

A paper criticizing Californian law, and making general conclusions is Meyers, C. & Woods, RD. "An obligation to provide services: What happens when physicians refuse?", JME 22 (1996), 115-20. A review of Wendy Savage, Abortion: Between Freedom and Necessity, is in BMJ 312 (1996), 1428-9.

The fears of safety of the contraceptive pill expressed in October 1995 in the UK have resulted in an upsurge in abortions, Lancet 347 (1996), 1109, 1260-1. The EU will not make such a statement, Lancet 347 (1996), 1175. The agent RU-486 has to pass through a more detailed approval process following a legal change in Australia, Lancet 347 (1996), 1611. On the use of the drug for the third stage of labour, Lancet 347 (1996), 1257. A review of multifetal pregnancy reduction is Amer.J.O&G. 174 (1996), 1265-72.

Bavaria is attempting to introduce a law to restrict abortion access, BMJ 312 (1996), 1118. There is continued narrowing of access to abortion in the USA, Lancet 347 (1996), 1055; though a Presidential veto has temporarily withheld a partial-birth abortion ban, Lancet 347 (1996), 1107.

The US Presidential elections continue to include abortion as a topic. On July 17 a US District Court judge in Arizona put a parental consent law for women under 18 years seeking an abortion on hold until a permanent injunction is heard; Reproductive Freedom News (26 July 1996), 3. On 19 June the US Senate rescinded the ban on privately funded abortions at US military facilities, Lancet 347 (1996), 1825. There was intense debate about the import of RU-486 now that it has been accepted as safe, Lancet 348 (1996), 256, 327. A US survey found that contraceptive failure is the main reason for abortion, with 57% among 10000 mothers in 1994-5 who had abortions using contraception, Lancet 348 (1996), 469; also, JAMA 276 (1996), 164-5, 282-3.

Bavaria has added a clause to the German abortion law requiring women to give explicit details for the abortion request in the compulsory counseling session, Lancet 348 (1996), 121. A call for provision of safe abortion services in all countries is Lancet 347 (1996), 1663-8; 348 (1996), 478-9. Abortion is a public health care problem in Zambia, J. Public Health Medicine 18 (1996), 232-3.

Chitty, LS. et al. "Continuing with pregnancy after a diagnosis of lethal abnormality: experience of five couples and recommendations for management", BMJ 313 (1996), 478-80. On selective fetal abortion in multifetus pregnancies, BMJ 313 (1996), 380; JAMA 276 (1996), 452; NEJM 335 (1996), 440-1. The presence of one anomalous fetus in a twin gestation increases risk of preterm birth, O&G 88 (1996), 1-5. In August there was widespread media coverage of a UK case where a woman who said she could not support two babies had one of them aborted. After that some groups offered much money to help, but it was after the abortion that the media learnt of it.

An account of the use of fetal tissue for experimentation and profit in Russia is Tichtchenko, P. & Yudin, B. "Moral status of fetuses in Russia", BME 119 (1996), 13-7. The US continues a ban on federal funding of human embryo research, Nature 382 (1996), 200.

The suppression of a controversial story alleging that Mr. Dole, Presidential candidate in the USA, helped arrange an abortion for a friend is in Probe V (July 1996), 1, 4, 6-7, (Sept, 1996), 1-3, 7-8. On Sept 19 the US Senate voted on the ban on partial birth abortions and did not obtain the two thirds majority needed to overturn the President's veto of the Congress approved measure, Reproductive Freedom News (16 Oct 1996), 4; Lancet 348 (1996), 885, 952; Newsweek (7 Oct 1996), 39. The vote was 41 for the veto and 57 against it. On the US abortion debate, AJPH 86 (1996), 1204-6. Irish abortion law is discussed in a European context in European J. Health Law 3 (1996), 167-86; Bavarian law, Lancet 348 (1996), 962-3; South African abortion law; BMJ 313 (1996), 1034; and on abortion in general, BMJ 313 (1996), 1004-5. The Australian High Court is reconsidering the current tolerance of abortion after protests in a case brought by the Catholic church, Lancet 348 (1996), 817. Letters on the ethics are CMAJ 155 (1996), 18-20.

The Politics of Human-Embryo Research is discussed in a defense of the NIH Human Embryo Research Panel in NEJM 335 (1996), 1243-4. A series of papers on the subject of whether fetuses feel pain is in BMJ 313 (1996), 795-8; NS (19 Oct. 1996), 3, 40-5. On the fetal tissue transplant debate in the US government, Nature 382 (1996), 286. The debate continues in abortion linked with breast cancer, BMJ 313 (1996), 962-3; Newsweek (21 Oct 1996), 60.

A Finnish study found that the suicide rate associated with birth was significantly lower (5.9) than the average 11.3 per 100 000 for that age group, and the rates associated with miscarriage (18.1) and induced abortion (34.7) were significantly higher than in the population; Gissler, M. et al. "Suicides after pregnancy in Finland, 1987-94: register linkage study", BMJ 313 (1996), 1434-7. A study supporting inclusion of induced abortion as a risk factor for breast cancer is J. Epid. Comm. Health 50 (1996), 481-96. Letters on medical treatment of cornual pregnancy, an ectopic pregnancy, are in F&S 66 (1996), 862-3. The Australian High Court will not hear a protest against the abortion law situation there, Lancet 348 (1996), 1236.

On the involvement of former US senator Dole in obtaining an abortion, see Probe V (No.7, Nov 1996), 1-2; Dec 1996), 4-6. The Polish Parliament voted on 24 October 228-195 to liberalise the tough abortion regulations, which may enter law by 1997; Reproductive Freedom News (22 Nov 1996), 6-7.

A book review of, The Therapeutic Potential of Fetal and Neonatal Hematopoietic Stem Cells, is in NEJM 335 (1996), 1839-40. A potential replacement for fetal neural grafts is Sanberg, PR et al. "Testis-derived Sertoli cells survive and provide localized immunoprotection for xenografts in rat brain", Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996), 1692-5, 1650-1. "The present study demonstrates that transplanted testis-derived Sertoli cells into adult rat brains survive. Furthermore, when cotransplanted with bovine adrenal chromaffin cells (xenograft), Sertoli cells produce localized immunoprotection, suppress microglial response and allow the bovine cells to survive in the rat brain without continuous systemic immunosuppressive drugs. These novel features support Sertoli cells as a viable graft source for facilitating the use of xenotransplantation for Parkinson's disease and suggest their use as facilitators (i.e., localized immunosuppression) for cell transplantation in general." A paper on anencephalic babies is Lantz, C. "The anencephalic infant as organ donor", Health Law Journal 4 (1996), 179-96.

A series of papers on the theme of Fundamentalism, women's empowerment and reproductive rights are in Reproductive Health Matters 8 (No. 8, 1996), 7-109. It includes papers from Bangladesh, Brazil, Cameroon, China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Poland. Also on Brazil, CQHCE 5 (1996), 579-81. A review of US states that are considering bans on particular methods of abortion is Reproductive Freedom News (14 Feb 1997), 6; and on data, JAMA 277 (1997), 284. Australia also faces an abortion political scandal, Nature 385 (1997), 758.

Ethics and Aristotle are discussed in Reichlin, M. "The argument from potential: A reappraisal", Bioethics 11 (1997), 1-23; also on potential, Watt, K. "Potential and the early human", JME 22 (1996), 222-6. Embryo research is discussed in J.Med. & Phil. 21 (1996), 21 (1996), 61-81. Letters on whether fetuses feel pain are in BMJ 314 (1997), 302-3. On the ethics of abortion, Paul, D. "Biblical authority and the not-so strange silence of scripture about abortion", Christian Bioethics 2 (1996), 66-82; Gallagher, S. "The moral significance of primitive self-consciousness: A response to Bermudez", Ethics 107 (1997), 129-40; Boonin-Vail, D. "A defense of "a defense of abortion": On the responsibility objection to Thomson's argument", Ethics 107 (1997), 286-313. Ethics of selective fetal reduction are debated in JME 22 (1996), 304-8. Data that abortions do not affect breast cancer risk are in NEJM 334 (1997), 81-5, 127-8.

Philosophical papers include Belshaw, C. "Abortion, value and the sanctity of life", Bioethics 11 (1997), 130-150. On whether fetuses feel pain is discussed in BMJ 314 (1997), 1201. A UK public survey found that 67% approved of abortion of a handicapped fetus, and 42% approved in the general case, BMJ 314 (1997), 627.

A recent study indicates that by 1993 about 16.7% of Canadian women had had an abortion, up from 4.1% in 1975. The statistical analysis found that 29% of abortions done in 1993 were performed on women who had had at least 1 previous abortion; the repeat-abortion rate was highest for women aged 15-19; CMAJ 156 (1997), 756. In February 1997 a Portuguese bill that would have legalized abortion in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy failed by 111-112 votes to pass, continuing the tough policy which means illegal abortions will continue, Reproductive Freedom News (21 March 1997), 11. A US Supreme Court decision of 19 Feb 1997 ruled that much of the 1992 Federal District Court injunction regulating anti-abortion protesters is valid, Reproductive Freedom News (28 Feb 1997), 2-3; Lancet 349 (1997), 630; also p. 934. Access can affect abortion rates in the USA, Gober, P. "The role of access in explaining state abortion rates", SSM 44 (1997), 1003-16; and on monetary incentives for birth control, JAMA 277 (1997), 977-82..

An Indiana Law SB-61 outlaws trade in fetal tissue, as well as partial birth abortions except to save the mother's life, Reproductive Freedom News (28 Feb 1997), 5.

Hoechst has dropped involvement in production of RU486 due to the boycott, BMJ 314 (1997), 1150; Reproductive Freedom News (18 April 1997), 8. A book review of Dubious Conceptions: The Politics of Teenage Pregnancy, is JAMA 277 (1997), 935-6. A call to monitor women after giving birth to a child for depression is JAMA 277 (1997), 383-8.

Philosophical papers include Belshaw, C. "Abortion, value and the sanctity of life", Bioethics 11 (1997), 130-150. On whether fetuses feel pain is discussed in BMJ 314 (1997), 1201. A UK public survey found that 67% approved of abortion of a handicapped fetus, and 42% approved in the general case, BMJ 314 (1997), 627.

A recent study indicates that by 1993 about 16.7% of Canadian women had had an abortion, up from 4.1% in 1975. The statistical analysis found that 29% of abortions done in 1993 were performed on women who had had at least 1 previous abortion; the repeat-abortion rate was highest for women aged 15-19; CMAJ 156 (1997), 756. In February 1997 a Portuguese bill that would have legalized abortion in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy failed by 111-112 votes to pass, continuing the tough policy which means illegal abortions will continue, Reproductive Freedom News (21 March 1997), 11. A US Supreme Court decision of 19 Feb 1997 ruled that much of the 1992 Federal District Court injunction regulating anti-abortion protesters is valid, Reproductive Freedom News (28 Feb 1997), 2-3; Lancet 349 (1997), 630; also p. 934. Access can affect abortion rates in the USA, Gober, P. "The role of access in explaining state abortion rates", SSM 44 (1997), 1003-16; and on monetary incentives for birth control, JAMA 277 (1997), 977-82..

An Indiana Law SB-61 outlaws trade in fetal tissue, as well as partial birth abortions except to save the mother's life, Reproductive Freedom News (28 Feb 1997), 5.

Hoechst has dropped involvement in production of RU486 due to the boycott, BMJ 314 (1997), 1150; Reproductive Freedom News (18 April 1997), 8. A book review of Dubious Conceptions: The Politics of Teenage Pregnancy, is JAMA 277 (1997), 935-6. A call to monitor women after giving birth to a child for depression is JAMA 277 (1997), 383-8.

The AMA supported a bill to ban intact dilatation and extraction, partial birth abortion, in the USA, BMJ 314 (1997), 1504, 1572; Reproductive Freedom News (6 June, 1997), 2-3; <http://www.ama-asn.org/mem-data/directry/amadeleg/amadeleg.htm>. Though, the Senate defeated two bills that would have banned all abortions post fetal viability on 15 May, Lancet 349 (1997), 1528; Reproductive Freedom News (23 May, 1997), 2-3. A study suggesting unprofessional attitudes to providing abortion services is Lazarus, ES. "Politicizing abortion: Personal morality and professional responsibility of residents training in the United States", SSM 44 (1997), 1417-25. Antiabortionists in the USA say they will boycott a new antihistamine because the makers were thought to be involved in decisions on the use of the pill RU486, Lancet 349 (1997), 1079. The question of whether women can safely use medical abortion without medical supervision is reviewed in Reproductive Health Matters 9 (May 1997), 149-61; and on methtrexate, Reproductive Health Matters 9 (May 1997), 162-7. The US Supreme Court reversed a court decision and allowed a physician's assistant, not a physician, from performing abortions in Montana, Reproductive Freedom News (20 June, 1997), 2.

A study of women's thoughts about abortion in Brazil is SSM 44 (1997), 1833-45. There was abortion debate in Ireland prior to their election, Lancet 349 (1997), 1528; and in Poland when the Pope visited in June, Lancet 349 (1997), 1752; Reproductive Freedom News (6 June, 1997), 7. El Salvador has outlawed abortion in all circumstances, Reproductive Freedom News (9 May 1997), 8. A number of papers on abortion from countries including Mexico, Chile, USA, Puerto Rico, Guyana, India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Egypt, Mozambique and South Africa are in Reproductive Health Matters 9 (May 1997), 6-120; and Colombia, pp. 147-8. On the risk of breast cancer and induced abortion, NEJM 336 (1997), 1834-5.

A number of papers are in special issue on The Unborn and the Newly Born: Seeking Ethical Standards, in CQHE 6 (1997), 9-57. It includes a paper on Russian views, and on Baby K. The ethics from the Centre for Bioethics, catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, against embryo reduction are discussed in BME 127 (April 1997), 8-9; and on emergency contraception, BME 127 (April 1997), 10-11.

Education of doctors is discussed in Strong, C. et al. "An approach to teaching ethical, legal, and psychosocial aspects of gynecologic oncology in a residency program", O&G 89 (1997), 142-4. The grieving process for partner's over miscarriage is discussed in SSM 45 (1997), 837-45. On the policy for abortion, BMJ 315 (1997), 1840-1. Canadian abortion access, CMAJ 156 (1997), 1545-7.

A review of the use of mifepristone for early abortions is in O&G 89 (1997),790-6. There is no link found between induced abortion and risk of ectopic pregnancy, O&G 89 (1997), 512-8. Also on ectopic pregnancies, BMJ 315 (1997), 141. Reports from the National Bioethics Committee in France in French on use of tissues from human embryos are in Les Cahiers 12 (July 1997), 4-16.

A survey on liberal attitudes is Norup, M. "Attitudes towards abortion in the Danish Population", Bioethics 11 (1997), 439-49. The text of the Polish Law of 30 August 1996 (English translation) is in IDHL 48 (1997), 176-8; and the South African law in IDHL 48 (1997), 178-81. A book review on abortion in the US before 1973 is in JAMA 278 (1997), 686-8. A study on the impact of Mississippi's mandatory delay law on abortions found a decline in abortions though increase in late pregnancy abortions, JAMA 278 (1997), 653-8. The US budget bill has stronger measures against abortion funding, Lancet 350 (1997), 573, 793.

Compromises on human embryo research in Europe are debated in BME 130 (1997), 18-20.

On the right to life of the fetus in India, Law and Medicine 3 (1997), 50-91. In Nepal abortion is generally illegal, but a survey of those being punished for the seeking an abortion found most are poor or uneducated, Reproductive Health Matters 10 (1997), 133-8. The dangers of illegal abortions in Maputo are also shown, SSM 45 (1997), 1607-13. A review of access to abortion in Ontario is Health Law Journal 5 (1997), 119-46. There have been shootings of 3 doctors in Canada linked to antiabortion protesters, Lancet 350 (1997), 1528. The Florida Supreme court refused to allow a case to be considered in their state courts where a woman shot herself in the stomach at 6 months to kill the fetus because she could not get an abortion, Reproductive Freedom News (31 Oct 1997), 4. On South Africa's new abortion law, IAB News 6 (Autumn 1997), 3-5. A recent termination of pregnancy in Manchester on a 13 year old rape victim refused an abortion in Ireland caused renewed discussion on the Irish ban, Lancet 350 (1997), 1688, 1759. Northern Ireland may amend its abortion law, on average 43 women a week go to England for abortions, Lancet 350 (1997), 1377. Some in New Zealand have called for a change in the abortion law, but the government has said there will not be, Christchurch Press (17 Dec 1997), 9.

The ethics of personhood is discussed in Perring, C. "Degrees of personhood", J. Med. & Phil. 22 (1997), 173-97; also in Phil. & Public Affairs 26 (1997), 259-98. The Supreme Court of South Carolina has ruled that a viable fetus is a person and is covered by state child abuse laws, different to all other states, BMJ 315 (1997), 1488 (see Fetal Environment section). A letter stating the common view, that disapproval of abortion may still allow people to support a law allowing abortions, BMJ 315 (1997), 1165. Developmental studies suggest a fetus cannot feel pain before 26 weeks, as nerves between the cortex and thalamus develop after that, BMJ 315 (1997), 1112.

The US is now supporting some research using fetal tissue for Parkinson's disease treatment, NatMed 3 (1997), 1060.

A discussion of the US Roe-v-Wade decision and partial birth abortion bans is Reproductive Freedom News (22 Jan 1998), 6-8; Lancet 351 (1998), 46, 348. On US abortion data, JAMA 279 (1998), 12-3. An Irish opinion survey suggests 77% of people think abortion should be permitted in limited circumstances, Lancet 351 (1998), 46. A survey of 41 Australian women who used RU486 for abortion found that they were satisfied with it, MJA 167 (1997), 292-3, 316-7.

An ethical and theological analysis is D.G. Jones, "Infanticide: an ethical battlefield", Science and Christian Belief 10 (1998), 3-20. A study of economic analyses in obstetrics and gynecology is O&G 91 (1998), 472-8.

On the ethics and law of aborted embryos and fetuses in the Czech Republic, BME 135 (1998), 22-3. Abortions are now funded in Newfoundland, Canada CMAJ 158 (1998), 860-1. On protection of the fetus, CMAJ 158 (1998), 895-6; and abortion and the married woman, CMAJ 158 (1998), 992. A critique of Australia's NHMRC withdrawal of An Information paper on termination of pregnancy in Australia is Bioethics Research Notes 10 (1998), 1-2. There has been much political debate in Western Australia over a law to legalize abortions, although they have usually been conducted, The Bulletin (24 March 1998), 26. Two doctors were charged with abortion, the first charged under the law for 30 years, Lancet 351 (1998), 578, 892.

A review of the recent South African abortion law is Reproductive Health Matters 6 (1998), 145-8. A discussion of the abortion law debate in Western Australia, extending across Australia is Monash Bioethics Review 17 (April 1998), 1-5. The abortion rate in New Zealand increased 2.7% in 1997, to a total of 15,208; less than the increase in previous years. A low voter turnout on 28 June voided a referendum on lifting restrictions on abortion, although 51% voted to lift restrictions. A paper on the human person is in CERPH Newsletter Spring 1998 special issue. The CERPH Newsletter will appear on the Eubios Ethics Institute www pages in the near future.

For some period in May doctors in Wisconsin were not legally permitted to conduct any abortions for fear that there was no definition of partial birth abortion which the law (AB220) was said to prevent, Reproductive Freedom News 7 (5, 1 June 1998), 2-3. Anti-abortion groups in the USA can be liable under racketeering law, Lancet 351 (1998), 1339. A new US law that would make it illegal for anyone other than a parent or guardian to transport a minor across state lines to seek an abortion is expected, Lancet 351 (1998), 1566. A discussion of how abortion affected views of women in a clinical trial of mifepristone is SSM 46 (1998), 1313-23. Some congenital abnormalities in Brazilian children have been found associated with misoprostol misuse in Brazil, Lancet 351 (1998), 1624-7; and in the UK, BMJ 316 (1998), 1712-3; and a successful trial in the USA of the drug is reported in NEJM 337 (1998), 1241-7.

A call for Chinese men to help in family planning to lower the abortion rate is made in AJPH 88 (1998), 646-8. A study of why women in Zambia used illegal abortion found fear of expulsion from school, keeping secret relationships, and keeping healthy of previous baby, SSM 46 (1998), 1303-12. On unwanted pregnancies in Armenia, AJPH 88 (1998), 732-3, 803-5. A study of contraception and abortion in two Vietnamese communes is AJPH 88 (1998), 660-3. The English abortion rates in 1995 vary by region, BMJ 316 (1998), 1711-2.

A legal analysis from the US is Annas, GJ. "Partial-birth abortion, congress, and the constitution", NEJM 339 (1998), 279-83. A series of court decisions in the USA have found the term too vague to apply, Reproductive Freedom News (1 July 1998), 1-3. On the economics issues, Lance, SD. et al. "Buying safety: The economics of reproductive risk and abortion in Egypt", SSM 47 (1998), 1089-99. A study of Medicaid eligibility for abortion coverage in USA is Family Planning Perspectives 30 (1998), 108-13. The US Congress has voted to bar the FDA from testing, developing or approving "any drug for the chemical inducement of abortion", Lancet 352 (1998), 45.

Fetuses exposed to misoprostol at does of 200-1600 micrograms during the first 3 months who do not abort may suffer fetal malformations, Lancet 352 (1998), 323. A chemical method for abortion at 9-13 weeks is described in Lancet 352 (1998), 542-3. A review of safe abortion methods is Science 281 (1998), 520-1.

A discussion of personhood in a book review is Bioethics 12 (1998), 335-40. A discussion of soul and body problem is Booth, D. "Human nature: Unitary or Fragmented?", Science and Christian Belief 10 (1998), 145-62. A discussion of mother-fetus conflict and against a right for fetuses to be born healthy is Hornstra, D. "A realistic approach to maternal-fetal conflict", HCR 28 (Sept. 1998), 7-12.

Spain has approved the use of mifepristone for abortions in all private and public hospitals, Lancet 352 (1998), 1293. Soros E: The law of generation: the ethics of abortion. Can J of Women and the Law 10 (1998), 149-58. The US Senate was not able to overcome a veto by President Clinton over the proposed partial birth abortion ban, Lancet 352 (1998), 1046. A review of the issues is Epner, JEG. et al. "Late-term abortion", JAMA 280 (1998), 724-9;p.740; Sprang, ML. & Neerhof, MG. "Rationale for banning abortions late in pregnancy", JAMA 280 (1998), 744-50. A book review of Solinger, R. ed., Abortion Wars: A Half Century of Struggle, 1950-2000 (Univ. California Press, 1998) is JAMA 280 (1998), 193-4.

A book review on fetal surgery is Lancet 352 (1998), 1073-4. Cytokine deficits may explain recurrent abortions, Lancet 352 (1998), 793.

A discussion of the murder of a doctor who conducted abortions in New York in October 1998 is in Reproductive Freedom News 7 (No. 9, Dec 1998), 1; BMJ 317 (1998), 1174. Canadian doctors have posted a reward to find the murderer, Lancet 352 (1998), 1532. In the November 1998 US elections, proposals for partial-birth abortion bans were defeated in Colorado and Washington, Reproductive Freedom News 7 (No. 9, Dec 1998), 7; see also Reproductive Freedom News 7 (No. 8, Nov 1998), 1, 4-5; NEJM 339 (1998), 1716-7. There is debate over whether Senator Bob Dole helped a woman obtain an abortion that may have been his child, Probe VII (No. 2, Dec 1998), 3-7. Bavaria has been forced to lift abortion restrictions by a federal court, BMJ 317 (1998), 1272. New ethical guidelines have been released in Ireland, but still the annual 5000 women exodus to the UK for abortion is not likely to result in the procedure being conducted in Ireland, Lancet 352 (1998), 1840; see also BMJ 317 (1998), 1410. Abortion politics in Australia is discussed in Bioethics Research Notes 10 (1998), 37-9.

A comparison of medical and surgical termination of pregnancy is Brit. J.O&G 105 (1998), 1288-95. On society and abortion, Amer. J. Psychiatry 155 (1998), 964-7. Genetic instability from microsatellite mutations affects embryo stability and spontaneous abortion rates, F&S 70 (1998), 892-5.

On anti-abortion violence, Reproductive Freedom News 8 (No. 3, March 1999), 1-2. An American antiabortion publication that was mailed to Canadian physicians has angered many Ontario doctors and caused Queen's University to contact police. The 32-page pamphlet, Quack the Ripper, was mailed by Life Dynamics Inc. of Denton, Texas, in March, CMAJ 160 (1999), 977. A number of countries have very restrictive abortion laws and punish women who seek abortions with prison sentences, Reproductive Freedom News 8 (No. 1, January 1999), 4-5; (No. 3, March 1999), 5. A story of a court ordered release of a women in a US prison so that she could obtain an abortion is Reproductive Freedom News 8 (No. 1, January 1999), 3. A paper on reproductive choice is Cook, RJ. "Human Rights Law and Safe Motherhood", European Journal of Health Law 5 (1998), 349-65. The Irish Family Planning Association has won an injunction against antiabortion protesters, Lancet 353 (1999), 993; and there continues to be political debate on the issue, Lancet 353 (1999), 131. A judge in Oregon has ordered abortion protesters to pay US$108 million for threats of violence, BMJ 318 (1999), 415.

A paper on views against abortion is Wendler, D. "Understanding the 'conservative' view on abortion", Bioethics 13 (1999), 32-56. A paper asking whether a fetus can feel pain, and when is Derbyshire, SWG. "Locating the beginnings of pain", Bioethics 13 (1999), 1-31. A US survey on attitudes to abortion is Aiyer, AN. et al. "Influence of physician attitudes on willingness to perform abortion", O&G 93 (1999), 576-80. A survey of reasons for third trimester abortions in France found one third could have been performed in the second trimester with more efficient screening, Brit. JOG 106 (1999), 297-303; see also pp. 293-6. A comment on how Roe versus Wade affects US fertility is AJPH 89 (1999), 199-203.

Fetal cell implantation to treat Parkinsonian symptoms was tested by a trial involving 40 patients with placebo control, but had mixed results, and needs more time to be sure of any success, Lancet 353 (1999), 1501. Fear of black market means no RU-486 for Canada until US approves drug, CMAJ 160 (1999), 1753-4.

A discussion of pregnancy prosecutions and abortion is Reproductive Freedom News 8 (June 1999), 1-3. A comment on what the human embryo looks like and whether it matters is Lancet 354 (1999), 244-6. A study on the time of implantation and loss of pregnancy is discussed in NEJM 340 (1999), 1796-9. The risks of spontaneous abortion for life are discussed in O&G 94 (1999), 172-6. Most deaths related to abortion occur in the developing world, BMJ 319 (1999), 1509. The Canadian Supreme Court has ruled that it is wrong to allow children a right to sue their mothers while as a fetus, Lancet 354 (1999), 232. A US study has suggested that a fall in crime in the 1990s is due to the follow on impact of legalized abortion since 1973, that reduced birth among uneducated, teenage and single mothers, risks groups for children to commit crimes, Science 285 (1999), 1205.

A series of 9 papers on the morality of abortion are in CQHE 8 (1999), 405-500. They include papers from China, and Europe, as well as USA. A paper on embryo status is Evans, RW. "Theories on moral standing of the human embryo and fetus. Part 1: Secular theories", Medical Ethics & Bioethics (Bratislava) 5 (1998), 1-6. A series of book reviews of Murray, TH. The Worth of a Child (Univ. California Press, 1996, 207pp.), are in CQHE 8 (1999), 544-60.

US courts are in conflict over late term abortion, BMJ 319 (1999), 1220. Missouri has passed an antiabortion law, BMJ 319 (1999), 874. The legalization of abortion as a public health issue is discussed in AJPH 89 (1999), 1763. Medical abortion is still not available in most countries, BMJ 319 (1999), 1091. See a case study in JAMA 282 (1999), 1169+. The BMA has amended its guidance on abortion to highlight that it does not support harrassment of doctors who do not wish to conduct abortions, BMJ 319 (1999), 925. The Irish government has released a Green Paper to discuss abortion, Lancet 354 (1999), 1010. Around 6 thousand woman a year visit the UK for abortions from Ireland, BMJ 319 (1999), 593. On multifetal pregannacy reduction in triplets, F&S 72 (1999), 423-6. On evolution and embryos, NS (16 Oct. 1999), supplement 1-4. Progress in neurosurgery for Parkinsons disease is discussed in Lancet 354 (1999), 1658-9; JAMA 282 (1999), 1117-8.

There have been several federal appeal court decisions in the USA which have overturned "partial-birth" abortion bans as unconstitutional, Reproductive Freedom News VIII (Nov. 1999), 6-7. The Supreme Court is likely to consider these bans, Reproductive Freedom News VIII (Dec. 1999), 1, 6. The ban on abortion in El Salvador is discussed in Reproductive Freedom News VIII (Dec. 1999), 2. The UN dues being paid by the USA are linked to avoiding abortion in population health programs, Newsweek (29 Nov. 1999), 33; Lancet 354 (1999), 1886. In New Zealand there are calls for the abortion law to be changed to allow all doctors to authorize abortions, Christchurch Press (22 Dec. 1999), 11; (24 Dec. 1999), 3.

A paper on law is Cook RJ, Dickens BM, "Human rights and abortion laws", Int. J Gynecology and Obstetrics 65 (1999), 81-7. Philosophical papers on abortion are in Nursing Ethics 6 (1999), 37-81. A group called Abortion Reform has combined 13 former groups as a lobby to allow abortion in Ireland, Lancet 354 (1999), 1980. Scotland is aiming to stop antiabortion harassment, BMJ 319 (1999), 1520. On compassion in third trimester abortion, Brit. J. O.&G. 106 (1999), 1329-30.

Results after ten years have found a patients who received fetal neuronal tissue for Parkinson's disease now has normal dopamine release and improved symptoms, Lancet 354 (1999), 1882.

The moral status of human embryos and fetuses in Germany is discussed in IJB 10 (1999), 11-6; and on the statement of the Russian National Bioethics Committee on this subject in 1996, IJB 10 (1999), 73-4. Multiple pregnancy reduction is discussed is Begley, A-M. "Preparation for practice in the new millennium: a discussion of the moral implications of multifetal pregnancy reduction", Nursing Ethics 7 (2000), 99-112. An antiabortion group has targeted a neuroscience research group in Nebraska, Science 287 (2000), 202-3. On placebo use in trials for Parkinson's disease, NEJM 342 (2000), 353-4.

A philosophical study of personhood is Eberl, JT. "The beginning of personhood: A Thomistic biological analysis", Bioethics 14 (2000), 134-57.

The 1997 abortion statistics in Canada suggest one abortion for every three live birth, Vancouver Globe & Mail (8 April 2000), A8. The abortion issue is being discussed in the US presidential campaign, Lancet 355 (2000), 1165. Adoption and abortion is discussed in letters in JAMA 283 (2000), 1565-7. A discussion of the export of anti-choice ideas from the USA is Ms. (April 2000), 28-31. A group called Youth Defence International is campaigning against abortion, Lancet 355 (2000), 1165. A book review of a 19th century doctor Horatio Robinson Dyer who crusaded against abortion, BMJ 320 (2000), 880. The UK has announced guidelines to give faster and more efficient service for women seeking abortions, BMJ 320 (2000), 733.

Allegations of illegal sales of fetal tissue in the US lead to review of research, Lancet 355 (2000), 998; Nature 403 (2000), 694; Science 287 (2000), 1904-5. A US study has found that most women seeking abortion in the first trimester could accurately predict the duration of pregnancy, Lancet 355 (2000), 877-81. Limitations on the detection of human chorionic gonatrophin are being found, Lancet 355 (2000), 712, 733.

Paper on ethics include Brown, MT. "The morality of abortion and the deprivation of futures", JME 26 (2000), 103-7; Harman, E. "Creation ethics: The moral status of early fetuses and the ethics or abortion", Phil. & Public Affairs 28 (2000), 310-24. A book review of Breaking the Abortion Deadlock is in Ethics (2000), 624-6. A Dutch ship is planning to moor in international waters to provide abortions, Lancet 355 (2000), 2228. The Australian coroner has recommended rules for abortions resulting in live births, Lancet 355 (2000), 1439. US legal barriers to abortion are updated in Reproductive Freedom News (April 2000), 1, 3-5; (May 2000), 4-7. On fetal tissue research, Reproductive Freedom News (May 2000), 4-5.

A Vancouver gynecologist has been attacked the second time in 6 years for providing abortions, BMJ 321 (2000), 197. On recurrent spontaneous abortion, Lancet 356 (2000), 399-400. An inquiry has been launched in the UK following an abortion of a fetus at 32 weeks, Lancet 356 (2000), 231. An empathetic setting can get better reports from self-induced abortions, AJPH 90 (2000), 1141-4. On multifetal reduction, O&G 95 (2000), 1575-80.

A Christian paper asking whether the human embryo is our neighbour is Ethics & Medicine 16 (2000), 57-60. On the property value of human embryos, J. Law & Med. 7 (2000), 434-9.

Infanticide and abortion is debated in two papers in Bioethics 13 (2000), 340-59. A study on the psychological distress of an abortion is reported in Science News 158 (2000), 117; BMJ 321 (2000), 579. The abortion pill RU-486 has been approved in the USA, BMJ 321 (2000), 851. However it will still need to be used with misoprostol, which may be in controversial because it is approved as a stomach medicine, NS (28 Oct. 2000), 13; Science 290 (2000), 39; Newsweek (9 Oct. 2000), 48-50; JAMA 284 (2000), 1948-53. Efforts to relax the French abortion law restriction on 10 weeks are being made, Lancet 356 (2000), 1337. In Singapore activists are trying to tighten abortion controls, Lancet 356 (2000), 747. Non-surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancy is discussed in NEJM 343 (2000), 1325-9. Disability and access to family planning is discussed in SSM 51 (2000), 1163-73.

Ireland is preparing for an abortion referendum, Lancet 356 (2000), 1832. On grieving for an abortion, AWOHONN 4 (Oct. 2000), 9. Fetal medicine is reviewed in JAMA 284 (2000), 2651; and a review of the book Schroedel, JR. Is the Fetus a Person? A Comparison of Policies Across Fifty States (Cornell Univ. Press 2000) is NEJM 343 (2000), 1737-8. A series of papers on reproductive rights in Mexico, India, Ireland, Egypt, Brazil, Ghana and South Africa are in Reproductive Health Matters< 8 (Nov. 2000), 6-124.

The USA has approved RU486 for abortion, FDA Consumer (Nov. 2000), 7; SA (Dec. 2000), 16-7. However in Germnay financial losses have led to its withdrawal, BMJ< 321 (2000), 1041. There has been controversy in Australia over a pro-choice doctor, Lancet 356 (2000), 1586. Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is reviewed in BMJ 321 (2000), 1235-6. Women who have an abortion in Finland are more likely to commit suicide according to Krohn, A. “Narratives of regret”, Bioethics Research Notes 12 (Dec. 2000), 37-8.

Positive results for several patients have been reported in Bachoud-Levi, AC et al. “Motor and cognitive improvements in patients with Huntington’s disease after neural transplantation”, Lancet 356 (2000), 1975-9; 1945-6. However in the USA the first day after President Bush took over control, he stopped use of federal funds for fetal cell transplants. On tropism of neural stem cells for pathological regions of adult brain, PNAS 97 (2000), 12393-5, 12846-51; Science 290 (2000), 1479-80. The cells may be able to hunt out damaged parts of the brain. On lubrication of brains in Parkinson’s disease, Time (22 Jan. 2001), 53-4.

There have been tougher positions on abortion from the new US president, Bush, and the Republicans. A story of an alleged abortion supported by Bush is in Probe VII (1 Feb. 2001), 1, 4-5. On the use of RU486 in the USA, Probe VII (1 Feb. 2001), 6-7. The use of mifepristone abortion in rural India is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 120-1. On early medical abortion with methotrexate and misoprostol, O&G 97 (2001), 11-6.

A legal review is Annas, GJ., "Partial-birth abortion and the Supreme Court", NEJM 344 (2001), 152-6. On abortion and assent, CQHE 10 (2001), 79-87. Further on separation of conjoined twins is Lancet 357 (2001), 149.

There have been continued attacks on the decision to allow RU486 use in the USA, Probe 9 (April 2001), 2. A judge has allowed an Internet site to provide lists of names of doctors who perform abortions in the USA, BMJ 322 (2001), 818. Selective feticide of an affected fetus in the second trimester has comparable risks to those in the first trimester, Prenatal Diagnosis 21 (2001), 125-37. There is controversy over a new law in the USA which ascribes rights to fetuses against assault, Lancet 357 (2001), 944.

A book review of The Abortion Debate in the World Arena is SSM 52 (2001), 1474-6. Given that 1 in 65 women who are pregnant in the developing world die, groups are urging Bush to lift the ban on US support of international population control groups that offer abortion, BMJ 322 (2001), 636-7. A US court has awarded damages to clinics and patients who were harassed by protestors. Australian abortion law, UNSW Law J. 23 (2001), 1-34; Queensland Lawyer 21 (2000), 65-73. Abortion, autonomy and prenatal diagnosis are discussed in Social & Legal Studies 9 (2000), 485-94. A comment on the status of the embryo in Church history is Bioethics Research Notes 12 (June 2000), 13-5.

There has been much debate on the use of fetal cells for brain implants following the initial results of the Parkinson disease trials, Freed, CR. et al. "Transplantation of embryonic dopamine neurons for severe Parkinson_fs disease", NEJM 344 (2001), 710-9, 763-5; NS (24 March 2001), 10-1; Nature 410 (2001), 401; Science 291 (2001), 2060-1; NatMed. 7 (2001), 381; Nature Reviews, NeuroScience 2 (20001), 219; NatBio 19 (2001), 287; Lancet 357 (2001), 204, 859. On a French newspaper breaking an embargo on a news story on the benefits of neural grafts, Lancet 357 (24 March 2001). Neuron transplants may alter some types of learned responses, in rat studies, Nature 410 (2001), 314-5.

A review on separating Siamese twins is Annas, GJ. "Conjoined twins _ The limits of law at the limits of life", NEJM 344 (2001), 1104-8. Contrasting ethical views are debated in HCR 31 (Jan. 2001), 48-52. Progress after head separation of two Nepalese twins at 9 months in Singapore is said to be good, Japan Times (14 April 2001), 4.

The US government has limited coverage of the abortion pill for poor women to rape, incest of physical danger to health, BMJ 322 (2001), 1015. The International relations Committee of the US House of Representatives overturned the Bush ban on funds to international groups that perform abortions, BMJ 322 (2001), 1142-3. On ethics of abortion provision, Am. J.O & G 184 (2001), 1582-3. A book review on Horatio Robinson Storer is JAMA 285 (2001), 3027-8. A floating abortion boat called Women on Waves, that provides abortions to Irish women, is discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 2035. Attitudes in Ireland are changing, BMJ 322 (2001), 1444-5.

A study of the karyotype of the abortus in recurrent miscarriage is F&S 75 (2001), 678-82. Fetal transplants for Parkinson's disease research are discussed in Current Biology 11 (2001), R285-6. Bioethical issues for conjoined twins are discussed in Lancet 357 (2001), 1968-71. Stem cell debates are discussed in ART section.

Discussion of fetal cell implants is in HCR 31 (2001), 6; NEJM 345 (2001), 146-7. Adult brains can grow young neurons even without transplants if we understand how, SA (Sept. 2001), 24-5. Analysis of a divided US Supreme court decision on Stenberg v. Carhart on partial birth abortion is Modern Law Review 64 (2001), 618-27.

On abortion, CMAJ 164 (2001), 847-9; 165 (2001), 14-5. Failed attempts at abortion using misoprostol are causing birth defects, NS (1 Sept. 2001), 18. Italy is the only EU country except Ireland where RU486, using that drug, is not for sale, yet one hospital in Turin has started to sell it, Italy Daily, Int. Herald Tribune (28 Sept. 2001), 1-2. The Irish Medical Council has shifted its blanket ban on abortion, to allow some exceptions, Lancet 358 (2001), 992.

Discussion of human embryo research comparing the debates in the 1980s with the current debates over stem cells is Science 293 (2001), 1401. On stem cells see the ART section.

The question of whether an early embryo is a person is discussed in Linacre Quarterly 68 (2001), 49-70; Sokolowski, R. "The human person and political life", The Thomist 65 (2001), 505-27. Implantation and survival in early pregnancy is discussed in NEJM 345 (2001), 1400-8. Abortion is discussed in CQHE 10 (2001), 433-40; SSM 53 (2001), 1481-90. It is difficult to rely on surveys to understand abortion behaviour, AJPH 91 (2001), 1825-33.

In Australian Capital Territory women seeking an abortion will no longer have to view images of the fetus. On the US funding of international family planning, Science 294 (2001), 525-6. On fetal therapy, Prenatal Diagnosis 21 (2001), 824-6, 970-6.

The question of privacy, abortion and resources is discussed in Developing Word Bioethics 1 (2001), 70+. Two papers on abortion are in AIBA Newslink 5 (Feb. 2002), 1-3. Information on a claimed safe herbal method to naturally induce miscarriage is available on <www.geocities.com/naturalmiscarriage/>

The question of whether ES cells will be a useful source of dopamine neurons for Parkinson disease transplants is reported in PNAS 99 (2002), 1755-7. Placebo surgery for Parkinson's disease fetal transplants is debated in JLME 30 (2002), 58-72.

The status of the fetus is discussed in New Genetics and Society 20 (2001), 225-38. The legal response to pregnancy and childbirth is discussed in Modern Law Review 65 (2002), 290-303. A study of why unintended pregnancies happen in Yamagata, Japan is in SSM 54 (2002), 1065-79. Reproductive rights in Serbia and Croatia are discussed in SSM 54 (2002), 625-42. A Portuguese judge freed 15 women accused of having illegal abortions, Lancet 359 (2002), 330.

The Irish referendum on abortion is discussed in Lancet 359 (2002), 505. US politics and its adverse affects on international family planning is criticized in Lancet 359 (2002), 539. On human embryo research (see also ART section), JAMA 287 (2002), 1731-2.

Transplanted ES cells can differentiate into functional neurons in Parkinsonian brains, NatMed. 8 (2002), 105-6; NS (24 March), 10-1; (13 April, 2002), 5. On the successes of fetal cell implants, JAMA 287 (2002), 175-6. Astrocyte cells in the brain can generate new neurons, Nature 417 (2002), 29, 31.

The question of humane abortion is debated in the UK, Guardian (9 July 2002), 17. The increasing use and availability of the abortion pill in the UK is causing protests from those opposed, Guardian (8 July 2002), 11. A discussion of human embryology is Nature 418 (2002), 14-5.

The UN Population Division estimates that 40% of the 50 million abortions performed annually are done illegally, Lancet 360 (2002), 64. Nigeria is attempting to reduce maternal mortality, Lancet 360 (2002), 65. Fetal images and the power of visual technology in antenatal care is discussed in Health Care Analysis 9 (2002), 387-400. Papers on human embryo research are in Human Embryo Research, Manipulation and Ethics (Dec. 2001), 1-127. Papers on embryo ethics and respect for the human embryo are in National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 1 (2001), 129-266. The science and ethics of parthenogenesis are discussed in National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 2 (2002), 245-56. Ethics of abortion are discussed in Bioethics 15 (2001), 135-56. Fetal pain is discussed in Bioethics 15 (2001), 57-84.

Dyskinesias is not inevitable after fetal cell transplants for Parkinson's disease, Lancet 359 (2002), 2007. A case of tetragametic chimerism is described in NEJM 347 (2002), 1545+. A report of 77 twin pregnancies where one twin became a hydatiform mole and the other a healthy baby is in Lancet 359 (2002), 2165-6.

The ethics of twin separation is discussed in Dell'Oro, R., "On the ethics of twin separation. The forgotten case of babies Jodie and Mary", Itinerarium 10 (No. 22, Sept. 2002), 89-106. On embryo status, Itinerarium 10 (No. 22, Sept. 2002), 107-114. The use of embryonic tissue is still a contentious one, HCR 32 (Sept. 2002), 41-43, 47-8. Neuronal replacement has been reported from endogenous precursors in the adult brain after stroke, NatMed. 8 (2002), 963-70.

Nepal legalized abortion in March 2002, until 12 weeks. A paper on the history of abortion in China is Nie, JB. "Chinese moral perspectives on abortion and foetal life: An historical account", New Zealand Bioethics J. 3 (Oct. 2002), 15-31. A series of 23 papers on abortions, and restrictions that lead to unsafe abortions, are in Reproductive Health Matters 10 (2002), 1-183. Sex selection is discussed in Reproductive Health Matters 10 (2002), 184-97. There are concerns in the US of moves to view human embryos as human beings, Nature 420 (2002), 3. Abortion in Cameroon is discussed in SSM 55 (2002), 137-49. Unsafe abortions may cause 20,000 deaths in Nigeria each year, BMJ 325 (2002), 988.

The Ob-Gyn Policy of San Thomas University Hospital is in Southeast Asian Center for Bioethics Newsletter 15 (Oct. 2002), 1-2. On the right to life agenda in US politics, Nature 420 (2002), 461. Ireland is considering new abortion guidelines, BMJ 325 (2002), 565. Abortion and maternal mortality in Africa are discussed in NEJM 347 (2002), 1984-5. Low dose mifepristone for emergency contraception is discussed in Lancet 360 (2002), 1803-10. The ethics of abortion are discussed in JME (2002), 133-5.

The legal representation of the embryo is discussed in Health Care Analysis 8 (2000), 171-88. Conditional attention and abortion is discussed in The Pelican Record 41 (Dec. 2002), 58-68. Japan has allowed use of dead fetuses for stem cell research, APBN 7 (2003), 13.

The US Senate passed a bill banning partial birth abortion on 13 March, 2003, Lancet 361 (2003), 1021; BMJ 326 (2003), 619.  A report on how the anti-abortion politics of USA threatened the US HIV initiative is in Lancet 361 (2003), 887. The rights of an embryo  in private law in Italy are reviewed in Law and the Human Genome Review 17 (July 2002), 83-98. A survey of abortion and neonaticide in Israel, US, UK and Denmark is in Bioethics 16 (2002), 202-30. Antiabortion politics in Ireland is discussed in SSM 56 (2003), 1973-86. On safe motherhood in Indonesia, SSM 56 (2003), 1197-207. The injustice of unsafe motherhood is argued in Bioethics 16 (2002), 64+. A review by NCI has ruled out a link between abortion and cancer, Science 299 (2003), 1498-9. The case of a UK doctor who made a mistake during an abortion and removed some internal organ parts has been settled by the GMC, BMJ 326 (2003), 566, 679.

A critical commentary on a paper which looked at admission to psychiatric clinics and abortion is CMAJ 168 (2003), 1253-6, 1257-8. The question of father's child support obligations and abortion decisions is discussed in The Modern Law Review 66 (2003), 175-94.

Issues of conjoined twins are discussed in JAMA 289 (2003), 1307-10. Fetal surgery is developing, BMJ 326 (2003), 461-2; Prenatal Diagnosis 23 (2003), 221-4. The EC is to issue guidelines on embryo research funding, SCRIP 2840 (11 April 2003), 5.

On management of people who have been raped, BMJ 326 (2003), 458-9. Ethics of sham surgery controls in fetal tissue transplants for Parkinson's are discussed in JME 28 (2002), 322-5. Cuba has pioneered a medical procedure to relieve Parkinson's, SA (March 2003), 16.

A critique of routine prenatal diagnosis in Germany and abortion is SSM 56 (2003), 1987-2001. On infanticide, NEJM 348 (2003), 1189. Making safe havens for unwanted babies may reduce infanticide, BMJ 326 (2003), 678.

The role of fetal imaging technology in the maternal-fetal relationship is discussed in JAMA 289 (2003), 1700. Mistakes in US cystic fibrosis tests may have meant there have been mistaken diagnoses leading to abortions, NS (3 May 2003), 4-6. The challenges of high maternal mortality in Nigeria are discussed in Lancet 361 (2003), 1966. The normalization of the "abortion pill" into mainstream medicine is discussed in SSM 58 (2003), 2353-66.

The BMA has supported the concept of embryo selection using preimplantation diagnosis to help treat a seriously ill sibling, BMJ 327 (2003), 71. A US case is discussed in BMJ 326 (2003), 1416. Teenage childbearing in the USA is discussed in SSM 57 (2003), 881-93. A Swedish study found men born out of wedlock have a higher risk of death from heart attack, SSM 57 (2003), 487-501. Infanticide is discussed in JAMA 289 (2003), 3178-9. A paper on French women's experience with RU486 is in Med. Anthropology Quarterly 16 (2002), 92-108. The use of fetal cells for Parkinson's therapy is not yet ready for widespread use, Nature 424 (2003), 987.

Russia is attempting to curb abortion rates and access, Lancet 362 (2003), 968. The capital execution of the murderer of an abortion doctor in the USA is discussed in BMJ 327 (2003), 577. At the same time the US has introduced laws to ban late term abortion, though it is under hold from Federal judges in 3 states Reuters (8 Nov. 2003). (http://www.nytimes.com/2003/11/05/politics/05CND-ABOR.html)

Italian private law experience on protection of embryos is reviewed in Law and the Human Genome Review 17 (2002), 83-98. On government policy on embryos, Ethics & Medicine 19 (Summer 2003), 75-84. A discussion of how to deal with frozen embryos is in SEACB Bioethics Newsletter XV (Aug. 2003), 1-3. On ethics of abortion, European J. Health Law 9 (2002), 337-59.

A review of the process of twinning is in Lancet 362 (2003), 735-43.

The ethics of embryo research and natural reproductive lotteries are discussed in CQHE 13 (2004), 68-95, 110-2. The US Congress Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act 2003 is reproduced in BME 194 (2004), 8-11. There has been much discussion, Lancet 362 (2003), 1464, 1509; BMJ 327 (2003), 1009; NEJM 350 (2004), 184-6. Several US judges have issued subpoenas for abortion records, Lancet 363 (2004), 626. A historical review of US abortion policy 1951-1973 is in AJPH 93 (2003), 1810-9. A European Court of Human Rights is considering an abortion case, BMJ 327 (2003), 1367. A UK case of late abortion for a fetus with cleft palate is being debated legally, BMJ 327 (2003), 1307. In the UK it is necessary to give consent before embryos are used in research (see ART for cloning discussion), BME 191 (2004), 5-6. A book review of A Child is Born is Lancet 363 (2004), 497.

The early induced abortion of severely handicapped infants is debated in Linacre Quarterly 70 (2003), 218-22. In the UK mothers suspected of killing their babies might be dealt with outside of the criminal system, BMJ 328 (2004), 425. Trends in elective termination of pregnancy between 1989 and 2000 in the French county of Isere is reported in Prenatal Diagnosis 23 (2003), 877-83. Pregnancies that end in spontaneous or induced abortioNS do not increase breast cancer rate, Lancet 363 (2004), 1007-16.

Issues for Catholic nurses and doctors in the provision of abortion services are discussed in National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 4 (2004), 29-40, 89-102. Abortion and health are discussed in NEJM 350 (2004), 1908-10. A US federal court trial on the constitutionality of the partial birth abortion ban started in Manhattan, New York, JAMA 291 (2004), 1690. The long-term mental effects of abortion are discussed in SSM 58 (2004), 2559-69. Italy has a tough law on embryo research, Nature 426 (2003), 746-7.

Emergency contraception will be kept as a prescription only in USA for now, Lancet 363 (2004), 1707. The dilemma of multifetal reduction faces some infertile women after treatment, Research in Nursing and Health 27 (2004), 75-86; F&S 81 (2004), 1420. A series of papers on abortion in India are in Seminar (P.O. Box 338, New Delhi, 110001) 532 (Dec. 2003), 1-94. Pregnancy complications kill 70,000 teenagers each year, Lancet 363 (2004), 1616.  Pregnancy and childbirth are leading causes of death in teenage girls in developing countries, BMJ 328 (2004), 1152. Poland is attempting to liberalize abortion laws, Lancet 363 (2004), 1206.

On human embryo research, Amer. J. Bioethics 4 (Winter 2004), 1-5.  Approval for abortion but disagreement for sexual rights in Tamil Nadu, India are discussed in Reproductive Health Matters 12 (May 2004), 88-99. On abortion in Brazil, CQHE 13 (2004), 275-9; and in Nepal, Lancet 363 (2004), 1905. The UK may review the abortion time limits, BME 199 (July 2004), 3. Australian laws are debated in MJA 181 (2004), 201-3. Physician assistants as providers of abortion services in USA were found to be safe, AJPH 94 (2004), 1352-7. Risk factors in the USA are discussed in 0&G 104 (2004), 635.  Italy is considering reducing funds for abortions, BMJ 329 (2004), 418. In general on abortion, BMJ 329 (2004), 236. On parental consent methods, Harvard Law Review 117 (2004), 2785+. Grief of fathers for abortion is discussed in Sociology of Health & Illness 26 (2004), 326-50.

A report from the Danish Council of Ethics on "The beginning of human life and the moral status of the embryo. A debate outline." is online http://www.etiskraad.dk/sw303.asp. A discussion of US debates on embryo research is Nature 431 (2004), 19-20. An ethical analysis is Lee, P. "The pro-life argument from substantial identity: A defense", Bioethics 18 (2004), 249-63, 64-82; also pp. 221-248. Research on premature infant livers to isolate stem cells is debated in NatMed. 10 (2004), 762. Fetal transplants for Parkinson's disease are discussed in NS (10 July 2004), 40-3.

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